WorldWideScience

Sample records for abatement costing studies

  1. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  2. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  3. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  4. Greenhouse gas abatement in Senegal. A case study of least-cost options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amous, S.; Revet, D.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The first stage of the study was to make a preliminary inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the base year 1988. Following this seven no regret technical options for emission reduction were investigated and the costs calculated, allowing the identification of three least-cost options. The three least-cost options must be implemented first because of their negative costs. The economic benefits of both abatement scenarios are characterized by a negative global cost whatever the discount rate is. (author)

  5. Rapid Transit Noise Abatement and Cost Requirements (MBTA Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    A methodology is described, based on a study conducted on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority Blue, Red and Orange Lines, to assess the acoustic noise climate of an urban rail transit system and the appropriate technology to cost-effectively redu...

  6. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  7. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  8. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.

    1994-08-01

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO 2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  9. Acid rain abatement in Belgium: lessons in cost-effectiveness studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, C.; Proost, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness analysis is presented for combating emissions of acid precursors. The focus of concern is to reach the environmental quality goal at least cost. Two cost-effective approaches are elaborated. Firstly, the maximum allowable emission of each acid precursor seperately is allocated in a cost-effective way across the economic sectors. Secondly, the maximum allowable emissions of acid precursors are allocated in a cost-effective way across the three considered acid precursors as well as across the economic sectors. It is argued that not only the energy consumption but also the agricultural sector could play an important role in a cost-effective strategy by curtailing its ammonia emissions. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO 2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  11. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  12. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  13. Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 in China Based on Directional Distance Function: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial sectors account for around 70% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions in China. It is of great importance to measure the potential for CO2 emissions reduction and calculate the carbon price in industrial sectors covered in the Emissions Trading Scheme and carbon tax. This paper employs the directional distance function to calculate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions during 2005–2011 and makes a comparative analysis between our study and the relevant literature. Our empirical results show that the marginal abatement costs vary greatly from industry to industry: high marginal abatement costs occur in industries with low carbon intensity, and vice versa. In the application of the marginal abatement cost, the abatement distribution scheme with minimum cost is established under different abatement targets. The conclusions of abatement distribution scheme indicate that those heavy industries with low MACs and high carbon intensity should take more responsibility for emissions reduction and vice versa. Finally, the policy implications for marginal abatement cost are provided.

  14. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  15. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  16. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  18. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  19. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  1. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  2. Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Lucas, Paul; Vuuren, Detlef van

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO 2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

  3. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  5. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  6. On the fair division of greenhouse gas abatement cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, Ammerlaender Heerstrasse 114-118, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Helm, Carsten [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics, Marktplatz 15, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper introduces a solution for the fair division of emission reduction costs in the climate change regime. Our primary focus is on the fair division of efficiency gains that arise from exchanging the initial allocation of emission entitlements, rather than the initial allocation itself. We propose to complement the competitive Walrasian solution with welfare bounds, the ethical justification of which rests on commonality of ownership. Simulations with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model illustrate the relevance of such welfare bounds. For a wide range of initial allocations of emission entitlements - including an equal per capita allocation - we find that developing countries should be fully compensated for their emission abatement efforts, but should not receive any further transfers. (author)

  7. Noise Assessment and Abatement in Rapid Transit Systems: Report on the MBTA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    A methodology is described for assessing the noise climate and for selecting the combination of abatement techniques which reduces the existing noise to user specified levels for minimum cost. This methodology, developed in a pilot study of the Massa...

  8. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  9. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  10. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  11. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  12. Planning the low-carbon city. Thoughts about abatement costs of mobility policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication proposes a summary of a research thesis which studied how to address urban climate policies from an economic point of view. This thesis shows that it is possible to develop tools for an economic analysis of local climate policies which would take urban peculiarities into account, notably the systemic aspect, and the importance of positive and negative externalities. The author puts forward the abatement cost which relies on a set of conventions, and is studied through a given analysis table. The application of a urban planning-transport model to the Grenoble area with different scenarios of urban development confirms that abatement costs of measures of reduction of greenhouse gases in the field of mobility are high in comparison with other values (building sector, Quinet value). However, taking co-benefits (or positive externalities) into account allows these costs to be reduced, that which makes investments in the transport sector more attractive. The author shows that reaching the factor 4 in urban transports seems difficult

  13. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  14. Report on developing bottom-up Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCS) for representative farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eory, V.; MacLeod, M.; Faverdin, P.

    2015-01-01

    years, discussing the variability in these estimates. The second study reports on marginal abatement cost curves for beef cattle production in Brazil. Finally, the last report presents the conceptual basis of a tool to assess the financial implications of the mitigation measures to be used in parallel...... number of reports done in developed countries show a high variability in the country-level cost-effectiveness estimates, and suggest that approaches providing higher granularity at the spatial and farm type could suit better to the purpose of regional policy development. At the same time, there is still...... a gap in our understanding of economic mitigation potential of agriculture in developing and newly industrialised countries. To address these questions this report presents three studies. The first is a literature review of the cost-effectiveness estimates of mitigation measures published in the past 15...

  15. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO 2 -reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO 2 -reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO 2 -reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  16. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  17. Market reaction to economic climate change policy : The merit order effect and the limits of marginal abatement cost curves

    OpenAIRE

    Levihn, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Governments around the world have introduced economic policies to combat global warming. In the form of taxes, emissions trading schemes and subsidies, these polices seek to influence market actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One tool used to understand market reactions to such policy is marginal abatement cost curves. These curves optimise the two dimensions of cost per abatement and abatement. However; in reality corporations instead optimize for cost reductions, not the combined co...

  18. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Weili, Tian; Yumei, Wei; Yingxu, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 , and CO 2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  19. The Copenhagen Accord: abatement costs and carbon prices resulting from the submissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Hof, Andries F.; Mendoza Beltran, Angelica; Grassi, Giacomo; Roelfsema, Mark; Ruijven, Bas van; Vliet, Jasper van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12-18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11-14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support. Global abatement costs in 2020 are estimated at about USD 60-100 billion, assuming that at least two-thirds of Annex I emission reduction targets need to be achieved domestically. The largest share of these costs are incurred by Annex I countries, although the costs as share of GDP are similar for Annex I as a group and the seven emerging economies as a group, even when assuming substantial international transfers from Annex I countries to the emerging economies to finance their abatement costs. If the restriction of achieving two-thirds of the emission reduction target domestically is abandoned, it would more than double the international carbon price and at the same time reduce global abatement costs by almost 25%.

  20. Cost analysis of ceiling tile replacement for noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, R J; Weigle, C G

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the cost and benefit of noise reduction after replacement of acoustic ceiling tile in an open ward neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). An observational, prospective study evaluated noise in an open ward NICU before and after suspended ceiling tiles were replaced. Noise was rated by a 10-point visual analog scale and measured with a decibel meter. The mean decibel level was 55 before and 53 after renovation (p noise evaluation, a more efficient ceiling tile might have been selected or the project may have been aborted or modified because of the low levels of noise already present.

  1. Cost estimate of multi-pollutant abatement from the power sector in the Yangtze River Delta region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Schreifels, Jeremy; Wang, Jun; Fu, Joshua S.; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants in China have emitted multiple pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and fine particulates, contributing to serious environmental impairments and human health issues. To meet ambient air quality standards, the installation of effective pollution control technologies are required and consequently, the cost of installing or retrofitting control technologies is an important economic and political concern. A multi-pollutant control cost model, CoST CE, is developed to calculate the cost of multi-pollutant control strategies in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) of China, adopting an LP algorithm to optimize the sorting of control technology costs and quickly obtain a solution. The output shows that total costs will increase along with emission abatement. Meanwhile, the slope becomes steeper as greater emission reductions are pursued, due to the need to install highly effective, but expensive, technologies like SCR and FF. Moreover, it is evident that the cost curve shapes, maximum abatement potential and total cost for the three provinces in the YRD region are quite different due to differences in power plant type and technologies, current emission levels and existing pollution controls. The results from this study can aid policy makers to develop cost-effective control strategies for the power sector

  2. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  3. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  4. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.

  5. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 1: Problem formulation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, M.; Brear, M.J.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Dargaville, R.; Alpcan, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first of a two part study that considers long term, least cost, GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 formulates a planning model to optimise these pathways and presents results for a single reference scenario. Part 2 applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. The planning model formulated has several constraints which are important when considering GHG abatement and widespread uptake of intermittent renewable generation. These constraints do not appear to have been integrated into a single planning model previously, and include constraints on annual GHG emissions, unit commitment, storage, plant dynamics and intermittent renewable generation. The model prioritises overall abatement, and therefore does not include a price on carbon or support for any particular technology. The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as an example. All model inputs – for technologies, demand, and meteorological data – are from the most current and authoritative public sources. As such, the results are transparently derived and both policy and technology neutral. For the reference scenario presented here, key technologies are wind from 2015, gas generation from 2030, and solar generation from 2040. - Highlights: • An electricity system planning model for least-cost long term abatement is presented. • The model has inter-temporal constraints (linearised commitment and utility storage). • The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as a case study. • Key technologies: wind from 2015, CCGT from 2030, and solar (PV & thermal) from 2040.

  7. Marginal abatement costs for reducing leaching of nitrates in Croatian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SUMELIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate marginal abatement costs (MAC of N-fertiliser tax policies which aim to prevent NO3 levels from rising. Estimates of MAC provide information on how large reductions in Nfertilisation rates should be before other measures are considered. Based on N-response experiments from Croatian field trials with maize, N-response curves were estimated and profit maximising N-doses were derived. Values of NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water from the same treatments were used to estimate an NO3-leaching function. A sample of 20 Croatian family farms was used to obtain records of producer and input prices as well as actual N-doses. Abatement costs and MAC for an N-tax, a product tax and an Nquota were estimated. The MAC for all the instruments are non-constant and increase at an accelerating rate. The MAC for N-taxes are positive for N-taxes lower than 60%, indicating a net return to society. Reduction rates in fertilisation up to this level should be achieved before considering governmental support for other measures. The N-tax has the lowest abatement cost and the lowest MAC for a particular level of reduction while the N-quota has a lower MAC than the product tax when total reduction levels are below 20 mg NO3 l-1.;

  8. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengge Tu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS on the pollution abatement costs (PAC from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. Our findings are that SETPS failed to reduce PAC as a whole. During 2002 to 2011, SETPS increased APAC by 1310 RMB per ton on average and had an insignificant negative effect on MPAC. Nevertheless, the conclusions would be markedly different if we separately investigated the effects of SETPS each year of the pilot period. The positive effects of SETPS on PAC started to appear since 2009, and SETPS significantly reduced both APAC and MPAC, especially in 2009 and 2011.

  9. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  10. Biaya Pengurangan (Marginal Abatement Cost Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca(GRK Sektor PErtanian di Kabupaten Grobogan dan Tanjung Jabung Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Ariani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Komitmen Pemerintah Indonesia untuk penurunan emisi GRK sebesar 26% sampai 2020, melibatkan keikutsertaan daerah secara aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis opsi-opsi mitigasi pada pengelolaan lahan sawah yang mungkin dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan Marginal Abatement Cost atau biaya pengurangan emisi yang berprinsip pada pemilihan aksi mitigasi dengan biaya rendah dan potensi penurunan yang besar. Lokasi penelitian dipilih secara purposive yaitu di Kabupaten Grobogan Propinsi Jawa Tengah dan Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur Propinsi Jambi pada tahun 2013 untuk analisis tahun 2011. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan teknologi mitigasi yang berpotensi besar menurunkan emisi GRK dengan biaya rendah di Kabupaten Grobogan adalah penerapan teknik budidaya padi dengan penerapan Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (PTT dan penggantian varietas padi dengan varietas padi yang rendah emisi GRK. Sementara di Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur, teknologi ameliorasi dengan kompos, pupuk kandang dan penerapan teknologi tanpa olah tanah+tanam benih langsung merupakan teknologi mitigasi yang memiliki potensi besar menurunkan emisi dengan biaya yang rendah. Kata kunci: pertanian, gas rumah kaca, biaya pengurangan emisi, mitigasi ABSTRACT The Indonesian government's commitment to decrease GHG emissions by 26 % until 2020, actively involve local government’s participation. This study aims to analyze mitigation options inpaddy fields management that may be performed by using the approach of Marginal Abatement Cost with the principle of selecting mitigation actions with low cost and high potential emission decrease. Locations were selected purposively in Grobogan Central Java Province and East Tanjung Jabung Jambi in 2013 for 2011 data analysis. The results show mitigation activity such as low methane rice varieties and Integrated Crop Management could be applied at Grobogan with low cost, while using amelioration such as compost or manure and non tillage

  11. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  12. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  13. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  14. Inferring Carbon Abatement Costs in Electricity Markets: A Revealed Preference Approach using the Shale Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Cullen; Erin T. Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how much carbon emissions from the electricity industry would decrease in response to a carbon price. We show how both carbon prices and cheap natural gas reduce, in a nearly identical manner, the historic cost advantage of coal-fired power plants. The shale revolution has resulted in unprecedented variation in natural gas prices that we use to estimate the short-run price elasticity of abatement. Our estimates imply that a price of $10 ($60) per ton of carbon dioxide woul...

  15. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  16. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction.

  18. A computational study of stimulus driven epileptic seizure abatement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    Full Text Available Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection.

  19. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sujata; Bhandari, Preety

    1998-01-01

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  20. Carbon abatement potential of solar home systems in India and their cost reduction due to carbon finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 78 million rural households in India reportedly lack access to grid electricity. About 67 million of them use kerosene for lighting. Government of India is promoting the use of solar home systems (SHS) as one of the options for meeting lighting requirements in households in remote and less inhabited villages. About 363,399 SHS were reportedly disseminated across the country by December 2007. Apart from meeting the basic lighting need of the households, SHS also help in abating the emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by directly displacing the use of kerosene in households that currently use it for lighting. This study has attempted at estimating the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHS in India by studying the potential for their diffusion and the appropriate baseline. Subsequently, the scope for cost reduction to the user due to carbon finance, if received, is also studied. It is found that carbon finance could reduce the effective burden of SHS to the user by 19% if carbon prices were $10/tCO 2 and no transaction costs were involved in getting the carbon revenues. These benefits are also estimated for scenarios where transaction costs are incurred by the project proponent in getting the carbon benefits

  1. Pathways of low carbon transition at the lowest cost. Pathways of low carbon transition in France at the lowest cost - Dynamics and average abatement costs (MACC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrissin Fabert, Baptiste; Foussard, Alexis

    2016-11-01

    The objective to divide greenhouse gas emissions in France by a factor four by 2050 implies the mobilisation at the lowest cost of the whole set of known sources of reduction of emissions in all economic sectors. In this context, this report is based on a methodology (D-CAM in French for dynamics - average abatement costs, MACC in English for Medium Abatement Cost Curves) which relies on a theoretical business-as-usual scenario, on a database on the potential, rate of development, and cost of mobilizable sources, and on a dynamic model of cost minimisation. The MACC tool is used to explore, for each sector, scenarios of de-carbonation which allow objectives of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to be reached at different time horizons. An aggregated approach of this tool modifies the distribution of efforts of emission reduction between sectors with respect to a sector-based approach. Thus, a macro-assessment of low carbon transition does not reveal any obvious over-cost with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. A second document is a Power Point presentation which contains the same information, curves and graphs

  2. Economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Alexander Nicholson

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis discusses the economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry. Increased manufacturing and operating costs from noise abatement regulations on Sikorsky's S-75 helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight estimating relationships and cost estimating relationships to estimate...

  3. An evaluation of the effect of greenhouse gas accounting methods on a marginal abatement cost curve for Irish agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Donal; Shalloo, Laurence; Crosson, Paul; Donnellan, Trevor; Farrelly, Niall; Finnan, John; Hanrahan, Kevin; Lalor, Stan; Lanigan, Gary; Thorne, Fiona; Schulte, Rogier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving productivity was the most effective strategy to reduce emissions and costs. • The accounting methods disagreed on the total abatement potential of mitigation measures. • Thus, it may be difficult to convince farmers to adopt certain abatement measures. • Domestic offsetting and consumption based accounting are options to overcome current methodological issues. - Abstract: Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis allows the evaluation of strategies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to some reference scenario and encompasses their costs or benefits. A popular approach to quantify the potential to abate national agricultural emissions is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines for national GHG inventories (IPCC-NI method). This methodology is the standard for assessing compliance with binding national GHG reduction targets and uses a sector based framework to attribute emissions. There is however an alternative to the IPCC-NI method, known as life cycle assessment (LCA), which is the preferred method to assess the GHG intensity of food production (kg of GHG/unit of food). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of using the IPCC-NI and LCA methodologies when completing a MACC analysis of national agricultural GHG emissions. The MACC was applied to the Irish agricultural sector and mitigation measures were only constrained by the biophysical environment. The reference scenario chosen assumed that the 2020 growth targets set by the Irish agricultural industry would be achieved. The comparison of methodologies showed that only 1.1 Mt of the annual GHG abatement potential that can be achieved at zero or negative cost could be attributed to agricultural sector using the IPCC-NI method, which was only 44% of the zero or negative cost abatement potential attributed to the sector using the LCA method. The difference between methodologies was because the IPCC-NI method attributes the

  4. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  5. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has

  6. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, B.S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other

  7. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies.

  8. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  9. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  10. The cost benefit of algal technology for combined CO2 mitigation and nutrient abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Simon J.; Al Momani, F. A. O.; Znad, Hussein; Al Ketife, Ahmed M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of microalgae culture technology (MCT) for mitigating CO2 emissions from flue gases and nutrient discharges from wastewater whilst generating a biofuel product is considered with reference to the cost benefit offered. The review examines the most recent MCT literature (post 2010) focused on the algal biomass or biofuel production cost. The analysis reveals that, according to published studies, biofuel cost follows an approximate inverse relationship with algal or lipid productivit...

  11. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  12. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  13. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Hartmann, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  14. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  15. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-01-01

    As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecologica...

  16. The marginal cost of carbon abatement from planting street trees in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Suhyun Jung; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    Urban trees can store carbon through the growth process and reduce fossil fuel use by lowering cooling and heating energy consumption of buildings through the process of transpiration, shading, and the blocking of wind. However, the planting and maintenance of urban trees come at a cost. We estimate the discounted cost of net carbon reductions associated with planting...

  17. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries; Van Vliet, Jasper; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC's decision to replace the values

  18. Validation of Cost-Effectiveness Criterion for Evaluating Noise Abatement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This project will provide the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)with information about the effects of the current cost-effectiveness criterion. The project has reviewed (1) the cost-effectiveness criteria used by other states, (2) the noise b...

  19. How can French agriculture contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions? Abatement potential and cost of ten technical measures. Summary of the study report conducted by INRA on behalf of ADEME, MAAF and MEDDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Sylvain; Bamiere, Laure; Savini, Isabelle; Pardon, Lenaic; Chemineau, Philippe; Schmitt, Bertrand; Angers, D.; Beline, F.; Benoit, M.; Butault, J.P.; Chenu, C.; Colnenne-David, C.; De Cara, S.; Delame, N.; Doreau, M.; Dupraz, P.; Faverdin, P.; Garcia-Launay, F.; Hassouna, M.; Henault, C.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Klumpp, K.; Metay, A.; Moran, D.; Recous, S.; Samson, E.

    2013-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces nearly one-fifth of France's greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). But it also has a strong potential for carbon sequestration. ADEME and the French Ministries for Agriculture and the Environment asked INRA to carry out a study on French agriculture to develop and analyse various measures on farming practices that could boost carbon sequestration and minimise GHGs. There are four key ways agriculture can be a part of the solution of reducing GHG emissions: Lower emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O, a powerful GHG released during fertiliser processing or manure spreading) and methane (CH 4 , a GHG that comes mostly from livestock); Increase carbon sequestration in soil and biomass; Reduce energy use and produce energy from biomass (agro-fuels or biogas, which lower emissions as substitutes for fossil fuels); Produce materials from biomass. The study specified that eligible measures be based on farming practices that farmers have a say in changing, lead to reductions affecting commercial farms at least in part, do not require major changes to the production system and do not reduce yields by more than 10%. For each of the chosen measures, the study analysed the potential emissions reductions and gains versus tradeoffs for farmers if implemented. The ten measures are centered around nitrogen management (nitrogen fertilizer, pulses), practices that help increase carbon sequestration in soil and biomass (fallow land, agro-forestry, intermediate crops and inter-cropping, pasture management), animal feed (rations that minimise nitrogen excretion or methane production) and the production and consumption of energy by farming (methanation, fossil fuel economies). The study highlights a strong potential for the agricultural sector to reduce emissions through these measures. According to the experts' calculations, if all ten were adopted, France could achieve a cumulative annual reduction of 32 million tons of CO 2 equivalent by 2030. However, only

  20. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  1. Social cost of CO2 abatement from energy efficiency and solar power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Frequently cited empirical analysis ask whether we should make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conclude that the transition is too costly so we should, instead, focus policy on how to adapt to global warming. This paper makes two improvements in the analysis. First, this empirical analysis accounts for existing low-cost alternatives that are substitutes for fossil fuels. Second, this empirical analysis incorporates existing estimates of externalities from fossil fuels. These two basic improvements in the analysis alter the conclusion; policy should focus on how rapidly and extensively to make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to the alternatives. The corollary is that we should focus on the efficacy and cost of policy options that are designed to accomplish the transition. 4 tabs., 1 app., 45 refs

  2. Noise Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  3. Study of Statewide Type II Noise Abatement Program for the Texas Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This project will provide sufficient information to the Texas Department of Transportation and the Texas Transportation Commission to make an informed decision regarding the development and implementation of a statewide Type II Noise Abatement Progra...

  4. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  5. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  6. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? Conclusions from a case study. I: Energy production and carbon dioxide abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.O.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the renewable energy production of crops used for phytoremediation. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region (Belgium and The Netherlands), where agricultural soils are diffusely contaminated with cadmium, lead, and zinc, with an enhanced risk for uptake of these metals in crops and leaching to the groundwater. However, the area has such a large extent (700 km 2 ) that conventional remediation is not applicable. Cultivation of crops for energy purposes on such land offers the opportunity to come up with an approach that efficiently uses contaminated agricultural land and that can be beneficial for both farmer and society. Performing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), we examined the energy and CO 2 abatement potential of willow (Salix spp.), silage maize (Zea mays L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) originating from contaminated land. Taking into account the marginal impact of the metals in the biomass on the energy conversion efficiency and on the potential use of the biomass and its rest products after conversion, digestion of silage maize with combustion of the contaminated digestate shows the best energetic and CO 2 abating perspectives. The replacement of cokes based electricity by willow is more efficient in CO 2 abatement than willow used in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, despite lower net energy production in the former option. Willow reaches the same energy production and same CO 2 abatement per hectare per year as silage maize when its biomass yield is respectively 13 and 8.7 Mg dm ha −1 y −1 . -- Highlights: ► We study the energy potential of Salix, Zea mays and Brassica after phytoremediation. ► The case study contains agricultural soils that are contaminated with cadmium. ► We include the impact of metals on energy conversion efficiency and rest product use. ► Higher biomass yields for Salix would make it energetically competitive with Z. mays.

  7. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  8. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  9. Greenhouse-Gas Emissions and Abatement Costs of Nuclear, Fossil and Alternative Energy Options from a Life-Circle Perspective. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, U.R.

    2007-03-01

    As the issue of nuclear risks in its various forms - from radiation released during uranium mining to severe reactor accidents, and leakage from fuel reprocessing and repositories for spent fuel - is beyond the scope of this paper, we concentrate the following analysis on the more recent issues for which a scientifically reasonable range of data is available. In that respect, two arguments favouring nuclear electricity can be identified: It is allegedly free of CO2, and it is allegedly low cost. In this paper, we address both, presenting results of life-cycle cost and emission analyses of energy systems with respect to current technologies. We discuss the results with respect to other findings in the literature, and also indicate the cost-effectiveness of CO2 abatement in the electricity sector. The scientific work from which this paper draws was sponsored by a variety of sources, including the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection, and Nuclear Safety (BMU), German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF), The Federal Environment Agency of Germany (UBA). (orig./GL)

  10. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    , distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  12. Moderate dose melatonin for the abatement and treatment of delirium in elderly general medical inpatients: study protocol of a placebo controlled, randomised, double blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton-Chubb, Daniel I; Lange, Peter W

    2016-02-29

    Delirium is a frequent, costly and morbid problem. No agent has been shown to modify the natural history of the condition, and current treatments have significant side effects. Prophylactic melatonin in low doses has been shown to prevent delirium developing. This trial then aims to determine the feasibility of a trial to assess if melatonin at a moderate dose effectively treats the symptoms of delirium and modifies the natural history, including abating symptoms after treatment cessation. Elderly (≥70 years of age) patients admitted to the Royal Melbourne Hospital with delirium, and not requiring surgery, will be identified from the current practice of the investigators and through referral by other general medical unit staff. To facilitate this, other staff will be briefed on the project by investigators. Patients will be recruited with suitable informed and documented consent (person responsible) by the study investigators. They will receive orally either 5 mg melatonin (18 patients) or placebo (18 patients) nightly for 5 nights (or until discharged). During treatment, participants will be assessed by study staff using a validated scale of delirium severity (the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale), and a validated measure of delirium state (Confusion Assessment Method) to determine if melatonin decreases the severity or the duration of delirium. Assessment will continue for a further two days after treatment has ceased, to determine if the treatment causes persisting abatement of symptoms, and to assess for adverse events. The on-going study described herein will contribute to our knowledge of available treatment options for elderly inpatients with delirium, where current pharmacological interventions show weak or no effect on hastening the resolution of delirium. As melatonin is safe, cheap, and potentially effective, it would be easily implementable in routine practice and could lead to significant outcome benefits for delirious inpatients. The trial is

  13. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO 2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  14. Custo marginal de abatimento de emissões de gases de efeito estufa na recuperação da pastagem = Marginal abatement cost of greenhouse gases emissions in pasture recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jun Kimura

    2016-10-01

    financing with the Low Carbon Agriculture Program credit line, using the marginal abatement cost tool. To achieve the proposed goals, financial data from the Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics and the Brazilian Confederation of Agriculture and Livestock was used, as well as emissions data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Low Carbon Agriculture Plan in order to simulate an annual net costs and net emissions of current and abatement technologies, represented respectively by a low-tech livestock and a livestock in recovered pasture. The financial and emissions figures of a livestock in a recovered pasture were more favorable in comparison to low-tech livestock. Taking into consideration these two factors, the marginal abatement cost is - R$ 24.72 per tCO2 equivalent. In other words, for each ton of equivalent carbon dioxide mitigated by pasture recovery, the farmer has a financial gain of R$ 24.72 than keeping low-tech livestock. Thus, from a financial and environmental perspective, pasture recovery has shown to be a practice which allows a sustainable increase in food production.

  15. A study to determine the applicability of noise abatement approach procedures to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, J. A.; Shannon, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of McDonnell Douglas DC-8, DC-9, and DC-10 jet transports were conducted to investigate the applicability of two segment approach noise abatement procedures to these airplanes. All models had the required glide slope capability at the certified landing flap settings. The DC-8 models would probably be limited to an upper segment glide slope of 5.5 degrees and would probably not be suitable for the two segment procedure in icing conditions. The DC-8 would not be compatible with this procedure at a reduced landing flap setting. The feasibility of installing a two segment approach system in the Douglas-built fleet of commercial jet transports from a hardware viewpoint is discussed. The candidate system consists of a two segment computer plus the necessary peripheral equipment interfaced with the existing autopilot and associated avionics. The required modifications and additions to existing equipment are described and the attendant costs estimated. Potential problems which may be encountered are also discussed.

  16. GAC as a method for radon abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.D.; Smith, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most mysterious abatement procedures is that of the remediation of waterborne radon contamination in residential structures. Many mitigators have been led to believe that the use of GAC as an abatement technique is in appropriate due to the potential creation of a hazardous waste disposal problem. This paper sheds light on the use of GAC as a true alternative to costly aeration mitigation techniques, and can be used as a resource tool for mitigators who need to understand the limits of activity surrounding GAC, and what, if any, shielding may be needed for the protection of residential occupants

  17. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. The case of CO2 capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO 2 -trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO 2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO 2 abatement technology. We find that combining CO 2 -trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  18. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  19. Climate modelling with endogenous technical change: Stochastic learning and optimal greenhouse gas abatement in the PAGE2002 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of ETC on the costs and benefits of different abatement strategies using a modified version of the PAGE2002 model. It was found that for most standard abatement paths there would be an initial 'learning investment' required that would substantially reduce the unit costs of CO 2 abatement as compared to a business as usual scenario. Furthermore, optimising an abatement program where ETC has been included leads to an increase in cost uncertainty during the period of widespread CO 2 abatements due to our lack of knowledge of the learning investments involved. Finally, the inclusion of ETC leads to a slightly deferred optimised abatement path followed by a rapid abatement program. Together, the results draw attention to the possibilities of 'uncovering uncertainty' through proactive abatements. 'Learning about learning' could become an important consideration for any plan to optimise future abatements

  20. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  1. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  2. Noise Abatement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  3. Emission Abatement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  5. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    -level governance strategies, could significantly augment the carbon abatement contributions of city actions toward national climate targets. The results suggest that cities may play a pivotal role in progress toward national climate targets. In addition to providing carbon and emissions estimates, this report estimates the national net economic impacts of policies for which cost and benefit data are available. Impact metrics include employment, worker earnings, and gross domestic product (GDP). For the policy areas studied, the economic analysis demonstrates that city carbon abatement may be achieved with only minimal and generally slightly positive economic impacts. Employment impacts range from 0.04% to 0.13% of U.S, employment during implementation and zero to 0.1% thereafter. GDP estimates show net impacts of 0.02% to 0.07% of GDP during implementation and impacts from -0.02% to zero thereafter. This report quantitatively demonstrates the material impact of a limited set of local policy areas on national carbon abatement potential. The magnitude of estimated carbon reductions from city policies, 3%-7% of national emissions by 2035, suggests an important role for city-led actions in reaching U.S. climate goals. Multi-level governance at the city, state, and national levels could augment the carbon abatement potential of city actions and make cities a key component of long-term U.S. climate strategies.

  6. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqubi, Morteza, E-mail: yaqubi@pgs.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Javad, E-mail: j.shahraki@eco.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood, E-mail: sabouhi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  7. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  10. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will...

  11. The Cost of Conserved Carbon: Weighing the Monetary, Social, and Climactic Implications of Regional-, National-, and Global-Scale Carbon Abatement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, J. W.; Hoffman, I.; Johnston, J. L.; Kammen, D. M.; Levin, J. E.; Komiyama, R.; Motschenbacher, A.; Gimon, E.

    2008-05-01

    Previous schema for analyzing carbon mitigation methods often have lacked realistic costs, comprehensive accounting of trade-offs, and methodological transparency. We offer a dynamic model for evaluating diverse carbon mitigation scenarios based on economics, policy traction, and interplay with climate, society and ecosystems. The model will test the impacts of policy changes across more than two dozen strategies for conserving or avoiding carbon emissions. Users will be able to access the model at rael-c3.berkeley.edu and change underlying assumptions as desired.

  12. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingxi; Wang Mingrong; Wang Shouyang

    2012-01-01

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  13. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New school radon abatement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.F.; Maniscalco, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to develop a state-of-the-art Radon Abatement system: all aspects of design and implementation from proper sizing radon ventilation ductwork (RVD) in relationship to the amount of free air available in sub-slab aggregate, review of electrical systems with their monitoring devices from the very basic to the more sophisticated type of installation, review abatement designs for their durability and application as well as methods and techniques. Building codes will also be reviewed for commercial construction applications, spot-lighting the usage of specific materials and techniques and their impact on the industry

  15. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  16. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  17. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  18. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-07

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited.

  19. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  20. Costs of global climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost implications of the air pollution abatement recommendations contained in a recently published IPSEP (International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths) study on the feasibility of the abatement of carbon dioxide emissions deemed significantly responsible for the greenhouse effect and its associated negative impacts on this planet's climatic equilibrium. The air pollution abatement strategies are to be enforced in five highly industrialized European countries - Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy and Holland. The study's overall results indicate the feasibility of 50% reductions in carbon dioxide emissions within the next 30 years even with a more than doubling of GNP's and a contemporaneous phase-out of nuclear power production, and all this taking place in a cost effective way and with increased employment. In addition, IPSEP's report states that the implementation of effective program management strategies would bolster Western Europe's competitiveness on a global scale

  1. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  2. Thoughts on abatement and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    A number of questions having to do with the themes of abatement and adaptation are discussed. Under the first rubric are questions of future concentrations of radiatively active trace gases, the linkage of these gases with greenhouse warming, and other environmental problems. Also examined in the abatement context are opportunities to reduce fossil fuel use and therefore the emission of greenhouse gases, and the likelihood that natural forest expansion may provide an opportunity to control the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere. Also discussed are the possible effects of greenhouse warming on agriculture in the United States and in the developing world. Finally, some suggestions are given on capturing and retaining interest in greenhouse warming on the part of the decision making public

  3. An Analisis of the CO2 Emission Abatement in Plastic Recycling System Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology: a Case Study of Bandung City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawan; Dowaki, Kiyosho; Putro, Utomo Sarjono

    2010-01-01

    Global warming issue becomes a main issue in sustainable development planning for every country in the world. Indonesia as developing country has commitment to contribute in CO2 abatement with proper development policies. Since May 2008 Indonesia has introduced new law of Solid Waste Management (UU No. 18/2008), the basis of waste management under this law is waste reduction to a landfill as the first priority. The highest waste material compositions in general are organic (50%) and plastic (...

  4. Health Co-Benefits from Air Pollution and Mitigation Costs of the Paris Agreement: A Modelling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, Anil; Sampedro, Jon; Smith, Steven J.; van Dingenen, Rita; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina; Arto, Iñaki; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel

    2018-03-02

    While the co-benefits from addressing both climate change and air pollution related problems have been clearly recognized, there is not much evidence comparing the mitigation costs and economic benefits of air pollution reduction for alternative scenarios to reduce greenhouse gases. This study analyses the extent to which the health co-benefits would compensate the mitigation cost of achieving the targets of Paris Agreement (2ºC and 1·5ºC) under different scenarios where the emissions abatement effort is shared between countries according to three established equity criteria.

  5. Noise Abatement Tradeoff Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these "highly ...

  6. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  7. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  8. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  9. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  10. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  11. Effect of current emission abatement strategies on air quality improvement in China: A case study of Baotou, a typical industrial city in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xionghui; Duan, Lei; Cai, Siyi; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuxiao; Chai, Fahe; Gao, Jian; Li, Yanping; Xu, Zhaoming

    2017-07-01

    The national Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan required significant decreases in PM 2.5 levels over China. To explore more effective emission abatement strategies in industrial cities, a case study was conducted in Baotou to evaluate the current national control measures. The total emissions of SO 2, NO X , PM 2.5 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in Baotou were 211.2Gg, 156.1Gg, 28.8Gg, and 48.5Gg, respectively in 2013, and they would experience a reduction of 30.4%, 26.6%, 15.1%, and 8.7%, respectively in 2017 and 39.0%, 32.0%, 24.4%, and 12.9%, respectively in 2020. The SO 2 , NO X and PM 2.5 emissions from the industrial sector would experience a greater decrease, with reductions of 37%, 32.7 and 24.3%, respectively. From 2013 to 2020, the concentrations of SO 2 , NO 2 , and PM 2.5 are expected to decline by approximately 30%, 10% and 14.5%, respectively. The reduction rate of SNA (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) concentrations was significantly higher than that of PM 2.5 in 2017, implying that the current key strategy toward controlling air pollutants from the industrial sector is more powerful for SNA. Although air pollution control measures implemented in the industrial sector could greatly reduce total emissions, constraining the emissions from lower sources such as residential coal combustion would be more effective in decreasing the concentration of PM 2.5 from 2017 to 2020. These results suggest that even for a typical industrial city, the reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations not only requires decreases in emissions from the industrial sector, but also from the low emission sources. The seasonal variation in sulfate concentration also showed that emission from coal-burning is the key factor to control during the heating season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Introducing nonpoint source transferable quotas in nitrogen trading: The effects of transaction costs and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuru; Ye, Weili; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Transaction costs and uncertainty are considered to be significant obstacles in the emissions trading market, especially for including nonpoint source in water quality trading. This study develops a nonlinear programming model to simulate how uncertainty and transaction costs affect the performance of point/nonpoint source (PS/NPS) water quality trading in the Lake Tai watershed, China. The results demonstrate that PS/NPS water quality trading is a highly cost-effective instrument for emissions abatement in the Lake Tai watershed, which can save 89.33% on pollution abatement costs compared to trading only between nonpoint sources. However, uncertainty can significantly reduce the cost-effectiveness by reducing trading volume. In addition, transaction costs from bargaining and decision making raise total pollution abatement costs directly and cause the offset system to deviate from the optimal state. While proper investment in monitoring and measuring of nonpoint emissions can decrease uncertainty and save on the total abatement costs. Finally, we show that the dispersed ownership of China's farmland will bring high uncertainty and transaction costs into the PS/NPS offset system, even if the pollution abatement cost is lower than for point sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas Flaring, Environmental Pollution and Abatement Measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of gas flaring on the oil bearing enclave of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, was examined with a view to evaluating the abatement measures put in place by the Federal government of Nigeria and the oil producing companies. Primary and secondary information and data were analyzed during the study.

  14. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  15. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje; Fagerli, Hilde; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO 2 , NO x , CH 4 , VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH 4 . While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO 2 , contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NO x and SO 2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  16. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  17. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  18. Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program : A Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the background, current activities, and future plans for the Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program. This program, sponsored by the Office of Technology Development and Deployment of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA...

  19. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  20. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program

  1. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A

    2013-01-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)

  2. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, Robert; McJeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO 2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO 2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO 2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive. - Highlights: • The impact of low carbon energy technology on abatement cost is considered. • Nuclear has the largest impact among technologies considered. • Cost has higher impact than efficiency for biomass technologies. • Biomass technologies generally have larger impacts than carbon capture. • Biomass technologies are more valuable in low GDP, high population scenarios

  3. Investigation into effective traffic noise abatement design solutions for mountain corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Traffic noise abatement in mountain corridors can be difficult because traditional roadside barriers may be ineffective : due to topography or may not fit the setting. This study examined current best practices from around the world to gather : conce...

  4. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  5. Benefit measures for noise abatement: Calculations for road and rail traffic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Jonsson, Lina; Ögren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : the aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes. Methods : we employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals’ preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then ...

  6. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO 2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural soils are contaminated with mainly cadmium. We use Life Cycle Analysis to show for the most relevant crops (willow (Salix spp), energy maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus)), that phytoremediation, used for renewable energy production, could abate CO 2 . Converting this in economic numbers through the Marginal Abatement Cost of CO 2 (€ 20 ton −1 ) we can integrate this in the economic analysis to compare phytoremediation crops among each other, and phytoremediation with conventional technologies. The external benefit of CO 2 abatement when using phytoremediation crops for land management ranges between € 55 and € 501 per hectare. The purpose of these calculations is not to calculate a subsidy for phytoremediation. There is no reason why one would prefer phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production over “normal” biomass. Moreover, subsidies for renewable energy already exist. Therefore, we should not integrate these numbers in the economic analysis again. However, these numbers could contribute to making explicit the competitive advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation technologies, but also add to a more sustainably funded decision on which crop should be grown on contaminated land. -- Highlights: ► We add CO 2 abatement for each remediation crop to the private economic analysis. ► This values the advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation. ► This leads to a crop choice that considers an

  7. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  8. The intrusiveness of sound: Laboratory findings and their implications for noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert; Jones, Dylan M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental policy with regard to noise abatement has traditionally only considered whether the noise levels in a given setting are high enough to be deemed a source of annoyance, disturbance, or threat to well being. However, laboratory studies using both simple and more complex work-related tasks have shown that task-irrelevant sound, regardless of its intensity, intrudes upon cognitive processing and disrupts performance substantially; furthermore, its damaging effect does not diminish with repeated exposure to the sound over time. For tasks that require short-term memory processing (particularly the short-term maintenance of order information) sound assumes disruptive power if it is acoustically varying over its time course. However, other properties of sound (e.g., the semanticity of speech) can incur an additional cost if the primary task necessitates or tends to evoke the extraction of meaning. It will be argued that interference in each case is explained by reference to a conflict between two concurrent mental processes; that being demanded by the task and that being involuntarily applied to properties of the sound. Such harmful effects, as well as having direct consequences for the general well-being of those working in noisy environments, may have far reaching consequences for health insofar as extraneous sound is a feature of many safety-critical work settings. Implications for noise abatement policy are highlighted.

  9. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...... a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs....

  10. Using cerium oxides as catalysts for the abatement of trichloroethylene by plasma-catalysis route

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Mora, Manuel; Jimenéz-Sanchidrián, C; Romero-Salguero, Francisco; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe; Morent, Rino

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the abatement of trichloroethylene was examined with a negative DC corona/glow discharge with CeO2 catalyst downstream. The abatement with the plasma alone system showed a poor COx selectivity. However, by combining the plasma source with CeO2 catalyst the COx selectivity was greatly improved, proving that this plasma-catalysis route shows great potential as air pollution control technology for low concentrated VOC air streams.

  11. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  12. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200 mg L -1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and toxicity by Microtox[reg] and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H 2 O 2 were carried out. The initial amount of Fe 2+ and pH of the solution were set at 10 mg L -1 and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25 ± 0.8 deg. C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 . Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity

  13. Technical efficiency and CO2 abatement policies in the Dutch glasshouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a short-run microeconomic simulation model of the Dutch glasshouse industry in order to investigate the relation between technical efficiency and marginal abatement costs of CO2 emission. The model is also used to determine the effects of an emission tax and systems of tradable

  14. Valuation of marginal CO2 abatement options for electric power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Lim, Jaekyu

    2009-01-01

    The electricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate greenhouse gases as directed by the Kyoto Protocol. The principal compliance options for power companies under the cap-and-trade include the application of direct CO 2 emission abatement and the procurement of emission allowances. The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of these options. We attempt to derive the marginal abatement cost for CO 2 using the output distance function and analyze the relative advantages of emission allowance procurement option as compared to direct abatement option. Real-option approach is adopted to incorporate emission allowance price uncertainty. Empirical result shows the marginal abatement cost with an average of Euro 14.04/ton CO 2 for fossil-fueled power plants and confirms the existence of substantial cost heterogeneity among plants which is sufficient to achieve trading gains in allowance market. The comparison of two options enables us to identify the optimal position of the compliance for each plant. Sensitivity analyses are also presented with regard to several key parameters including the initial allowance prices and interest rate. The result of this paper may help Korean power plants to prepare for upcoming regulations targeted toward the reduction of domestic greenhouse gases.

  15. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  16. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D. [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  17. Study of China's coal supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is funding a joint research project between ABARE and the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission, China's leading organisation undertaking policy-related energy sector research. Together, the two organisations will analyse the economic costs and impacts of moving large quantities of coal from China's northern coal fields to, power stations in the rapidly growing south-eastern coastal provinces. The study will also compare the true economic costs of using domestic coal - including the costs of subsidies on coal production and transport - with the costs of using imported coal. ABARE will use its dynamic model, MEGABARE, to undertake ky parts of the study, taking into account the complex linkages between sectors in an economy and between different economies

  18. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  19. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow under...

  20. The timing of biological carbon sequestration and carbon abatement in the energy sector under optimal strategies against climate risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitz, V.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ciais, Ph.

    2005-10-01

    This paper addresses the timing of the use of biological carbon sequestration and its capacity to alleviate the carbon constraint on the energy sector. We constructed a stochastic optimal control model balancing the costs of fossil emission abatement, the opportunity costs of lands allocated to afforestation, and the costs of uncertain climate damages. We show that a minor part of the sequestration potential should start immediately as a 'brake', slowing down both the rate of growth of concentrations and the rate of abatement in the energy sector. thus increasing the option value of the emission trajectories. But, most of the potential is put in reserve to be used as a 'safety valve' after the resolution of uncertainty, if a higher and faster decarbonization is required: sequestration cuts off the peaks of costs of fossil abatement and postpones the pivoting of the energy system by up to two decades. (authors)

  1. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  2. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  3. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  4. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  5. ''No smoking''. CO2-low power generation in a sustainable German energy system. A comparison of CO2 abatement costs of renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trittin, Tom

    2012-05-01

    Significant reduction of CO 2 -emissions is essential in order to prevent a worsening of ongoing climate change. This thesis analyses two different pathways for the mitigation of CO 2 -emissions in electricity generation. It focuses on the calculation of CO 2 -mitigation costs of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as of power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). Under the frame of long-term CO 2 reductions targets for the German electricity sector future CO 2 -mitigation costs are calculated on a system-based and a technology-based approach. The calculations show that RES have lower system-based mitigation costs in all scenarios compared to a system based on CCS. If the retrofit of power plants is taken into consideration, the results are even more clearly in favour of RES. Further, the thesis investigates whether CCS can serve as a bridge towards a sustainable energy system based on RES. Findings of different scientific disciplines suggest that CCS is not the optimal choice. These findings lead to the conclusion that CCS cannot support an easier integration of RES. CCS rather has the potential to further strengthen the fossil pathway and delaying the large-scale integration of RES. Hence, CCS is rather unsuited as a bridging technology towards a system mainly based on RES.

  6. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostowski, P C; Foster, S A; Anderson, E L

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 x 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  7. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  8. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO 2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW) [de

  9. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germà; Joseph, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  10. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  11. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  12. Energy contracting, a contribution to air pollution abatement and cost reduction. A guide to energy contracting in public buildings; Energiespar-Contracting als Beitrag zu Klimaschutz und Kostensenkung. Ratgeber fuer Energiespar-Contracting in oeffentlichen Liegenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acricola, A.C. [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Seifried, D. [Buero-OE-quadrat, Freiburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Energy contracting is a contractual partnership between a contractor and a building owner. The contractor carries out investments and energy conservation measures in a building. He is refunded by the success of the energy conservation measures, i.e. on the basis of the reduced energy cost of the building. The building owner makes no investments, takes no risks and still gets part of the savings. Energy contracting refers to measures 'behind the meter', i.e. all measures that reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and, in some cases, also water. In contrast, plant contracting means that the contractor projects, constructs, finances, operates and maintains a supply system (e.g. heating boiler, cogeneration plant, wood chip fuelled heating system etc.) and is reimbursed on a contractual basis for the amount of electricity, heat, and cold supplied. [German] Energiespar-Contracting ist eine vertraglich vereinbarte Dienstleistung zwischen einem Unternehmen (Contractor oder auch Energiesparpartner) und einem Gebaeudeeigner (Auftraggeber). Der Contractor fuehrt in dem Gebaeude Investitionen und Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung durch. Seine Aufwendungen laesst er sich durch den Erfolg der Einsparmassnahmen, also ueber die reduzierten Energiekosten des Gebaeudes, vergueten. Der Gebaeudeeigner muss nicht investieren, traegt kein Risiko und ist trotzdem an dem Erfolg der Einsparmassnahme beteiligt. Im Unterschied zum Anlagen-Contracting umfasst das Energiespar-Contracting Massnahmen, die hinter dem Zaehler ansetzen, also alle Massnahmen, die den Verbrauch von Waerme oder Strom reduzieren. Haeufig werden auch Massnahmen zur Wassereinsparung in die Konzepte einbezogen. Beim Anlagen-Contracting bietet ein Dienstleister in der Regel die Planung, Errichtung, Finanzierung, den Betrieb und die Wartung einer Versorgungsanlage (z.B. Heizkessel, Blockheizkraftwerk, Holzhackschnitzelanlage) an. Diese Dienstleistung laesst er sich ueber eine vertraglich festgelegte

  13. FUEL/CARBON PRICE VS. ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ferdinand Spangenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation is the exponential increase in greenhouse gases (GHG, which is mainly caused by industrial and transport activities. The recent Paris agreement in 2015 (Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21, UNFCCC made it clear to everyone that CO2 emissions are to be limited in all areas of life. Alternative fuels with a lower environmental impact than carbon (CO2 emissions are hard to find if the overall footprint is to be taken into account. Nevertheless, there are some fuels that have less impact on climate change. One the other hand, the production of biofuels is a controversial matter, although it is a viable alternative to emissions reduction. CNG or LNG-powered vehicles are also better in terms of environmental pollution, but are hardly better with regard to CO2 impact when a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is carried out. LNG (liquid natural gas, for example, is the future fuel in the maritime sector because of the stricter environmental regulations (SOx,NOx in the shipping industry. The battery-powered vehicle is another example of an environmentally friendly solution. The afore-mentioned measures can be considered as “abatement“ necessary in order to limit CO2 impact. The study shows that there are significant differences in the environmental impact between transport systems and the corresponding drive-system or associated energy base. The polluter should pay, which is a common basic principle in economic research. The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS has been introduced in order to ensure a reduction in CO2 output – emissions come with a price tag. An overall view is necessary, both en-vironmental and economic impact must be reconciled (cf. Spangenberg - TQI. The future viability of the transport system as we know it may change significantly over time if new environmental requirements or e.g. CO2 taxes or ETS are introduced in the freight sector. The abatement of CO2 should be effected primarily through technological

  14. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing

  15. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  16. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  17. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive.

  18. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  19. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commerical electric power cost studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139-MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume includes in addition to the foreword and summary, the plant description and the detailed cost estimate

  20. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, Eleonora

    1992-01-01

    Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NO x selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO 2 and NO x release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

  1. Cost Analysis of Prenatal Care Using the Activity-Based Costing Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, Theresa; Golembeski, Susan; Potter, Jonell

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care. PMID:22945985

  2. Damage control productivity : an input damage abatement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Carpentier, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the value of the marginal product of three different pesticides from different specifications of the production function. The specifications are the output damage abatement specification proposed by Lichtenberg and Zilberman, a general input damage abatement specification and a

  3. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other.... The policy memorandum and conditions govern current administration of Federal Migratory Bird Special...

  4. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... and held in ``temporary'' caging for extended periods of time, i.e., multiple birds held in a trailer...

  5. The Design of MnOx Based Catalyst in Post-Plasma Catalysis Configuration for Toluene Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of our present state of knowledge using manganese oxide (MnOx-based catalysts for toluene abatement in PPC (Post plasma-catalysis configuration. The context of this study is concisely sum-up. After briefly screening the main depollution methods, the principles of PPC are exposed based on the coupling of two mature technologies such as NTP (Non thermal plasma and catalysis. In that respect, the presentation of the abundant manganese oxides will be firstly given. Then in a second step the main features of MnOx allowing better performances in the reactions expected to occur in the abatement of toluene in PPC process are reviewed including ozone decomposition, toluene ozonation, CO oxidation and toluene total oxidation. Finally, in a last part the current status of the applications of PPC using MnOx on toluene abatement are discussed. In a first step, the selected variables of the hybrid process related to the experimental conditions of toluene abatement in air are identified. The selected variables are those expected to play a role in the performances of PPC system towards toluene abatement. Then the descriptors linked to the performances of the hybrid process in terms of efficiency are given and the effects of the variables on the experimental outcomes (descriptors are discussed. The review would serve as a reference guide for the optimization of the PPC process using MnOx-based oxides for toluene abatement.

  6. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses national greenhouse gas emission abatement costing studies as a case to discuss influential factors that determine their outcome and achievement. Costing studies are seen as part of an interconnected whole social process where actors (decision makers, clients, facilitators, expert...... such methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  7. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  8. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost. METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective study costing 64 consecutive admissions over a 2-month period in a mixed medical\\/surgical ICU. RESULTS: The median daily ICU cost (interquartile range, IQR) was 2,205 euro (1,932 euro-3,073 euro), and the median total ICU cost (IQR) was 10,916 euro (4,294 euro-24,091 euro). ICU survivors had a lower median daily ICU cost at 2,164 per day, compared with 3,496 euro per day for ICU non-survivors (P = 0.08). The requirements for continuous haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents were associated with higher daily and overall ICU costs (P = 0.002). Each point increase in SAPS3 was associated with a 305 euro (95% CI 31 euro-579 euro) increase in total ICU cost (P = 0.029). However, SAPS3 accounted for a small proportion of the variance in this model (R (2) = 0.08), limiting its usefulness as a stand-alone predictor of cost in clinical practice. A model including haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents explained 54% of the variance in total ICU cost. CONCLUSION: This bottom-up costing study highlighted the considerable individual variation in costs between ICU patients and identified the major factors contributing to cost. As the requirement for expensive interventions was the main driver for ICU cost, "severity of illness" scores may not be useful as stand-alone predictors of cost in the ICU.

  9. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  10. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  11. Costs of cardiovascular disease prevention care and scenarios for cost saving: a micro-costing study from rural Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Tan, Siok Swan; Redekop, William; Adenusi, Peju; Lange, Joep M. A.; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care according to international guidelines, in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria, participating in a health insurance programme. A micro-costing study was conducted from a healthcare provider perspective. Activities per

  12. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Ferguson, B.W.; Bray, C.A.; Patch, S.; Mielke, H.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  13. Reducing Operating Room Costs Through Real-Time Cost Information Feedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Christian H; Bahler, Clinton D; Hardacker, Thomas J; Ball, Kevin M; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-08-01

    To create a protocol for providing real-time operating room (OR) cost feedback to surgeons. We hypothesize that this protocol will reduce costs in a responsible way without sacrificing quality of care. All OR costs were obtained and recorded for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Before the beginning of this project, costs pertaining to the 20 most recent cases were analyzed. Items were identified from previous cases as modifiable for replacement or omission. Timely feedback of total OR costs and cost of each item used was provided to the surgeon after each case, and costs were analyzed. A cost analysis of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy before the washout period indicates expenditures of $5243.04 per case. Ten recommended modifiable items were found to have an average per case cost of $1229.33 representing 23.4% of the total cost. A postwashout period cost analysis found the total OR cost decreased by $899.67 (17.2%) because of changes directly related to the modifiable items. Therefore, 73.2% of the possible identified savings was realized. The same stepwise approach was applied to laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. The average total cost per case before the washout period was $3530.05 with $457.54 attributed to modifiable items. After the washout period, modifiable items costs were reduced by $289.73 (8.0%). No complications occurred in the donor nephrectomy cases while one postoperative complication occurred in the partial nephrectomy group. Providing surgeons with feedback related to OR costs may lead to a change in surgeon behavior and decreased overall costs. Further studies are needed to show equivalence in patient outcomes.

  14. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  16. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  17. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  18. Costs of routine immunization services in Moldova: Findings of a facility-based costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguadze, K; Chikovani, I; Gaberi, C; Maceira, D; Uchaneishvili, M; Chkhaidze, N; Gotsadze, G

    2015-05-07

    Available estimates on how much it costs to provide routine immunization services are out-dated. This study attempts to address gaps in evidence by evaluating the total economic and unit costs of delivering routine immunization (RI) services in Moldova as part of a multi-country study on the costs and financing of routine immunization (EPIC). This cross-sectional study is based on a multistage stratified random sample of fifty primary health care facilities. Data on inputs, prices, and outputs were collected retrospectively for 2011 and analyzed using an ingredient-based costing approach in Excel and SPSS. The average total annual facility cost for RI was $11,943 ranging from $565 to $112,548 and labor cost was the main driver of routine immunization costs contributing 65%, followed by capital costs - 16.3% and the cost of vaccines and injection supplies accounting for 9%. The average cost per dose was $18.3, the cost per child was $316.6 and the cost per fully immunized child was $332.3. The results show considerable variation in the costs of routine immunization services across facility type and depending on a facility scale i.e. annual doses administered. The study shows that the cost of fully immunizing a child in a middle-income country is much higher than previous estimates. These results will be used by the government for better planning and financing of routine immunization services, leading to greater sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  20. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  1. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  2. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  3. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  4. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  5. Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdahl, H; Knapp, M; Edgell, E T; Ghandi, G; Haro, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

  6. Cost of elective percutaneous coronary intervention in Malaysia: a multicentre cross-sectional costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Yun; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Low, Ee Vien; Liow, Siow Yen; Anchah, Lawrence; Hamzah, Syuhada; Liew, Houng Bang; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Ismail, Omar; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Said, Mas Ayu; Dahlui, Maznah

    2017-05-28

    Limitations in the quality and access of cost data from low-income and middle-income countries constrain the implementation of economic evaluations. With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease in Malaysia, cost information is vital for cardiac service expansion. We aim to calculate the hospitalisation cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using a data collection method customised to local setting of limited data availability. This is a cross-sectional costing study from the perspective of healthcare providers, using top-down approach, from January to June 2014. Cost items under each unit of analysis involved in the provision of PCI service were identified, valuated and calculated to produce unit cost estimates. Five public cardiac centres participated. All the centres provide full-fledged cardiology services. They are also the tertiary referral centres of their respective regions. The cost was calculated for elective PCI procedure in each centre. PCI conducted for urgent/emergent indication or for patients with shock and haemodynamic instability were excluded. The outcome measures of interest were the unit costs at the two units of analysis, namely cardiac ward admission and cardiac catheterisation utilisation, which made up the total hospitalisation cost. The average hospitalisation cost ranged between RM11 471 (US$3186) and RM14 465 (US$4018). PCI consumables were the dominant cost item at all centres. The centre with daycare establishment recorded the lowest admission cost and total hospitalisation cost. Comprehensive results from all centres enable comparison at the levels of cost items, unit of analysis and total costs. This generates important information on cost variations between centres, thus providing valuable guidance for service planning. Alternative procurement practices for PCI consumables may deliver cost reduction. For countries with limited data availability, costing method tailored based on country setting can be used for

  7. A Novel Combination of Methods Developed for Decision Support on Abatement of Mercury in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence from the global mercury cycle that there is an urgent need for actions to reduce global anthropogenic mercury emissions. A legally- binding global agreement to reduce emissions of mercury is soon in place, meaning that many countries need to take steps to lower their emissions. Identification and assessment of policy options that already are in place as well as setting pollution control objectives and developing effective strategies to meet these objectives, are depending on a decision support tool that allows for identifying current and future environmental problems and to reduce these problems by providing a holistic management approach. Recent scientific advancement allows a more complete picture of the mercury problems and solutions to the problems, which is of outmost interest when it comes to justifying spending resources on the relevant measures. To make sure that resource allocation is favoring human welfare, the economic costs of introducing these measures need to be compared to their economic benefits. The major goal of this study was to provide a novel combination of assessment tools that form a framework for a decision support system towards environmental policy on mercury in Europe. The decision support tool was intended to act as a guideline for policy makers for the purpose of introducing cost- effective abatement of mercury. It was for the EU 27 countries demonstrated that large economic benefits can be achieved globally with reduced mercury emissions in the EU region. The investigated Baseline scenario thus highlighted the importance of full implementation of existing measures and the importance of making further progress in reducing mercury emissions from European sources. Reducing emissions in developing countries may however, be more cost effective, which basically reconfirms the need for a global convention on mercury.

  8. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,AA

    2001-01-01

    As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A ...

  9. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Neumann

    Full Text Available Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution.We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low to 7 (high, and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions.We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%, followed by non-communicable diseases (28%. A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%. Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32% followed by immunizations (28%. Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included

  10. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J; Thorat, Teja; Zhong, Yue; Anderson, Jordan; Farquhar, Megan; Salem, Mark; Sandberg, Eileen; Saret, Cayla J; Wilkinson, Colby; Cohen, Joshua T

    2016-01-01

    Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions. We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%), followed by non-communicable diseases (28%). A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%). Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32%) followed by immunizations (28%). Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included formal

  11. EXAMPLES OF TRAFFIC NOISE ABATEMENT IN THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Zagvozda, Martina; Dragovan, Hrvoje; Dragčević, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem in urban spaces worldwide. The first step toward noise abatement is determining and evaluating noise levels in order to best prioritize and implement protective measures. The city of Osijek, as is obligated by law and the European Directive, has done this by creating a noise map. In this paper, we present measures for noise abatement, showing some of the measures implemented in Osijek based on their noise map, and review possible methods for ab...

  12. Probabilistic studies for safety at optimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.

    1999-01-01

    By definition, the risk of failure of very reliable components is difficult to evaluate. How can the best strategies for in service inspection and maintenance be defined to limit this risk to an acceptable level at optimum cost? It is not sufficient to design structures with margins, it is also essential to understand how they age. The probabilistic approach has made it possible to develop well proven concepts. (author)

  13. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  14. Comparisons of hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and

  15. THE COST MANAGEMENT BY APPLYING THE STANDARD COSTING METHOD IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY-Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mărginean

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the modern calculation methods used in managerial accounting, with a large applicability in the industrial production field, we can find the standard costing method. This managerial approach of cost calculation has a real value in the managerial accounting field, due to its usefulness in forecasting production costs, helping the managers in the decision making process. The standard costing method in managerial accounting is part of modern managerial accounting methods, used in many enterprises with production activity. As research objectives for this paper, we propose studying the possibility of implementing this modern method of cost calculation in a company from the Romanian furniture industry, using real financial data. In order to achieve this aim, we used some specialized literature in the field of managerial accounting, showing the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The case study demonstrates that the standard costing modern method of cost calculation has full applicability in our case, and in conclusion it has a real value in the cost management process for enterprises in the Romanian furniture industry.

  16. Comparative study of cost models for tokamak DEMO fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Ban, Kanae; Kondo, Takuya; Tobita, Kenji; Goto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Cost evaluation analysis of the tokamak-type demonstration reactor DEMO using the PEC (physics-engineering-cost) system code is underway to establish a cost evaluation model for the DEMO reactor design. As a reference case, a DEMO reactor with reference to the SSTR (steady state tokamak reactor) was designed using PEC code. The calculated total capital cost was in the same order of that proposed previously in cost evaluation studies for the SSTR. Design parameter scanning analysis and multi regression analysis illustrated the effect of parameters on the total capital cost. The capital cost was predicted to be inside the range of several thousands of M$s in this study. (author)

  17. COST-SHARE INCENTIVES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A PILOT WATER QUALITY PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Jack E.; Sun, Henglun

    1999-01-01

    This study integrates three biophysical simulators to predict crop yields, water-soil pollution emissions, and farmers' net returns under uncertain weather and market conditions. Multiple-objective programming incorporates farmer attitudes toward voluntary participation under alternate rates of government cost-share subsidies to search for efficient pollution abatement solutions as best management practices (BMPs). Net returns decline an estimated 9.6% when farmers adopt a cost-share program ...

  18. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  19. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  20. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description

  1. The cost of making wine: A Tuscan case study based on a full cost approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article׳s aim is to identify and quantify the connection between a winery business typology and its production cost per bottle to create benchmarks for managerial and organisational choices. Accounting data from wineries in representative areas of the Tuscan wine sector were collected with direct, face-to-face interviews. The data were processed using a cost accounting model elaborated by UniCeSV (Centre for the Strategic Development of the Wine Sector, University of Florence to classify costs according to production phases and production factors. The study was completed using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA approach to investigate the relation between cost structures and business typologies. The implementation of the cost accounting model and the HCA showed a strong relationship between how wineries are organised and how costs are structured. Moreover, the weight of geographical localisation (i.e., belonging to a specific denomination of origin has proved to be a key determinant in the shape of the cost structures of wineries. Keywords: Wine production, Full cost analysis, Clustering

  2. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  3. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Toscano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1 peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2 non-infected foot ulcer, (3 infected foot ulcer, and (4 clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL. We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13% was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87% for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients

  4. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas limitations: Mauritius case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A.; Boyd, R.

    1999-09-01

    There has been a considerable amount of work carried out on the appraisal of different projects and programmes that reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). These studies have focused on the development of appropriate methodologies for estimating of the costs of GHG limitation, and measuring the amount of GHGs abated. These are two of the central issues that need to be considered prior to finalising a policy for GHG mitigation, and ideally one would pursue those policy measures that effectively reduce GHGs at least cost. Although the cost (when correctly measured) should have a strong bearing on which policies to select, it is not the only consideration. Other factors will influence the decision, such as the impacts of the policies on different social groups in society, particularly on vulnerable groups, the benefits of the GHG limitation in other spheres (e.g. reduced air pollution), and the impacts of the policies on broader concern such as sustainability. In developing countries these other factors are even more important than they are in the industrialised countries. GHG limitation does not have as high a priority relative to other goals; such as poverty alleviation, reductions in employment, etc. as it does in the wealthier countries. Indeed, one can argue that the major focus of policy will be development, poverty alleviation etc. and that GHG limitation will be an addendum to a programme designed to meet those needs. Taking account of the GHG component may change the detailed design of a policy or programme, rather than being the main issue that determines the policy. In recognition of the importance of these broader social and environmental issues in developing countries, a methodology has been developed which provides a framework for the assessment of the wider impacts arising from GHG limitation projects, and advice on how to incorporate them into the decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to apply the methodology to a set of selected GHG

  5. Financial cost of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, M; Lyon, M

    2015-03-01

    There are only a few recently published reports of the cost of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care in the United States. Our objectives were to: 1) report annual and disease-duration costs; 2) provide costs related to specific care and services; 3) present costs by payor; and 4) identify strategies and resources that can be offered to patients to assist with the financial burden of ALS. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010), all expenses related to the cost of care for an individual patient were collected concurrently and then analyzed in 2012. Results showed that total disease-duration costs were $1,433,992 (85% paid by insurance, 9% paid by family, 6% paid by charities). The highest costs were for in-home caregivers ($669,150), ventilation ($212,430) and hospital care ($114,558). In conclusion, this case study illustrates costs of care for ALS as a burden for patients that may impact treatment decisions. Charity organizations and insurance case-managers provide services to patients that can help reduce this burden. Costs for specific services as well as resources identified by this study offer physicians and other healthcare providers data-based cost of care information and strategies to share with their patients.

  6. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  7. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, E. N.; Robinson, A. L.; Cohon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from 160M to 1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  8. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changik Jo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis.

  9. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  10. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  11. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  12. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Josefina Maria da Silva SILVA

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  13. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  14. Electrochemical processes in macro and microfluidic cells for the abatement of chloroacetic acid from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialdone, O.; Corrado, E.; Galia, A.; Sirés, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrochemical abatement of chloroacetic acid in water was studied. • The performance of both macro and microfluidic reactors was examined. • Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation was studied in detail. • Mediated oxidation by electro-Fenton and active chlorine was carried out. • Anodic oxidation at BDD gave better performances. • Microfluidic reactors gave better performances compared to conventional cells. - Abstract: The remediation of solutions contaminated with monochloroacetic acid (CAA), which is one of the most resistant haloacetic acids (HAAs) to chemical degradation, dramatically depends on the adopted electrochemical approach: (i) CAA is only poorly oxidized either by homogeneous hydroxyl radical in electro-Fenton (EF), electrogenerated active chlorine or electro-oxidation on Pt anode; (ii) it is moderately abated by direct reduction on silver or compact graphite cathodes (from 30% in macro cells to 60% in the microfluidic devices); (iii) it is quantitatively removed by direct electro-oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The use of a microreactor enables operation in the absence of supporting electrolyte and drastically enhances the performance of the cathodic process. Simultaneously performing direct oxidation on BDD and reduction on graphite in a microfluidic cell yields the fastest CAA removal with 100% abatement at low current densities (∼5 mA cm −2 )

  15. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  16. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  17. Realistic and unrealistic direst costs in pharmacoeconomic anesthesia studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiplicity of anesthetic services and practice consume few resources individually, but collectively, they mean significant cost. Economic and pharmacoeconomic studies are done in order to rationalize resources. Aim: 1. To calculate the direct expense in anesthesia and reanimation; 2. To compare expenses to the price of anesthesia according to the unit prices of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF; 3. To compare the duration of general anesthesia with costs in anesthesia departments. Methodology: This paper is a part of the retrospectively-prospective academic study of fourth phase carried out in the Clinical Center of Serbia. With permission of Ethical committee, we have set for 2005 and 2006, the direct cost of 148.876 anesthetic services in 11 departments of Clinical Center of Serbia as tertiary-type institution of medical health care. Research group included all patients of both sexes, children and adults. We compared the direct cost per minute of general anesthesia with average duration of anesthesia in every anesthesia department of surgical clinics. The direct cost was compared with the same, 'unit' prices of NHIF. The direct cost was compared with the same, 'unit' prices of RHIF. We have used linear and regression statistical product and service solutions model for component cost analysis /SPSS 15/. Results: Most budget resources are selected for the employees' sallaries (40%, then the medicines and supplies (31,80% and the other expenses including the analysis and analytic devices (28,20%. Direct costs indicate a linear correlation and statistically marked difference p=0,012, F=9,270 compared to anesthesia duration indicating the coefficient of correlation r=0,694. Direct costs are highest considering longest segment of anesthesia. We have obtained linear correlation R=0,706 for direct costs excluding the neurosurgical anesthesia with 'unit prices'of anesthesia and anesthetic services indicating F=9,951 and p=0

  18. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  19. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a case study that captures the production and design processes and program management solutions used to reduce total ownership costs of AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters...

  20. Mobile Offshore Base Operational Utility and Cost Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, William

    2001-01-01

    .... This study responds to the portion of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 that directs the Secretary of Defense to provide an analysis of the operational utility and life cycle costs of the MOB...

  1. The cost of dementia in Denmark: the Odense Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, J; Hansen, E; Kragh-Sørensen, A; Hastrup, L; Andersen, J; Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely demented patients was DKK 49,000, DKK 93,000, DKK 138,000 and DKK 206,000, respectively. Except for very mild dementia the cost did not differ between elderly who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia. The net cost of dementia is the difference in cost between those with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.

  2. Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Jackson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data search.The research indicates a reluctance to utilise formal cost management procedures on minor projects, estimated to cost less than $1 million. The time constraints allocated to project management planning and the perceived cost to implement procedures were identified as contributing to the limited use of formal cost management on minor projects.The paper concludes that increased risk of poor budget performance is inevitable if formal cost control is not applied to capital works projects, and recommends informal risk assessment and cost contingency measures to address this issue.

  3. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  4. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  5. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... calendar months, or (2) Effective assurance is given to the Commissioner in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  6. Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data sea...

  7. Abatement of tetrafluoromethane by chemical absorption with molten aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhongning; Cao, Dao; Tang, Wei; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-12-15

    Chemical absorption with molten aluminum to abate tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) was investigated in this paper. The experiments were conducted at a series of different temperatures of 973 K, 1003 K, 1103 K, and 1188 K and the abatement rate of CF 4 was calculated. It was found that CF 4 can be adsorbed firstly and then react with molten aluminum automatically. The initial abatement rate of CF 4 in molten aluminum was 3.10 × 10 -2  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at 973 K, while it reached its maximum value of 1.08 × 10 -1  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at the temperature of 1103 K. The highest abatement efficiency was 48.4%, reached at 1003 K. Higher temperatures up to 1188 K did not affect the abatement efficiency, however, they accelerated slightly the initial reaction rate. The products of the chemical absorption are white solid AlF 3 and black graphite powder identified by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. Due to density differences, solid AlF 3 and graphite powder in the product tend to accumulate on the top of molten aluminum where they form two separate layers. This makes them recover more easily. The gas-liquid reaction process between CF 4 and molten aluminum is accorded with the two-film theory model, diffusion process is considered to be the control step of the whole process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  9. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  10. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, John Timothy

    will worsen if carbon prices increase. Ultimately, a unified policy offers greater carbon reduction at a lower cost, which would increase popular acceptance of such policies. In the third chapter of this dissertation, my coauthors and I examine the issue of demand for carbon reductions. Recent large-scale field experiments have shown that peer information nudges can have significant effects on behavior, inducing people to reduce their production of negative externalities. Related work in psychology demonstrates that inducing feelings of personal culpability by showing people information about their peers can induce pro-social behavior. This study uses a contingent valuation experiment and a parallel lab experiment to further explore patterns of responses that have been suggested in the emerging literature on norm-based environmental interventions The field-level finding of asymmetric responses between those whose environmental or group impacts are above or below the norm is found to be robust across decision settings. However, substantial heterogeneity in responses to peer information is observed across a number of demographic and other respondent-specific dimensions not able to be explored in large scale field experiments, raising questions about the universality of peer-information effects and the design of such programs.

  11. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  12. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2009-12-01

    To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost.

  13. MARGINAL COST ESTIMATIONS IN AIRPORTS. MULTIPRODUCTIVE COST FUNCTIONS AND STOCHASTIC FRONTIERS: AN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Juan Carlos; Voltes-Dorta, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    Regarding some regulation fields, such as optimal investments and pricing policies, marginal cost estimations for infrastructure intensive transport services is always a challenging effort in order to provide some basis for important areas of economic regulation. The lack of comparable data among airports is one of the causes which could explain the relative scarcity of this literature in the previous studies. In this paper, we estimate different specifications and methods, using mono and mul...

  14. Economic costs of adult obesity: a review of recent European studies with a focus on subgroup-specific costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Krauth, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to provide an update on economic costs of obesity in Europe with a focus on costs in subgroups defined by relevant third variables such as sex, age, socio-economic status, and morbidity factors. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for 2007 to 2010. All cost categories except intangible costs were considered. N = 19 primary cost of illness studies on adults from Europe which had included at least one cost category as an outcome were identified. Nine studies reported costs in specific subgroups. Two studies (both from Germany) took a societal perspective, with total (direct and indirect) costs of obesity accounting for 0.47-0.61% of gross domestic product. Excess per-capita direct costs ranged from € 117 to € 1873, depending on cost categories and comparison group (normal weight, non-obese). One study estimated lower lifetime health care costs given obesity. Regarding subgroups, higher costs of obesity were generally found in men, groups with higher socio-economic status (regarding costs of severe obesity), and groups with co-existing abdominal obesity, diabetes (especially type 1), elevated HbA1c (among patients with type 2 diabetes), and physical co-morbidities given BMI ≥ 27 (compared to a "BMI ≥ 30 only"-group). In conclusion, while substantial obesity costs were found in most studies, subgroup analyses and lifetime perspectives call for a differentiated approach to the costs of obesity. Findings such as the higher health care costs in severely obese groups with higher socio-economic status (despite fewer co-morbidities), and lower lifetime long-term care costs in obese groups (due to reduced life expectancy), may generate hypotheses both on under- vs. overuse of services, and target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chu; Löschel, Andreas; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO 2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO 2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO 2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO 2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  16. Exploring the limits for CO2 emission abatement in the EU power and industry sectors—Awaiting a breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the prospects for presently available abatement technologies to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions from large stationary sources of CO 2 in the EU up to year 2050. The study covers power generation, petroleum refining, iron and steel, and cement production. By simulating capital stock turnover, scenarios that assume future developments in the technology stock, energy intensities, fuel and production mixes, and the resulting CO 2 emissions were generated for each sector. The results confirm that the EU goal for reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emission in the sectors covered by the EU Emission Trading System, i.e., 21% reduction by 2020 as compared to the levels in 2005, is attainable with the abatement measures that are already available. However, despite the optimism regarding the potential for, and implementation of, available abatement strategies within current production processes, our results indicate that the power and industrial sectors will fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in both the medium term (2030) and long term (2050). Deliberate exclusion from the analysis of mitigation technologies that are still in the early phases of development (e.g., CO 2 capture and storage) provides an indirect measure of the requirements for novel low-carbon technologies and production processes. - Highlights: • Explore the limits for CO 2 emission abatement within current production processes. • Analysis of scenarios for CO 2 emissions from EU power and industrial sectors 2010–2050. • Short-term (2020) emission targets are attainable with available abatement measures. • Fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in the long term (2050). • Efforts to develop new low-carbon production processes need to be accelerated

  17. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  18. Abatement of CO2 emissions: IFP's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO 2 in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO 2 emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO 2 capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO 2 sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO 2 constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO 2 from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  19. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Bickford, W.E.; Willingham, C.E.; Ghose, S.K.; Walker, M.G.

    1979-09-01

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  20. Possibilities of implementing modern philosophy of cost accounting: The case study of costs in tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Efficient cost management is one of the key tasks in modern management, primarily because of causal connection of costs, profitability and competitive advantage on the market. As a market-based concept, Target Costing represents modern accounting philosophy of cost accounting and profit planning. In modern business, efficient cost planning and management is provided by accounting information system as an integrated accounting and information solution which supplies enterprises with accounting...

  1. Retrospective Study of the Costs of EPA Regulations: A Report of Four Case Studies (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report discusses the factors that may account for differences between projected and actual regulatory costs and presents the findings of four case studies that attempt to assess compliance cost retrospectively.

  2. Advanced Noise Abatement Procedures for a Supersonic Business Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.; Seidel, Jonathan A.; Huff, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during takeoff. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise abatement procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce airport noise, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this report is a takeoff performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict takeoff trajectories and noise. Results indicate advanced noise abatement takeoff procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.

  3. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissecting Costs of CT Study: Application of TDABC (Time-driven Activity-based Costing) in a Tertiary Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Heilbrun, Marta E; Haas, Derek; Boi, Luca; Moshre, Kirk; Minoshima, Satoshi; Kaplan, Robert; Lee, Vivian S

    2017-02-01

    The lack of understanding of the real costs (not charge) of delivering healthcare services poses tremendous challenges in the containment of healthcare costs. In this study, we applied an established cost accounting method, the time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC), to assess the costs of performing an abdomen and pelvis computed tomography (AP CT) in an academic radiology department and identified opportunities for improved efficiency in the delivery of this service. The study was exempt from an institutional review board approval. TDABC utilizes process mapping tools from industrial engineering and activity-based costing. The process map outlines every step of discrete activity and duration of use of clinical resources, personnel, and equipment. By multiplying the cost per unit of capacity by the required task time for each step, and summing each component cost, the overall costs of AP CT is determined for patients in three settings, inpatient (IP), outpatient (OP), and emergency departments (ED). The component costs to deliver an AP CT study were as follows: radiologist interpretation: 40.1%; other personnel (scheduler, technologist, nurse, pharmacist, and transporter): 39.6%; materials: 13.9%; and space and equipment: 6.4%. The cost of performing CT was 13% higher for ED patients and 31% higher for inpatients (IP), as compared to that for OP. The difference in cost was mostly due to non-radiologist personnel costs. Approximately 80% of the direct costs of AP CT to the academic medical center are related to labor. Potential opportunities to reduce the costs include increasing the efficiency of utilization of CT, substituting lower cost resources when appropriate, and streamlining the ordering system to clarify medical necessity and clinical indications. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DRONE - a tool for urban traffic noise abatement policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, A.; Chung, E.; Kuwahara, M.

    2005-01-01

    Areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator-DRONE, been has developed by the integration of a road traffic noise prediction model (ASJ MODEL-1998) with road traffic simulator (AVENUE) which is further linked with GIS to provide areawide dynamic road traffic noise contour maps. This tool provides an engineering solution for the prediction of road traffic noise in urban network. Noise reduction in an urban area can be achieved by noise abatement policie...

  6. Thermal stress related with mortality rates on broilers' preslaughter operations: a lairage time effect study Estresse térmico relacionado com taxas de mortalidade durante as operações pré-abate de frangos de corte: um estudo sobre os efeitos do tempo de espera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Márcio Corrêa Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the reduction of preslaughter death losses, high temperature and relative humidity in the tropics are the major concerns regarding broiler survival prior slaughtering. However, the relationship between different lairage times under controlled environment and the thermal condition outside the holding area is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare different intervals of lairage time with different environmental temperature and relationship with poultry mortality rates. A study was conducted in a commercial poultry abattoir in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. The historical data set from 13,937 trucks, about broiler mortality during preslaughter operations, was given by the abattoir. Factors that influence the welfare of birds were studied, such as lairage time in abattoir and hourly dry-bulb temperature. The statistical analysis was performed using the Double Generalized Linear Models. The lower incidence of death losses before arrival at the processing plant (approximately 13 dead birds per truck was observed when the lairage time was between 1 to 3 hours, under high temperatures (above 22°C. This effect was more pronounced under critical (25-28°C and lethal intervals (above 29°C (12 and 13 dead birds per truck, respectively. In relation to lairage time, the reduction in mortality rates was more pronounced in the intervals up to 1 hour of lairage under climatized conditions, with a reduction of 3 dead birds per truck. It was concluded that thermal stress have negative influence for broilers welfare kept under preslaughter conditions and variations on mortality rate are strongly related with different lairage times.No que diz respeito à redução das perdas por mortalidade pré-abate, as temperaturas e umidades relativas elevadas nos trópicos são as maiores preocupações quanto à sobrevivência de frangos de corte antes do abate. Entretanto, a relação entre diferentes tempos de espera em

  7. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  8. The costs of power outages: A case study from Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros; Poullikkas, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We study the costs of electricity disruptions in Cyprus, which suffered severe power shortages in summer 2011 after an explosion that destroyed 60% of its power generating capacity. We employ both economic and engineering approaches to assess these costs. Among other calculations, we provide estimates of the value of lost load by economic sector and the hourly value of electricity by season and type of day. The results of two economic methods employed to assess welfare losses differ largely, indicating that the assessment of outage costs is associated with many uncertainties. Our calculations show that the emergency actions taken by national energy authorities in response to that accident, though not necessarily optimal, have generally been appropriate and in line with international best practices: the additional costs incurred due to these measures are lower than the economic losses avoided thanks to these actions. Preferential treatment of specific consumer types in the case of repeated power outages remains an open policy question. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the response of energy authorities to a sudden electricity crisis. ► We combine two top-down economic methods and a bottom-up engineering approach. ► We estimate the value of lost electricity by hour, day type and season. ► The response of energy authorities turned out to be effective. ► Costs of emergency actions were lower than the economic losses avoided.

  9. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  10. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  11. [Associated costs with dental studies in a public Mexican university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Medina-Solís, June Janette; Sánchez-de la Cruz, Alicia; Ascencio-Villagrán, Arturo; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To calculate associated costs with dental studies (ACDS) in a public university. We performed a cross-sectional study using a costing system on a random sample of 376 dental students enrolled at any semester in a public university. To calculate ACDS (Mexican pesos of 2009-1), we used a questionnaire divided into eight sections. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, housing costs, food, transportation, instruments and equipment, as well as remunerations associated with patient care along 16 weeks of classes in each semester were included. We used linear regression. The average of ACDS was of 18,357.54 ± 12,746.81 Mexican pesos. The largest percentage of ACDS (30.2 %) was for clinical instruments (5,537.66 ± 6,260.50). Students also spent funds in paying to patients for their time during care delivered (2,402.11 ± 4,796.50). Associated variables (p 〈 0.001) with the ACDS were having completed at least one clinical course or one theoretical-practical course, living within the state or out of state (compared to students who live in the city where dental studies take place), and being enrolled in the more advanced dental studies. The results indicate that a significant percentage of the cost to students (13.1 %) is related with clinical care delivery.

  12. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A DG INTEGRATED SYSTEM: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. V. S. S. SAILAJA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation is capable of meeting the load of the consumers partially or completely. Depending on the type of DG involved it can be operated in interconnected mode and islanded mode. The availability of numerous alternatives present for the DG technologies and large initial investments necessitates a detailed cost benefit analysis for the implementation of DG technologies. In this work an attempt has been made to study the costs involved in implementing the DG technologies. A practical system having two kinds of distributed generation i.e., Diesel Generator and solar photovoltaic system for its back up purpose is considered. A detailed cost analysis of the two DG technologies is carried out.

  13. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  14. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  16. Can we reduce costs and prevent more unintended pregnancies? A cost of illness and cost-effectiveness study comparing two methods of EHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Cameron, Sharon

    2013-12-18

    To calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy in 2011 and use this cost in a cost-effectiveness model comparing ulipristal acetate (UPA) with levonorgestrel (LNG) for emergency hormonal contraception (EHC). Retrospective analysis of published data sources and published cost-effectiveness model. Women presenting in primary care in England for EHC within 24 or 72 h of unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). EHC of either LNG (1.5 mg) or UPA (30 mg). The primary outcome measure is the number and direct and indirect costs of an unintended pregnancy. The secondary outcome measure is the consequence of unintended pregnancy: miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth or live birth. From the comparative clinical studies of EHC we observe that if 125 women receive either LNG or UPA within 72 h of UPSI, there will be one less pregnancy due to method failure in the UPA group than in the LNG group. We calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy to be £1663 in direct healthcare costs rising to £2922 with the inclusion of social costs. Using these costs in the comparative cost-effectiveness model shows that it costs £194 less in direct health costs alone to prevent one more pregnancy with UPA than with LNG. The inclusion of social costs of pregnancy increases this cost-saving potential to £1453 for each extra pregnancy avoided with UPA compared with LNG. Clinical trials have demonstrated the superior efficacy of UPA compared with LNG as a method of EHC. Given that it costs less overall in health and social costs of pregnancy while preventing more pregnancies, UPA is said to be the dominant treatment, and primary care services should shift to offering UPA as the preferred oral option to women presenting within 24 and 72 h of UPSI.

  17. The hospital cost of road traffic accidents at a South African regional trauma centre: a micro-costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S J W; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes are responsible for a vast amount of death and disability in developing countries. This study uses a bottom up, micro-costing approach to determine the cost of road traffic related crashes in South Africa. Using the data from one hundred consecutive RTC related admissions to a regional hospital in South Africa we performed a bottom up costing study. To calculate costs patients were reviewed every 48 h and all interventions were recorded for each individual patient. Prices of interventions were obtained from hospital pricelists. A total cost was calculated on an individual basis. The total cost of in-patient care for these patients was US $6,98,850. Upper limb injuries were the most expensive, and the total cost increased with the number of body regions injured. The biggest expenditure was on ward overheads ($2,81,681). Ninety operations were performed - the total cost of theatre time was $1,48,230 and the cost of orthopaedic implants was $1,26,487. The cost of care of a RTC victim is significant. In light of the high numbers of RTC victims admitted over the course of the year this is a significant cost burden for a regional hospital to bear. This cost must be taken into account when allocating hospital budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume III: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option

  19. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  20. Abatement Costs vs. Compliance Costs in Multi-Period Emissions Trading - The Firms' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission trading has become more and more important in the context of climate change. Recently, a discussion on trading on entity (i.e. company) level has started. Emitters likely to be obliged to participate have argued for an initial allocation of the emission rights free of charge. I analyse the implication of such an allocation based on historical emissions and on benchmarks in multi-period emission trading. Different allocation rules for successive periods are applied, nam...

  1. A study on macroeconomic cost of CCS in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Whan; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2015-04-01

    CCS is an important measure for mitigating the problem of World Climate Change and already several projects are entered the step of commercialization. The benefits of CCS implementation ultimately depends on the alleviation level of CO2 on earth because it is caused by the mitigation of the World Climate Change problem. Thus it is possible not to coincide at same time between starting the CCS and getting the benefits. Considering the high costs of CCS, the time mismatch between imposing the costs and getting the benefits is apt to impose some heavy burden on the individual national economy. For this reason, at the political decision-making, the policy makers should consider the macroeconomic effects. Meanwhile, Korean electricity market's supply side is comprised of competitive production and a sole distributor(public enterprise) and then electricity is supplied by a single price structure(administered pricing). Under this condition, if CCS is introduced to power setor, electric charges must be increased and production costs will go high. High production costs will have unfavourable effects on disposable income, price level, purchasing power and so on. In order to minimize these effects, policy makers have to consider the economic effects of introducing CCS. This study estimates the microscopic cost of CCS using ICCSEM 2.0 methodology made by CO2CRC and after that, the macroeconomic effects of introducing CCS is estimated on the basis of microscopic cost estimating results. The macroeconomic effects of CCS applied to Power Generation sector are estimated using macroeconometrics model and Input-Output analysis. A macroeconometrics model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the national economy. This model is usually applied to examine the dynamics of aggregate quantities such as the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, the level of prices and so forth. Introducing

  2. Freer markets and the abatement of carbon emissions. The electricity-generating sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Madhu; Zilberman, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a framework to explore the implications of trade and domestic policy distortions for the magnitude of carbon emissions and for the welfare costs of abating these emissions. An application to the electricity-generating sector in India shows that economic policy reforms can also be effective environmental policy instruments and reduce carbon emissions even in the absence of an emissions tax. This reduction in emissions is accompanied by an increase in domestic welfare, an increase in electricity output, and conservation of coal. Coordinating trade and domestic policy reform with an emissions tax policy reduces emissions further, while leading to gains in welfare that are greater than those under an emissions tax policy alone

  3. Description and flight performance of two systems for two-segment approach. [for aircraft noise abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R.; Shigemoto, F. H.; Bourquin, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes two different avionic systems which were designed and developed to provide guidance and control for two-segment noise abatement approaches. The concept of a low-cost retrofit avionic system evolved into a special-purpose two-segment computer which required a DME collocated with the ILS glide-slope transmitter. This system was evaluated in a Boeing 727-200 aircraft. The second system is an area navigation (RNAV) system modified to include the two-segment approach. This system is more sophisticated than the first system and does not restrict usage to any specific navigation ground aid. The modified RNAV system is a Collins ANS-70A and is currently being evaluated in a DC-8-61 aircraft.

  4. The cost of molecular-guided therapy in oncology: a prospective cost study alongside the MOSCATO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Arnaud; Foulon, Stéphanie; Zou, Zhaomin; Lacroix, Ludovic; Lemare, François; de Baère, Thierry; Massard, Christophe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Bonastre, Julia

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing use of molecular technologies to guide cancer treatments, but few cost data are available. Our objective was to assess the costs of molecular-guided therapy for patients with advanced solid tumors alongside the Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment and Optimization (MOSCATO) trial. The study population consisted of 529 patients. The molecular diagnosis included seven steps from tumor biopsy to the multidisciplinary molecular tumor board. The cost of a complete molecular diagnosis was assessed by micro-costing. Direct costs incurred from enrollment until progression were assessed from the French National Health Insurance perspective. The patients' mean age was 54 years (range: 3-82) and the mean follow-up period was 145 days (range: 1-707 days). A complete molecular diagnosis cost [euro ]2,396. There were 220 patients with an actionable target (42%), among whom 105 (20%) actually received a targeted therapy. The cost of molecular-guided therapy per patient was [euro ]31,269. The main cost drivers were anticancer drugs (54%) and hospitalizations (35%). This prospective cost analysis showed that molecular diagnosis accounts for only 6% of the cost of molecular-guided therapy per patient. The costs of drugs and hospitalizations are the main cost drivers.Genet Med advance online publication 01 December 2016.

  5. Costs and cost effectiveness of different strategies for chlamydia screening and partner notification: an economic and mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy; Adams, Elisabeth; Grant, Arabella; Macleod, John; Bell, Gill; Clarke, Jan; Horner, Paddy

    2011-01-04

    To compare the cost, cost effectiveness, and sex equity of different intervention strategies within the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme. To develop a tool for calculating cost effectiveness of chlamydia control programmes at a local, national, or international level. An economic and mathematical modelling study with cost effectiveness analysis. Costs were restricted to those of screening and partner notification from the perspective of the NHS and excluded patient costs, the costs of reinfection, and costs of complications arising from initial infection. England. Population Individuals eligible for the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. Cost effectiveness of National Chlamydia Screening Programme in 2008-9 (as cost per individual tested, cost per positive diagnosis, total cost of screening, number screened, number infected, sex ratio of those tested and treated). Comparison of baseline programme with two different interventions-(i) increased coverage of primary screening in men and (ii) increased efficacy of partner notification. In 2008-9 screening was estimated to cost about £46.3m in total and £506 per infection treated. Provision for partner notification within the screening programme cost between £9 and £27 per index case, excluding treatment and testing. The model results suggest that increasing male screening coverage from 8% (baseline value) to 24% (to match female coverage) would cost an extra £22.9m and increase the cost per infection treated to £528. In contrast, increasing partner notification efficacy from 0.4 (baseline value) to 0.8 partners per index case would cost an extra £3.3m and would reduce the cost per infection diagnosed to £449. Increasing screening coverage to 24% in men would cost over six times as much as increasing partner notification to 0.8 but only treat twice as many additional infections. In the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme increasing the effectiveness of partner notification is likely

  6. Cost forecasting using RCF : a case study for planning public building projects costs in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, Savas; Al-Jibouri, Saad

    2017-01-01

    Many construction projects are perceived to perform badly since the majority of them suffer cost overruns. This paper analyses cost estimates produced by two most commonly used estimation methods for building projects in Turkey, namely unit area cost (UAC) and unit price analysis (UPA). It also

  7. Costs of shoulder pain and resource use in primary health care: a cost-of-illness study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virta Lena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful shoulders pose a substantial socioeconomic burden. A prospective cost-of-illness study was performed to assess the costs associated with healthcare use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain in primary health care in Sweden. Methods The study was performed in western Sweden, in a region with 24 000 inhabitants. Data were collected during six months from electronic patient records at three primary healthcare centres in two municipalities. All patients between 20 and 64 years of age who presented with shoulder pain to a general practitioner or a physiotherapist were included. Diagnostic codes were used for selection, and the cases were manually controlled. The cost for sick leave was calculated according to the human capital approach. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty in various factors used in the model. Results 204 (103 women patients, mean age 48 (SD 11 years, were registered. Half of the cases were closed within six weeks, whereas 32 patients (16% remained in the system for more than six months. A fifth of the patients were responsible for 91% of the total costs, and for 44% of the healthcare costs. The mean healthcare cost per patient was €326 (SD 389 during six months. Physiotherapy treatments accounted for 60%. The costs for sick leave contributed to 84% of the total costs. The mean annual total cost was €4139 per patient. Estimated costs for secondary care increased the total costs by one third. Conclusions The model applied in this study provides valuable information that can be used in cost evaluations. Costs for secondary care and particularly for sick leave have a major influence on total costs and interventions that can reduce long periods of sick leave are warranted.

  8. Private costs almost equal health care costs when intervening in mild Alzheimer's: a cohort study alongside the DAISY trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldorff Frans

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and affects about 25 million people worldwide. Recent studies have evaluated the effect of early interventions for dementia, but few studies have considered private time and transportation costs associated with the intervention. This study assessed the total economic costs associated with a multifaceted intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease, including an estimate of the ratio of public to private costs. Methods The study sample comprised 163 dyads of patients and caregivers who received a multifaceted intervention of counselling sessions, courses and informational packages. The typical duration of the intervention was 7 months. A micro-costing approach was applied using prospectively collected data on resource utilisation that included estimates of participant time and transportation. Precision estimates were calculated using a bootstrapping technique and structural uncertainty was assessed with sensitivity analysis. Results The direct intervention cost was estimated at EUR 1,070 (95% CI 1,029;1,109. The total cost (including private costs was estimated at EUR 2,020 (95% CI 1,929;2,106 i.e. the ratio of private to public costs was almost 1:1. Conclusion Intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease can be undertaken at a relatively low cost to public funds. However, policy planners should pay attention to the significant private costs associated with an intervention, which may ultimately pose a threat to equity in access to health care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74848736.

  9. Study of the distribution of gamma emitters radionuclides between a pollution abatement factory and its surrounding environment; Case of the water treatment plant of the Grand Caen district. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Except nuclear industry, diverse structures (hospitals, of research or manufacturers) can have appeal to the use of radioisotopes conditioned under unsealed shape. Such practices lead to tolerate releases in environment in the respect of a statutory device. So the collective network can contain radioisotopes the future of which is going to depend partially on the cleaning applied to waste water. This study through the analysis of a concrete case, has for objective to inform about the future of gamma radioelements present in waste water treated by a wastewater treatment plant. The contamination of the network is essentially due to Tc 99 and I 131 , radioelements present whatever the working day and the hour considered. The total estimated in-load for a day is important, of the order of 4000 MBq for Tc 99 and 15 to 300 MBq for I 131 . The assessment of cleaning of the station shows that this one plays a role towards this pollution through these stages of treatment. Within the natural environment receiving treated waters only the presence of I 131 is noticed. (N.C.)

  10. The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Embrey, Sally R; Wagner, Laura Danielle; Cowden, Carter L; Kelly, Fiona M; Smith, Emily R; Iñiguez, Volga; Leon, Juan S

    2013-08-02

    Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (ptotal costs to families were significantly higher for inpatients as compared to outpatients of urban (pcosts made up a large proportion of total costs. Forty-five percent of patients' families paid ≥1% of their annual household income for this single diarrheal episode. The perception that cost was affecting family finances was more frequent among those with higher actual cost burden. This study demonstrated that indirect costs due to acute pediatric diarrhea were a large component of total incurred familial costs. Additionally, familial costs associated with a single diarrheal episode affected the actual and perceived financial situation of a large number of caregivers. These data serve as a baseline for societal diarrheal costs before and immediately following the implementation of the rotavirus vaccine and highlight the serious economic importance of a diarrheal episode to Bolivian caregivers.

  11. Defense Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.D.; Wolaver, R.W.; Carson, P.H.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the DOE information with which it can establish the most efficient program for the long management and disposal, in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this purpose, a comprehensive review of waste characteristics, existing and projected waste inventories, processing and transportation options, and WIPP requirements was made. Cost differences between waste management alternatives were analyzed and compared to an established baseline. The result of this study is an information package that DOE can use as the basis for policy decisions. As part of this study, a comprehensive list of alternatives for each element of the baseline was developed and reviewed with the sites. The principle conclusions of the study follow. A single processing facility for RH TRU waste is both necessary and sufficient. The RH TRU processing facility should be located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Shielding of RH TRU to contact handled levels is not an economic alternative in general, but is an acceptable alternative for specific waste streams. Compaction is only cost effective at the ORNL processing facility, with a possible exception at Hanford for small compaction of paint cans of newly generated glovebox waste. It is more cost effective to ship certified waste to WIPP in 55-gal drums than in canisters, assuming a suitable drum cask becomes available. Some waste forms cannot be packaged in drums, a canister/shielded cask capability is also required. To achieve the desired disposal rate, the ORNL processing facility must be operational by 1996. Implementing the conclusions of this study can save approximately $110 million, compared to the baseline, in facility, transportation, and interim storage costs through the year 2013. 10 figs., 28 tabs

  12. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  13. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  14. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  15. Private costs almost equal health care costs when intervening in mild Alzheimer's: a cohort study alongside the DAISY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2009-01-01

    . This study assessed the total economic costs associated with a multifaceted intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease, including an estimate of the ratio of public to private costs. METHODS: The study sample comprised 163 dyads of patients and caregivers who received a multifaceted intervention...... in access to health care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74848736....

  16. Greenhouse gases mitigation potential and costs for Brazil's energy system from 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno S.M.C.; Lucena, Andre F.P. de; Rathmann, Regis; Costa, Isabella V.L. da; Nogueira, Larissa P.P.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; H. Junior, Mauricio F.; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential for energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and their abatement costs in the energy system of Brazil. The analysis of mitigation options and their costs focuses on the following sectors: industry, transportation and energy supply (electricity generation and oil refining), given their large contribution to the Brazil's GHGs emissions. For the industrial and oil refining sectors, the paper estimated abatement costs based on the investments along with the energy and operational costs of the measures considered. Two discount rates were used: 15% a year (private discount rate) and 8% a year (social discount rate). Compared to a business-as-usual reference scenario, results show a potential to reduce future energy-related GHG emissions by 27% in 2030. This study shows, however, that in relation to a reference year (2007), the examined abatement measures, along with the socioeconomic dynamics of an emerging country such as Brazil, would not be enough to attain absolute reductions in GHG emissions by 2030. This result is valid both each sector individually and for the sum of the emissions from all the sectors analyzed. (author)

  17. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrache, A; Laoufi, N A; Pons, M N; Van Deik, J; Zahraa, O

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a macrolide (tylosin) has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as photocatalyst in a laboratory reactor under UV illumination (365 nm). The degradation of the antibiotic and of the reaction intermediary product was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. Three photocatalysts (P25 from Degussa and PC105 and PC500 from Millennium) immobilized on glass plates were compared. A slightly better degradation was obtained with P25. Then the tylosin degradation kinetics were investigated with the P25 photocatalyst. The kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. Adsorption and apparent rate constants were determined. These results suggest that, although an intermediary by-product was detected during the reaction, complete degradation of tylosin can be achieved, which confirms the feasibility of such a photocatalytic treatment for tylosin elimination from wastewater.

  18. Costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV community services: quantity and quality of studies published 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Fasawe, Olufunke; Ongpin, Patricia; Ghys, Peter; Avilla, Carlos; De Lay, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Community services comprise an important part of a country's HIV response. English language cost and cost-effectiveness studies of HIV community services published between 1986 and 2011 were reviewed but only 74 suitable studies were identified, 66% of which were performed in five countries. Mean study scores by continent varied from 42 to 69% of the maximum score, reflecting variation in topics covered and the quality of coverage: 38% of studies covered key and 11% other vulnerable populations - a country's response is most effective and efficient if these populations are identified given they are key to a successful response. Unit costs were estimated using different costing methods and outcomes. Community services will need to routinely collect and analyze information on their use, cost, outcome and impact using standardized costing methods and outcomes. Cost estimates need to be disaggregated into relevant cost items and stratified by severity and existing comorbidities. Expenditure tracking and costing of services are complementary aspects of the health sector 'resource cycle' that feed into a country's investment framework and the development and implementation of national strategic plans.

  19. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities.

  20. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  1. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  2. CFD modeling of a UV-LED photocatalytic odor abatement process in a continuous reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimeng; Liu, Jing; Dai, Yuancan; Dong, Weiyang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a model study of a UV light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) based photocatalytic odor abatement process. It integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the gas flow in the reactor with LED-array radiation field calculation and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. It was applied to simulate the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a UV-LED reactor based on experimentally determined chemical kinetic parameters. A non-linear power law relating reaction rate to irradiation intensity was adopted. The model could predict the steady state DMS concentration profiles by calculating the advection, diffusion and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. By affecting the radiation intensity and uniformity, the position of the LED array relative to the catalyst appeared to be a critical parameter determining DMS removal efficiency. Too small distances might yield low quantum efficiency and consequently poor abatement performance. This study provided an example of LED-based photocatalytic process modeling and gave insights into the optimization of light source design for photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general.

  4. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  5. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas; Domroese, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  6. Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

    2013-08-01

    In this study the flood abatement effect at dams with gated spillways under a wide range of extreme floods is analysed (100 < return period <10,000 years). A group of integrated models (rainfall generator, hydrological model and dam operation model) interacting within a Monte Carlo simulation framework is used for producing numerous hydrologic events at 21 sites across mainland Spain, and the hydrologic response applied to 81 configurations of dams and reservoirs. Common behavioural patterns are identified and dimensionless coefficients classified, based on the hydrologic variables and the dam and reservoir characteristics. The relationships between these coefficients are analysed, with a significant degree of correlation both among the cases and the varying magnitude of floods being obtained. Finally, models that enable evaluation of the abatement capacity of a dam with a gated spillway in the event of a flood with Tr between 500 and 10,000 years are offered. In addition, they allow the frequency curve of such a maximum flow to be obtained, something which could serve of use not only during the design phase but also in the evaluation of the hydrologic safety of dams.

  7. Analysis of CO2 Emission Performance and Abatement Potential for Municipal Industrial Sectors in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the main source of CO2 emissions in China, the industrial sector has faced pressure for reducing emissions. To achieve the target of 50% reduction of industrial carbon intensity by 2020 based on the 2005 level, it is urgent to formulate specific CO2 emission mitigation strategies in the provincial industrial sector. In order to provide decision-making support for the development and implementation of mitigation policy, our undesirable slack based measure (SBM model is firstly applied to evaluate the industrial CO2 emission efficiency under total-factor frame (TFICEE in 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu Province, the largest CO2 emitter in China. Then, we analyze space-time distribution and distributional evolution tendency of TFICEE by using the GIS visualization method and kernel density estimation, respectively. Finally, we utilize the industrial abatement model to estimate the CO2 abatement potential of Jiangsu’s industrial sector. The empirical results show that there exists a significant spatial inequality of TFICEE across various regions in Jiangsu, but the regional disparity has been narrowing during our study period. Additionally, average annual industrial CO2 emission reductions in Jiangsu Province can attain 15,654.00 (ten thousand tons, accounting for 28.2% of its average annual actual emissions, which can be achieved by improving production technology, adjusting industrial structure and raising the level of industry concentration.

  8. Preliminary data from γ-cardiography during the abatement of an asthmatic attack (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, R.; Vernejoul, P. de; Raynaud, C.; Blanchon, P.; Kellershohn, C.; Turiaf, J.

    1961-01-01

    The authors used gamma cardiology during the abatement of 16 cases of asthma with a view to detecting heart attacks not otherwise visible with routine methods of examination: clinical, radiological and electro-cardio-graphical. In gamma cardiology, a radioactive indicator is used and its path followed in the cavities of the heart. The method makes it possible to study the circulation in the right heart, the pulmonary crossing, and the left heart, as well as evaluation of the heart-flow. As a result of their investigations the authors, after having discussed the significance of the data obtained with the method, suggest that it is possible by the use of gamma cardiography during the abatement of an asthma attack: 1- To confirm attacks of the right heart which have already been detected by ordinary methods. 2- To confirm the presence of modifications in the recorded curves which suggest, in the case of the left heart, possible attack; such on attack is also indicated, in a small number of cases, by electrocardiography curves. Some considerations are put forward by the authors concerning the physiopathology of attacks on the left heart. (authors) [fr

  9. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, P.; Gionco, C.; Giletta, M. [Department of Chemistry, Via Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Kalaboka, M.; Sakkas, V.A.; Albanis, T. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Ioannnina 45 110 (Greece); Paganini, M.C., E-mail: mariacristina.paganini@unito.it [Department of Chemistry, Via Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Ce doped ZnO. • The abatement of ACE K is assessed in ultrapure water and in river water matrix. • Demonstrated higher degradation activity than P25 under visible light. • The degradation activity is less affected in river water than for P25. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV–vis and visible light. Commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO{sub 2} P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO{sub 2} P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  10. An integrated strategy for aircraft/airport noise abatement: A legal-institutional control act section 7 to the noise control act of 1972 and proposals based thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the aircraft noise control structure since the Griggs case of 1962 was examined. The Noise Control Act of 1972 is described which undertook to establish the legal-institutional framework within which an adequate aircraft/airport noise abatement program might be initiated with concern for full recognition of all the beneficial and detrimental consequences of air transportation and appropriate distribution of benefits and costs.

  11. Pollution control costs in industry: an economic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, M.H.; Lowe, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A major problem of contemporary economic and social policy is the extent to which industrial pollution should be controlled. To this end a substantial amount of academic research has been carried out across the whole spectrum of science. Much theorizing and research has still to stand the test of time since environmental issues are essentially long-term, and there is considerable uncertainty in many natural and applied sciences about pollution and its control. In the sphere of economics, substantial advances have been made at the macro level concerning problems such as economic growth and the quality of life, but there are still many under-researched areas at the micro level. Little work has been done outside the U.S. on the impact of pollution controls on firms and industries in general, and small- and medium-sized firms in particular. This book sets out to fill part of this gap. The first chapters deal with some important strands of economic theory underlying the problem of environmental pollution and later chapters analyze the results of over one hundred interviews conducted with firms on their pollution problems and means of abatement.

  12. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  16. Overhaul Costs in Public and Private Shipyards: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    enough observations to estimate separate cost functions for each type. Therefore, a multioutput cost function should be used, with two out- puts: 01...was the form we used. A problem was encountered in trying to formulate the multiproduct cost function. There is a multioutput Cobb-Douglas production

  17. Case Study of Operational Cost of Tractors in Three Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of operating tractors in three different farms was investigated. Data were collected for six years on a total of 112 tractors. The data was categorized into different costs constituting cost of operating tractors such as repair and maintenance; fuel and lubricants; operator's wages; interest; insurance, taxes and shelter ...

  18. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960.30 Section 1960.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful...

  19. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed by...

  20. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...

  1. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  2. Public Education as an Approach to Future Planning for Pollution Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    One approach to the abatement of pollution is that which stresses that an informed public will, because of an altruistic motive termed "civic responsibility," control the disruption of the environment, before such disruption reaches a perceived 'crisis' state. This paper discusses the public approach to pollution abatement in terms of long-range…

  3. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal...

  5. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-2008-0114] RIN 2125-AF26 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise... the Federal regulations on the Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain...

  6. Cervical cancer treatment costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in Vietnam: a PRIME modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Jit, Mark

    2017-05-15

    Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction. A costing study based on expert panel discussions, interviews and hospital case note reviews was conducted to explore the cost of cervical cancer care. The cost of cervical cancer treatment ranged from US$368 - 11400 depending on the type of hospital and treatment involved. Under Gavi-negotiated prices of US$4.55, HPV vaccination is likely to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted in the range US$780 - 1120. However, under list prices for Cervarix and Gardasil in Vietnam, the incremental cost per DALY averted for HPV vaccination can exceed US$8000. HPV vaccine introduction appears to be economically attractive only if Vietnam is able to procure the vaccine at Gavi prices. This highlights the importance of initiating a nationwide vaccination programme while such prices are still available.

  7. The daily cost of ICU patients: A micro-costing study in 23 French Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Garrigues, Bernard; Pribil, Céline; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Courtial, Frédéric; Maurel, Frédérique; Bazin, Jean-Étienne

    2015-06-01

    To estimate the daily cost of intensive care unit (ICU) stays via micro-costing. A multicentre, prospective, observational, cost analysis study was carried out among 21 out of 23 French ICUs randomly selected from French National Hospitals. Each ICU randomly enrolled 5 admitted adult patients with a simplified acute physiology II score ≥ 15 and with at least one major intensive care medical procedure. All health-care human resources used by each patient over a 24-hour period were recorded, as well as all medications, laboratory analyses, investigations, tests, consumables and administrative expenses. All resource costs were estimated from the hospital's perspective (reference year 2009) based on unitary cost data. One hundred and four patients were included (mean age: 62.3 ± 14.9 years, mean SAPS II: 51.5 ± 16.1, mean SOFA on the study day: 6.9 ± 4.3). Over 24 hours, 29 to 186 interventions per patient were performed by different caregivers, leading to a mean total time spent for patient care of 13:32 ± 05:00 h. The total daily cost per patient was € 1425 ± € 520 (95% CI = € 1323 to € 1526). ICU human resources represented 43% of total daily cost. Patient-dependent expenses (€ 842 ± € 521) represented 59% of the total daily cost. The total daily cost was correlated with the daily SOFA score (r = 0.271, P = 0.006) and the bedside-time given by caregivers (r = 0.716, P average cost of one day of ICU care in French National Hospitals is strongly correlated with the duration of bedside-care carried out by human resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  9. Studies in Software Cost Model Behavior: Do We Really Understand Cost Model Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Karen; Hihn, Jairus; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    While there exists extensive literature on software cost estimation techniques, industry practice continues to rely upon standard regression-based algorithms. These software effort models are typically calibrated or tuned to local conditions using local data. This paper cautions that current approaches to model calibration often produce sub-optimal models because of the large variance problem inherent in cost data and by including far more effort multipliers than the data supports. Building optimal models requires that a wider range of models be considered while correctly calibrating these models requires rejection rules that prune variables and records and use multiple criteria for evaluating model performance. The main contribution of this paper is to document a standard method that integrates formal model identification, estimation, and validation. It also documents what we call the large variance problem that is a leading cause of cost model brittleness or instability.

  10. Assessment of international mitigation costing studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs

  11. Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Under Incomplete and Costly Information

    OpenAIRE

    Y.H. Farzin; J.D. Kaplan

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the efficient management of nonpoint source pollution (NPS) under a limited pollution control budget and incomplete information. We focus on the tradeoff between data collection and pollution abatement efforts by incorporating information acquisition into a NPS pollution control model. Comparative static results show conditions under which (i) a favorable change in the abatement costs at one source may lead to an increase in the treatment level at all sources, and vice versa, (ii) ...

  12. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  13. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  14. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC, an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with the opportunity to efficiently improve their activity or to reduce the costs with no quality loss for their customers. The primary aim of ABC method was to implement a logical system of additional allocation with a better information and improvement in the field of managerial policies, a real cost structure on the basis of which strategic managerial decisions could be further adopted. Under the terms of a continuous growth of fixed cost weighting, we will become more interested in the calculation system of process costing. This costs calculation method can bring on important benefits, especially for service provider companies, considering the high share of common- indirect costs (overhead, in their unit.

  15. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  16. Time-driven activity based costing: a comparative study with the activity based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Battistella Luna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity-based costing (ABC emerged in the 1980s to meet the new necessities of cost information facing companies, the result of continuous changes in the business environment. In the 2000s, a new costing method, known as time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC was introduced in order to simplify the ABC. This paper compares these methods in order to provide information to assist managers to decide which of these methods better suits the reality of their companies. Therefore, they were analyzed based on information obtained through a systematic search in the Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases, as well as papers from the annals of the Congresso Brasileiro de Custos, Congresso de Controladoria e Contabilidade da USP and Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção (considering scientific papers published between 2004 and 2016. From this analysis, in most cases it was concluded that TDABC is a simpler and more practical option than ABC. However, it was also apparent that managers, before choosing a particular method, must verify whether the conditions that enable its applicability exist.

  17. Cost Surface-Derived Least-Cost Paths: A Case Study from Iron Age Orkney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rahn

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, GIS landscape models have begun to move towards more sophisticated techniques for representing the land surface in order to analyse site territories, pathways and travel costs. Many of the major commercial GIS packages now offer the ability to generate anisotropic cost surfaces. In addition, recent papers have proposed methodologies for generating cost surfaces to model social preferences affecting travel (Lee and Stucky 1998; Llobera 2000. In terms of practical applications, however, GIS models of catchment areas and paths between sites continue to be dominated by those constructed on the basis of slope alone. In parallel with this, regional analyses of site location, with few exceptions, have been undertaken either within large land masses, largely ignoring the effects of rivers, lakes and the sea on travel costs and affordances, or within single islands, neglecting travel to other neighbouring islands or the mainland. The reasons for this appear to be twofold: first, there is little information available on travel costs and travel rates using pre-industrial transportation technology, beyond very general statements; second, critical analysis of what constitutes an 'acceptable' travel distance is lacking, especially in situations where both water and land transport are possibilities. This article presents some preliminary results from a research project examining the location and distribution of Middle Iron Age sites (brochs in the landscape of Orkney, Northern Scotland. It employs a terrain model, taking into account differing friction values for land and water surfaces, as well as the nature of the shoreline (cliffs, beaches and how this affects access from land to sea and vice versa. It also attempts to model pathways between sites following three friction models: lowest-energy, lowest-visibility (hidden and highest-visibility (exposed.

  18. A Feasibility Study of H{sub 2}S Abatement by Incineration of Noncondensable Gases in Vented Steam Flow from Davies-State 5206-1 Geothermal Steam Well, Geysers Geothermal Steam Field, Lake County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-25

    Determine feasibility of using an incineration-type device to accomplish the required reduction in vent steam H{sub 2}S content to meet ICAPCO rules. This approach is to be the only method considered in this feasibility study.

  19. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  20. Influence Costs in Agribusiness Cooperatives: Evidence from Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, C.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the influence costs problem in the governance structure ‘agribusiness cooperative.’ Influence costs are higher in cooperatives than in investor-oriented firms due to the unique governance structure of the former. Hypotheses are formulated and tested regarding the relationship between influence costs and seven variables: membership size, member heterogeneity, average member age, singleness of purpose, managerial power over members, level of managerial compens...

  1. Payback Period for Emissions Abatement Alternatives: Role of Regulation and Fuel Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Bell, Michael G. H.

    2016-01-01

    period of a potential scrubber investment. The results show that lower prices would significantly delay the payback period of such investments, up to two times in some cases. The case studies present the emissions generation through each option for representative short sea shipping routes....... The repercussions of low-sulfur policies on large emission reduction investments including cold ironing are examined, along with implications of slow steaming for their respective payback periods. Recommendations are made for research in anticipation of future regulations and technological improvements....... of the fuel used. This paper presents a literature review of emissions abatement options and relevant research in the field. A cost–benefit methodology to assess emission reduction investments from ship owners is also presented. A study examined the effects of recent drops in bunker fuel price to the payback...

  2. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO x abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO x emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO x from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr -1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NO x concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH 3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO x concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO x concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  3. Provincial carbon intensity abatement potential estimation in China: A PSO–GA-optimized multi-factor environmental learning curve method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shiwei; Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Shuhong; Sun, Han

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimate carbon intensity abatement potential in China at the regional level by proposing a particle swarm optimization–genetic algorithm (PSO–GA) multivariate environmental learning curve estimation method. The model uses two independent variables, namely, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the proportion of the tertiary industry in GDP, to construct carbon intensity learning curves (CILCs), i.e., CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP, of 30 provinces in China. Instead of the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) method, a PSO–GA intelligent optimization algorithm is used to optimize the coefficients of a learning curve. The carbon intensity abatement potentials of the 30 Chinese provinces are estimated via PSO–GA under the business-as-usual scenario. The estimation reveals the following results. (1) For most provinces, the abatement potentials from improving a unit of the proportion of the tertiary industry in GDP are higher than the potentials from raising a unit of per capita GDP. (2) The average potential of the 30 provinces in 2020 will be 37.6% based on the emission's level of 2005. The potentials of Jiangsu, Tianjin, Shandong, Beijing, and Heilongjiang are over 60%. Ningxia is the only province without intensity abatement potential. (3) The total carbon intensity in China weighted by the GDP shares of the 30 provinces will decline by 39.4% in 2020 compared with that in 2005. This intensity cannot achieve the 40%–45% carbon intensity reduction target set by the Chinese government. Additional mitigation policies should be developed to uncover the potentials of Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. In addition, the simulation accuracy of the CILCs optimized by PSO–GA is higher than that of the CILCs optimized by the traditional OLS method. - Highlights: • A PSO–GA-optimized multi-factor environmental learning curve method is proposed. • The carbon intensity abatement potentials of the 30 Chinese provinces are estimated by

  4. Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Martin C; Charlton, Judith; Prevost, Toby; Booth, Helen; Fildes, Alison; Ashworth, Mark; Littlejohns, Peter; Reddy, Marcus; Khan, Omar; Rudisill, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    To estimate costs and outcomes of increasing access to bariatric surgery in obese adults and in population subgroups of age, sex, deprivation, comorbidity, and obesity category. A cohort study was conducted using primary care electronic health records, with linked hospital utilization data, for 3,045 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 247,537 participants who did not undergo bariatric surgery. Epidemiological analyses informed a probabilistic Markov model to compare bariatric surgery, including equal proportions with adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, with standard nonsurgical management of obesity. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits at a threshold of £30,000 per QALY. In a UK population of 250,000 adults, there may be 7,163 people with morbid obesity including 1,406 with diabetes. The immediate cost of 1,000 bariatric surgical procedures is £9.16 million, with incremental discounted lifetime health care costs of £15.26 million (95% confidence interval £15.18-£15.36 million). Patient-years with diabetes mellitus will decrease by 8,320 (range 8,123-8,502). Incremental QALYs will increase by 2,142 (range 2,032-2,256). The estimated cost per QALY gained is £7,129 (range £6,775-£7,506). Net monetary benefits will be £49.02 million (range £45.72-£52.41 million). Estimates are similar for subgroups of age, sex, and deprivation. Bariatric surgery remains cost-effective if the procedure is twice as costly, or if intervention effect declines over time. Diverse obese individuals may benefit from bariatric surgery at acceptable cost. Bariatric surgery is not cost-saving, but increased health care costs are exceeded by health benefits to obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  6. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G; Rasmussen, Petra W; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million) and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]). Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively). The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China. Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented.

  7. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]. Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively. The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China.Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented.

  8. Direct costs of radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a microcosting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Céilleachair, Alan Ó; Skally, Máiréad; O'Neill, Ciaran; Sharp, Linda

    2015-05-02

    Radiotherapy provides significant benefits in terms of reducing risk of local recurrence and death from rectal cancer. Despite this, up-to-date cost estimates for radiotherapy are lacking, potentially inhibiting policy and decision-making. Our objective was to generate an up-to-date estimate of the cost of traditional radiotherapy for rectal cancer and model the impact of a range of potential efficiency improvements. Microcosting methods were used to estimate total direct radiotherapy costs for long- (assumed at 45-50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over a 5 week period) and short-courses (assumed at 25 Gy in 5 daily fractions over a one week period). Following interviews and on-site visits to radiotherapy departments in two designated cancer centers, a radiotherapy care pathway for a typical rectal cancer patient was developed. Total direct costs were derived by applying fixed and variable unit costs to resource use within each care phase. Costs included labor, capital, consumables and overheads. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Radiotherapy treatment was estimated to cost between €2,080 (5-fraction course) and €3,609 (25-fraction course) for an average patient in 2012. Costs were highest in the treatment planning phase for the short-course (€1,217; 58% of total costs), but highest in the radiation treatment phase for the long-course (€1,974: 60% of total costs). By simultaneously varying treatment time, capacity utilization rates and linear accelerator staff numbers, the base cost fell by 20% for 5-fractions: (€1,660) and 35% for 25-fractions: (€2,354). Traditional radiotherapy for rectal cancer is relatively inexpensive. Moreover, significant savings may be achievable through service organization and provision changes. These results suggest that a strong economic argument can be made for expanding the use of radiotherapy in rectal cancer treatment.

  9. Influence Costs in Agribusiness Cooperatives: Evidence from Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Iliopoulos (Constantine); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the influence costs problem in the governance structure ‘agribusiness cooperative.’ Influence costs are higher in cooperatives than in investor-oriented firms due to the unique governance structure of the former. Hypotheses are formulated and tested regarding the

  10. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  11. Mashad trigeneration potential – An opportunity for CO2 abatement in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behboodi Kalhori, Sahand; Rabiei, Hossein; Mansoori, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Utilization of trigeneration system is investigated for Mashad town center. ► The case study is the main tourist destination in Iran. ► Two CHCP scenarios are considered to meet thermal demand regarding the hourly load. ► Thermodynamic performance criteria of both scenarios are discussed. ► Environmental and financial features of both scenarios are proposed. - Abstract: Trigeneration, referred to as Combined Heating, Cooling and Power (CHCP), is an efficient energy conversion technology which offers several merits, including fuel consumption saving, CO 2 emission abatement and reduced expenses. In this article, the viability of trigeneration system in Mashad city, the main tourist destination in Iran, has been studied. For this aim, two scenarios have been proposed to meet thermal energy demand which is about 80 MW th at peak time. In the first scenario, the plan is developed on the basis of heat recovery opportunity from hot exhaust gases of two gas turbines installed near Mashad town center, and in the second scenario, an onside CHCP plant with optimum capacity is considered. Then, some performance criteria are investigated to assess the effectiveness of projected scenarios. Finally, both options are analyzed from technical and financial point of view. Finally, although CO 2 abatement is approximately 311,500 ton per year for the first scenario, and four times lower for the second one, the latter presents better economic features (internal rate of return: 14.27% versus 12.93%). Accordingly, the onside CHCP proposal is recommended to be installed.

  12. Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Mashayekhi; Mohammad Ara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost p...

  13. Spacelab cost reduction alternatives study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Alternative approaches to payload operations planning and control and flight crew training are defined for spacelab payloads with the goal of: lowering FY77 and FY 78 costs for new starts; lowering costs to achieve Spacelab operational capability; and minimizing the cost per Spacelab flight. These alternatives attempt to minimize duplication of hardware, software, and personnel, and the investment in supporting facility and equipment. Of particular importance is the possible reduction of equipment, software, and manpower resources such as comtational systems, trainers, and simulators.

  14. Study on the methodology for allocating costs of grid losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalberts, A.; Dekker, G.; Jaarsma, S.; Tieben, B.; Vlug, N.

    2011-01-01

    The research question in this report: 'Where are grid losses caused and in which (objective) manner can the costs of these grid losses be allocated to the buyers. The key questions answered in the research are: (1) In which locations of the electricity grid are losses caused and what is the volume of these losses?; (2) How are the costs of grid losses allocated to the various groups of end users?; and (3) What are alternative way(s) to allocate the costs of grid losses to the buyers?. [nl

  15. Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of 235 U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors

  16. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  17. Update of the Dutch manual for costing studies in health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Kanters

    Full Text Available Dutch health economic guidelines include a costing manual, which describes preferred research methodology for costing studies and reference prices to ensure high quality studies and comparability between study outcomes. This paper describes the most important revisions of the costing manual compared to the previous version.An online survey was sent out to potential users of the costing manual to identify topics for improvement. The costing manual was aligned with contemporary health economic guidelines. All methodology sections and parameter values needed for costing studies, particularly reference prices, were updated. An expert panel of health economists was consulted several times during the review process. The revised manual was reviewed by two members of the expert panel and by reviewers of the Dutch Health Care Institute.The majority of survey respondents was satisfied with content and usability of the existing costing manual. Respondents recommended updating reference prices and adding some particular commonly needed reference prices. Costs categories were adjusted to the international standard: 1 costs within the health care sector; 2 patient and family costs; and 3 costs in other sectors. Reference prices were updated to reflect 2014 values. The methodology chapter was rewritten to match the requirements of the costing manual and preferences of the users. Reference prices for nursing days of specific wards, for diagnostic procedures and nurse practitioners were added.The usability of the costing manual was increased and parameter values were updated. The costing manual became integrated in the new health economic guidelines.

  18. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost of illness of atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study of societal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Dalby, Lene Worsaae; Täckström, Tomas; Olsen, Jens; Fraschke, Anina

    2017-11-10

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is increasing rapidly; however, to date, population-based data are lacking on the attributable cost of illness of atrial fibrillation from a societal perspective, including both direct and indirect costs. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study based on national registries covering the entire population of Denmark. We identified all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2001 and 2012. For every atrial fibrillation patient, we identified three age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Both the total and the attributable costs of atrial fibrillation were estimated based on individual level information on hospital care (in- and out-patient contacts), primary sector care, use of prescription drugs and productivity loss. Average 3-year societal costs per patient attributable to atrial fibrillation were estimated to be €20,403-26,544 during the study period. The costs were highest during the first year after diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Admission costs constituted the largest cost component, whereas primary sector costs and medicine costs only constituted minor components. The attributable costs were more than two-fold higher among patients experiencing a stroke. The total 3-year cost attributable to atrial fibrillation in Denmark was estimated to be €219-295 million. The societal costs attributable to atrial fibrillation are significant. Reducing the need for hospitalizations, in particular from stroke, is a key factor in controlling the costs.

  20. A cost study of a general practitioner hospital in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkart-van Roijen, L.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; Bindels, P.J.E.; Yzermans, C.J.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2004-01-01

    To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP hosptial were compared

  1. A cost study of a general practitioner hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Moll van Charante, E. P.; Bindels, P. J. E.; Yzermans, C. J.; Rutten, F. F. H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS: We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP

  2. 47 CFR 36.621 - Study area total unseparated loop cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Universal Service Fund Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment § 36.621 Study area total unseparated loop cost. (a) For the...

  3. How vulnerable is the emissions market to transaction costs?: An ABMS Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangil; Han, Taek-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The impact of transaction costs on the early emissions trading market is examined by applying an agent-based model and simulation (ABMS) approach. For a realistic model set up, bounded rationality, stochastic characteristics, and learning-by-doing are considered in our search processes. Marginal abatement cost parameters are obtained from Yoo et al. (2010), which is an experimental study on the emissions trading in the Korean power sector. Sensitivity analyses are performed on market performance indices with regard to transaction cost parameters, which represent scales and the learning elasticities of transaction costs. A total of 960 simulations were run in this sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis results consistently show that higher transaction costs worsen market performance. The most remarkable finding in these results is that welfare performance of all the transactions decreases by up to 50% as the scale parameters of transaction costs increase, implying that welfare gain from introducing emissions trading disappears significantly. However, with learning curve effect, welfare performance could be regained by up to 26%. In sum, although transaction costs significantly encroach upon trade gains at the early stage, based on our simulation results, the welfare loss by way of transaction costs is lessened as the knowledge of market participants progresses. - Highlights: • Impact of transaction costs on small and early, primitive emissions trading market • Bounded Rationality (BR) and Zero Intelligence Plus (ZIP) agents concept • Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) parameters delineate Korean power companies • With transaction costs, welfare gain from trade found to be shrunken • As learning proceeds, welfare loss is reduced

  4. Virtual Reality Platform Based Simulation System of Environmental Noise Abatement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Liu; Yu, Fang; Xiaoman, He; Yongyou, Wang

    The general mathematic mode of computing noise abatement is commonly used for most project planning and appraisal of environmental noise abatement projects. However, the inconvenient and impracticable mode and algorithm usually cannot meet the real world computation and testing. Therefore, a more practicable abatement mode and algorithm (multiple noise sources with multiband under sound barriers) which had been applied to VR based simulation system. That implemented the function of real-time demonstrating noise scattering condition within 3D virtual space, furthermore, with sound barriers added in 3D scene, the effectiveness of denoise by sound barriers also can be demonstrated within this system. That provides a significant solution for environmental noise abatement projects as a whole.

  5. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  6. Emigrants in Flight. The Novel of Carmine Abate and the Peasant Fights in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia FLORIANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel "La moto de Skanderberg" by Carmine Abate tells the story of the arberesh people's emigration and its involmement in the village conflict; the novel tells also the journey of identity construction of the young protagonist.

  7. Cigar Lake project abatement of August 2008 inflow - a story of innovation and relentless teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Dixon, B.; King, C.; Dent, A.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation recounts the process of finding August 2008 inflow, as well as planning and executing the inflow abatement project. Brian Dixon will speak regarding locating the inflow, preparing the inflow abatement plan, and preparing the underground work site at the (underwater) 420 meter level. Craig King will speak regarding design, procurement, and installation of the grout bag barrier adjacent to the No. 1 Shaft at the underwater work site. April Dent will speak regarding the surface abatement drilling and backfilling/grouting, as well as the testing of the completed inflow abatement work. The team will discuss the innovative methods to locate the source of inflow and steps taken to remediate it. (author)

  8. A study on effects of cost-of-equity models on cost-of-capital and capital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Arabzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most financial managers believe that there are different factors hindering decision-making about the capital structure of a company. This hindrance is so that, in some financial management literatures capital structure is called the mystery of capital. Financial managers widely believe that financial leverage enjoys a noticeable status in managerial decision making as well as management of the framework of balance sheet. The primary purpose of this research is to present applications of equity modules and to study effective factors on such models on Tehran stock exchange. The study covers data over a period of five years from 2001 to 2005. The study analyzes and tests relevant data to firm’s debt ratio and corporate size as effective factors on cost-of-equity. The preliminary findings indicate that contrary to the commonly held belief in financial management theorems, debts ratio has the least effect on cost-of-equity. Nevertheless, the study suggests that the variant of company’s size has a meaningful relationship with cost-of-equity. To calculate cost-of-equity, CAPM, Gordon and return ratio methods are used. Findings show that CAPM has more validity compared with other varieties. On the other hand, the results indicate that there is a 95-percent probability proving that liquidity has a significant negative effect on financial leverage.

  9. U3O8 production cost analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report presents the User's Manual for the computer program resulting from Bechtel's uranium production cost analysis. The model incorporates engineering and financial costs of sandstone mining and milling in the western United States. It does not consider exploration costs. The model was written in Fortran V, IBM compatible. Inputs from the user are such items as: ore grades, open pit or underground mines, acid or carbonate leach, and debt/equity ratio. The user may either input the desired discounted cash flow rate of return and obtain the necessary U 3 O 8 price, or input an estimated U 3 O 8 price and obtain the resulting discounted cash flow rate of return

  10. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for CO 2 -emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO 2 -abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  11. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness Over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM), demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal data collected from 183 newly homeless adolescents followed over 2 years in Los Angeles, CA. In support of RAAM, unadjusted odds of exiting at 2 yea...

  12. Solar energy and the abatement of atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Diakoulaki, D.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the fact that solar energy is a ''clean'' energy form, gaseous pollutants are emitted during the manufacturing of the systems necessary for its utilisation. An attempt is made in this paper to estimate the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted during the successive stages which make up the manufacture process for solar water heating (SWH) systems, and to evaluate these results in comparison with the respective pollutant emission levels attributed to the generation of electricity in Greece's conventional power plants. As energy consumption is recognised as the main source of atmospheric pollution, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) method was applied, focusing on the most energy-consuming stages of the SWH system production process. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the emissions of gaseous pollutants associated with the utilisation of solar energy are considerably lower than those caused by the production of electricity in conventional systems, thereby substantiating that solar energy utilisation can make a notable contribution to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. (author)

  13. [Systematic review of studies assessing the cost of adverse drug reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano Ferraz, Antonio; Agustí Escasany, Antonia; Pedrós Xolvi, Consuelo; Arnau de Bolós, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important healthcare problem. The objective of this study was to review published articles analyzing the cost of ADRs in any healthcare setting. We conducted a search of articles published on the cost of ADRs in the bibliographic databases from 1970 to 2010. We identified 28 studies and selected 16 that included cases of ADR fitting the World Health Organization's definition of these events. The information on the characteristics of the study design, the types of costs analyzed and the reported results were reviewed. The design features and populations included in the studies were heterogeneous. Only two studies explicitly defined the perspective adopted. Only five studies compared cases of ADR with matched controls without ADRs. All studies analyzed direct healthcare costs, but none analyzed indirect or intangible costs. Fourteen publications analyzed the costs of length of hospital stay. The average (SD) percentage of ADRs was 3.04% (0.2) [median 2.4%, range 0.7% to 26.1%]. The median length of hospital stay in patients with ADRs was 8.8 days (range: 0.15 to 19.2 days). Accounting systems and monetary costs varied widely. Studies on the costs of ADRs are highly heterogeneous and have evaluated direct healthcare costs in hospitals. Their results indicate that ADRs generate substantial costs. More studies using appropriate methodology are needed on the costs of ADRs. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  15. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  16. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.); Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The

  17. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  18. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  19. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The

  20. A Study of Joint Cost Inclusion in Linear Programming Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Armaos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Structural Optimization has been a topic or research over the past century. Linear Programming Optimization has proved being the most reliable method of structural optimization. Global advances in linear programming optimization have been recently powered by University of Sheffield researchers, to include joint cost, self-weight and buckling considerations. A joint cost inclusion scopes to reduce the number of joints existing in an optimized structural solution, transforming it to a practically viable solution. The topic of the current paper is to investigate the effects of joint cost inclusion, as this is currently implemented in the optimization code. An extended literature review on this subject was conducted prior to familiarization with small scale optimization software. Using IntelliFORM software, a structured series of problems were set and analyzed. The joint cost tests examined benchmark problems and their consequent changes in the member topology, as the design domain was expanding. The findings of the analyses were remarkable and are being commented further on. The distinct topologies of solutions created by optimization processes are also recognized. Finally an alternative strategy of penalizing joints is presented.

  1. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  2. Estimating non-marginal willingness to pay for railway noise abatement: application of the two-step hedonic regression technique

    OpenAIRE

    Swärdh, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Henrik; Jonsson, Lina; Ögren, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In this study we estimate the demand for peace and quiet, and thus also the willingness to pay for railway noise abatement, based on both steps of the hedonic model regression on property prices. The estimated demand relationship suggests welfare gains for a 1 dB reduction of railway noise as; USD 162 per individual per year at the baseline noise level of 71 dB, and USD 86 at the baseline noise level of 61 dB. Below a noise level of 49.1 dB, individuals have no willingness to pay ...

  3. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Ogle, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  4. Bayesian sample size determination for cost-effectiveness studies with censored data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Beavers

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness models are commonly utilized to determine the combined clinical and economic impact of one treatment compared to another. However, most methods for sample size determination of cost-effectiveness studies assume fully observed costs and effectiveness outcomes, which presents challenges for survival-based studies in which censoring exists. We propose a Bayesian method for the design and analysis of cost-effectiveness data in which costs and effectiveness may be censored, and the sample size is approximated for both power and assurance. We explore two parametric models and demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to accommodate a variety of modifications to study assumptions.

  5. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  6. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  7. Manufacturing cost study on the ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A study of the cost of manufacturing 48 ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is described. The estimate is built up from individual part costs and assembly operation times for the 80 kV prototype source constructed by LLL and described by LLL drawings furnished during December 1978. Recommendations for cost reduction are made.

  8. Fuel supply investment cost: coal and nuclear. Commercial electric power cost studies (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This study presents an accounting model for calculating the capital investment requirements for coal and nuclear fuel supply facilities. The study addresses mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of coal and nuclear fuels. A generic example is provided, for coal from different sources, and for nuclear fuel. The relationship of capital investment requirements to delivered prices is included in each example

  9. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid

  10. Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies on PPR Low-Cost Flats in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh, Ai Tee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design quality of People's Housing Project (Program Perumahan Rakyat or PPR low cost high rise flats developed by the National Housing Department (Jabatan Perumahan Negara or JPN in Kuala Lumpur since the 1998. Quality Function Deployment method is used as a tool to analyze the current status and to prioritize the demanded quality from the selected PPR low-cost high rise flats' users. The study revealed that factors in determining a quality low-cost high-rise flat arranged in descending degrees of importance are house safety, provision of public amenities, unit internal environment, maintenance and surrounding environment, location, sanitary fittings, unit size, type of house, material used, unit internal layout, quality of workmanship, structure of the house and appearance. A Quality Chart for PPR low-cost high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur was presented. Authority (47 per cent has the highest relative degree of importance in determining the quality of PPR flats, followed by Design Element (34 per cent and Quality of Living (19 per cent. Accordingly, the success of the schemes relies strongly on effective control and enforcement by the authorities. However, it can be improved by tackling on the Design Element (Architectural, whereby a revised typical unit layout plan and typical details have been proposed at the last section of the paper.

  11. Study of the standard direct costs of various techniques of advanced endoscopy. Comparison with surgical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loras, Carme; Mayor, Vicenç; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria

    2018-03-12

    The complexity of endoscopy has carried out an increase in cost that has a direct effect on the healthcare systems. However, few studies have analyzed the cost of advanced endoscopic procedures (AEP). To carry out a calculation of the standard direct costs of AEP, and to make a financial comparison with their surgical alternatives. Calculation of the standard direct cost in carrying out each procedure. An endoscopist detailed the time, personnel, materials, consumables, recovery room time, stents, pathology and medication used. The cost of surgical procedures was the average cost recorded in the hospital. Thirty-eight AEP were analyzed. The technique showing lowest cost was gastroscopy + APC (€116.57), while that with greatest cost was ERCP with cholangioscopy + stent placement (€5083.65). Some 34.2% of the procedures registered average costs of €1000-2000. In 57% of cases, the endoscopic alternative was 2-5 times more cost-efficient than surgery, in 31% of cases indistinguishable or up to 1.4 times more costly. Standard direct cost of the majority of AEP is reported using a methodology that enables easy application in other centers. For the most part, endoscopic procedures are more cost-efficient than the corresponding surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Empirical study on impact of demographic and economic changes on pension cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Shaira; Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

    2014-06-01

    A continuation of the same financial standard of living after retirement as before is very importance to retired person. The pension provider has a responsibility to ensure their employees receive the sufficient benefit after retirement and regularly monitor the factors that cause insufficient funds to pay benefit to retirees. Insufficient funds may be due to increased in pension cost. Some of the factors that increase the cost of pensions are changes in mortality rates and interest rates. This study will used these two factors to determine their sensitivity to pension cost. Two methods which are Accrued Benefit Cost Method and Projected Benefit Cost Method will be used to estimate pension cost. Interest rates has a inversely related to pension cost while mortality rates has a directly related to pension cost.

  13. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  14. Trauma center performance evaluation based on costs: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porgo, Teegwendé Valérie; Shemilt, Michèle; Moore, Lynne; Bourgeois, Gilles; Lapointe, Jean

    2014-02-01

    In 2000, more than 50 million Americans were treated in hospitals following injury, with costs estimated at $80 billion, yet no performance indicator based on costs has been developed and validated specifically for acute trauma care. This study aimed to describe how data on costs have been used to evaluate the performance of acute trauma care hospitals. A systematic review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, TRIP, and ProQuest was performed in December 2012. Cohort studies evaluating hospital performance for the treatment of injury inpatients in terms of costs were considered eligible. Two authors conducted the screening and the data abstraction independently using a piloted electronic data abstraction form. Methodological quality was evaluated using seven criteria from the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and the Downs and Black tool. The search retrieved 6,635 studies, of which 10 were eligible for inclusion. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and one in Europe. Six studies used patient charges as a proxy for patient costs, of which four used cost-to-charge ratios. One study estimated costs using average unit costs, and three studies were based on the real costs obtained from a hospital accounting system. Average costs per patient in 2013 US dollar varied between 2,568 and 74,435. Four studies (40%) were considered to be of good methodological quality. Studies evaluating the performance of trauma hospitals in terms of costs are rare. Most are based on charges rather than costs, and they have low methodological quality. Further research is needed to develop and validate a performance indicator based on inpatient costs that will enable us to monitor trauma centers in terms of resource use. Systematic review, evidence, level III.

  15. The cost and impact of scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness modelling studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Borquez, Annick; Case, Kelsey K.; Wheelock, Ana; Vassall, Anna; Hankins, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies inform resource allocation, strategy, and policy development. However, due to their complexity, dependence on assumptions made, and inherent uncertainty, synthesising, and generalising the results can be difficult. We assess cost-effectiveness models evaluating expected

  16. Cost-of-illness study in a retrospective cohort of patients with dementia in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Del Prado, Liza Nuñez; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major cause of dependency and disability among older persons, and imposes huge economic burdens. Only a few cost-of-illness studies for dementia have been carried out in middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to analyze costs of dementia in demented patients of a private clinic in Lima, Peru. We performed a retrospective, cohort, 3-month study by extracting information from medical records of demented patients to assess the use of both healthcare and non-healthcare resources. The total costs of the disease were broken down into direct (medical and social care costs) and indirect costs (informal care costs). In 136 outpatients, we observed that while half of non-demented patients had total care costs of less than US$ 23 over three months, demented patients had costs of US$ 1500 or over (and more than US$ 1860 for frontotemporal dementia). In our study, the monthly cost of a demented patient (US$ 570) was 2.5 times higher than the minimum wage (legal minimum monthly wage in Peru for 2011: US$ 222.22). Dementia constitutes a socioeconomic problem even in developing countries, since patients involve high healthcare and non-healthcare costs, with the costs being especially high for the patient's family.

  17. Cost-of-illness study in a retrospective cohort of patients with dementia in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; del Prado, Liza Nuñez; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major cause of dependency and disability among older persons, and imposes huge economic burdens. Only a few cost-of-illness studies for dementia have been carried out in middle and low-income countries. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze costs of dementia in demented patients of a private clinic in Lima, Peru. Methods. We performed a retrospective, cohort, 3-month study by extracting information from medical records of demented patients to assess the use of both healthcare and non-healthcare resources. The total costs of the disease were broken down into direct (medical and social care costs) and indirect costs (informal care costs). Results. In 136 outpatients, we observed that while half of non-demented patients had total care costs of less than US$ 23 over three months, demented patients had costs of US$ 1500 or over (and more than US$ 1860 for frontotemporal dementia). In our study, the monthly cost of a demented patient (US$ 570) was 2.5 times higher than the minimum wage (legal minimum monthly wage in Peru for 2011: US$ 222.22). Conclusion. Dementia constitutes a socioeconomic problem even in developing countries, since patients involve high healthcare and non-healthcare costs, with the costs being especially high for the patient's family. PMID:29213939

  18. A STUDY OF THE STICKINESS OF COST OF GOODS SOLD AND OPERATING COSTS TO CHANGES IN SALES LEVEL IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    NASSIRZADEH Farzaneh; SAEI Mohammad Javad; SALEHI Mahdi; BAYEGI Sayyed Ali Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Increased competition in domestic and foreign markets has made managers to identify their costs structure and behavior better. Cost behavior is a model based on which costs response to changes in level of activity. Having invented stickiness of costs model by Anderson and Janakiraman (2003), managers are able to better predict costs behavior when increases and decreases are occurred in sales. Using above model, this research examines behavior of cost of goods sold as well as general, administ...

  19. Study on environmental cost accounting under low-carbon economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhoukun

    2017-03-01

    With the strengthen of people's ability to use and transform nature, on the one hand, people acquire more resources from nature and make life more comfortable, on the other hand, the amount of waste that people emit has also increased rapidly. Excessive excavation of resources and disposal of waste emissions led to the deterioration of the environment, affecting the country's sustainable development and the Earth's ecological balance. In this paper, from the perspective of low-carbon economy, to explore corporate environmental cost recognition, measurement, collection, distribution methods, expectations for the relevant enterprises, especially high-polluting, high-emission energy-based enterprises to learn from.

  20. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  1. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-01-21

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  2. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  3. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  4. ELENA – An Updated Cost and Feasibility Study

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M-E; Borburgh, J; Breuker, H; Buzio, M; Capatina, O; Chiggiato, P; Ducimetière, L; Eriksson, T; Fowler, T; Hori, M; Lacroix, J-M; LeGodec, G; Lelong, P; Maury, S; Möhl, D; Newborough, A; Nisbet, D; Oelert, W; Pasinelli, S; Puccio, B; Sermeus, L; Soby, L; Tommasini, D; Tranquille, G; Vorozhtsov, A

    2010-01-01

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (100 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPSC-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposed ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton) ring and also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to accommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPSC, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is...

  5. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  6. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-of-illness studies for bipolar disorder: systematic review of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huajie; McCrone, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) may result in a greater burden than all forms of cancer, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Cost-of-illness (COI) studies provide useful information on the economic burden that BD imposes on a society. Furthermore, COI studies are pivotal sources of evidence used in economic evaluations. This study aims to give a general overview of COI studies for BD and to discuss methodological issues that might potentially influence results. This study also aims to provide recommendations to improve practice in this area, based on the review. A search was performed to identify COI studies of BD. The following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, HMIC and openSIGLE. The primary outcome of this review was the annual cost per BD patient. A narrative assessment of key methodological issues was also included. Based on these findings, recommendations for good practice were drafted. Fifty-four studies were included in this review. Because of the widespread methodological heterogeneity among included studies, no attempt has been made to pool results of different studies. Potential areas for methodological improvement were identified. These were: description of the disease and population, the approach to deal with comorbidities, reporting the rationale and impact for choosing different cost perspectives, and ways in which uncertainty is addressed. This review showed that numerous COI studies have been conducted for BD since 1995. However, these studies employed varying methods, which limit the comparability of findings. The recommendations provided by this review can be used by those conducting COI studies and those critiquing them, to increase the credibility and reporting of study results.

  8. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-04-01

    It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.

  9. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  10. Cost and Feasibility Study of the Intensity Improvement for ASACUSA

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; Cattin, M; Damerau, H; Louwerse, R

    2011-01-01

    An electron cooling scheme for an antiproton beam confined into a h = 1 bucket in the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is proposed. The longitudinal beam density obtained this way is significantly higher than what can be achieved by cooling a coasting beam, allowing beam bunching with 202 MHz already in the AD ring, the frequency of the ASACUSA decelerating RF quadrupole (RFQD). The scheme requires installation of two 202 MHz cavities and a wall current monitor into the AD. With such a modest investment ASACUSA will gain a factor of 2-3 in intensity. In this paper a detailed list of the work needed in order to implement the proposal is compiled, as well as a first cost estimate.

  11. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...

  12. Air Force Reusable Booster System A Quick-look, Design Focused Modeling and Cost Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Presents work supporting the Air force Reusable Booster System (RBS) - A Cost Study with Goals as follows: Support US launch systems decision makers, esp. in regards to the research, technology and demonstration investments required for reusable systems to succeed. Encourage operable directions in Reusable Booster / Launch Vehicle Systems technology choices, system design and product and process developments. Perform a quick-look cost study, while developing a cost model for more refined future analysis.

  13. Determinants of societal costs in Alzheimer's disease: GERAS study baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Reed, Catherine; Wimo, Anders; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-08-01

    To identify the main factors associated with societal costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in community-dwelling patients across three European countries. Baseline cost data from a prospective, observational study were used. Assessments included patients' cognition, activities of daily living (ADLs) and behavioral symptoms, and caregiver burden. Cost calculations (2010) from the societal perspective were based on patient/caregiver resource use. Generalized linear models estimated factors associated with costs. Mean monthly costs per patient differed for France (€1881), Germany (€2349), and the UK (€2016), with informal care costs accounting for 50% to 61%. Independent factors associated with costs across all countries were ADL total score, patient living arrangements, caregiver working status, and caregiver burden (all P caregiver factors, including factors associated with informal care, should be included when evaluating care options for patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow's XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas' Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies

  15. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  16. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  17. Construction of abatement cost curves: The case of F-gases

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George

    2010-01-01

    Most of scientific research on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) focuses on CO2 emissions. But non-CO2 gases (mainly F-gases in the form of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) are more potent at trapping heat within the atmosphere. Currently, F-gases constitute a small proportion of GHG emissions but they are extremely high Global Warming Potential gases. At the same time, they are expected to increase massively due to the expansion of some emitting industries, while the atmospheric lifetimes of PFCs and SF6 are very ...

  18. An Australian Biobank Certification Scheme: A Study of Economic Costs to Participating Biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Rod; Rush, Amanda; Carter, Candace; Carpenter, Jane; Watson, Peter H; Byrne, Jennifer A; Searles, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Biobanks face increasing demands for research materials of consistent quality, which can be used in collaborative studies. Several countries and some international agencies have made formal efforts to standardize biobank operations and outputs. These include the establishment of best practice guidelines for collection management, and certification programs. Such guidelines and programs increase biobanks' opportunities for participation in high impact research and funding. However, they also impose economic and time costs, which may burden biobanks. This study aimed to estimate the costs of gaining certification and maintaining certification (i.e., committing extra resources to continue standards) for three cancer biobanks participating in a biobank certification program in New South Wales, Australia. To gather cost data for a range of cancer biobanks, we recruited three with different full time equivalent (FTE) staff levels (1.0-3.0), recognizing FTE staff level as an indicator of resources and operating scale. In extended interviews with staff, we gathered biobanks' expected costs in obtaining and annually maintaining certification. The biobank with the highest staff level reported the lowest expected costs in gaining certification, due to the strong prealignment of its present operations with certification requirements. The other biobanks expected higher costs as their operations required greater adjustments. Overall, relative costs of gaining certification were between 2% and 6% of current total annual wage costs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such costing study of a biobank certification program. Supplementary Data include the interview schedule that other biobanks may use to estimate their own economic certification costs.

  19. Hospital costs for patients with lower extremity cellulitis: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Douglas; Marcelin, Jasmine; Visscher, Sue; Baddour, Larry

    2017-12-01

    Hospital admissions for non-purulent lower extremity cellulitis (NLEC) are common and can be prolonged and costly. Newer treatment options and preventive strategies are expected to result in cost savings before implementation, but few studies have quantified the cost of conventional treatment. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the incidence of NLEC in Olmsted County, MN in 2013 was 176.6 per 100,000 persons. The subset of patients who required hospitalization for NLEC in 2013 was determined. Hospital admissions were analyzed retrospectively using standardized cost analysis within several relevant categories. Thirty-four patients had an average hospital length of stay of 4.7 days. The median total inpatient cost was $7,341. The median cost per day was $2,087, with 49% due to room and board. Antibiotics administered for treatment of NLEC contributed a median cost of $75 per day of hospitalization, and laboratory and imaging test costs were $73 and $44, respectively, per day of hospitalization. Hospitalizations for NLEC can be costly and prolonged with room and board accounting for much of the cost. Therefore, newer management strategies should seek to reduce hospital length of stay and/or avoid inpatient admission to reduce cost.

  20. Effects of Local Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies on Air Pollutant Emissions and on Health in Kuopio, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Asikainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG abatement strategies often ends up as the responsibility of municipal action rather than national policies. Impacts of local GHG reduction measures were investigated in the EU FP7 funded project Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe (URGENCHE. Kuopio in Finland was one of the case study cities. The assessed reduction measures were (1 increased use of biomass in local heat and power cogeneration plant, (2 energy efficiency improvements of residences, (3 increased biofuel use in traffic, and (4 increased small scale combustion of wood for residential heating. Impact assessment compared the 2010 baseline with a 2020 BAU (business as usual scenario and a 2020 CO2 interventions scenario. Changes in emissions were assessed for CO2, particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10, NOx, and SO2, and respective impacts were assessed for PM2.5 ambient concentrations and health effects. The assessed measures would reduce the local CO2 emissions in the Kuopio urban area by over 50% and local emissions of PM2.5 would clearly decrease. However, the annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration would decrease by just 4%. Thus, only marginal population level health benefits would be achieved with these assumed local CO2 abatement actions.

  1. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  2. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  3. Abatement of atmospheric emissions in North America: Progress to date and promise for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, E.C.; Erbes, R.E.; Grott, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in acidic rain abatement in North America. This progress is examined with a focus on man-made emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that contribute to acidic deposition. A review of US historical trends of SO 2 and nitrogen oxides emissions since 1900 and projections of future emissions through the end of this century shoe emissions of SO 2 decreasing from a peak in 1970 of 29 Tg/yr to about 26 Tg/yr, but nitrogen oxides emissions continuing an upward trend to about 25 Tg/yr. In Canada, SO 2 , NO and NO 2 emissions are less than 20% of those in the US, and the trends are similar, with SO 2 showing future decreases and NO and NO 2 continuing to increase. Future industry in North America is expected to emit much lower levels of SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 . Technology is also available to limit nitrogen oxides emissions from future motor vehicles. Recent acidic deposition legislation in the US Congress to reduce electric utility and industrial emissions of SO 2 by 9 to 13 Tg/yr is reviewed. The estimates of the cost to implement the proposals range from $2 billion to $23 billion over a 5-year period. Retrofitting existing utility and industrial boilers for maximum SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 reduction carries the highest price tag. Several environmental policy options are explored for preventing emission increases and also promoting decreases in future emissions of SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 in North America. Focus on nitrogen oxides emissions may be critical because population growth could cause significant increases in NO and NO 2 from motor vehicle use

  4. The cost of post-abortion care in developing countries: a comparative analysis of four studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, Michael; Singh, Susheela; Onda, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the last five years, comprehensive national surveys of the cost of post-abortion care (PAC) to national health systems have been undertaken in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Colombia using a specially developed costing methodology—the Post-abortion Care Costing Methodology (PACCM). The objective of this study is to expand the research findings of these four studies, making use of their extensive datasets. These studies offer the most complete and consistent estimates of the cost of PAC to date, and comparing their findings not only provides generalizable implications for health policies and programs, but also allows an assessment of the PACCM methodology. We find that the labor cost component varies widely: in Ethiopia and Colombia doctors spend about 30–60% more time with PAC patients than do nurses; in Uganda and Rwanda an opposite pattern is found. Labor costs range from I$42.80 in Uganda to I$301.30 in Colombia. The cost of drugs and supplies does not vary greatly, ranging from I$79 in Colombia to I$115 in Rwanda. Capital and overhead costs are substantial amounting to 52–68% of total PAC costs. Total costs per PAC case vary from I$334 in Rwanda to I$972 in Colombia. The financial burden of PAC is considerable: the expense of treating each PAC case is equivalent to around 35% of annual per capita income in Uganda, 29% in Rwanda and 11% in Colombia. Providing modern methods of contraception to women with an unmet need would cost just a fraction of the average expenditure on PAC: one year of modern contraceptive services and supplies cost only 3–12% of the average cost of treating a PAC patient. PMID:27045001

  5. The costs of limiting fossil-fuel CO2 emissions: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.; Brink, P. ten; Morrison, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the late 1980s, interest flourished in the issue of global climate change. Many studies focused on the options for limiting anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse-related gases and managing the consequences of global warming and climate change. Making appropriate policy choices requires information on both the costs and benefits, as the occur over time, of policy interventions, and in increasing number of studies have sought to quantify the costs especially of limiting CO 2 emissions, as the dominant anthropogenic source. Such analyses now form an important part of overall policy assessments and influence international negotiations on policy responses. However, these studies are not well understood. In this paper the authors seek to analyze the literature on the costs of CO 2 abatement. 152 ref

  6. Costs for Alternatives to District Heating. A study of real costs on local heating markets; Alternativkostnad till fjaerrvaerme. En studie av verkliga kostnader paa lokala vaermemarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Annelie; Lehtmets, Marti; Andersson, Sofie

    2008-07-01

    Heating comprise the major part of the cost of supporting a building with necessities like electricity, heat, refuse collection and water and sewage. As these costs increase, it is becoming more interesting to find other solutions in order to reduce them. One alternative is to convert to another heating system. Several price analyses comparing different heating systems have been performed. Avgiftsgruppen publishes one report on a yearly basis, where the costs to support a building with necessities and how they vary between communities are listed. The latest report states that it is less expensive in 75 % of the communities in Sweden to convert from district heating to a pellets boiler or a ground-source pump. However, other studies have established that the heat market is a local market with local conditions. Therefore you need to compare alternative heating costs that are specific to the area instead of estimated average costs at a national level. The purpose of this survey is to study a local heat market in order to verify the real cost of the alternative heating systems to district heating and if these costs vary between different communities. The hypothesis is that it is not possible to generalize the heating cost on a national level. Instead, a local market should be studied to make an accurate cost comparison between heating options. Three communities are studied in order to find real and verified investment costs in pellet boilers and heat pumps. The investments that are of primary interest are those performed in buildings similar to the multi-dwelling house used in earlier price analyses. Furthermore, the building should be located within the distribution network of district heating in order to illustrate the competition between the heating alternatives. The result of the study illustrates the difficulties to find real and verified costs of completed investments in alternative heating systems in buildings that is of primary interest for this study. Contacts

  7. [Socioeconomic relevance of the idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Germany: cost-of-illness study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Sandra; Köberlein, Juliane; Grimm, Christine; Pittrow, David; Kirch, Wilhelm; Rychlik, Reinhard

    2009-05-15

    1.3% of German adults suffer from clinically relevant restless legs syndrome (RLS). A cost-of-illness study was conducted to evaluate the costs for diagnosis and therapy of the idiopathic RLS. A clinical pathway based on expert guidelines was developed. The costs for the 1st year of treatment in idiopathic RLS were calculated with the Markov Model. Relevant published clinical study data were used for the model as well as questioning of physicians. Costs per patient with approved drug treatment are 989.80 Euro for sickness funds and 1,285.26 Euro from the societal perspective. Drug costs are the main cost components for sickness funds and the society with 69% and 61%, respectively. Less than half of the patients continue an L-dopa therapy longer than 1 year. About one quarter of all RLS patients need off-label therapy after the 1st year of treatment. The costs for a guideline-oriented therapy for all patients with clinically relevant RLS in Germany are about 1,135 billion Euro, representing 0.5% of all health-related costs in Germany. Further controlled clinical trials are required to provide evidence for the efficacy of different treatment options including drugs without an approval for RLS and long-term use. Health services research is required for cost-utility analysis, to evaluate the costs of inadequate treatment, and to obtain additional information to improve the resource allocation in RLS treatment.

  8. Understanding the cost of dermatologic care: A survey study of dermatology providers, residents, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Aaron J; Mann, Julianne A; Carlberg, Valerie M; Kimball, Alexa B; Musty, Michael J; Simpson, Eric L

    2017-04-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology recommends dermatologists understand the costs of dermatologic care. This study sought to measure dermatology providers' understanding of the cost of dermatologic care and how those costs are communicated to patients. We also aimed to understand the perspectives of patients and dermatological trainees on how cost information enters into the care they receive or provide. Surveys were systematically developed and distributed to 3 study populations: dermatology providers, residents, and patients. Response rates were over 95% in all 3 populations. Dermatology providers and residents consistently underestimated the costs of commonly recommended dermatologic medications but accurately predicted the cost of common dermatologic procedures. Dermatology patients preferred to know the cost of procedures and medications, even when covered by insurance. In this population, the costs of dermatologic medications frequently interfered with patients' ability to properly adhere to prescribed regimens. The surveyed population was limited to the northwestern United States and findings may not be generalizable. Cost estimations were based on average reimbursement rates, which vary by insurer. Improving dermatology providers' awareness and communication of the costs of dermatologic care might enhance medical decision-making, improve adherence and outcomes, and potentially reduce overall health care expenditures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.

    1977-05-01

    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  10. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    At the request of Enova (the 'Client'), Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited ('GH') has provided technical advice on capital cost expectations for wind farm developments. In summary, the work provides a survey of the present and future 5-year prognosis for costs and conditions facing developers and suppliers in the European wind power market. The report will be used as a benchmark to support tendering for future Norwegian projects. As such, it will also provide discussion of how project characteristics can influence project cost. Data Used in the Analysis GH has obtained data on the investment costs for 35 projects developed or in development in Europe. The projects represent to the extent possible the characteristics representative of potential Norwegian projects. The data used in this analysis are from actual projects in: France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Wales. The turbine capacities represented in the data are typically 2 MW or above, except in one case where a mix of turbines sizes was used at the project. GH highlights that because of high demand for turbines, the main manufacturers have recently been offering to meet delivery schedules for new orders from late 2010. For new tenders it is likely that delivery time frames offered will now be for 2011 deliveries. As a result of the current 'Seller's Market', production capacity typically relates directly to the number of turbines sold in the year; therefore for 2007 the annual production capacity was approximately 22 GW. GH is aware that turbine suppliers across the market are working to increase their production capacity in order to ease the pressure on the market, however, there are bottlenecks through the supply chain at the sub component level. As a result, increases in production capacity will likely remain at a relatively steady state in the short term. Energy Assessment The energy assessment of a project is the area

  11. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. de; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary

  12. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  13. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  14. The greenhouse gas abatement potential of productivity improving measures applied to cattle systems in a developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, G R; Marshall, K; Tebug, S F; Missohou, A; Robinson, T P; MacLeod, M

    2017-09-27

    Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.

  15. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  16. Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    Given the bleak prospects for a global agreement on mitigating climate change, pressure for unilateral abatement is increasing. A major challenge is emissions leakage. Border carbon adjustments and output-based allocation of emissions allowances can increase effectiveness of unilateral action but introduce distortions of their own. We assess antileakage measures as a function of abatement coalition size. We first develop a partial equilibrium analytical framework to see how these instruments affect emissions within and outside the coalition. We then employ a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use to assess the strategies as the coalition grows. We find that full border adjustments rank first in global cost-effectiveness, followed by import tariffs and output-based rebates. The differences across measures and their overall appeal decline as the abatement coalition grows. In terms of cost, the coalition countries prefer border carbon adjustments; countries outside the coalition prefer output-based rebates.(Author)

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  18. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  19. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B.D.; Kitchings, J.T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  20. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  1. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  2. The GERAS Study: a prospective observational study of costs and resource use in community dwellers with Alzheimer's disease in three European countries--study design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Reed, Catherine C; Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Novick, Diego; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria

    2013-01-01

    To address socioeconomic challenges associated with its increasing prevalence, data are needed on country-level resource use and costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). GERAS is an 18-month observational study being conducted in France, Germany, and the U.K. (with an 18-month extension in France and Germany), aimed at determining resource use and total costs associated with AD, stratified by AD severity at baseline. Resource use information and time spent on informal care by non-professional caregivers was obtained using the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument. Total baseline societal costs were based on four cost components: patient health care costs, patient social care costs, caregiver health care costs, and caregiver informal care costs. Overall, 1,497 community-dwelling patients with AD were analyzed at baseline. Estimated mean monthly total societal costs per patient at baseline differed significantly between groups with mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe AD (p caregiver health care costs increased with AD severity. Informal caregiver costs were the largest cost component accounting for about half to just over 60% of total societal costs, depending on country and AD severity group. In conclusion, GERAS study baseline results showed that country-specific costs increase with AD severity. Informal care costs formed the greatest proportion of total societal costs, increasing with AD severity independent of costing method. Longitudinal data will provide information on cost trends with disease progression.

  3. Direct Medical Costs of Dengue Fever in Vietnam: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nhung Thi Tuyet; Phan, Trang Ngo Diem; Vo, Trung Quang

    2017-05-01

    In Vietnam, dengue fever is a major health concern, yet comprehensive information on its economic costs is lacking. The present study investigated treatment costs associated with dengue fever from the perspective of health care provision. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 in Cu Chi General Hospital. The following dengue-related treatment costs were calculated: hospitalisation, diagnosis, specialised services, drug usage and medical supplies. Average cost per case and treatment cost across different age was calculated. In the study period, 1672 patients with dengue fever were hospitalised. The average age was 24.98 (SD = 14.10) years, and 47.5% were males (795 patients). Across age groups, the average cost per episode was USD 48.10 (SD = 3.22). The highest costs (USD 56.61, SD = 48.84) were incurred in the adult age group (> 15 years), and the lowest costs (USD 30.10, SD = 17.27) were incurred in the paediatric age group (< 15 years). The direct medical costs of dengue-related hospitalisation place a severe economic burden on patients and their families. The probable economic value of dengue management in Vietnam is significant.

  4. Population-Based Study to Determine the Health System Costs of Using the 21-Gene Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Nicole; Earle, Craig C; Cheng, Stephanie Y; Julian, Jim A; Rahman, Farah; Seung, Soo Jin; Levine, Mark N

    2018-01-20

    Purpose The 21-gene assay Oncotype Dx (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA) test is used to aid the decision about chemotherapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who received endocrine therapy. Economic studies to support test adoption used decision-analytic models with assumptions and data derived from disparate sources. The objective was to evaluate whether the 21-gene assay test resulted in an overall cost expense or saving to the health system. Patients and Methods One thousand participants enrolled in a field evaluation study, were linked to population-level health system administrative databases, and were observed for 20 months. The cost for the cohort, which included the cost of the test, subsequent treatments received, and health care encounters, was determined. The cost in the absence of the test was compared with the pretest recommendation about chemotherapy from the field study for a base case and under scenarios that reflected different adjuvant chemotherapy use. Overall health system costs and incremental costs were calculated. Results The 21-gene assay resulted in a net decrease in chemotherapy use of 23%. For the base case incremental analysis, the actual overall health system cost of this cohort, including the cost of 21-gene assay, was $29.2 million compared with $26.2 million in the absence of the test-an increase of $3.1 million. For three of the four scenario analyses, the actual overall cost to the health system exceeded the estimated cost in the absence of the test. Results showed that, when at least half of the population received adjuvant chemotherapy, the cost increased to $30.2 million. Conclusion The use of real-world administrative data showed that, despite lower rates of chemotherapy use, the 21-gene assay test results in an overall incremental cost to the health care system in the short-term under most assumptions.

  5. Ulcerative colitis-associated hospitalization costs: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Stephanie; Heitman, Steven J; Clement, Fiona; Hubbard, James; Proulx, Marie-Claude; Zimmer, Scott; Panaccione, Remo; Seow, Cynthia; Leung, Yvette; Datta, Neel; Ghosh, Subrata; Myers, Robert P; Swain, Mark; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitalization costs for ulcerative colitis (UC) following the introduction of infliximab have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To study predictors of costs for UC patients who were hospitalized for a flare or colectomy. METHODS: Population-based surveillance identified adults (≥18 years of age) admitted to hospital for UC flare or colectomy between 2001 and 2009 in the Calgary Health Zone (Alberta). Medical charts were reviewed and patients stratified into three admission types: responsive to inpatient medical therapy (n=307); emergent colectomy (n=227); and elective colectomy (n=208). The annual median cost with interquartile range (IQR) was calculated. Linear regression determined the effect of admission type on hospital charges after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, comorbidities, disease extent, medication use (eg, infliximab) and year. The adjusted cost increase was presented as the percent increase with 95% CIs. Joinpoint analysis assessed for an inflection point in hospital cost after the introduction of infliximab. RESULTS: Median hospitalization cost for UC flare, emergent colectomy and elective colectomy, respectively, were: $5,499 (IQR $3,374 to $8,904), $23,698 (IQR $17,981 to $32,385) and $14,316 (IQR $11,932 to $18,331). Adjusted hospitalization costs increased approximately 6.0% annually (95% CI 4.5% to 7.5%). Adjusted costs were higher for patients who underwent an elective colectomy (percent increase cost 179.8% [95% CI 151.6% to 211.1%]) or an emergent colectomy (percent increase cost 211.1% [95% CI 183.2% to 241.6%]) than medically responsive patients. Infliximab in hospital was an independent predictor of increased costs (percent increase cost 69.5% [95% CI 49.2% to 92.5%]). No inflection points were identified. CONCLUSION: Hospitalization costs for UC increased due to colectomy and infliximab. PMID:26079072

  6. Ulcerative colitis-associated hospitalization costs: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Stephanie; Heitman, Steven J; Clement, Fiona; Hubbard, James; Proulx, Marie-Claude; Zimmer, Scott; Panaccione, Remo; Seow, Cynthia; Leung, Yvette; Datta, Indraneel; Ghosh, Subrata; Myers, Robert P; Swain, Mark; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-10-01

    Hospitalization costs for ulcerative colitis (UC) following the introduction of infliximab have not been evaluated. To study predictors of costs for UC patients who were hospitalized for a flare or colectomy. Population-based surveillance identified adults (≥18 years of age) admitted to hospital for UC flare or colectomy between 2001 and 2009 in the Calgary Health Zone (Alberta). Medical charts were reviewed and patients stratified into three admission types: responsive to inpatient medical therapy (n=307); emergent colectomy (n=227); and elective colectomy (n=208). The annual median cost with interquartile range (IQR) was calculated. Linear regression determined the effect of admission type on hospital charges after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, comorbidities, disease extent, medication use (eg, infliximab) and year. The adjusted cost increase was presented as the percent increase with 95% CIs. Joinpoint analysis assessed for an inflection point in hospital cost after the introduction of infliximab. Median hospitalization cost for UC flare, emergent colectomy and elective colectomy, respectively, were: $5,499 (IQR $3,374 to $8,904), $23,698 (IQR $17,981 to $32,385) and $14,316 (IQR $11,932 to $18,331). Adjusted hospitalization costs increased approximately 6.0% annually (95% CI 4.5% to 7.5%). Adjusted costs were higher for patients who underwent an elective colectomy (percent increase cost 179.8% [95% CI 151.6% to 211.1%]) or an emergent colectomy (percent increase cost 211.1% [95% CI 183.2% to 241.6%]) than medically responsive patients. Infliximab in hospital was an independent predictor of increased costs (percent increase cost 69.5% [95% CI 49.2% to 92.5%]). No inflection points were identified. Hospitalization costs for UC increased due to colectomy and infliximab.

  7. Estimated cost of asthma in outpatient treatment: a real-world study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo; Caetano, Rosangela; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Bregman, Maurício; Araújo, Denizar Vianna; Rufino, Rogério

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost of diagnosis and treatment of asthma. METHODS We used the perspective of society. We sequentially included for 12 months, in 2011-2012, 117 individuals over five years of age who were treated for asthma in the Pneumology and Allergy-Immunology Services of the Piquet Carneiro Polyclinic, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. All of them were interviewed twice with a six-month interval for data collection, covering 12 months. The cost units were identified and valued according to defined methods. We carried out a sensitivity analysis and applied statistical methods with a significance level of 5% for cost comparisons between subgroups. RESULTS The study consisted of 108 patients, and 73.8% of them were women. Median age was 49.5 years. Rhinitis was present in 83.3% of the individuals, and more than half were overweight or obese. Mean family income was U$915.90/month (SD = 879.12). Most workers and students had absenteeism related to asthma. Total annual mean cost was U$1,291.20/patient (SD = 1,298.57). The cost related to isolated asthma was U$1,155.43/patient-year (SD = 1,305.58). Obese, severe, and uncontrolled asthmatic patients had higher costs than non-obese, non-severe, and controlled asthmatics, respectively. Severity and control level were independently associated with higher cost (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). The direct cost accounted for 82.3% of the estimated total cost. The cost of medications for asthma accounted for 62.2% of the direct costs of asthma. CONCLUSIONS Asthma medications, environmental control measures, and long-term health leaves had the greatest potential impact on total cost variation. The results are an estimate of the cost of treating asthma at a secondary level in the Brazilian Unified Health System, assuming that the treatment used represents the ideal approach to the disease. PMID:29641652

  8. Estimated cost of asthma in outpatient treatment: a real-world study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo; Caetano, Rosangela; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Bregman, Maurício; Araújo, Denizar Vianna; Rufino, Rogério

    2018-04-09

    To estimate the cost of diagnosis and treatment of asthma. We used the perspective of society. We sequentially included for 12 months, in 2011-2012, 117 individuals over five years of age who were treated for asthma in the Pneumology and Allergy-Immunology Services of the Piquet Carneiro Polyclinic, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. All of them were interviewed twice with a six-month interval for data collection, covering 12 months. The cost units were identified and valued according to defined methods. We carried out a sensitivity analysis and applied statistical methods with a significance level of 5% for cost comparisons between subgroups. The study consisted of 108 patients, and 73.8% of them were women. Median age was 49.5 years. Rhinitis was present in 83.3% of the individuals, and more than half were overweight or obese. Mean family income was U$915.90/month (SD = 879.12). Most workers and students had absenteeism related to asthma. Total annual mean cost was U$1,291.20/patient (SD = 1,298.57). The cost related to isolated asthma was U$1,155.43/patient-year (SD = 1,305.58). Obese, severe, and uncontrolled asthmatic patients had higher costs than non-obese, non-severe, and controlled asthmatics, respectively. Severity and control level were independently associated with higher cost (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). The direct cost accounted for 82.3% of the estimated total cost. The cost of medications for asthma accounted for 62.2% of the direct costs of asthma. Asthma medications, environmental control measures, and long-term health leaves had the greatest potential impact on total cost variation. The results are an estimate of the cost of treating asthma at a secondary level in the Brazilian Unified Health System, assuming that the treatment used represents the ideal approach to the disease.

  9. Activity-based costing evaluation of a [(18)F]-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Borght, Thierry Vander

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to use the activity-based costing approach to give a better insight in the actual cost structure of a positron emission tomography procedure (FDG-PET) by defining the constituting components and by simulating the impact of possible resource or practice changes. The cost data were obtained from the hospital administration, personnel and vendor interviews as well as from structured questionnaires. A process map separates the process in 16 patient- and non-patient-related activities, to which the detailed cost data are related. One-way sensitivity analyses shows to which degree of uncertainty the different parameters affect the individual cost and evaluate the impact of possible resource or practice changes like the acquisition of a hybrid PET/CT device, the patient throughput or the sales price of a 370MBq (18)F-FDG patient dose. The PET centre spends 73% of time in clinical activities and the resting time after injection of the tracer (42%) is the single largest departmental cost element. The tracer cost and the operational time have the most influence on cost per procedure. The analysis shows a total cost per FDG-PET ranging from 859 Euro for a BGO PET camera to 1142 Euro for a 16 slices PET-CT system, with a distribution of the resource costs in decreasing order: materials (44%), equipment (24%), wage (16%), space (6%) and hospital overhead (10%). The cost of FDG-PET is mainly influenced by the cost of the radiopharmaceutical. Therefore, the latter rather than the operational time should be reduced in order to improve its cost-effectiveness.

  10. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  11. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  12. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  13. Abating New York city transit noise: A matter of will, not way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arline L Bronzaft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  14. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  15. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  16. Water Pollution abatement programme, The Czech republic Pollution abatement analysis and strengthening of water resources management, Odra River Catchment, phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Dagestad, K.; Ratnaweera, H.; Ibrekk, H.O.; Hansen, J.H.; Tridlica, L.; Brezina, P.; Skacel, A.

    1995-01-01

    Odra river is extremely polluted by organic matter, nitrates, ammonia, phosphorus, bacteria, particles, heavy metals and other micro pollutants from municipalities, industries and agriculture. The poor water quality severely affects the ecology and represents a risk to human health. The water has a very limited value of use. This report presents an abatement programme with both technical and accompanying measures. In order to identify the major polluters several multi criteria analysis have b...

  17. Costs of shoulder pain in primary care consulters: a prospective cohort study in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Tulder Maurits W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information on the costs associated with health care use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain is very scarce. The objective of this study was to determine shoulder pain related costs during the 6 months after first consultation in general practice Methods A prospective cohort study consisting of 587 patients with a new episode of shoulder pain was conducted with a follow-up period of 6 months. Data on costs were collected by means of a cost diary during 6 months. Results 84% of the patients completed all cost diaries. The mean consumption of direct health care and non-health related care was low. During 6 months after first consultation for shoulder pain, the mean total costs a patient generated were €689. Almost 50% of this total concerned indirect costs, caused by sick leave from paid work. A small proportion (12% of the population generated 74% of the total costs. Conclusion The total costs in the 6 months after first consultation for shoulder pain in primary care, mostly generated by a small part of the population, are not alarmingly high.

  18. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  19. A study in cost analysis of aggregate production as depending on drilling and blasting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Niyazi; Çelik, Arif; Kekeç, Bilgehan

    2017-10-01

    Since aggregate production has vital importance for many engineering projects-such as construction, highway and plant-mixed concrete production-this study was undertaken to determine how the costs for such production are affected by the design of drilling and blasting processes used. Aggregates are used in the production of concrete and asphalt, which are critical resources for the construction sector. The ongoing population increase and the growth of living standards around the world drive the increasing demand for these products. As demand grows, competition has naturally arisen among producers in the industry. Competition in the market has directly affected prices, which leads to the need for new measures and cost analysis on production costs. The cost calculation is one of the most important parameters in mining activities. Aggregate production operations include drilling, blasting, secondary crushing (if necessary), loading, hauling and crushing-screening, and each of these factors affects cost. In this study, drilling and blasting design parameters (such as hole diameter, hole depth, hole distance and burden) were investigated and evaluated for their effect on the total cost of quarrying these products, based on a particular quarry selected for this research. As the result of evaluation, the parameters actually driving costs have been identified, and their effects on the cost have been determined. In addition, some suggestions are presented regarding production design which may lead to avoiding increased production costs.

  20. 47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Universal Service Fund Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment § 36.622 National and study area... which made filings by the most recent filing date. (3) The calculation of a new national average to...

  1. Costs of Education in the Health Professions: Report of a Study Parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

    This report contains aggregate data on costs for all schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, and nursing, and the average education costs per student in these fields for a sample of schools during the 1972-73 academic year. Context for the study is provided by an appraisal of the educational…

  2. Activity-based costing evaluation of a [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to use the activity-based costing approach to give a better insight in the actual cost structure of a positron emission tomography procedure (FDG-PET) by defining the constituting components and by simulating the impact of possible resource or practice changes.

  3. Acute hospital, community, and indirect costs of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation: population-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Niamh

    2014-10-30

    No economic data from population-based studies exist on acute or late hospital, community, and indirect costs of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation (AF-stroke). Such data are essential for policy development, service planning, and cost-effectiveness analysis of new therapeutic agents.

  4. Community occupational therapy for older patients with dementia and their care givers: cost effectiveness study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graff, M.J.L.; Adang, E.M.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Dekker, J.; Jonsson, L.; Thijssen, M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of community based occupational therapy compared with usual care in older patients with dementia and their care givers from a societal viewpoint. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness study alongside a single blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Memory clinic,

  5. Cost-effectiveness of simulation-based team training in obstetric emergencies (TOSTI study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, J.; van Baaren, G. J.; Fransen, A. F.; van Runnard Heimel, P. J.; Mol, B. W.; Oei, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Team training is frequently applied in obstetrics. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obstetric multi-professional team training in a medical simulation centre. Study design: We performed a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate four strategies for obstetric team

  6. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    ...., consolidated purchasing, lean and six sigma, productivity improvement projects, etc. This case study was conducted with the sponsorship and assistance of the Acquisition Research Program, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

  7. Robotic versus laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: a comparative study of clinical outcomes and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielpo, Benedetto; Duran, H; Diaz, E; Fabra, I; Caruso, R; Malavé, L; Ferri, V; Nuñez, J; Ruiz-Ocaña, A; Jorge, E; Lazzaro, S; Kalivaci, D; Quijano, Y; Vicente, E

    2017-10-01

    The costs involved in performing robotic surgery present a critical issue which has not been well addressed yet. The aims of this study are to compare the clinical outcomes and cost differences of robotic versus laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer and to conduct a literature review of the cost analysis. This is an observational, comparative study whereby data were abstracted from a retrospective database of patients who underwent laparoscopic and robotic rectal resection from October 2010 to March 2017, at Sanchinarro University Hospital, Madrid. An independent company performed the financial analysis, and fixed costs were excluded. A total of 86 robotic and 112 laparoscopic rectal resections were included. The mean operative time was significantly lower in the laparoscopic approach (336 versus 283 min; p = 0.001). The main pre-operative data, overall morbidity, hospital stay and oncological outcomes were similar in both groups, except for the readmission rate (robotic: 5.8%, laparoscopic: 11.6%; p = 0.001). The mean operative costs were higher for robotic surgery (4285.16 versus 3506.11€; p = 0.04); however, the mean overall costs were similar (7279.31€ for robotic and 6879.8€ for the laparoscopic approach; p = 0.44). We found four studies reporting costs, three comparing robotic versus laparoscopy costs, with all of them reporting a higher overall cost for the robotic rectal resection. Robotic rectal resection has similar clinical outcomes to that of the conventional laparoscopic approach. Despite the higher operative costs of robotic rectal resection, overall mean costs were similar in our series.

  8. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  9. Cost reduction study for the LANL KrF laser-driven LMF design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is in fulfillment of the deliverable requirements for the optical components portions of the LANL-KrF Laser-Driven LMF Design Cost Reduction Study. This report examines the future cost reductions that may accrue through the use of mass production, innovative manufacturing techniques, and new materials. Results are based on data collection and survey of optical component manufacturers, BDM experience, and existing cost models. These data provide a good representation of current methods and technologies from which future estimates can be made. From these data, a series of scaling relationships were developed to project future costs for a selected set of technologies. The scaling relationships are sensitive to cost driving parameters such as size and surface figure requirements as well as quantity requirements, production rate, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition to the scaling relationships, descriptions of the selected processes were developed along with graphical representations of the processes. This report provides a useful tool in projecting the costs of advanced laser concepts at the component level of detail. A mix of the most diverse yet comparable technologies was chosen for this study. This yielded a useful, yet manageable number of variables to examine. The study has resulted in a first-order cost model which predicts the relative cost behavior of optical components within different variable constraints

  10. Abatement and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.; Audus, H.

    1998-01-01

    Current understanding of the world's climate indicates that human-induced changes are occurring and may be sufficient in magnitude to require preventative action, such as limiting atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide and its largest source is combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. Many different technologies can be used for reducing emissions, as well as increasing the removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere through enhancement of natural sinks, such as by forestry. Some of these options are available today and could be implemented at relatively little overall cost. For example, improving energy efficiency and switching from high carbon fuels to low carbon fuels, if suitable supplies are available. These can achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions. Introduction of renewable sources of energy or nuclear power to displace fossil fuels would achieve deep reductions in emissions if applied widely. However, to avoid disruptive changes, it will also be necessary to find ways of continuing to use fossil fuels but with much less emissions. Capture and storage of CO 2 is a technology which could deliver deep reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. In this paper, methods of removing CO 2 from the flue gas streams of coal and gas-fired power plants are examined, considering both plant as built today as well as possible future variants. Methods of CO 2 storage are also discussed. The results on capture and storage of CO 2 are put into perspective by comparison with studies of the large-scale application of forestry for sequestering atmospheric CO 2 , and also large-scale use of renewable energy sources, in this case growth and harvesting of woody biomass for power generation. Each of these options has different characteristics, providing a range of choices of ways of tackling climate change

  11. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1996-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  12. A Study on Cost Allocation in Nuclear Power Coupled with Desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ManKi; Kim, SeungSu; Moon, KeeHwan; Lim, ChaeYoung

    2004-01-01

    As for a single-purpose desalination plant, there is no particular difficulty in computing the unit cost of the water, which is obtained by dividing the annual total costs by the output of fresh water. When it comes to a dual-purpose plant, cost allocation is needed between the two products. No cost allocation is needed in some cases where two alternatives producing the same water and electricity output are to be compared. In these cases, the consideration of the total cost is then sufficient. This study assumes MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) technology is adopted when nuclear power is coupled with desalination. The total production cost of the two commodities in dual-purpose plant can easily be obtained by using costing methods, if the necessary raw data are available. However, it is not easy to calculate a separate cost for each product, because high-pressure steam plant costs cannot be allocated to one or the other without adopting arbitrary methods. Investigation on power credit method is carried out focusing on the cost allocation of combined benefits due to dual production, electricity and water. The illustrative calculation is taken from Preliminary Economic Feasibility Study of Nuclear Desalination in Madura Island, Indonesia. The study is being performed by BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) and under support of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) started in the year 2002 in order to perform a preliminary economic feasibility in providing the Madurese with sufficient power and potable water for the public and to support industrialization and tourism in Madura Region. The SMART reactor coupled with MED is considered to be an option to produce electricity and potable water. This study indicates that the correct recognition of combined benefits attributable to dual production is important in carrying out economics of desalination coupled with nuclear power. (authors)

  13. Systematic review of pneumococcal disease costs and productivity loss studies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Luciana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2013-07-02

    Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with significant economic burden for healthcare systems and society. To systematically review pneumococcal disease cost of illness and productivity loss studies in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. A search of relevant databases was performed till November 2011. A broad and sensitive search strategy was used consisting of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for pneumococcal disease, healthcare costs and productivity loss studies. No language restriction was applied. Only papers from LAC region and child population were analyzed. Additional exclusion criteria included duplicate studies, and insufficient information about methods. A total of 1241 citations were retrieved. After applying the exclusion criteria, only 16 studies remained for analysis. There were 4 papers from Brazil, 3 from Argentina, 2 from Colombia, 2 from Mexico, 1 from Uruguay, 1 from Chile, and 3 analyzing a group of LAC countries. Only 4 were cost-of-illness studies, 11 were cost-effectiveness studies of pneumococcal vaccine and 1 study of the pneumococcal burden of disease. Methods used for quantifying health resource utilization and costing methods varied significantly among studies, as well as data sources considered. Productivity losses were considered in 8 studies, all of which used the human capital approach method. Pneumococcal disease cost estimates varied significantly depending on the pneumococcal syndromes considered, methods used, study perspective and type of costs included. This systematic review reinforced the importance of standardization of methods for cost studies that can allow comparison and reproducibility in other settings. These estimates can be useful for future economic analysis conducted to support the decision making process on the introduction of new vaccines in LAC. However, caution must be taken, as methodological aspects of studies will result in estimates with varying

  14. Methodology to study the life cycle cost of floating offshore wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Santos, Laura; Garcia, Geuffer; Diaz-Casas, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to determine a theoretical methodology process to study the life cycle cost of floating offshore wind farms. The principal purpose is adapting the LCC (Life-Cycle Cost Calculation) from several authors to the offshore wind energy world, providing a new method which will be called LCSFOWF. In this sense, several general steps will be defined: life cycle definition, process breakdown structure, viability study and sensitivity study. Moreover, technical and ...

  15. Analysis of carbon capture and storage cost-supply curves for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, P.; Ladbrook, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report details the results of a study carried out on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry to develop an understanding of the potential costs of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the UK and to construct supply curves of CCS for the future based on the most up-to-date information available. Poyry Energy Consulting developed a model to examine how the economics of the entire process of CCS in the UK will change as the volume of deployment increases (i.e. develop a cost supply curve). The model is designed to include major sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from all industrial sectors, pipelines to transport the CO 2 and major potential offshore storage sites. It allows investigation of sensitivities so that parameters and assumptions can be varied to allow consideration of a range of cost scenarios. The report presents an overview of the CCS model and concepts, and sets out the model results in terms of capture costs, transport, storage, total costs, impact of fuel prices, inclusion of carbon allowances, counterfactual and its conclusions. A worked example is included to show detailed cost calculations from source to sink including detail of volume of CO 2 abated, capital costs, fuel cost, non-fuel operation and maintenance cost, and transport and storage cost

  16. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  17. Study on the feasibility of implementing a cost-recovery program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The AECB does not currently have an adequate legal basis for cost recovery. The use of amendments to the AEC (Atomic Energy Control) Act or Regulations to effect cost recovery would entail too high a risk of successful legal challenge and political complications which could adversely affect the AECB's operational effectiveness. In the time frame envisaged by Treasury Board Secretariat for the AECB to collect fees, it is not practical to amend the AEC Act to make it binding on the Crown, and specifically to authorize the AECB to recover its costs. The only practical approach to providing a sound legal basis for cost recovery is through amendment of the Financial Administration Act. Studies to date have provided a basis to establish options for cost recovery which may be practical, provided that a sound legal basis is established. Studies to date have not provided a basis to evaluate the impact of any of these options on the development, application, and use of atomic energy in Canada, or on the regulatory effectiveness of the AECB. While the principle of cost-recovery has been decided by the Treasury Board, public consultations are needed to evaluate impact and to arrive at a final decision on the extent of cost recovery. Such consultations are required by the government's Regulatory Process Action Plan. Cost recovery is likely to generate a strong negative reaction from the nuclear industry, some of which may affect the ability of the AECB to implement an effective regulatory program

  18. Building Energy and Cost Performance: An Analysis of Thirty Melbourne Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lay Langston

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy and cost performance of thirty recent buildings in Melbourne, Australia. Commonly, building design decisions are based on issues pertaining to construction cost, and consideration of energy performance is made only within the context of the initial project budget. Even where energy is elevated to more importance, operating energy is seen as the focus and embodied energy is nearly always ignored. For the first time, a large sample of buildings has been assembled and analyzed to improve the understanding of both energy and cost performance over their full life cycle, which formed the basis of a wider doctoral study into the inherent relationship between energy and cost. The aim of this paper is to report on typical values for embodied energy, operating energy, capital cost and operating cost per square metre for a range of building functional types investigated in this research. The conclusion is that energy and cost have quite different profiles across projects, and yet the mean GJ/m2 or cost/m2 have relatively low coefficients of variation and therefore may be useful as benchmarks of typical building performance.  

  19. ERP adoption cost factors identification and classification: a study in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Haddara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP systems adoptions require substantial resources and investments. The majority of businesses around the globe can be considered to be small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Thus, SMEs are seen to be typical companies that are the cornerstone of most economies. Compared with large enterprises, an SME-context contains several characteristics, and scarcity of resources is among the top of them. For SMEs, unplanned costs escalation could pose a serious threat to their stability and survival in the market. Frequently, ERP projects have crossed their estimated budgets and schedules. Researchers and practitioners state that a prevailing number of ERP adoption projects fail due to inaccurate or to too optimistic budgets/schedules. In addition, many organizations face difficulties in identifying the potential cost factors that could occur during their ERP adoption lifecycle. While focusing on the SME-context, this research attempts to identify potential costs that could occur in ERP adoptions. The research method employed in this study targeted diverse stakeholders and experts involved in ERP projects in Egypt. This research provides a list of cost factors and their classifications that could aid adopting organizations to better estimate their needed ERP project budgets. In particular, this research explores the direct and indirect cost factors that occur in ERP adoptions in Egyptian SMEs. Also, this study investigates the influence of some SME-specific contextual factors on costs. Moreover, the paper provides a ranking of cost factors according to their impact on total adoption costs.

  20. Cost of illness in patients with multiple myeloma in Italy: the CoMiM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Calabrese, Elisabetta; Levi, Anna; Federico, Vincenzo; Ceccolini, Michela; Rizzi, Rita; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Falco, Patrizia; Lazzaro, Carlo; Martelli, Elisa; Boccadoro, Mario; Lauria, Francesco; Liso, Vincenzo; Cavo, Michele; Foa, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematological cancer. Although it accounts for only a relatively small percentage of all cancer types, the costs associated with managing multiple myeloma are considerable. Available studies are mainly focused on health care costs. The Costo del Mieloma Multiplo (Cost of MM, CoMiM) study investigated the cost of illness of multiple myeloma in Italy during one year of disease management. CoMiM is a retrospective, prevalence-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study based on a stratified sample of patients seen during normal clinical practice (asymptomatic; symptomatic on drugs; symptomatic receiving autologous stem cell transplantation; plateau/remission). Demographics, clinical history, health care and non-health care resource consumption data were collected. Costs were evaluated from the societal viewpoint and expressed in Euro 2008. Data on 236 patients were analyzed (39 asymptomatic, 17%; 29 symptomatic receiving autologous stem-cell transplantation, 12%; 105 symptomatic receiving drugs, 44%; 63 plateau/remission, 27%). The total cost of illness reached € 19,267.1 ± 25,078.6 (asymptomatic, € 959.3 ± 1091.6; symptomatic receiving drugs, € 21,707.8 ± 21,785.3; symptomatic receiving autologous stem-cell transplantation, € 59,243.7 ± 24,214.0; plateau/remission, € 8130.7 ± 15,092.5). The main cost drivers of total cost of illness were drugs and hospital admissions (46.1% and 29.4%, respectively). Antineoplastics and immunomodulators drove the cost of drugs (21.6% and 21.1% of the total cost of illness). Cost of antineoplastics was led by bortezomib (97.4%), whereas the cost driver for immunomodulators was lenalidomide (99.4%). Cost of hospitalization funded by the Italian National Health Service was strongly influenced by transplantation (94.6%), whereas chemotherapy and skeletal fractures did not exceed 1% and 2%, respectively. Despite some limitations, the CoMiM study provides Italian health care decision

  1. Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Cheung, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the trend of the modern building designs, in which solar energy conversion systems and daylighting schemes are widely considered as the important building energy strategies to reduce the peak cooling and electrical demands, generate clean energy and save the building electricity expenditures. A semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) is a renewable energy product producing electricity via solar cells and allowing natural light entering into the interior spaces for daylighting designs. The PV modules are effective in reducing the cooling demand, especially for the skylight atrium that often receives large solar heat gains. This paper studies the thermal and visual properties, energy performance, environmental and financial issues of such semi-transparent PV skylights. Field measurements including solar irradiance, daylight illuminance and electricity generated were carried out. Case studies based on a circulating atrium were conducted to evaluate the energy use, cooling requirements and monetary implications when the PV skylights together with the daylight-linked lighting controls were applied. The results indicated that such an integrated system could save the overall electricity expenditures and benefit to the environmental and financial aspects.

  2. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  3. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batel Marques F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Batel Marques,1,2 Ana Penedones,1,2 Diogo Mendes,1,2 Carlos Alves,1,2 1CHAD – Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Drug Research, AIBILI – Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Introduction: The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs, besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs.Objective: To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs.Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated.Results: Twenty-nine (94% longitudinal observational studies and two (7% cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74% studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%. Twenty (65% studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65% studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7% also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7

  4. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  5. Air pollutants and energy pathways; Extending models for abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syri, S.

    2001-01-01

    scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO 2 , reductions of sulfur and NO x emissions between 12 % and 22 % and 8 % to 12 %, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43 % cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60 % in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8 % more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol. An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels. (orig.)

  6. Abatement strategies to reduce air pollution from transport in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kugler, U.; Theloke, J.; Thiruchittampalam, B.; Geftler, T.; Uzbasich, M.; Köble, R.; Friedrich, R.; Builtjes, P.; Gon, H.D. van der; Stern, R.; Jörb, W.; Dämmgen, U.; Appelhans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Large scale exceedances of PM10 and N02 ambient air limit values will continue in Germany despite the implementation of national and international policies. An integrated approach has therefore been developed to assess different cost-effective mitigation strategies for all

  7. A cost-of-illness study of spina bifida in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Vinci, Marta; Gatti, Claudia; Pascali, Maria Paola; De Gennaro, Mario; Macrellino, Elena; Mosiello, Giovanni; Redaelli, Tiziana; Schioppa, Francesca; Dieci, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord, nerves, and adjacent covering structures, with different levels of severity and functional disability. The economic cost of spina bifida and its prevention using folic acid have never been estimated in Italy. This study was conducted to define the cost of illness of SB in Italy. A retrospective multicenter observational study on the social cost of patients with SB was carried out in three SB centers in Italy. Cost data were collected relating to the 12 months preceding the enrollment time (T0), and subsequently 3 months after the T0 time (±20 days) through a case report form designed to collect the relevant information on the costs incurred during the period considered. The data for all patients were analyzed through multivariate analysis on the main parameters. We enrolled 128 patients equally divided between males and females, with a mean age of 13 years (minimum, 0; maximum, 29). Diagnosis was mostly postnatal, with 64 cases diagnosed at birth and 33 cases diagnosed subsequently. The lesion severity levels, as defined in the inclusion criteria, were walking (52 patients); walking with simple orthoses (33 patients); walking with complex orthoses (16 patients); and nonwalking, (25 patients). The anatomic type identified is open SB in most cases (84 patients), followed by closed SB (37 patients) and SB occulta (3 patients). The most significant cost per year was for assistive devices, for a total of 4307.00 €, followed by hospitalization (907.00 €), examinations (592.00 €), and drug therapy (328.00 €). Cost breakdown by age range shows that the highest costs are incurred in the 0-4 age range. The highest cost was for cases of open SB (12,103.00 €). The cost/degree of severity ratio showed that the highest cost was for nonwalking patients (14,323.00 €), followed by patients walking with complex orthoses (13,799.00 €). The data from this study show that the mean total cost for a patient

  8. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. Methods The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value. Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. Results The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. Conclusion The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase

  9. A cost-of-illness study of spina bifida in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Vinci, Marta; Gatti, Claudia; Pascali, Maria Paola; De Gennaro, Mario; Macrellino, Elena; Mosiello, Giovanni; Redaelli, Tiziana; Schioppa, Francesca; Dieci, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord, nerves, and adjacent covering structures, with different levels of severity and functional disability. The economic cost of spina bifida and its prevention using folic acid have never been estimated in Italy. This study was conducted to define the cost of illness of SB in Italy. Methods A retrospective multicenter observational study on the social cost of patients with SB was carried out in three SB centers in Italy. Cost data were collected relating to the 12 months preceding the enrollment time (T0), and subsequently 3 months after the T0 time (±20 days) through a case report form designed to collect the relevant information on the costs incurred during the period considered. The data for all patients were analyzed through multivariate analysis on the main parameters. Results We enrolled 128 patients equally divided between males and females, with a mean age of 13 years (minimum, 0; maximum, 29). Diagnosis was mostly postnatal, with 64 cases diagnosed at birth and 33 cases diagnosed subsequently. The lesion severity levels, as defined in the inclusion criteria, were walking (52 patients); walking with simple orthoses (33 patients); walking with complex orthoses (16 patients); and nonwalking, (25 patients). The anatomic type identified is open SB in most cases (84 patients), followed by closed SB (37 patients) and SB occulta (3 patients). The most significant cost per year was for assistive devices, for a total of 4307.00 €, followed by hospitalization (907.00 €), examinations (592.00 €), and drug therapy (328.00 €). Cost breakdown by age range shows that the highest costs are incurred in the 0–4 age range. The highest cost was for cases of open SB (12,103.00 €). The cost/degree of severity ratio showed that the highest cost was for nonwalking patients (14,323.00 €), followed by patients walking with complex orthoses (13,799.00 €). Conclusion The data from this study

  10. Procedures for parametric studies of costs of superconducting toroidal test assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1976-05-01

    A cost scaling procedure, based on a detailed reference conceptual design, has been developed to determine the effects of variations in the characteristic parameters of superconducting toroidal field coils on project costs. The primary purpose was to provide reasonably simple rational formulae for obtaining approximate costs of a complete installation, focusing on the trends and sensitivities of costs to changes in various parameters such as field strength, coil size, number of coils, and current density rather than establishing absolute costs. No results are included here because early studies applying these procedures are no longer pertinent to the present Superconducting Magnet Development Program. However, planning for the Large Coil Project and the preliminary conceptual design of the Technology Test Assembly with Plasma have employed the techniques described and results will be reported in the appropriate project documents

  11. [Estimation of the costs of radiographic and endoscopic examinations in gastroenterology using monographic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salort, P; Rodriguez, M; Cornee, J; Berthezene, P; Sahel, J; Clement, F

    1986-01-01

    This study is devoted to the study