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Sample records for abanico east formation

  1. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  2. Along-strike segmentation of the Abanico Basin, central Chile: New chronological, geochemical and structural constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquer, Jose; Hollings, Pete; Rivera, Orlando; Cooke, David R.; Baker, Michael; Testa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The Andes of central Chile are composed mostly of Cenozoic volcanic rocks, erupted during the opening and subsequent inversion of the intra-arc volcano-tectonic Abanico Basin. Until recently, the internal segmentation of this inverted basin was poorly understood. Based on a combination of U-Pb geochronology, (U-Th)/He thermochronology, whole rock geochemistry and structural data, we propose that the Abanico Basin can be divided into two main segments, separated by the NW-striking Piuquencillo fault and conjugate, NE-striking faults. Stratigraphic units defined in the northern segment (Abanico and Farellones formations) cannot be correlated with the rocks of the southern segment (Coya-Machali Formation and Teniente Volcanic Complex) in terms of lithofacies, depositional ages and geochemistry. The northern and southern segments also show temporal differences in their tectonic evolution. An early deformation event beginning at 22 Ma affected only the northern segment and is associated with the formation of progressive unconformities between the Abanico and Farellones formations, and also with crustal thickening as reflected in the geochemistry of the Farellones Formation. A second stage of crustal thickening and exhumation began at 12 Ma, as suggested by a sharp increase of the La/Yb ratios in the northern segment. In the southern segment, this event is reflected by only a moderate increase of La/Yb ratios, and by the transition between the Coya-Machali Formation and the Teniente Volcanic Complex. Finally, a third stage of exhumation and crustal thickening beginning at 7 Ma affected both the northern and southern segments. This last stage was the main exhumation event affecting the rocks of the Andes of central Chile, and is recorded in the geochemistry of igneous rocks by a sharp increase in the La/Yb ratios in the southern segment.

  3. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

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    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico. Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para integrar la información en estructuras complejas de información.

  4. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

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    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks grouped into the Farellones and Abanico formations make up most of the western Andean Main Range between 32° and 35°SL New 15 Ma Ar-Ar ages from the top of the latter formations show that the overlying succession, which locally onlaps eroded volcanic edifices, is diachronic. The calcalkaline Farellones volcanic activity started during the earliest

  5. Investigación feminista participativa en la microempresa Proyecto Abanico.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El Proyecto Abanico pertenece al plan de proveer productos orgánicos al creciente número de consumidores internacionales con dinero. La producción orgánica está aumentando y supuestamente permitirá el crecimiento económico de las áreas rurales. Este artículo conecta la interacción entre el manejo de la tierra, los efectos socioeconómicos que resultan de la comercialización de la naturaleza para el desarrollo sostenido, y las microempresas. Argumenta que el concepto de Mujeres en Desarrollo (M...

  6. El gran abanico aluvial del Guadiana alto. Reflexiones en torno al concepto de yacimiento

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    Abel JIMÉNEZ MANZANARES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el abanico aluvial del Guadiana Alto se documenta, en una enorme extensión, material arqueológico. El presente trabajo continúa y completa un estudio anterior insistiendo en la identificación de cadenas operativas y la realización de pruebas objetivas. El espacio en el que se dispersa la industria hace cuestionarse el concepto clásico de "yacimiento", lo que es abordado en último lugar.ABSTRACT: The Guadiana Alto is a big extensión with a lot of archeological material. This paper continué an anterior work, with special interest in the identification of operatoires chaines and objetive test. The área where lithic industry is distributed debates the classic idea of site.

  7. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  8. Country-specific strategy and new venture formation in Central and East Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, A.; Brouthers, K.D.; Nakos, G.; Brouthers, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine the influence of three country-specific strategies (market-seeking, client-following and resource-seeking) on new venture formation decisions for firms entering Central and East Europe. We found that market-seeking and resource-seeking strategies tend to influence venture c

  9. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  10. Impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wen; Wenig, Mark; Yang, Liangui

    2017-01-01

    Model simulations and hydrological reanalysis data for 2007 are applied to investigate the impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia. Results are analyzed from Hong Kong and Shanghai, which are two representative coastal cities of East Asia. Long-range desert dust transport impacts mainly spring and summer clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia. In spring, clouds and precipitation come mainly from large-scale condensation and are impacted mainly by dust from the Gobi, Sahara, and Thar deserts. These desert dusts can participate in the precipitation within and below the clouds. At lower latitudes, the dust particles act mainly as water nuclei. At higher latitudes, they act as both water nuclei and ice nuclei. The effect of Gobi, Sahara, and Thar dust on large-scale clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at higher latitudes. In summer, clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia come mainly from convection and are impacted mainly by dust from the Taklamakan, Arabian, and Karakum-Kavir deserts. Most Taklamakan dust particles can participate in precipitation within convective clouds as ice nuclei, while Arabian and Karakum-Kavir dust particles participate only as water nuclei in precipitation below the clouds. The effect of Taklamakan dust on convective clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at lower latitudes. Of all the desert dusts, that from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts has the relatively largest impact. Gobi dust impacts climate change in coastal East Asia by affecting spring water clouds at higher latitudes.

  11. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  12. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largestloilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  13. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largest oilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  14. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales UNAPAL - Abanico 75: new butternut squash cultivar, with high dry matter content in fruit for agribusiness purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.Using three diallel crosses among populations of butternut squash, with different levels of inbreeding (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, two hybrids and two inbred lines of butternut squash were selected, for its high dry matter content in fruit and plant production. Seven hybrid populations were formed from the selected genotypes. They are genetically stabilized by fraternal crossing and were evaluated in different environments of Valle del Cauca. Population one was selected, which presented a plant production between 29 to 32 kg; average fruit weight between 5 -6 kg; 4-5 fruit per plant; dry matter in fruit among 24-26%; globular form ribbed bright green external color and deep yellow to orange flesh color (12 to 14 Roche Fan. This population was registered in Institute Colombian Agropecuario ICA, under the name UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  15. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  16. SMALLER FORAMINIFERS FROM THE LOWER PERMIAN EMARAT FORMATION, EAST OF FIRUZKUH (CENTRAL ALBORZ, IRAN

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    HAMED YARAHMADZAHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Permian Dorud Group of the Gaduk section in Central Alborz (Iran is more than 44 m-thick; it includes thick succession of conglomerates, quartzarenites, calcareous sandstones, oncolitic fusulinid limestones, sandy limestones, sandstones and shales. The Toyeh, Emarat and Shah Zeid formations of this Group were dated from the Gzhelian to the Sakmarian. A review of the uppermost Gzhelian, Asselian and lower Sakmarian smaller foraminifers of the Emarat Formation of the Gaduk section is here presented. Three foraminiferal biozones are defined: the Nodosinelloides shikhanica-Geinitzina primitiva Zone is latest Gzhelian in age; the Nodosinelloides spp.-Geinitzina spp.-Pseudoacutella partoazari Zone is Asselian; the Rectogordius iranicus gadukensis-Endothyra cf. bamberi Zone is early Sakmarian in age. A new subspecies Rectogordius iranicus gadukensis n. subsp. is described, and the genera Pseudovidalina and Grovesella are discussed. The studied assemblages are correlated with those from the Carnic Alps (Austria-Italy, East European Platform of Russia, the Urals (Russia, Darvaz (Uzbekistan, the northern and central Pamirs (Tajikistan, Central Iran, northern Afghanistan and other classical regions of the Tethyan realm.

  17. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  18. A preliminary report on coprolites from the Late Triassic part of the Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Clemmensen, Lars B; Adolphsen, Jan Schulz;

    2012-01-01

    The basal part of the Triassic-Jurassic (Rhaetian-Sinemurian) Kap Stewart Formation, exposed at Jameson Land, East Greenland, yields an extensive coprolite collection from black, parallel-laminated mudstone (“paper shale”), representing an open lacustrine system. Preliminary investigations show...

  19. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Boundary layer new particle formation over East Antarctic sea ice – possible Hg-driven nucleation?

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    R. S. Humphries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on the only day to exhibit extended periods of global irradiance in excess of 600 W m−2. Within the single air mass influencing the measurements, number concentrations of particles larger than 3 nm (CN3 reached almost 7700 cm−3 within a few hours of clouds clearing, and grew at rates of 5.6 nm h−1. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were in the range of those measured at other Antarctic locations at 0.2–1.1 ± 0.1 cm−3 s−1. Our investigations into the nucleation chemistry found that there were insufficient precursor concentrations for known halogen or organic chemistry to explain the nucleation event. Modelling studies utilising known sulfuric acid nucleation schemes could not simultaneously reproduce both particle formation or growth rates. Surprising correlations with total gaseous mercury (TGM were found that, together with other data, suggest a mercury-driven photochemical nucleation mechanism may be responsible for aerosol nucleation. Given the very low vapour pressures of the mercury species involved, this nucleation chemistry is likely only possible where pre-existing aerosol concentrations are low and both TGM concentrations and solar radiation levels are relatively high (∼ 1.5 ng m−3 and ≥ 600 W m−2, respectively, such as those observed in the Antarctic sea ice boundary layer in this study or in the global free troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  2. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, J

    1995-01-01

    With the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, East Germany entered a process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Since then, the number of marriages and births in former East Germany have declined by 65% and 1.3 million people have migrated west. 0.36 million have migrated from West to East Germany. Indeed, the demographic situation in East Germany has fundamentally changed in many ways since 1989. The author analyzes these changes, noting that trends toward deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are now basic features of demography in the East. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains upon the environment. The author also points out that the economic policy of the former government of East Germany and the resulting environmental damage to the region have not lead to major changes in birth and mortality rates.

  3. Palynostratigraphy of the Sanganeh Formation at the East and Central Kopeh-Dagh Basin based on dinoflagellate cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Shokri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sanganeh Formation (Lower Cretaceous has cropped out across the Kopeh-Dagh Basin. The formation conformably overly the Aptian Sarcheshmeh Formation and is in turn overlain conformably by glauconitic sandstone of the Aitamir Formation. The considered formation in eastern and central parts of the basin comprises predominantly dark shale with some interbeds of limestone and siltstone. In order to analyse dinoflagellate content of this rock unit , four stratigraphic sections from east to the center of the basin including Karizak (320m, Mozduran (355m, Sanganeh (550m, and Qarah-Su (580m were measured and sampled palynologically. A total of 370 rock samples taken from the four sections were processed palynologically and scanned under a light microscope. Of these, two sections including Karizak and Mozduran were barren of any preserved dinocysts while, the samples from other two sections (Sanganeh and Qarah-Su yielded a relatively diverse and well preserved assemblage. According to the recognized dinocysts, two zones DZ1 and DZ2 were established in Sanganeh and Qarah-Su sections. The differentiated dinozones were coincident to Odontochitina operculata and Pseudoceratium turneri which are index for late Aptian-early Albian for the Sanganeh Formation at the mentioned stratigraphic sections. In addition, distribution and dispersion of dinoflagellate cyst contents indicate an increasing trend of the depth from east to the central parts of the Kopeh-Dagh Basin.

  4. Distribution,formation and evolution of sand ridges on the East China Sea shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the integrated results of multiple data types including MBES (Multi-Beam Echo Sounding) and historical topography maps,the LSR (Linear Sand Ridges) on the ECS (East China Sea) shelf are identified,divided into subareas,and classified.The distribution of sand ridge crests is also established.The strikes of the LSR on the ECS shelf fall in a normal distribution with the center point being 155° azimuth with additional peak points at 125°,130°,140°,and 180° azimuth.The distribution of the ECS shelf sand ridges is congested in the central area,sparse in the south and north ends,divergent and bifurcated in the eastern area,and densely convergent in the western area.The LSR are divided into seven subzones according to the strikes and distribution of the sand ridges;estuary mouth ridges and open shelf sand ridges are identified and marked out.The high amplitude change of sea level resulting from the glacial-interglacial cycle is the main cause of the vast development of sand ridges on the ECS shelf.Abundant sediments on the shelf carried by the PYR (Paleo-Yangtze River) are the material source for the LSR formation,and the negative seafloor topography influences the strikes of LSR.Based on the effects of LSR distribution,change of sea level,and the simulation of ancient tidal currents,the evolution of the LSR on the ECS shelf is divided into four main stages:Stage Ⅰ before 14.5 ka BP,Stage Ⅱ between 12 and 14 ka BP,Stage Ⅲ from 1.5 to 9.5 ka BP,and Stage Ⅳ after 9 ka BP.

  5. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction The Kopeh-Dagh as an inverted basin (Allen et al. 2003 is extended from the east of the Caspian Sea to NE Iran, north Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Following the closure of palaeo-Tethys in the Middle Triassic and the opening of Neo-Tethys during the early to middle Jurassic, the Kopeh-Dagh basin formed during the early to middle Jurasic. Sedimentation took place continuously from the Jurassic through the Neogene time in the Kopeh-Dagh basin (Afshar-Harb 1979. The first geological study on these strata was done by Amiranian oil company from 1937 to 1938. Many biological and stratigraphical studies had been carried on later on this basin. Kalantari (1969, Seyed-Emami (1980, Seyed-Emami and Aryai (1981, Seyed-Emami et al. (1984, 1994, 1996, Immel et al (1997, Raisossadat and Mousavi-Harami (2000, Raisossadat (2004, 2006 and Mahanipour et al. (2011 are among those who studied the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cretaceous strata of this basin. In this paper we report on palynological and paleoecological data from two mid-Cretaceous formations (Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh in Baghak section situated in eastern part of Kopeh-Dagh basin. 2-Materials and Methods Fifteen samples from the Sarcheshmeh and thirty five samples from Sanganeh formation were processed palynologically. The preparation method of Traverse, 2007 was used. Cold hydrochloric (20% and hydrofluoric (50% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 15 um using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam. Three slides were made from each sample. The microscope slides were examined under a light microscope and the index dinocysts were photographed and presented in two plates. In order to study palynofacies, in each slide numbers of organic materials including phytoclasts, marine palynomorphs and non-structural organic materials were

  6. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

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    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.

  7. UNAPAL –Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

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    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  8. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  9. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  10. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  11. Sedimentología y petrología de los abanicos aluviales y facies adyacentes en el Neogeno de Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid

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    Alonso, M.

    1986-06-01

    arcosas gruesas en el Conjunto Superior. Para el Conjunto Inferior se concluye unas relaciones de facies correspondientes a la progradación paulatina de depósitos propios de abanicos aluviales sobre depósitos palustres. Así mismo, el Conjunto Superior representa una progradación brusca de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales, con superposición de facies intermedias de estos abanicos sobre las facies más distales, que caracterizan el Conjunto Inferior. Dentro del contexto estratigráfico general de la Cuenca de Madrid, estas Unidades se incluyen básicamente en la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno.
    La presencia de nivelesde calcreta, sepiolita y sílex en la parte más meridional de la sección es un hecho destacable en las partes más distales de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales y sU transición a las facies palustres. La gran abundancia de estos niveles en la zona, nos ha llevado a estudiar más específicamente los rasgos petrológicos de estos tipos de materiales, no siempre bien definidos en depósitos de ambiente continental.

  12. The Tendaguru formation of southeastern Tanzania, East Africa: An alternating Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment of exceptional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sames, B.

    2009-04-01

    Dinosaur remains have inspired considerable scientific interest in the Tendaguru formation of southeastern Tanzania during the 20th century; however, this formation is exceptional in many other respects. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits of the Tendaguru formation in the southwestern Tethys are unique because they represent a marginal marine palaeoenvironment with nonmarine faunal and floral content. It is a threefold succession of marginal marine to terrestrial, carbonate-siliciclastic sediments with cyclic character, consisting of three transgressive-regressive cycles. Revisitation of the type locality (the Tendaguru, a hill approximately 60km northwest of the town of Lindi) by a German-Tanzanian expedition in summer 2000 (Heinrich et al., 2001) resulted in a new standard section (hitherto unpublished, the informal terminology is indicated by the use of lower case in Tendaguru formation), a refined environmental model (Aberhan et al., 2002) and many new insights towards its geology (with evidence of event-sedimentation, Bussert and Aberhan, 2004), biostratigraphy and a better understanding of the Tendaguru palaeo-ecosystems and the palaeoclimate. Within the scope of the designation of a new standard section at the type locality, calcareous microfossils (ostracods, charophytes) have been described to supplement the ongoing discussion about the age and palaeoecology of the Tendaguru formation (Sames, 2008). Although only a few unevenly distributed layers across the section produced calcareous microfossils, the results are very promising. A total of 40 ostracode and 2 charophyte taxa could be distinguished. The non-marine part of the ostracod fauna provides an important contribution to the documentation of Purbeck/Wealden-type nonmarine palaeoenvironments and its microfaunas and -floras previously unknown from East Africa. The marine faunal part belongs to a relatively endemic southern (Gondwana) fauna. Together with other fossil groups, the

  13. Holocene Formation of Heald Sand Bank on the East Texas Inner Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, J. M.; Cleveland, V.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Heald Bank is a Gulf of Mexico sand bank located ~50 km off the coast of east Texas on the inner continental shelf. The bank is proposed to be a remnant of barrier islands drowned and thus preserved during an episode of rapid sea level rise. For this hypothesis to be true, the transgressive ravinement that marks the erosion by the shoreline moving from shelf edge towards the modern location would by definition postdate and thus be stratigraphically above the bank. To test this hypothesis we present ~90 km of Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) and Multi-channel seismic (MCS) data collected from the University of Texas Geophysics marine field course during 2008, 2013, and 2014. In these data, there are several visible underlying channels beneath Heald Bank. These channels have channel fill which are truncated by an overlying erosional surface, which we interpret to be the transgressive ravinement from sea level rise. However, this interpretation places the ravinement below the sand bank, meaning it could not have been drowned and buried by a rapid sea level rise event. Thus, Heald Bank and potentially the related inner shelf banks (Thomas, Shepard, and Sabine) from eastern Texas to western Louisiana cannot be used as an example of coastal response to climate change and sea level rise. We examine alternate origins for the banks and their sand using published cores as well as age models and integrating them with our seismic data. One possibility is that the sand was sourced from the nearby Sabine River system immediately following local transgression or the sand was remobilized from sediment fill within underlying paleo-river channels imaged below the Heald Bank. In either case Heald Bank appears not to serve as an indicator for rapid sea-level rise, yet could be an important analog for sand transport mechanisms offshore.

  14. Formation mechanism and model for sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Pilong; PANG; Xiongqi; CHEN; Dongxia; ZHANG; Shanwen

    2004-01-01

    The Bohai Bay basin comprises some very important and well documented subtle traps known in China, which have been the major exploration focus and have become a major petroleum play since the 1990s. However, recent exploration showed that the oil-bearing properties of some sand lens reservoirs may vary significantly and the accumulation mechanisms for these lithological subtle traps are not well understood. Based on statistical analysis of oil-bearing properties for 123 sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin and combined with detailed anatomy of typical sand lens reservoirs and NMR experiments, it has been shown that the structural and sedimentary factors, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions of the surrounding source rocks, as well as the petrophysical properties of sand lens reservoirs are the main controlling factors for the formation of sand lens reservoirs. The formation of a sand lens reservoir depends on the interaction between the hydrocarbon accumulation driving force and the resistance force. The driving force is made up of the differential capillary pressure between sandstones and sources rocks and the hydrocarbon diffusion force, and as well as the hydrocarbon expansion force. The resistance force is the friction resistance force for hydrocarbons and water to move through the pore throats of the sand lens. The sedimentary environment, source rock condition and sand reservoir properties can change from unfavorable to favorable depending on the combination of these factors. When these three factors all reach certain thresholds, the sand lens reservoirs may begin to be filled by hydrocarbons. When all of these conditions become favorable for the formation of sand lens reservoirs, the reservoir would have high oil saturation. This approach has been applied to evaluating the potential of petroleum accumulation in the sand lens reservoirs in the third member of the Neogene Shahejie Formation in the Jiyang Sub-basin.

  15. Multi-seeded multi-mode formation of embedded clusters in the RMC: Structured star formation toward the south-east boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, J Z L M D

    2005-01-01

    The Rosette Molecular Complex contains embedded clusters with diverse properties and origins. We have previously explored the shell mode of formation in the north (Regions A & B) and the massive concentrations in the ridge (Region C). Here, we explore star formation towards the south of the complex, Region D, based on data from the spatially complete 2 Micron All Sky Survey. We find that stars are forming prolifically throughout this region in a highly structured mode with both clusters and loose aggregates detected. The most prominent cluster (Region D1) lies in the north-center. This cluster is over 20 pc to the south of the Monoceros ridge, the interface of the emerging young OB cluster NGC 2244 with its ambient molecular clouds. In addition, there are several branches stemming from AFGL 961 in Region C and extending to the south-east boundary of the cloud. We invoke a tree model to interpret this pattern, corresponding to probable tracks of abrupt turbulent excitation and subsequent decay. Alternative...

  16. Formation and metamorphic evolution of the Douling Complex from the East Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寿广; 魏春景; 赵子然; 沈洁

    1996-01-01

    The Douling Complex occurs as a Precambrian tectonic block distributed between the North China and Yangtze plates and has a protracted evolutional history. It is composed of various metamorpnic intrusives and supracrustal rocks. According to the studies on geology and geochronology, it can be concluded that the complex may have been formed in the early Proterozoic, about 2000 Ma ago and experienced two phases of regional metamorphism during the Jinningian and late Caledonian-early Hercynian. It can be correlated with the Qinling Complex from the North Qinling Mountains in lithic assemblage, formation age, tectonic setting and metamorphism, and is probably a thrust nappe split from the Qinling Complex.

  17. STRATIGRAPHY AND PALYNOLOGY OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC NAYBAND FORMATION OF EAST-CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONETTA CIRILLI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A palynological study of the Nayband Formation (central eastern Iran has been carried out in order to review and update its stratigraphic framework. In its type locality the formation crops out on the southern flank of Nayband Mountain, about 200 km south of Tabas. It consists of a thick, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequence subdivided into four members; in ascending order: the Gelkan Member (mainly shales and silstones, the Bidestan Member (marls, siltstones with minor sandstones and fossiliferous limestones, the Howz-e-Sheikh Member (sandstones and siltstones, and the Howz-e-Khan Member (sponge and coral dominated reefs alternating with marls and sandstones. Three palynological assemblages have been recognised; in ascending order: a an assemblage characterised by the presence of Annulispora folliculosa and A. microannulata which allows the Gelkan Member and most of the Bidestan Member to be assigned an early Norian age; (b an assemblage marked by the first occurrence of Polycingulatisporites mooniensis, which indicates the upper part of the Bidestan Member is mid-late Norian; c an assemblage containing Classopollis chateaunovi in association with Retitriletes austroclavatidites, Gliscopollis meyeriana, Limbosporites lundbladii, Rugaletes awakinoensis and Callialasporites dampieri that allows the Howz-e-Sheikh Member to be assigned a Rhaetian age. The presence of some Eurasian and/or cosmopolitan forms in the Rhaetian microflora reflects the position of the Iranian plate on the southern margin of Eurasia.   

  18. Ice Complex formation in arctic East Siberia during the MIS3 Interstadial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hüls, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A continuous 15 m long sequence of Ice Complex permafrost (Yedoma) exposed in a thermo-cirque at the southern coast of Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago, Dmitry Laptev Strait) was studied to reconstruct past landscape and environmental dynamics. The sequence accumulated during the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) Interstadial between >49 and 29 ka BP in an ice-wedge polygon. The frozen deposits were cryolithologically described and sampled on a vertical bluff between two ice wedges. According to sedimentological and geochronological data, the section is subdivided into three units which correlate with environmental conditions of the early, middle, and late MIS3 period. Palynological data support this stratification. The stable isotope signature of texture ice in the polygon structure reflects fractionation due to local freeze-thaw processes, while the signature of an approximately 5 m wide and more than 17 m high ice wedge fits very well into the regional stable-water isotope record. Regional climate dynamics during the MIS3 Interstadial and local landscape conditions of the polygonal patterned ground controlled the Ice Complex formation. The sequence presented here completes previously published MIS3 permafrost records in Northeast Siberia. Late Quaternary stadial-interstadial climate variability in arctic West Beringia is preserved at millennial resolution in the Ice Complex. A MIS3 climate optimum was revealed between 48 and 38 ka BP from the Ice Complex on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island.

  19. Aerosol and CCN properties at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica: seasonality, new particle formation events and properties around precipitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; De Backer, Hugo; Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, several complementary ground-based instruments for measuring the aerosol composition of the Antarctic atmosphere have been operated at the Belgian Antarctic research station Princess Elisabeth, in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (71.95° S, 23.35° E, 1390 m asl.). In addition, three ground-based remote sensing instruments for cloud and precipitation observations have been installed for continuous operation, including a ceilometer (cloud base height, type, vertical extent), a 24 Ghz micro-rain radar (vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (cloud base temperature). The station is inhabited from November to end of February and operates under remote control during the other months. In this contribution, the general aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties will be described with a special focus on new particle formation events and around precipitation events. New particle formation events are important for the atmospheric aerosol budget and they also show that aerosols are not only transported to Antarctica but are also produced there, also inland. Aerosols are essential for cloud formation and therefore also for precipitation, which is the only source for mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet. Measured aerosol properties comprise size distribution, total number, total mass concentration, mass concentration of light-absorbing aerosol and absorption coefficient and total scattering coefficient. In addition, a CCN counter has been operated during austral summers 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The baseline total number concentration N-total was around some hundreds of particles/cm3. During new particle formation events N-total increased to some thousands of particles/cm3. Simultaneous measurements of N-total, size distribution and CCN number revealed that mostly the number of particles smaller than 100 nm increased and that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei increased only very

  20. Holocene ice dynamics and bottom-water formation associated with Cape Darnley polynya activity recorded in Burton Basin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andreas; Dietze, Elisabeth; Kuhn, Gerhard; Esper, Oliver; Voigt, Ines; Hartmann, Kai; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, mineralogical, biogeochemical and micropaleontological methods was conducted on sediment core PS69/849-2 retrieved from Burton Basin, MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica. The goal of this study was to depict the deglacial and Holocene environmental history of the MacRobertson Land-Prydz Bay region. A special focus was put on the timing of ice-sheet retreat and the variability of bottom-water formation due to sea ice formation through the Holocene. Results from site PS69/849-2 provide the first paleo-environmental record of Holocene variations in bottom-water production probably associated to the Cape Darnley polynya, which is the second largest polynya in the Antarctic. Methods included end-member modeling of laser-derived high-resolution grain size data to reconstruct the depositional regimes and bottom-water activity. The provenance of current-derived and ice-transported material was reconstructed using clay-mineral and heavy-mineral analysis. Conclusions on biogenic production were drawn by determination of biogenic opal and total organic carbon. It was found that the ice shelf front started to retreat from the site around 12.8 ka BP. This coincides with results from other records in Prydz Bay and suggests warming during the early Holocene optimum next to global sea level rise as the main trigger. Ice-rafted debris was then supplied to the site until 5.5 cal. ka BP, when Holocene global sea level rise stabilized and glacial isostatic rebound on MacRobertson Land commenced. Throughout the Holocene, three episodes of enhanced bottom-water activity probably due to elevated brine rejection in Cape Darnley polynya occured between 11.5 and 9 cal. ka BP, 5.6 and 4.5 cal. ka BP and since 1.5 cal. ka BP. These periods are related to shifts from warmer to cooler conditions at the end of Holocene warm periods, in particular the early Holocene optimum, the mid-Holocene warm period and at the beginning of the neoglacial. In

  1. Procesos naturales y antropogénicos asociados al evento de mortalidad de conchas de abanico ocurrido en la bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú) en junio del 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Cabello; Jorge Tam; Maria Elena Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    Con la finalidad de determinar los procesos que desencadenaron el evento de mortalidad de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) el 6 de junio del 2000, se analizaron las condiciones ambientales naturales y antropogénicas en la Bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú) durante el período de actividad pesquera industrial pesquera, entre el 17 de mayo y el 13 de junio del 2000. Se evaluaron diariamente las variables oceanográficas de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, volumen de fitoplancton y variables de...

  2. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  3. Gas storage in salt formations in the Middle East. Prospects; Gasspeicherung in Salzformationen des Mittleren Ostens. Aussichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folle, Stefan; Schmidt, Uwe [StorConsult, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the saturated Central European gas market the Middle East has high development potential. This can be derived primarily from the increasing home demand and simultaneous supply obligations. Importing countries require the maintenance of stocks in order to be less dependent on price and political pressure. As production of energy sources in Israel is inadequate, for example, Egyptian natural gas is supplied. The same also applies to Jordan. This pipeline system is being planned as part of the supply to Europe via Turkey and has also been sabotaged several times. As a further example Iran as the fourth largest natural gas producer consumes a significant proportion of its gas production. The rapid population growth of the country and export obligations require the provision of storage space for the energy sources. The continuous realisation of underground storage facilities depends heavily on cooperation with the authorities. Because of the different approval procedures in each country it should be clarified which authorities must be consulted. In addition it should be checked how the authorities are linked to each other with regards to responsibility. In some countries a subordinate authority or municipality may cause abandonment of a major project, if in the case of cavern construction, for example, the water legislation is inadequately clarified and in arid areas agriculture is a competing user. The economical creation of a gas storage cavern depends in particular on the rock mechanical evaluation and the resulting optimised operation of the storage facility. The load-bearing behaviour of the saliniferous rock is determined essentially by its material properties and stresses. In the geotechnical stability analysis the stress and deformation states around cavities should be determined for the site-specific geological and utilisation conditions. Two examples of potential or planned gas storage projects in the Middle East are described in the contribution

  4. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as th...

  5. New constraints on the formation and evolution of the Andaman Sea, a sedimented back arc spreading center in the South East Asia, from seismic reflection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, A.; Singh, S. C.; Klinger, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Andaman Sea is an enigmatic feature in the Indian Ocean region. To the west, it is bounded by a near arc parallel Andaman subduction system and to the east by the Malaya Peninsula. It hosts volcanic provinces like Alcock and Sewell Rises and the Andaman Sea Spreading Center (ASSC) that connects the sliver strike-slip Sagaing Fault in the north with the Andaman Nicobar and Great Sumatra Faults in the south. The actual spreading center follows a succession of basins, starting by the spreading of the Mergui basin in the south-east, 32 Ma ago, that shifted to the actual position of the spreading closer to the subduction trench. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the formation of the Andaman Sea basins: (a) Pull-apart basin along the Sagaing-Sumatra fault system, driven by the collision-extrusion mechanism and/or by the slip-partitioning induced by the oblique subduction, (b) Back-arc spreading due to the subduction. There is a debate about the orientation of the present spreading/extension between the North-South motion along the strike-slip faults and the NW-SE opening of the ASSC. We have access to 7000 km of high-resolution deep seismic reflection data, and high-resolution bathymetry data, which we combine with relocated earthquake data to shed light upon the formation and evolution of the Andaman Sea Basin. The central basin contains up to 4 km thick sediments. The crustal thickness is about 5-8 km in the central basin and increases to 13-15 km beneath the Alcock and Sewell Rises, which are devoid of sediments. Here we show how both the collision and the subduction play a role in the position and orientation of the extension in the Andaman Sea Basin, and how they influence the accretion at the spreading center.

  6. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a basement-onlapping shallow marine sandstone succession, the Charcot Bugt Formation, Middle-Upper Jurassic, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geocenter; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geological Inst.

    2003-07-01

    A rocky shore developed in early Middle Jurassic times by transgression of the crystalline basement in Milne'Land at the western margin of the East Greenland rift basin. The basement is onlapped by shallow marine sandstones of the Charcot Bugt Formation, locally with a thin fluvial unit at the base. The topography of the onlap surface suggests that a relative sea-level rise of at least 300 m took place in Early Bathonian - Middle Oxfordian times. The sea-level rise was punctuated by relative stillstands and falls during which progradation of the shoreline took place. Palynological data tied to the Boreal ammonite stratigraphy have greatly improved time resolution within the Charcot Bugt Formation, and the Jurassic succession in Milne Land can now be understood in terms of genetically-related depositional systems with a proximal to distal decrease in grain size. The sequence stratigraphic interpretation suggests that translation of the depositional systems governed by relative sea-level changes resulted in stacking of sandstone-dominated falling stage deposits in the Bastern, basinwards parts of Milne Land, whereas thick, remarkably coarsegrained transgressive systems tract deposits formed along the western basin margin. The bulk of the Charcot Bugt Formation consists of stacked sandstone-dominated shoreface units that prograded during highstands. The overall aggradational to backstepping stacking pattem recognised in the Charcot Bugt Formation is comparable to that in the contemporaneous Pelion Formation of the Jameson Land Basin and in correlative units of the mid-Norway shelf and the Northern North Sea. We suggest that the long-term evolution of the depositional systems may have been controlled by long-term eustatic rise acting in concert with relative sea-level changes reflecting regionally contemporaneous phases of rift initiation, dimax and gradual cessation of rifting. (au)

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of new particle formation in East Asia using an NPF-explicit WRF-chem model: North-south contrast in new particle formation frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Takamura, T.; Yoon, Soh-joung; Kim, S. W.; Lim, Hyuntae; Fast, Jerome D.

    2013-10-27

    The new particle formation (NPF)-explicit version of the WRF-chem model, which we developed recently, can calculate the growth and sink of nucleated clusters explicitly with 20 aerosol size bins from 1 nm to 10 μm. In this study, the model is used to understand spatial and temporal variations of the frequency of NPF events and the concentrations of aerosols (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within the boundary layer in East Asia in spring 2009. Model simulations show distinct north-south contrast in the frequency and mechanism of NPF in East Asia. NPF mostly occurred over limited periods and regions between 30° and 45°N, such as northeast China, Korea, and Japan, including regions around active volcanoes (Miyakejima and Sakurajima). At these latitudes, NPF was considerably suppressed by high concentrations of preexisting particles under stagnant air conditions associated with high-pressure systems, while nucleation occurred more extensively on most days during the simulation period. Conversely, neither nucleation nor NPF occurred frequently south of 30°N because of lower SO2 emissions and H2SO4 concentrations. The period-averaged NPF frequency was 3 times higher at latitudes of 30° - 45°N than at latitudes of 20° - 30°N. The north-south contrast of NPF frequency is validated by surface measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. The period- and domain-averaged contribution of secondary particles is estimated to be 44% for CN (> 10 nm) and 26% for CCN at a supersaturation of 1.0% in our simulation, though the contribution is highly sensitive to the magnitudes and size distributions of primary aerosol emissions and the coefficients in the nucleation parameterizations.

  8. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  9. Formation and Cross-Cumulus Migration of Silica-Rich Liquids in the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R. B.; Sorensen, B. E.; Muller, A.

    2008-12-01

    In a recent publication on the Skaergaard intrusion evidence for the formation of silica-rich melts by silicate- silicate liquid immiscibility was proposed (Jakobsen et al., Geology 33, 2005). Coexisting iron-rich and silica- rich microscopic melt inclusions were trapped in apatite during crystallisation of the Skaergaard melts. Given this evidence for liquid immiscibility it is possible to explain the formation of macroscopic accumulations of silica rich entities throughout the magmatic stratigraphy. Previously, the formation and emplacement of these granophyric entities were challenging to explain. Examples include decimetre to metre size granophyric /melano-granophyric aggregates in either gabbroic pegmatite, in chimney shaped columns intersecting the layering or in isolated pods. Particularly, the presence of numerous granophyric pods a few metres above large gabbroic pegmatite were enigmatic. Moving the granophyric melts from the pegmatite where they formed (Larsen and Brooks, Journal of Petrology 35, 1994) and several metres across the magmatic stratigraphy would require unconsolidated cumulates i.e. a crystal mush. Geothermobarometric estimates from fluid inclusions, amphibole and feldspars show that the silica-rich aggregations solidified between 900 and 660 C at P from 1.8 to 2.9 kb. However, to be true products of liquid immiscibility they should form at T > 1050 C. With an average of 960 ppm Zr, the silica-rich aggregates are extremely Zr rich. Zr saturation thermometry imply minimum T's of 1070 (c. 2000 ppm Zr) to 900 C (c. 700 ppm Zr). Ti in Zr thermometry is progressing and may further constrain the T of formation. Although large uncertainties apply, a T of 1070 C or higher, would agree with a formation by liquid immiscibility. Assuming T > 1070 C the cumulus stratigraphy was unconsolidated with > 30 vol% intercumulus melts in the lower part of the magmachamber. With a density of 2.4-2.6 g/cm3, the silica-rich melts were much lighter than the ambient

  10. Shale gas characterization of the Dinder and Blue Nile Formations in the Blue Nile Basin, East Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoieb, Monera Adam; Sum, Chow Weng; Bhattachary, Swapan Kumar; Abidin, Nor Syazwani Zainal; Abdelrahim, Omer Babiker

    2016-11-01

    The development of gas and oil in unconventional plays in United State and Northern Europe has affected the finances and the energy security. Geochanical properties of shale rocks can have a major impact on the efficiency of shale gas exploration. The goal of this study is to evaluate shale gas potentiality in the Blue Nile Basin, using samples from existing drilled wells. All the samples were analyzed in detail with the following organic geochemical techniques: total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-eval pyrolysis, to determine the quality and quantity of the organic matter. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the shale intervals vary from 0.6 to 4.5weight% in FARASHA-1 Well, while in TAWAKUL-1 Well range from 0.4 to 2.4weight%, suggesting that fair to good source generative potential, as revealed by the S2 v's TOC plot. Hydrogen index (HI) values range from 12 to 182 mg HC/g TOC in the two wells, indicating type III and IV derived-input in the samples and their potential to generate gas. However, the Blue Nile and Dinder Formation have Tmax values in the range of 437 to 456°C, indicating early maturity in the oil window. Thus, higher maturity levels have affected the hydrocarbon generation potential and HI of the samples.

  11. Seismic sedimentology of conglomeratic sandbodies in lower third member of Shahejie Formation (Palaeogene) in Shengtuo area, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁勇; 张金亮; 李存磊; 孟宁宁; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    The sand-conglomerate fans are the major depositional systems in the lower third member of Shahejie Formation in Shengtuo area, which formed in the deep lacustrine environment characterized by steep slope gradient, near sources and intensive tectonic activity. This work was focused on the sedimentary feature of the glutenite segment to conduct the seismic sedimentology research. The near-shore subaqueous fans and its relative gravity channel and slump turbidite fan depositions were identified according to observation and description of cores combining with the numerous data of seismic and logging. Then, the depositional model was built depending on the analysis of palaeogeomorphology. The seismic attributes which are related to the hydrocarbon but relative independent were chosen to conduct the analysis, the reservoir area of the glutenite segment was found performing a distribution where the amplitude value is relatively higher, and finally the RMS amplitude attribute was chosen to conduct the attribute predicting. At the same time, the horizontal distribution of the sedimentary facies was analyzed qualitatively. At last, the sparse spike inversion method was used to conduct the acoustic impedance inversion, and the inversion result can distinguish glutenite reservoir which is greater than 5 m. This method quantitatively characterizes the distribution area of the favorable reservoir sand.

  12. Formation processes of sea ice floe size distribution in the interior pack and its relationship to the marginal ice zone off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Takenobu; Kohout, Alison; Fraser, Alexander D.

    2016-09-01

    To understand the behavior of the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ), which is composed of sea-ice floes of various sizes, knowledge of the floe size distribution (FSD) is important. In particular, FSD in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), controlled by wave-ice interaction, plays an important role in determining the retreating rates of sea-ice extent on a global scale because the cumulative perimeter of floes enhances melting. To improve the understanding of wave-ice interaction and subsequent effects on FSD in the MIZ, FSD measurements were conducted off East Antarctica during the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX-2) in late winter 2012. Since logistical reasons limited helicopter operations to two interior ice regions, FSD in the interior ice region was determined using a combination of heli-photos and MODIS satellite visible images. The possible effect of wave-ice interaction in the MIZ was examined by comparison with past results obtained in the same MIZ, with our analysis showing: (1) FSD in the interior ice region is basically scale invariant for both small- (large- (>1 km) scale regimes; (2) although fractal dimensions are quite different between these two regimes, they are both rather close to that in the MIZ; and (3) for floes <100 m in diameter, a regime shift which appeared at 20-40 m in the MIZ is absent. These results indicate that one role of wave-ice interaction is to modulate the FSD that already exists in the interior ice region, rather than directly determine it. The possibilities of floe-floe collisions and storm-induced lead formation are considered as possible formation processes of FSD in the interior pack.

  13. Procesos naturales y antropogénicos asociados al evento de mortalidad de conchas de abanico ocurrido en la bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú en junio del 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cabello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los procesos que desencadenaron el evento de mortalidad de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus el 6 de junio del 2000, se analizaron las condiciones ambientales naturales y antropogénicas en la Bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú durante el período de actividad pesquera industrial pesquera, entre el 17 de mayo y el 13 de junio del 2000. Se evaluaron diariamente las variables oceanográficas de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, volumen de fitoplancton y variables de calidad acuática, aceites y grasas, sólidos suspendidos totales, DBO5 , pH, sulfuros y coliformes termotolerantes, en 5 estaciones de la Bahía de Paracas. Desde mediados de mayo, se registraron altos contenidos de aceites y grasas provenientes de efluentes pesqueros. A fines de mayo se observó la presencia de una marea roja asociada a un incremento en los sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto, especialmente frente a Atenas y El Chaco. A inicios de junio en superficie se produjo una disminución de los sólidos suspendidos totales (< 25 mg.L-1 y oxígeno (< 3 mL.L-1, llegando a un máximo las concentraciones de grasa (m·x.: 10,1 mg.L-1, mientras que en los fondos el proceso acumulativo de carga orgánica produjo un estado anóxico con alto contenido de sulfuros (m·x.: 19,73 µg-at.L-1. Estas condiciones redujeron la calidad del ambiente marino, y produjeron la mortalidad de los organismos bentónicos. El aporte de materia org·nica proveniente de efluentes pesqueros, junto con el aporte proveniente de la floración algal nociva, ejerció un efecto sinérgico negativo sobre la calidad de la columna de agua y los sedimentos, lo que provocó la mortalidad de especies bentónicas, entre ellas la concha de abanico.

  14. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  15. Facies analysis of the Balta Formation: Evidence for a large late Miocene fluvio-deltaic system in the East Carpathian Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshko, Anton; Matoshko, Andrei; de Leeuw, Arjan; Stoica, Marius

    2016-08-01

    Deposits of the Balta Fm are preserved in a large arcuate sediment body that covers about 60,000 km2 and is up to 350 m thick. The Balta Fm spans ca. 5 Ma as constrained by underlying Tortonian (Bessarabian) and overlying Messinian (early Pontian) Paratethys strata. It contains frequent terrestrial mammal fossils and fresh- as well as brackish-water (Paratethys) molluscs and ostracods. Over the past 140 years our understanding of the sedimentary architecture of the formation and its origins has remained in its infancy, which has limited insight into the evolution of the East Carpathian Foreland. Here, we provide the first modern sedimentary facies analysis of the Balta Fm, which is integrated with an extensive review of previously published local literature. It is supported with micropalaeontological results and a wealth of historical borehole information. We show that the Balta Fm has a tripartite vertical division. Its lowermost part is clay dominated and consists of subordinate delta front sand bodies interspersed between muds. The middle unit contains separate delta plain channels or channel belts encased in thick muds. These are overlain by a unit with amalgamated delta plain channel deposits with only minor amounts of associated mud. The abundance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures in channel sands, the absence of peats (or coals) and the presence of calcareous nodules suggest a strongly seasonal and relatively dry climate with a flashy discharge regime. Deposition of the Balta Fm in an area previously characterized by distal shelf and prodelta environments indicates large-scale progradation triggered by high sediment volume from the uplifting Carpathian Orogen and enhanced by a general lowering of Paratethys sea-level. The tripartite internal architecture of the Balta Fm indicates that progradation continued during deposition. Its wedge-shaped geometry suggests that tectonic activity in the Carpathians generated a 300 km wide foreland basin that

  16. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind

    2017-03-01

    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  17. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  18. The formation of the integration priorities of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of the global world order transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana Oriekhova; Al Makarikh Farid

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the research of activation process of the international integration cooperation of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of ongoing transformations, which are obviously taking place in the global world order. The article gives the author’s definition of “integration maturity”, its characteristic features; concluded the integration maturity level of the Middle East Arab countries; identified the place of the Arab countries as players of the global economic ...

  19. Lu-Hf systematics of the ultra-high temperature Napier Complex, East Antarctica: evidence for the early Archean formation of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Mukasa, S. B.; Andronikov, A. V.; Osanai, Y.; Harley, S. L.; Kelly, N. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Napier Complex in East Antarctica comprises some of the oldest rocks on earth (~3.8 billion years old), overprinted by an ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphic event near the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. Garnet, orthopyroxene, sapphirine, osumilite, rutile and a whole rock representing an equilibrated assemblage from this belt yield a Lu-Hf isochron age of 2,403 ± 43 Ma. Preservation of the UHT mineral assemblage in the rock analyzed suggests rapid cooling with closure likely to have occurred for the Lu-Hf system at post-peak UHT conditions near a temperature of ~800C. Individual zircon grains from Gage Ridge within the Napier Complex yielded a remarkably uniform range of 176Hf/177Hf values between 0.280433 ± 7 and 0.280505 ± 10, corresponding to ɛHf > +5.6 at 3.85 Ga relative to the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR). Because of their exceedingly low Lu/Hf values (<0.001), the grains are effectively recording the initial Hf isotope composition of the magmatic systems from which the gneiss protoliths crystallized. These results indicate that (1) the source of the crustal materials that formed the Napier Complex at 3.85 Ga were depleted relative to the CHUR. The extent of depletion involved is higher than has been predicted by extrapolation from the Lu-Hf isotopic evolution inferred for the source of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic basalts, judging from an fLu/Hf value of 0.51, (2) the depleted mantle reservoir has been in existence since very early in Earth’s history, in agreement with the early differentiation of the Earth that the latest core formation models require, and (3) an extremely depleted source also mean that the bulk of continental crust was extracted from the mantle by ~3.8 Ga. Moreover, the results demonstrate that even the oldest silicic rocks in the complex are not likely to have formed from remobilized older crustal materials, but were instead juvenile products of mantle melting. In addition, zircons with metamorphic rims have a similar

  20. 3D seismic structure of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain in the East sub-basin of the South China Sea and its mechanism of formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Wang, J.; Qiu, X.; Sibuet, J. C.; He, E.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The post-spreading volcanic ridge (PSVR) is oriented approximately E-W in its western part called the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. Where is the extinct spreading ridge (ESR) of the East Sub-basin located? beneath the PSVR (Li et al., 2014)? Or intersecting with the PSVR by N055° orientation (Sibuet et al., submitted)? A three-dimensional Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) survey covered both the central extinct spreading ridge and the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, the IODP Site U1431 (Li et al., 2014) being located just north of the chain. The results of this experiment will provide the essential information to understand the emplacement of the PSVR within the previously formed oceanic crust. The comprehensive seismic record sections of 39 OBSs are of high quality and show clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, Pn and PmP. These seismic arrivals provide strong constrains for modeling the detailed three-dimensional velocity structure. We will show that the crust is oceanic on each side of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, where is the location of the ESR and what is the genetic relationship between the magma chambers and the overlying Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. We suggest that the large thickness of the upper crust is possibly due to volcanic extrusions and the thickened lower crust to magmatic underplating. Combining previous geochemical study of PSVR outcropping samples, the formation mechanism of the seamount chain might be explained by a buoyancy decompression melting mechanism (Castillo et al., 2010). This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 91428204, 41176053). ReferencesSibuet J.-C., Yeh Y.-C. and Lee C.-S., 2015 submitted. Geodynamics of the South China Sea: A review with emphasis on solved and unsolved questions. Tectonophysics. Li, C. F., et al. 2014. Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349. Geochemistry

  1. Formation of Fe-oxyhydroxides from the East Pacific Rise near latitude 13°N:Evidence from mineralogical and geochemical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Fe-oxyhydroxide samples from one dredge station (long. 103°54.48’W, lat. 12°42.30’N, water depth 2655 m) on the East Pacific Rise near lat 13°N were analyzed by XRD, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS. Most Fe-oxyhydroxides are amorphous, with a few sphalerite microlites. In comparison with Fe-oxyhydroxides from other fields, the variable ranges in the chemical composition of Fe-oxyhydroxide samples are very narrow; their Fe, Si, and Mn contents were 39.90%, 8.92%, and 1.59%, respectively; they have high Cu (0.88%―1.85%) and Co (65×10?6―704×10?6) contents, and contain Co+Cu+Zn+Ni> 1.01%. The trace-element (As, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Sr) and major-element (Fe, Ca, Al, Mg) contents of these samples are in the range of hydrothermal sulfide from the East Pacific Rise near 13°N, reflecting that this type of Fe-oxyhydroxide constitutes a secondary oxidation product of hydrothermal sulfide. The Fe-oxyhydroxide samples from one dredge station on the East Pacific Rise near 13°N are lower in ΣREE (5.44×10?6―17.01×10?6), with a distinct negative Ce anomaly (0.12 ― 0.28). The Fe-oxyhydroxide samples have similar chondrite-normalized rare-earth-element (REE) patterns to that of seawater, and they are very different from the REE composition characteristics of hydrothermal plume particles and hydrothermal fluids, showing that the REEs of Fe-oxyhydroxide are a major constituent of seawater and that the Fe-oxyhydroxides can become a sink of REE from seawater. The quick settling of hydrothermal plume particles resulted in the lower REE content and higher Mn content of these Fe-oxyhydroxides, which are captured in part of the V and P from seawater by adsorption. The Fe-oxyhydroxides from one dredge station on the East Pacific Rise near 13°N were formed by secondary oxidation in a low temperature, oxygenated environment. In comparison with the elemental (Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Co, Cu) average content of hydrothermal sulfide samples

  2. The Formation of Barrier Winds East of the Loess Plateau and Their Effects on Dispersion Conditions in the North China Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xingliang; Xue, Ming; Wu, Dui; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2016-10-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) to the east of the Loess Plateau is one of the most heavily polluted areas in the world. Weak surface flow in the western part of the NCP exacerbates the air pollution in this region. Deceleration of low-level flow when approaching the Loess Plateau, together with enhanced roughness associated with large cities, were previously ascribed as the causes for low wind speeds in the NCP. Using numerical simulations with a one-layer dispersion model, we identify that dynamic modification of airflow by the Loess Plateau (not just simple deceleration due to mountain blocking) plays an important role in reducing the wind speed over the NCP. Dynamically-induced northerly barrier winds, superimposed on the prevailing southerly/south-easterly flow, reduce the wind speed in a 50-100 km wide region to the east of the Plateau, partially explaining the weak winds in the western part of the NCP. Poor dispersion conditions due to weak horizontal winds likely contribute to the accumulation of pollutants in this region.

  3. The effect of an East Pacific Rise offset on the formation of secondary cracks ahead of the Cocos-Nazca Rift at the Galapagos Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Montesi, L. G.; Schouten, H.; Zhu, W.

    2011-12-01

    A succession of short-lived, E-W trending cracks at the Galapagos Triple Junction north and south of the Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, has been explained by a simple crack interaction model. The locations of where the cracks initiate are controlled by tensile stresses generated at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) by two interacting cracks: One representing the north-south trending EPR, and the other the large, westward propagating C-N Rift, whose tip is separated from the EPR by a distance D. The model predicts symmetric cracking at the EPR north and south of the C-N Rift tip. Symmetry in the distribution of cracks north and south of the C-N Rift is observed and especially remarkable between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma when the rapid jumping of cracks toward the C-N Rift appears synchronous. The rapid jumping can be explained by decreasing D, which means that the tip of the C-N Rift was moving closer to the EPR. Symmetry of cracking breaks down at 1.5 Ma, however, with the establishment of the Dietz Deep Rift, the southern boundary of the Galapagos microplate. Symmetry of cracking also breaks down on older crust to the east between about 100 35'W and 100 45'W (about 2.6 Ma) where a rapid jumping of cracks toward the C-N Rift is observed in the south cracking region. There is no evidence of similar rapid jumping in the north cracking region. It could be simply that the response to changing the value of D is not always as predicted. It could also be that the shape of the EPR has not always been symmetric about the C-N Rift, as assumed in the model. Currently, an overlapping spreading center with a 15 km east-west offset between the limbs of the EPR has formed at 1 50'N. We assess the importance of the geometry of the EPR on the crack interaction model. The model has been modified to include a ridge offset similar to what is observed today. We find that the region of stress enhancement at the EPR (where cracks initiate) is subdued south of the C-N Rift tip because of the EPR offset. It is

  4. The borehole instability mechanism and countermeasure to Permian Liangshan formation in east of Sichuan%川东地区二迭系梁山组地层井壁不稳定机理及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁大川; 崔茂荣; 黄进军

    2001-01-01

    川东地区属高陡构造,二迭系梁山组地层破碎松散,断层多,钻井过程中常遇掉块、坍塌、泥页岩水化膨胀缩径等严重井下复杂情况,已成为该地区深井钻探的严重障碍。在分析地层岩石矿物组成微观结构和理化特性的基础上,从地质、水化、物理和工程等方面分析井壁失稳机理,提出梁山组地层防塌技术对策:①严格控制当量钻井液密度;②钻井液应具有良好的封堵性和抑制性;③严格控制失水小于10ml;④钻井液pH值控制在8~9;⑤尽量缩短浸泡时间。%East of Sichuan area is belong to high and steep structure. For Permian Liangshan formation is broken formarion and has many fault, wall sloughing, shale hydrate expansion and hole diameter reduction etc. downhole complex accident are often encountered during drilling. These cases have become serious obstruct to drill deep well in east of Sichuan. On the basis of analysis of structure and physicochemical characteristic of formation rock mineral, this paper analyzes the sidewall instability mechanism in geology, shale hydration, physics and engineering aspects. The technique countermeasures for hole sloughing prevention are proposed, including suitable mud density, good seal and inhibition for drilling fluid, water loss less than 1Oml and shorten soak time etc..

  5. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  6. Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The mutual actions between acidity fluid and carbonate promoted the forming of secondary carbonate holes. Through the experiment of corrosion of the samples of Feixianguan carbonate reservoir in saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide, the porosity and permeability increased greatly, porosity increased 2% and permeability increased nearly two quantity degrees, also the density became light, which confirm the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate.

  7. Formation and metamorphism of stratified firn at sites located under spatial variations of accumulation rate and wind speed on the East Antarctic ice divide near Dome Fuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The initial stage of postdepositional metamorphism in polar firn was investigated at sites located under spatial variations of accumulation rate and wind speed along the East Antarctic ice divide near Dome Fuji. A better understanding of this process is important for interpreting local insolation proxies used for astronomical dating of deep ice cores. Three 2–4 m deep pits were excavated and physical properties, including density ρ, grain size D, reflectance R of near infrared light and microwave dielectric anisotropy Δε, were investigated at high spatial resolution. We found that Δε ranges between 0.028 and 0.067 and that such high values occur in the surface ~0.1 m. In addition, short scale variations of ρ are correlated with those of Δε, and inversely correlated with those of D, confirming contrasting development of initially higher density layers and initially lower density layers. Moreover, postdepositional metamorphism makes these contrasts more distinct with increasing depths. Both the contrasts and Δε for given values of ρ are higher under lower accumulation rate conditions and under less windy conditions. Insolation efficiently causes evolution of strata of firn at the ice sheet surface under such conditions. Under more windy conditions, the strata contain more wind-driven hard layers with higher ρ and Δε and thus have larger fluctuations of ρ and Δε. We suggest that the initial variability of ρ at the surface and the duration of exposure to diurnal and seasonal temperature gradients play sequential roles in determining the physical/mechanical properties of firn, which is retained throughout the densification process.

  8. Boom-to-bust. The scallop (Argopecten purpuratus fishery in the Pisco-Paracas region, southern Peruvian coast Auge y crisis: la pesquería de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus en la región Pisco-Paracas, costa sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. González Hunt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines scallop (Argopecten purpuratus booms experienced in the Pisco-Paracas Region of southern Peru, triggered by the 1982-1983 and the 1997-1998 mega-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events.The quiet fishing ports have been transformed by these booms, which have attracted outside stakeholders transforming the local society. Government institutions in their role as resource managers and environmental stewards have attempted to control access to a region that until recently contained the only marine protected area of Peru.This situation has led to rapid growth in the scallop industry, the overexploitation and depletion of the shellfish, creating a sustainability crisis. Furthermore, this paper examines contradictions and relationships across local, regional, national, and international scales.Este trabajo examina los ciclos de expansión (boom de la explotación de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus observados en la región Pisco-Paracas del sur del Perú, resultantes de los fenómenos El Niño de 1982-1983 y 1997-1998.Los apacibles puertos de pesca han sido transformados por estos booms productivos que han atraído actores externos y han generado un impacto en la sociedad local. Las instituciones gubernamentales, en su papel de administradores de recursos y protectores del medio ambiente, han tratado de controlar el acceso a una región que hasta hace poco contenía la única área marina protegida del Perú.Esta situación ha producido un rápido crecimiento de la industria de la concha de abanico, su sobreexplotación y el agotamiento de dicho recurso, y ha producido una crisis de sostenibilidad. Asimismo, este trabajo examina las contradicciones y las relaciones entre las escalas local, regional, nacional e internacional.

  9. Sedimentary facies of the Middle-Lower Devonian Niqiuhe Formation in East Ujimqin Qi of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古东乌旗地区中下泥盆统泥鳅河组沉积相研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜叶龙; 程银行; 李艳锋; 李敏; 胡晓佳; 张永; 张天福; 牛文超

    2015-01-01

    发育于内蒙古东乌旗地区的泥鳅河组,属于早中泥盆世沉积,厚度约1000,m,主要发育泥岩、粉砂岩和灰岩沉积,粉砂岩中常常发育大量腕足类和珊瑚生物化石。首次在本区发现风暴沉积和 Beaconites 遗迹化石:风暴沉积由下至上包括粒序层理段、平行层理段、丘状交错层理段和浪成波纹层理段4个层段;Beaconites遗迹化石具管壁和内部水平“V”字型的回填纹构造。通过对岩相、生物化石、风暴沉积和 Beaconites 遗迹化石的研究显示,东乌旗地区泥鳅河组为浅海相沉积。%The Middle-Lower Devonian Niqiuhe Formation,with about 1 000,m thick,developed at the East Ujimqin Qi of Inner Mongolia.It mainly consists of mudstone,siltstone and limestone.A great deal of brachiopoda and coral fossils are often found in the siltstone.Storm deposit and the trace fossil of Beaconites were found for the first time.The storm deposits consist from the bottom to the top of four seg_ments,namely graded bedding,parallel bedding,hummocky cross_bedding and wavy bedding.Beaco-nites is characterized by pipe wall and horizontal “V” back_packing structure.The research of petrofacies, fossils,storm deposits and Beaconites shows that the Niqiuhe Formation in East Ujimqin Qi area belongs to shallow sea facies.

  10. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  11. Comparative study of hydrographic conditions for algal bloom formation in the coastal waters of east and west of Hong Kong during 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hongda; TANG Senming

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance was found to be positively correlated with seasonal changes of seawater temperature in Port Shelter and Lamma Channel, Hong Kong in 1998. Rising water temperature from around 20°C to 25°C coincided with an increase in phytoplankton abundance at both locations. Heavy rains from June to September reduced salinity from 30 to 20, but the decrease in salinity was not correlated with a decline in phytoplankton abundance. In spring 1998, over 0.6×106 cells dm-3 and 0.1×106 cells dm-3 of the dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake et Kominami ex Oda occurred in the coastal waters of Port Shelter and Lamma Channel, respectively. High abundance of the dinoflagellate Ceratium furca (Ehr.) Claparede et Lachmann (>1×106 cells dm-3) produced long-lasting blooms in the waters of Port Shelter from September to October in 1998. The abundances of both diatoms and dinoflagellates were significantly lower in the waters of Lamma Channel than those in Port Shelter due to the less frequent blooms in 1998. Hydrographic conditions such as stable water masses and water column stratification were the main reasons for the differences in the algal abundance and bloom frequency found between the two locations since neither of the two areas appeared to be nutrient-limited. This type water condition for the formation of algal bloom in Port Shelter has not been reported previously and it is not a general case for many bays along China's coast where algal bloom occurs as well.

  12. Barefoot on Hot Ground: Formation Temperatures of Plio-Pleistocene Soil Carbonates in East Africa Based on the Clumped Isotope in Carbonate (Δ47) Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, B. H.; Eiler, J. M.; Levin, N. E.; Cerling, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    We utilize the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer to investigate paleoenvironments of human evolution in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Analyses were made using a new automated online peripheral that reduces the human workload and improves the success rate of this analysis. Paleotemperatures for Plio-Pleistocene soil carbonates that formed >50cm below the paleosurface range between ~30°C and 40°C; some of this temperature variation is temporally systematic and coherent across depositional facies. Present day mean annual temperature in this region averages 29°C, and there is very little seasonal variation in average monthly temperature (50 cm depth are strongly buffered against diurnal and short-term (i.e., weeks) temperature variations. Possible explanations for these high temperatures include 1) much higher mean annual or mean seasonal air temperatures during parts of the Plio-Pleistocene, 2) a temporal bias of soil carbonate formation towards short-lived extreme temperature events, 3) nonequilibrium or diagenetic isotope effects, and 4) persistent elevation of soil temperatures relative to air temperatures. A brief deployment of remote temperature sensors near Lake Turkana revealed that soil temperatures were considerably higher than air temperatures. Temperatures at 50 cm depth were stable between 35°C and 37°C; those at 10 cm ranged diurnally between 44°C (day) and 33°C (night). Air temperatures in the shade ranged between 37°C (day) and 26°C (night). These study localities were sparsely vegetated, and the elevated soil temperatures are consistent with surface heating by solar radiation. A survey of previous data reveals that temperatures well above 45°C are common for surfaces receiving direct solar radiation. The relevant boundary condition for soil temperature is therefore surface soil temperature, and not air temperature as might be assumed. The Turkana Basin today is one of the hottest regions on Earth; our results

  13. East Asia Rolls On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The economic recovery in East Asia remains unchanged on its upward trajectory despite the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan on March 11.Growth in East Asia slowed after a sharp rebound from the global financial crisis but is improving nonetheless.The World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific Economic Update issued on March 21 projects real GDP growth in East Asia will be smaller than that of 2010 in the following two years.Besides future East Asian economic trends,the report also discusses the impact of the Japanese catastrophe.Edited excerpts follow:

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  15. The Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  16. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  17. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  18. Maritza East 1 presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.; Haillet, J.-M.; Casier, F. [ALSTOM Power (Italy). Enviornmental Control Systems

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the project to develop a 670 MW gross and 600 MW net lignite-fired power plant, the AES-3C Maritza East 1, to be realised adjacent to the site of the existing Maritza East 1 power plant. The site is 40 kilometres south-east of Stara Zagora and 250 km south-east of Sofia, Bulgaria. The project will be more efficient and have lower emissions of sulphur dioxide per MW of electricity generated than the existing Maritza East 1 facility. The facility will have low NOx emissions, an electrostatic precipitator to control the emissions of particular matter and a flue gas desulfurization system to control emissions of sulphur dioxide. The AES 3-C Maritza East 1 plant meets all emissions criteria as defined by the Bulgarian Government, the EU and all other relevant authorities unlike the plants at Maritza East 2 and 1 which will either have to retrofit abatement technology in the next few years or face the prospect of limited hours operation and eventual closure after 2008. The new facility will have zero discharge of waste water. Condenser cooling will be provided by a natural draught cooling tower fed in part by process waters. This recycling of water for the cooling tower will significantly reduce the amount of water withdrawn from the lake. In addition, cooling tower blowdown and other potential facility discharges will be used within the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system. ALSTOM has paid careful attention to all the different aspects involved: minimisation of environmental impact for both air, water and soil by applying state of the art technologies in all the different areas of the project and, at the same time, delivering an economically profitable installation. 2 ills.

  19. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  20. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-05

    isolationism. Its leadership ignored the maturing thinking and the social movement in the East and in the [Interview with Cestmir Cisar by Jan Kaspar ...away into archives of erization, robotization , prognostics, cybernetics and philosophy like a fossil from an era in which we no other achievements of

  1. The East Pacific Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Evidence gathered by expeditions of the University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the International Geophysical Year suggests that the East Pacific Rise is one of the largest physical structures on earth. It runs in a sickle-shaped curve from near New Zealand 8,000 miles

  2. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    10 Su-22/FITTER K and 15 L-29 " Delfin " (NATO desig- nation: MAYA) from CSSR production as photo-recon- naissance aircraft. The 2 transport aircraft...aircraft within the East Bloc as well: Its trainers, the older L-29 " Delfin " (NATO code name MAYA) and the modern L-39 "Albatros," are being used by the

  3. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  4. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-17

    EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL ALBANIA Alia’s Views on Links to Masses Stressed ( Guro Zeneli; BASHKIMI, 8 Jul 87) , 1 Party Control Over Army...ALIA’S VIEWS ON LINKS TO MASSES STRESSED Tirana BASHKIMI in Albanian 8 Jul 87 p 2 [Article by Guro Zeneli: "Always with the Rhythm, the Vigor, the Will

  5. JPRS Report East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Radio Broadcasts for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Begin [TRYBUNA 8 May] .................................... 2 YUGOSLAVIA Reasons for Tudjman’s...for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Elena Lagadinova, deputy chairman; Begin Khristina Pepeldzhiyska, deputy chairman; 90P20027A Warsaw TR YBUNA in Polish 8...Commission for [Text] On 7 May, Polish Radio began broadcasting Socioeconomic Development; special programs for Poles [ Polonia ] residing in the East. 2

  6. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Plan Progress Report for CEMA Agriculture (Ngok Bin, Petr Ivashov; INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT, No 6, 1985) 1 ECONOMY...INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA Civil Air Transport Pilot Training School Described (Dmitri Zassorov; VOLKSARMEE, No 47, 1985) 12 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Former...AFFAIRS CURRENT 5-YEAR PLAN PROGRESS REPORT FOR CEMA AGRICULTURE Moscow/East Berlin INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT in German No 6, 1985 pp

  7. Middle East Reform Halts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The chaos in Iraq poses a great threat to the U.S. plan in the Middle East While the fighting between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah becomes fiercer, security in Iraq also keeps deteriorating, making the region a petrol can that may blow up anytime.

  8. Structure Contour of the Top of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the structural configuration of the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations in feet below sea level. The map was produced by calculating the...

  9. Estimated Thickness of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations to the Top of the Cotton Valley Group, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations to the top of the Cotton Valley Group. The map was...

  10. Estimated Thickness of the Cotton Valley Group to the Top of the Smackover Formation, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Cotton Valley Group to the top of the Smackover Formation. It was necessary to contour this...

  11. Growing East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ It was a busy exchanging period of East Asia in recent days. From October 28 to 31, 2007 the fourth China-ASEAN Expo (CAEXPO) and the fourth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit (CABIS) were held concurrently in Nanning, capital city of Guangxi Province in China. In the Expo,China witnessed a turnout of over 33,000 trade visitors and over 180 investment cooperation projects with ASEAN.

  12. 东秦岭丹凤岩群的形成时代和构造属性%A Study of Formation Epoch and Tectonic Attribute of the Danfeng Group Complex in East Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴先治; 李厚民; 李国光

    2001-01-01

    Located on the Shangdan tectonic zone, the Danfeng Group complex in the East Qinling mountains was on whole formed in Newproterozoic (1?000~800Ma). Petrogeochemical characterisitics of metabasic volcanic rocks within the complex of this group show that, instead of being ophiolite, they are island_arc type volcanic rocks formed in an active epicontinental paleoisland_arc tectonic environment under the plate tectonic system of Newproterozoic main orogenic epoch in Qinling orogenic belt.%东秦岭丹凤岩群位于秦岭商丹构造带上,主体形成于新元古代(1000Ma~800Ma),其中变质基性火山岩的岩石地球化学特征表明为岛弧型火山岩系,而非蛇绿岩,其形成于秦岭造山带新元古代主造山期板块构造体制下的活动陆缘古岛弧构造环境.

  13. Deposición transversal de líquido de las boquillas de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales The transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Viana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar la deposición transversal de caldo de las boquillas pulverizadoras de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales. Se utilizaron 5 muestras de cada boquilla pulverizadora siendo considerada cada unidad, una repetición. La distribución de caldo fue evaluada por medio de una mesa de evaluación de distribución construida de acuerdo con la norma ISO 56821. Se evaluó el perfil de distribución individual, la distribución volumétrica simulada de la superposición de los chorros por medio del coeficiente de variación (CV% de los volúmenes colectados, el caudal y el ángulo de abertura de los chorros. Las condiciones operacionales fueron: presión de trabajo de 200, 300 y 400 Kpa, altura de 30, 40 y 50 cm en relación al blanco y espaciamiento entre boquillas simulados en Software (Microsoft Excel entre 45 y 100 cm. Las boquillas presentaron perfil individual descontinuo con la mayor deposición de líquido en la región central y reducción del volumen gradual en dirección a las extremidades. El aumento de la presión promovió alargamiento del perfil y de la franja de aplicación. Las boquillas proporcionaron perfil uniforme que dependió del espaciamiento entre las boquillas, con valores menores con reducción en el espaciamiento y en presiones mayores. El caudal y el ángulo del chorro aumentaron con el incremento en la presión.The objective of this work was evaluate the transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions. Was used five samples of each nozzle and considerate a unite one repetition. The spray deposition was evaluate on a table of evaluation distribution constructed in accordance with norm ISO 5682-1. Was evaluate a single spray distribution, volumetric distribution of the overlapping spurts by means of the coefficient of variation (CV%, outflow and angle of opening of the

  14. East African ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  15. Study on Seam Features and Control Factors of Huagang Formation of Xihu Depression in East Sea%东海西湖凹陷花港组煤层特征及控制因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎; 郭英海; 赵志刚; 蔡佳; 王飞

    2014-01-01

    In order to study development features of the seams in Huagang Formation of Xihu Depression,the paper discussed the major control factors of the seams development.The statistic analysis method of the well logging and recording data in the study zone,the sedimen-tology graphic and map analysis and other method were applied to study the formation environment and development features of the seams. The results showed that the distribution of the seams in Huagang Formation was wide and the thickness variation was high.Along the expan-sion direction of the basin,the seams were symmetrical distributed,the distributions of the seams were nonuniform and the features of the north and south zones were obvious.During the sedimentary period of the Huangang Formation,Xihu Depression was in the depression peri-od and the development of the fluvial facies-delta facies-lacustrine facies sedimentary environment would be favorable to the coal forma-tion.The seam distribution features were affected by the basic floor features and the sedimentary environment control and the paper pointed out that the sedimentary environment was the main factors of the seam development.%为了研究西湖凹陷花港组煤层发育特征,探讨煤层发育主要控制因素,运用研究区测井、录井数据统计分析及沉积学图件分析等方法,研究煤层形成环境及发育特征,结果表明:西湖凹陷花港组煤层具有分布广泛,厚度变化大,煤层沿盆地延伸方向上对称分布,煤层分布不均匀,南北分带明显的特点。西湖凹陷花港组沉积时期,西湖凹陷处于坳陷期,发育河流相-三角洲相-湖泊相沉积环境,易于成煤。煤层分布特点受基底特征及沉积环境控制影响,同时指出沉积环境为煤层发育的主控因素。

  16. East Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows east Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame; for scale, the impact crater in upper right corner is 15 km (9 miles) wide. The image, centered at latitude 7.5 degrees S., longitude 67.5 degrees, is a composite of Viking 1 Orbiter high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low-resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. East Candor Chasma occupies the eastern part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. East Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by walled cliffs, most likely faults. The walls may have been dissected by landslides forming reentrants; one area on the north wall shows what appears to be landslide debris. Both walls show spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. In the lower part of the image northwest-trending, linear depressions on the plateau are younger graben or fault valleys that cut the south wall. Material central to the chasma shows layering in places and has been locally eroded by the wind to form flutes and ridges. These interior layered deposits have curvilinear reentrants carved into them, and in one locale a lobe flows away from the top of the interior deposit. The lobe may be mass-wasting deposits due to collapse of older interior deposits (Lucchitta, 1996, LPSC XXVII abs., p. 779- 780); this controversial idea requires that the older layered deposits were saturated with ice, perhaps from former lakes, and that young volcanism and/or tectonism melted the ice and made the material flow.

  17. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  18. Configurating Study of High Fluoride Groundwater Formation Mechanism in East Henan Plain%高氟地下水形成的组态分析——以豫东平原区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁立波; 徐恒力

    2012-01-01

    The study of high fluoride groundwater formation mechanism is very important. Under the guidance of system theory, classification of traditional water chemistry was improved and configurating analysis was used to study the formation mechanism. It was found that high fluoride groundwater was formed by synergic functions of multiple components. As for non-linear system, high fluoride groundwater formation was polymorphic. As for one section, it was a temporary state, and continually changing. The high probability of water chemistry configurate of Na+ > Ca2+ was more than Na+ < Ca2+ type. In high fluoride groundwater, water chemistry configurates of Na. Mg. Ca-H.S.C and Na.Mg.Ca-H.C.S were representative, with high probability as 86% and 76% respectively.%高氟地下水的形成机理研究是目前相关理论研究的关键问题,文章在系统思想指导下将传统的水化学类型分类方法进行改进,以组态分析的方法进行形成机理研究,得出以下结论:(1)高氟地下水的形成是多因子协同作用的结果;(2)作为非线性系统,高氟地下水的形成是个多态问题,就某一个区段而言是一个“暂态”,一直处于多态的变化过程中,在此过程中各个因子相互作用形成多组态;(3)Na+>Ca2+型的水化学组态的高氟率(平均51%)明显大于Na+<Ca+型(平均12%),在高氟区段,具有代表性的水化学组态有Na·Mg·Ca-H·S·C、Na·Mg· Ca-H·C·S,其高氟概率分别为86%、76%.

  19. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...

  20. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  1. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  2. East of Eden / M. A.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  3. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  4. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  5. UKRAINE AND THE EAST: CULTUROLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Pylypiuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Oriental studies regard the East as the cradle of the world’s civilization, a web of unique cultural formations. Within the modern East–West paradigm, the research into the values of tradition should be underpinned by dominant axiological concepts in order to systematize contemporary ideas of the world, nature, the individual and mentality. In accordance with the central methodological principle of the research, archetypes are regarded as cultural universals. In the article, the typology of the cosmological and the spiritual elements (the Moon and the Word respectively in the Oriental and Ukrainian traditions are highlighted, the emphasis being laid on the analysis of the semantic and thematic fields of the two archetypes.

  6. U.S. and East Asian Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2008-01-01

    the U.S. is directly impacting on the future of the East Asian community. Therefore, finding ways to get along with the U.S. is crucial to the speed, direction, configuration and character of the East Asian community. In this paper, the author has analyzed the interests of the United States in East Asia and its stands towards the East Asian integration. The author concludes that it is to the interest of the United States to make more efforts to further join in the East Asian integration.And East Asia should accept and welcome the American participation.

  7. Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After bottoming out last year, the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency. The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest EastAsia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  8. Petroleum geological investigations in East greenland: project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmerik, L.; Clausen, O.R.; Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S.; Therkelsen, J. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Korstgaard, J. [Univ. of Aarhus, Geological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark); Seidler, L.; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The multidisciplinary research project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland` was initiated in 1995. The 1996 field work in East Greenland concentrated on integrated structural, sedimentological and biostratigraphical studies of the Upper Permian and Mesozoic successions. The most important new results arising from the 1996 field work are: 1) Re-interpretation of the Upper Permian Schuchert Dal Formation as a low stand turbidite unit within the Ravnefjeld Formation; 2) Recognition of Middle Jurassic deposits and thick lowermost Cretaceous sandstones on Hold with Hope; 3) Interpretation of a full spectrum of scarp-derived coarse-clastic mass movement deposits inter-bedded with Cretaceous shales on eastern Traill Oe; 4) The presence of a thick sand-rich Cretaceous turbidite succession on eastern Traill Oe; 5) Re-interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault systems on Traill Oe and Geographical Society Oe. (EG) 24 refs.

  9. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  10. The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon:Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金海; 刘伯奇

    2016-01-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we fi rstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Pro ject), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land–sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the eff ect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land–sea thermal contrast and the infl uences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate diff erence between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its infl uential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of fluid chemistry in the East Mesa KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, J.R.

    1976-10-04

    One of the major problems needing consideration when bringing a geothermal field into production is the anticipation and control of mineral precipitation in both the producing formations and production equipment. Prediction of the chemical interactions between natural multicomponent thermal fluids and the minerals comprising a producing formation can be accomplished by the study of equilibrium models approximating the natural system. Models are constructed from theoretically and experimentally derived thermodynamic data for the involved minerals and aqueous species. This equilibrium modeling approach was applied to the rock-water system at the East Mesa geothermal area in the Imperial Valley of California. Results of petrographic and fluid analyses are given. (JGB)

  12. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and population history of medieval East Slavic tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A

    2013-12-01

    The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe.

  13. East Man,Global Winner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wind Blew; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ "The Global Human Settlement Environment Green Building Materials Award is a special award with a special significance.My staff and I feel so excited with this award.It is a special honor that means our independent brand,East Man Heath Paint,has received recognition in the international community.

  14. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  15. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  16. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  17. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  18. Experiencing the New Geography in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uli; Burpee, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Considers the difficulties experienced by the East German School system adjusting to a more progressive educational philosophy. Specifically, contrasts the traditional East German geography instruction (focused solely on physical geography) with the West German emphasis on social issues and problem solving. Many East German instructors distrust…

  19. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    the emplacement of small volumes of basalts of the Vindtoppen Formation to the south of Scoresby Sund.Although the basalts were extruded close to sea level, this part of East Greenland is a plateau raised to c. 2 km, but the timing of uplift is controversial. Superimposed on the plateau is a major dome at Kangerlussuaq.East Greenland presents a rich interplay between magmatic and tectonic events reflecting the birth of the North Atlantic Ocean. It was active over a much longer period (36 Ma than other parts of the province (5 Ma in the Hebrides, Northern Ireland and the Faroe Islands and contains a wider range of products, including carbonatites, and felsic rocks tend to be granitic rather than syenitic. As expected, there are many similarities with Iceland, the present-day expression of activity in the province. Differences are readily explained by higher production rates and the thicker lithospheric lid during the early stages of development in East Greenland. The igneous and related activity clearly results from plate-tectonic factors, but the relationship is not understood in detail. In particular, the nature of the underlying mantle processes, primarily the presence or absence of a plume, is still not resolved.

  20. STUDY ON RIVER-SEA INTERACTION AND FORMATION OF PALEO-YANGTZE GRAND DELTA SYSTEM IN THE AREA OF SOUTH YELLOW SEA AND EAST CHINA SEA%河海交互作用与黄东海域古扬子大三角洲体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邹欣庆; 殷勇; 张永战; 刘绍文

    2012-01-01

    海疆权益维护提供重要的科学依据.%China seas are characterized by river-sea interaction and accumulative continental shelf. With the association of arc islands,there is a set of marginal seas developed along China coastal areas. To carry huge amount of sediments, five of seven large rivers origin from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ultimately flow into China seas. With sufficient sediments supply,a wide accumulative continental shelf was formed during Cenozoic era. This paper studies geomorphologic formation of the continental shelf in South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, where sediment discharge from the Yellow River and the Changjiang River are the major sources in contributing terrigenous deposits. According to the researches conducted in the last 3 decades,it is eventually realized that,there is a grand delta system distributed in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The base of the system was an original delta, located between 34°30'N to 26°N from north to south,and eastward boundaried as -100~-150m water depth,with the Changjiang River mouth and Hangzhou Estuary as it's centre, forward to sea as a 230° arc shaped delta deposited on the sea bottom. The base delta was formed during Mid-Late Pleistocene when ancient Changjiang River started to run into the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. This bottom delta was originating from the huge river sediments, discharged from ancient Changjiang and Yellow River, and being reshaped by waves and tidal currents. Upon the huge bottom delta, there are four delta unions superimposed on the top,and developed in different geological time: Paleo Changjiang-Yellow River delta and radiative sand ridge field of Late Pleistocene, Holocene-Modern Changjiang River delta and abandoned Yellow River delta of historical time. The Paleo-Yangtze Grand Delta System geographically covers most areas of East China Sea and South Yellow Sea, which forms continental sedimentary geomorphology. A multidimensional survey to this region is

  1. The East Anglian Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, P

    1991-07-01

    The first Corneal Bank in East Anglia is located at the BUPA Hospital in Norwich, a joint venture between NHS, BUPA and the Lions Clubs International (District 101 EA). There was insufficient space to accommodate the Bank at the West Norwich Hospital where the Ophthalmic Department is situated and so, at the suggestion of the BUPA Hospital Manager, Mr Paul Hanke, It came to the BUPA Colney Lane site.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  3. Snake perturbation during pellet injection in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xingjia; Hu, Jiansheng; Xu, Liqing; Xu, Zong; Chen, Yue; Li, Changzheng; Liu, Haiqing; Zhao, Hailing; Duan, Yanmin; Shi, Tonghui; Shen, Wei; EAST Team

    2016-11-01

    The pellet-induced snake oscillation was observed by soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostic in EAST for the first time after a fueling-sized pellet penetrated the q  =  1 surface. The snake phenomenon has a long lifetime with a helicity of m  =  1 and n  =  1. Basic behaviors of the snake, including the triggering condition, interaction with the sawtooth and snake rotation frequency, were discussed in detail by multiple core diagnostics. The snake location was also analyzed through observation of the vertical SXR arrays and raw SXR brightness profiles. It is clear that the snake resided in a broad region between the magnetic axis and the q  =  1 surface derived from equilibrium reconstruction. This investigation is beneficial for the understanding of the snake formation for EAST and future devices, like ITER and DEMO.

  4. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  5. 黔东松桃南华系大塘坡组锰矿层物源:来自 Sr 同位素的证据%Provenance of Nanhuan Datangpo Formation Manganese Mn Deposit in Songtao Area,East Guizhou Province:Evidence from Sr Isotope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文超; 齐靓; 杜远生; 周琦; 彭头平; 王萍; 袁良军; 徐源; 潘文; 谢小峰

    2016-01-01

    in Lower Nanhuan Datangpo Formation in Songtao,East Guizhou Province indicates that 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios in 15 samples vary in 0.705 727-0.732 536.Studied samples include Mn ore,Mn shale and black shale in the Mn-bearing layer and the highest 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio appears in the black shale sample.With Al (%)increasing in samples,87 Sr/86 Sr ratios show two changing trends:the rising trend indicates terrigenous materials input and the falling trend indicates the deep hydrothermal sources input.As to 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios via Mn (%),there is no significant correlation coefficient,but 87 Sr/86 Sr ra-tios decrease when Mn (%)increase generally,according to residual analysis,we find that this is caused by the convergence fluctuation of 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios against the Mn(%)changes.The broad variation of 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios in Mn layer is caused by the dual inputs from terrigenous materials and hydrothermal sources.Compared with the contemporary (about 660 Ma)Sr isotope ratio in paleoseawater and the Sr isotope data from different ages Mn deposit world wide,we find that the broad variation of 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios in the Datangpo For-mation.Mn layer does not conform to the feature of hydrogenetic Mn deposit.Considered with the specific geological background,we believe that the accumulation and precipitation of manganese are separated processes:the accumulation of Mn had finished in the anoxic basin during the Sturtian glaciation,whereas the Mn deposit precipitated in an unstable paleoceanographic environment at the beginning of interglaciation.

  6. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West Europe. Supplements to...Foreign Aid, Corporate Acceptance of Land Reform Law [WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS 18-24 Nov] ... 9 10 THAILAND Commerce Ministry Official Views...Land Reform Law 42000042 Manila WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS in English 18-24 Nov 88 p 15 [Article under the rubric "ON THE BEAT" by Jake Espino] [Text

  7. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  8. Molecular geochemistry of Eocene Pinghu Formation coal-bearing source rocks in the Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin%西湖凹陷始新统平湖组煤系烃源岩分子地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱扬明; 周洁; 顾圣啸; 李颖

    2012-01-01

    GC/MS analytical data of 60 saturated and aromatic fractions revealed that saturated hydrocarbons from Pinghu Formation coal-bearing source rocks in the Xihu Depression of the East China Sea Shelf Basin are characterized by abundant diterpenoid compounds originated from resins of coniferous trees and dominant Cd in steranes(>45%). Moreover, aromatic fractions are abnormally rich in terrigenous biomarkers, such as retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene, indicating a predominant source of organic matter derived from terrigenous higher plants. Compared with coals and carbonaceous mudstones, dark mudstones show a relatively higher content of C27 sterane and a bimodal distribution in n-alkanes, suggesting a certain proportion of aquatic organism contributions in the organic matter source. Source rocks as a whole are believed to be deposited in an oxic limnetic-facies environment, as reflected by high Pr/Ph ratios ranging mostly from 3. 5 to 8. 5 and abundant dibenzofuranes. However, some dark mudstones show relatively lower Pr/Ph values (round 1.5), suggesting a weakly reducing to suboxic semi-deep lake setting. Coals and carbonaceous mudstones can be distinguished from dark mudstones by a higher relative concentration of C29 sterane (>80%) and lower gammacerane /C30 ho-pane ratio (<0. 05).%60个饱和烃和芳烃组分的GC-MS分析资料表明,东海盆地西湖凹陷平湖组煤系烃源岩饱和烃中富含源于针叶树脂的二萜烷类生物标志物,甾烷中普遍以C29化合物占优势(>45%),芳烃组分中惹烯、1,7-二甲基菲等陆源标志物含量异常高,这些结果反映该煤系烃源岩的成烃母质主要来源于陆源高等植物.相对于煤及碳质泥岩,暗色泥岩中C27甾烷有较高含量,且正构烷烃呈双峰型分布,说明其有机质生物源中永生生物占有一定比例.该煤系烃源岩的Pr/Ph值大多分布在3.5~8.5,二苯并呋喃类化合物较多,指示这套烃源层主要形成于氧化性较强的湖沼相

  9. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  10. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  11. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  12. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  13. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  14. East German Teacher Reactions to Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that reunification allowed teacher unions of the former West Germany to move into the former East Germany, filling a structural void left by the dissolution of the Communist Party. Specifically examines the reactions of newly elected teacher union leaders from the former East Germany to subsequent events in the education and political…

  15. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  16. Collieries of North East Lancashire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadin, J.

    2003-06-01

    The last deep mine in the Burnley Coalfield, Hapton Valley Colliery, closed in 1982 and with its demise went a comradeship and companionship that few other industries have enjoyed. The Burnley Coalfield covers an area from Colne through to Blackburn and Darwen, Higham Village to the west and Worsthorne Moor to the east. A number of pits in the Bacup area have also been included. Four companies - John Hargeaves, George Hargreaves, Brooks and Pickup and the Cliverger Coal Co. dominated coal mining in the area and between them sank the pits which many of the Burnley miners will, even now, recall. This is the story of those pits, of those who sunk and financed them, and of those who toiled, laboured, even perished, within the their depths. 200 photos.

  17. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment.

  18. East Capital suunab investorid Venemaale / Gert Tiivas ; interv. Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiivas, Gert, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimispanga East Capitali Balti regiooni juht Gert Tiivas soovitab investeerida Baltimaadest suurema potentsiaaliga riikide börsidele. Vt. samas: CV: Gert Tiivas; East Capitali fondid. Diagramm: East Capitali Venemaa fondis on enim raha

  19. Gravity Investigation in Area East of River Nile (Khartoum State)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the subsurface geology of the area. For quantitative interpretation of the resulting Bouguer anomalies, borehole data are explored. This is done along several profiles obtained from software program G. model C version 2. 2 No. 175. This program is based on two -dimensional mass distribution. The interpretation reveals two basinal features filling depressions in the basement complex named as Abu Harira basin and Kabbashi basin. They are structurally related to Khartoum basin. As a result, a geological/structural map of the area in east of the Nile is produced. The basinal features in the study area are considered as parts of the central Sudan (Khartoum basin) that had been subjected to several tectonic events that resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence and formation of these basins.

  20. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  1. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  2. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  3. 新疆大黑山东部姜巴斯套组下段的凝灰岩锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄及其地质意义%Crystal Tuff Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Ages from the Lower Jiangbasitao Formation in the East Daheishan Area, Xinjiang and Their Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊婷婷; 周小虎; 柳益群; 李玮; 郑朝阳; 胡亭; 梁浩

    2011-01-01

    准噶尔东部大黑山地区出露的姜巴斯套组为一套厚层海相火山-沉积地层,其形成时代及地层层序存在争议.对姜巴斯套组下段2个具有地层意义的晶屑凝灰岩开展的锆石LA-ICP-MS测年,获得的加权平均年龄分别为339.4±1.9 Ma(MSWD = 0.39)和336.3±2.6 Ma(MSWD=0.58),结合古生物新的研究成果,确定了该套地层时代为早石炭世.其中,最老的继承性单颗粒碎屑锆石谐和年龄为2999±51 Ma,推测该区应存在前寒武纪古老地块,因此准噶尔盆地东北缘古生代山系由两条蛇绿岩、蛇绿混杂岩带围限的区带,应是由蛇绿岩、蛇绿混杂岩地体、岛弧岩浆杂岩和微古陆块共同组成的古生代增生带.%The Daheishan area is located in the south of the Santanghu Basin, north to the Balikun-Kaedikeshan,and is adjacent to the Tu-ha Basin, which is located in the Paleozoic Orogenic Belt of eastern edge of Junggar basin.A suite of thick-bedded marine volcanic-sedimentary rocks consist mainly of tuffaceous sandstones and siltstones,tuffs, muddy siltstones, silty mudstones, mudstones, and conglomerates are distributed in the Daheishan region in east Junggar, of which the ages and stratigraphy are highly controversial. More importantly, as the study area is sand-wicbed between the Zhaheba-Aermantai and the Kelamaili-Takezhale ophiolitic melange belts, it is of importance to investigate the stratigraphy. Two crystal tuff horizons (Nos. DHS04N and DHS07N) are sampled from the Jiangbasitao Formation of Lower Carboniferous and are dated using zircon LA-ICP-MS method. The analysis shows that the zircons are of typical magmatic origin with oscillatory zoning. Samples of DHS04N have a uranium content of 63 ~ 642 μg/g, thorium of 19 ~ 1037 μg/g, and a Th/U value range between 0.29 and 1.89. Whereas those of DHS07N have a uranium content of 40 ~476 μg/g, thorium of 25 ~466 μg/g, and Th/U of 0.48 ~1.14. The dating results yield two weighted mean 206

  4. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  5. Simulation Analysis of Divertor Performance in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Sizheng; Zha Xuejun

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of the divertor performance in the EAST has been conducted for both its double null and single null configurations. The results of the application of the SOLPS (B2/Eirene) code package to the analysis of the EAST divertor are summarized. Here we concentrate on the effects of the increased geometrical closure and variation in the magnetic topology on the behavior of divertor plasmas. The results of numerical predictions for the EAST divertor's operational window are also described in this paper.

  6. Early urban development in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur, Jason A; Karsgaard, Philip; Oates, Joan

    2007-08-31

    It has been thought that the first cities in the Near East were spatially extensive and grew outward from a core nucleated village while maintaining a more or less constant density in terms of persons or households per unit of area. The general applicability outside of the Near East of this southern Mesopotamian.derived model has been questioned recently, and variations from it are increasingly recognized. We can now demonstrate that such variation was present at the beginnings of urbanism in the Near East as well.

  7. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  9. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  10. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James

    2016-11-01

    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.

  11. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  12. Hydrography, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.

  13. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  14. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  15. Metallogenic Model and Prospecting Indicators of the Boron Deposits in East Liaoning Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hongxiang; Zhang Guoren; Li Xiandong; Chen Shuliang; Yang Zhongzhu; Wang Zhongjiang

    2001-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic boron deposits in east Liaoning occur in Mg- rich marble of Li' eryu Formation of Liaohe group. The mineralization was controlled by stratigraphic lithology. The volcano ~ sedimentation is the material base of ore-formation. Boron mainly derived from volcanic source. Boron in Li' eryu formation was activated and transferred by migmatization and then deposited into ore when metasomatism occurrs in Mg - rich marble. Structural deformation reconstructed the boron ore bodies. Meanwhile, ore - bearing hyd~othermal solution produced by structural deformation and remetasomated the host - ore rocks or filled in fissure of ore. Boron deposit is a stratabound deposit, which formed by migmatization and structural deformation mineralization.

  16. Evolving economic architecture in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how East Asia's economic architecture has been evolving over the last ten years and how it will shape itself in the future. With the progress of market-driven economic integration, East Asian economies have developed various cooperative initiatives for trade and finance, including free trade agreements (FTAs), the Chiang Mai Initiative, the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue, and the Asian Bond Markets Initiative. The paper suggests policy directions for greater regional ...

  17. Cultures of the east (1984-1992)

    OpenAIRE

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92), was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc.) of Eastern as well as Western ...

  18. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-06-01

    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  19. The first case of anoxia in waters of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunzhas, P. A.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Ivin, V. V.; Barabanshchikov, Yu. A.; Volkova, T. I.; Vyshkvartsev, D. I.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Mikhailik, T. A.; Semkin, P. Ju.; Tishchenko, P. P.; Khodorenko, N. D.; Shvetsova, M. G.; Golovchenko, F. M.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2013, anoxia of the bottom waters was established in the southern region of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Science, in the depression between Furugelm Island and coastal waters. Death of the benthic community was registered using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The hydrochemical studies revealed that the area of the absence and/or presence of low oxygen contents corresponds to an area of anomalously high contents of ammonium, phosphates, and silicates, a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and normalized alkalinity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The microbiological decomposition of diatoms precipitated on the seafloor in the absence of oxygen regeneration was the reason for anoxia. Its formation in summer of 2013 was caused by anomalously abundant precipitates in the Far East.

  20. The tectonic development and erosion of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritati, A.; Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Sedimentary basins beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) have immense potential to inform models of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica and its ice-sheet. However, even basic characteristics such as thickness and extent are often unknown. Using airborne geophysical data, we resolve the tectonic architecture of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin in western Wilkes Land. In addition, we apply an erosion restoration model to reconstruct the original basin geometry for which we resolve geometry typical of a transtensional pull-apart basin. The tectonic architecture strongly indicates formation as a consequence of the rifting of India from East Gondwana from ca. 160-130 Ma, and we suggest a spatial link with the western Mentelle Basin offshore Western Australia. The erosion restoration model shows that erosion is confined within the rift margins, suggesting that rift structure has strongly influenced the evolution of the Denman and Scott ice streams.

  1. Elbe river flood peaks and postwar agricultural land use in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P

    2001-12-01

    Collectivization of farmland since the 1950s has changed the agricultural land use in former East Germany. Single fields on the collective farms became increasingly large and were cultivated with increasingly heavy farm equipment. This led to large-scale physical degradation of arable soils, enhancing the formation of surface runoff in periods with prolonged and excessive precipitation. The extent to which this development may have affected the discharge behavior of the main East German river, the Elbe, has so far not been studied. We analyzed the flood peaks of the Elbe during the past century (1900-2000). The flood discharge behavior of the Elbe has apparently changed significantly since the 1950s. Although climate changes may be involved, we conclude that the Elbe flood peaks, recorded since 1950, are related to the changes in postwar agricultural land use in former East Germany. To restore the degraded farmland soils, a change in agricultural land use may be necessary.

  2. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  3. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  4. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  5. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  6. Vertical Electrical Sounding Investigation in East River Nile Area (Khartoum State),Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G; Liu Tianyou

    2003-01-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in the east of the River Nile. The main objectives of the resistivity survey are to determine the types and thicknesses of sedimentary units in the area, to defime the contact separating the sediments from the crystalline basement complex, and to determine the structural features of the subsurface formations. Several local depressions, whose maximum depth to the basement surface is about 160 m, are revealed as an outcome of the VES method, and suggested to have been infilled with undifferentiated units of the Nubian Group in particular Omdurman Formation. Thus, a depth to the basement complex is calculated and the associated structural map of the east of the River Nile is drawn. The map is useful for the groundwater drilling, as far as the presence or absence of the aquifer is concerned.

  7. Hydraulic fracturing research in east Texas; Third GRI staged field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.M. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, Inc. (US))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from results from research conducted on the third Gas Research inst. (GRI) staged field experiment (SFE) well. Research well SFE No. 3 was drilled as part of a field-based research program conducted in east Texas during the past 7 years. Most of the work before SFE No. 3 involved the Travis Peak formation; however, the Cotton Valley sandstone was the primary research target for this well. SFE no. 3 is the last in a series of research wells planned for east Texas. A fourth SFE is being conducted in the Frontier formation of southwestern Wyoming. Data on SFE wells are collected from whole cores, openhole geophysical logs, in-situ stress measurements, production and pressure-transient tests, fracture stimulation treatments, fracture-diagnostic measurements, and postfracture performance tests. Test data then are analyzed by research scientists, geologists, and engineers to describe the reservoir and hydraulic fracture fully.

  8. A Synoptic Snapshot of the East Cape Eddy (ECE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu

    2005-01-01

    A synoptic snapshot in this study is made for the East Cape Eddy (ECE) based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P14C Hydrographic Section and Shipboard ADCP velocity vector data collected in September 1992.The ECE is an anticyclonic eddy, barotropically structured and centered at 33.64°S and 176.21°E, with warm and salinouscored subsurface water. The radius of the eddy is of the order O (110 km) and the maximum circumferential velocity is O(40cms-1); as a result, the relative vorticity is estimated to be O (7 × 10-6s-1). Due to the existence of the ECE, the mixed layer north of New Zealand becomes deeper, reaching a depth of 300 m in the austral winter. The ECE plays an important role in the formation and distribution of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) over a considerable area in the South Pacific.

  9. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; White, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniels, R.C. [Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude {times} 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  10. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornitz, V.M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Daniels, R.C. (Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude [times] 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  11. Evaluation of Petroleum System in Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the theory of petroleum system and the characteristics of petroleum geology, the Xihu depression in the East China Sea shelf basin is divided into four petroleum systems: the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock, the Huagang Formation as source rock and reservoir rock, the Paleocene as source rock and the burial-hill as reservoir rock, and the Miocene as source rock and reservoir rock. The system with the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock is the most important one in the depression, which has high hydrocarbon generation and accumulation efficiency and is the most important object to hydrocarbon exploration at present.

  12. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  13. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  14. Modelling of First Discharge in EAST Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chengyue; WU Bin; XIAO Bingjia; SHU Shuangbao

    2008-01-01

    An 1.5D equilibrium evolution code was used to model the time evolution of the first ohmic discharges in the EAST experiment. Good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained in the plasma current, major radius, electron temperature, loop voltage and poloidal field (PF) current for the entire duration of the discharge, which indicates that the code is highly reliable and will allow to further study the EAST discharge. At the same time, the code also simulates some important plasma parameters without experimental measured data yet, such as the plasma minor radius, central and edge safety factors, elongation and triangilarity, which are important in the analysis of EAST data.

  15. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  16. USSR Report, Problems of the Far East No. 2, April-June 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    formation of the Sinkiang territorial unit, a few Kirghiz tribes, whose nomad camps had been located in East Turkestan, were under the yoke of the...the non-Han peoples in Sinkiang in which the Kirghiz did not take part. Just in the 19th century, this took place in 1822, 1826, 1830, 1847, 1855...camps. The book contains interesting information about the location and number of Ch’ing troops in Sinkiang and the disposition of guards and patrols

  17. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  18. Pyrite Genesis During Early Diagenesis in Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟民; 陈丽蓉

    1994-01-01

    The content and isotopic compositions of different sulphur species in pore-water and solid phases have been examined on five sediment cores taken from muddy sediment region in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Relationships among these data have been investigated with the combination of morphology of mineral pyrite and organic matter so as to role out the diagenetic behaviour of sulphur species at the early stage of diagenesis in modern marine sediment and the origin of pyrite formation.

  19. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  20. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    QUÄLTE INSPECTED 6 10 JPRS-NEA-88-010 CONTENTS 25 FEBRUARY 1988 NEAR EAST EGYPT Priorities Of People’s Assembly Satirized 1 SUDAN Communist...Militarisation as ’Seed of Disorder’ 47 JPRS-NEA-88-010 25 February 1988 NEAR EAST EGYPT Priorities Of People’s Assembly Satirized 45040044b Cairo AL...has been raised on their land. And the Arabs have won the war against the Persians in the Gulf. Because all this and more has been achieved, not a

  2. Visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Selected fuel elements stored in both ``good fuel`` and ``bad fuel`` canisters in K East Basin were extracted and visually examined full length for damage. Lower end damage in the ``bad fuel`` canisters was found to be more severe than expected based on top end appearances. Lower end damage for the ``good fuel`` canisters, however, was less than expected based on top end observations. Since about half of the fuel in K East Basin is contained in ``good fuel`` canisters based on top end assessments, the fraction of fuel projected to be intact with respect to IPS processing considerations remains at 50% based on these examination results.

  3. CRISIS FOCUS Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After bottoming out last year,the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency.The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest East Asia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  4. Tectonic evolution of the East Junggar terrane, CAOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    reveal the following evidence: 1) The dioritic gneiss was metamorphosed from 2.52 Ga diorite at approximately 1.88 Ga, the magnetite quartzite interlayered with hornblende-plagioclase gneiss layers has an age of approximately 1.92 Ga, and the inherited zircons from the diorite TH4-6 contain three zircon populations with upper interceptages of approximately 3.06 Ga, 1.98 Ga and 1.89 Ga. These data indicate that the East Junggar terrane has Archean crust that formed at approximately 3.2-3.0 Ga and includes 2.52 Ga diorites and 4.0 Ga zircons and materials. 2) The Taheir tectonic window consists of metamorphic and deformed Ordovician volcanic rocks and granitic porphyries, Ordovician-Silurian granites and undeformed Silurian-Devonian granitic diorite, diorites and rhyolitic porphyries. The Ordovician volcanic rocks and granitic porphyries and Ordovician-Silurian granites in the Taheir tectonic window exhibit distinct features of Andean-type continental arc, such as enrichment in Pb, K and U, depletion in Nb, P and Ti, negative Eu anomalies, high La/Yb, Th/Yb and Ta/Yb values, a high proportion of dacite, rhyolite and andesite of the calc-alkaline series, massive contemporary granitic intrusions, mixtures of the juvenile material and >2.5 Ga crust, and extensive crystallization differentiation. These Ordovician volcanic rocks witnessed a series of tectonic events, including burial associated with the intrusion of 454-449 Ma granitic porphyries, underthrusting and subsidence to a depth in the middle crust associated with the intrusion of 443-432 Ma granites. The formation of albite-hornblende schists, hornblende-albite-quartz leptynites and amphibolites, the transformation from continental to continental island arc at approximately 432 Ma, the exhumation associated with the intrusion of 416-406 Ma diorites with geochemical signatures of continental island arc, and exhumation and erosion between 398 Ma and 390 Ma are also identified. The arc types that are associated with the

  5. Virtual communities? The Middle East revolutions at the Guardian forum: Comment Is Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, B.; Abell, P.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of virtual community formation in an online social network under a rapid increase of activity of members and newcomers. The evolution is studied of the activity of online users at the Guardian - Comment Is Free forum - covering topics related to the Middle East turmoil during the period of 1st of January 2010 to the 28th of March 2011. Despite a threefold upsurge of forum users and the formation of a giant component, the main network characteristics, i.e. degree and weight distribution and clustering coefficient, remained almost unchanged.

  6. An age for Kajong, a Miocene fossil site east of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Leakey, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Kajong Formation in Marsabit District, northern Kenya has yielded a Miocene mammalian fauna consisting of nine taxa. It is capped by a basalt 40Ar/39Ar dated at 19.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and a volcanic clast from a conglomerate within the formation yielded an age of 20.3 Ma, only slightly older. The entire fauna from this site thus lies close to the base of the Miocene Epoch and is older than 19.2 Ma. The site has yielded some of the oldest examples of Archaeobelodon filholi, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, and Gomphotherium sp. in east Africa.

  7. Paleoproterozoic Extensional Structure and Its Controlling on Mineralization in the East of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhongzhu; Chen Shuliang; Li Xiandong; Wang Zhongjiang; Qu Hongxiang; Gang Jiang

    2001-01-01

    The palaeoproterozoic extensional structure in the east of Liaoning Province underwent sub - bedding ductile shear flowing deformation with metamorphism and magmatic emplacement. The reversal structure following the processes constructed the present framework of palaeoproterozoic orogenic belt. As a result of the ductile shearing along the layers, the gold in the Liaohe group was activated, migrated upward to the interface between the Dashiqiao rock formation, which was lower green schist facies and the Gaixian rock formation, so the gold deposit was formed in the space of brittle - ductile shear zone as ductile - shear - zone - typed stratabound gold deposit.

  8. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  9. Correlation Dynamics in East Asian Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using

  10. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  11. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  12. Correlation dynamics in East Asian financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, L; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 1994 to September 2013 for six East Asian countries. We use the multivariate GARCH-DCC model in order to disclose the relationship between stock markets and foreign exchange markets whic

  13. Seasonally Varying Reference Atmospheres for East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vertical profiles of seasonally varying pressure, temperature, water vapor, and trace gases (O3, N2O, CO,CH4), representing atmospheric conditions up to a height of 100 km over the East Asia region (30°-50°N,110°-150°E) were constructed by using various observation data, model outputs of atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, and gaseous concentrations. Optical characteristics of the obtained East Asia reference atmospheres were compared with those from typical midlatitude summer and winter atmospheres. It was noted that, in the water vapor field, there are major differences between the two model atmospheres during the summer. The resultant impact during the summer of water vapor difference on incoming solar fluxes at the surface and emitted terrestrial fluxes at the top of the atmosphere are 14.3 W m-2 and 6.5 W m-2,respectively. On the other hand, the winter difference between East Asian and midlatitude atmospheres appears to be insignificant. Reference atmospheres for the spring and fall are also available. Utilizing the constructed atmospheric profiles as inputs to the radiative transfer model, it is expected that the constructed seasonally varying reference atmospheres can facilitate better descriptions of optical properties in East Asia.

  14. The pollution of East Lake,Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi xiGu; Mialy Rakotondravah

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.The history East Lake was an open lake:she connected Yangtze River through Qlngshan Channel.The water level was controlled by Yangtze River:rising in summer,and decreasing in winter.After building Wufeng Gate in 1957,changing the Qingshan harbor as water supply channel,the East Lake is completely isolated from Yangtze River and then East Lake changes from a natural lake to a closed lake by human control.The watar level is related with rainfall,evaporation,surface runoff,pumping off by the factories along the lake,agricultural and domestic sewage water.East Lake is a typical shallow lake in the northeast of Wuhan city.When the water level is 20.5m,the area is 28km2, volume is 62 million m3,and catchment area is 186 km2.The deepest position:4.75m,average depth is 2.21m2,And also it is a multi-function:water-sport entertainments.drinking water source,fishing,industrial water and famous scene.

  15. POLITICAL THOUGHT AND MODERNISATION OF THE EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the middle of the XX century the Western monopoly on explanation of world development is under erosion. However the atmosphere of intellectual intolerance predominates this process. Despite marginal record of mutual enlightment, theoretical achievements of both West and East have not been subjected to comprehensive dialogue.

  16. East Africa’s Fragmented Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, East Africa has developed what appears to be an impressive security architecture. Katja Lindskov Jacobsen and Johannes Riber Nordby warn, however, that appearances can be deceptive. The region’s security institutions remain too nationalistic and self-interested for their own good....

  17. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    22201. JPRS-EEI-84-095 20 August 19 84 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL AFPAIRS CEMA Conference Expresses...Soviet Idea of Integration (V. Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 16 Jul 84) 1 CEMA Cooperation in Machine Construction Reviewed (AUSSENWIRTSCHAFT...Viktor Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 17 Jul 84) 69 - b - INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA CONFERENCE EXPRESSES SOVIET IDEA OF INTEGRATION

  18. East Man:Health Lacquer of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As a kind of building material, lacquer is very necessarily used in the room fitment.In order to protect the indoor environment and avoid the emission of poisonous gas,people always choose those high-quality imported lacquer despite the high price.However, a new Chinese brand lacquer has been produced, it's called East Man.

  19. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  20. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  1. Effects of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies off the East Coast of Japan on Development of the Okhotsk High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The study examined effects of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) off the east coast of Japan on the blocking high over the Okhotsk Sea in June by diagnostic analysis and numerical simulation. Firstly,based on 500-hPa geopotential height fields, the Okhotsk high index (OKHI) for June from 1951 to 2000is calculated and analyzed. The result indicates that the OKHI has obvious inter-annual and inter-decadal variations, and there are 9 yr of high OKHI and 8 yr of low OKHI in 50 yr. Secondly, by using the OKHI, the relationship between the Okhotsk high and the 500-hPa geopotential height anomaly is investigated. The results indicate that the "+-+" pattern of geopotential height anomaly crossing Eurasia in the mid-high latitudes and the "+-" pattern of geopotential height anomaly from high to low latitudes over East Asia are in favor of the formation and maintenance of the Okhotsk high. The relationship between the OKHI and the SSTA over the North Pacific is investigated in early summer by using correlation and composite analysis.We found that when the blocking circulation over the Okhotsk Sea occurs, there is an obvious negative SSTA off the east coast of Japan in early summer. We simulated the effects of the negative SSTA of east coast of Japan on the atmospheric circulation anomaly over East Asia through the control and sensitivity experiments using NCAR CAM3 model in order to confirm our analysis results. The simulation shows that the negative SSTA off the east coast of Japan results in the significant positive 40 gpm 500-hPa geopotential height anomaly over the Okhotsk Sea and the negative anomalies off the east coast of Japan which might contribute to the formation and development of the Okhotsk high in June.

  2. On the formation of blue ice on Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Scambos, T.

    2014-01-01

    Blue-ice areas (BIAs) cover ⇠1% of the East Antarctic ice sheet and are visual evidence of persistent ablation. In these regions, more snow is sublimated and/or eroded than is accumulated. The physical processes driving the formation of BIAs are poorly understood. Here we combine a firndensification

  3. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  4. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.

  5. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012). Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  6. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  7. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  8. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  9. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of the remnant of the colonial period –the territorial state, whose legitimacy must not only be measured by the commitment to serving much broader Arab or Islamic interests, but whose moral and ideological grounds for existence are often ironically disguised in the supra-national rhetoric of nationalists.The specificity of the Middle East, that is to say the pace and form of its development, the rise of diverse fundamentalist movements, and the historical significance of the globalization process on identity formation, has not benefited greatly by Euro-centric analyses fromthe modernization school. Thus, the author contends that, just as scientific and technological progress continues to set the pace of modernization in the Middle East, needed also is a more comprehensive socio-political approach to fully understand the region’s people’s search for political community in greater terms than security if threechallenges are to be met -democratization, economic development, and bringing peace and stability to the region.

  10. The role of East-Tethys seaway closure in the middle Miocene climatic transition (ca. 14 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT, approximately 14 Ma is a key period in Cenozoic cooling and cryospheric expansion. Despite it is well documented in isotopic record, the causes of the MMCT are still a matter of debate. Among various hypotheses, some authors suggested that it was linked with the final closure of the East-Tethys seaway and subsequent oceanic circulation reorganisation. The aim of the present study is to quantify the impact of varying East-Tethys seaway depths on middle Miocene ocean and climate, in order to better understand its role in the MMCT. We present four sensitivity experiments with a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere generalized circulation model. Our results indicate the presence of a warm and salty water source in the northern Indian Ocean when the East-Tethys is deep-open (4000 or 1000 m, which corresponds to the Tethyan Indian Saline Water (TISW described on the basis of isotopic studies. This water source is absent in the experiments with shallow (250 m and closed East-Tethys, inducing strong changes in the latitudinal density gradient and ultimately the reinforcement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. Moreover, when the East-Tethys seaway is shallow or closed, there is a westward water flow in the Gibraltar Strait that strengthens the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC compared to the experiments with deep-open East-Tethys. Our results therefore suggest that the shoaling and final closure of the East-Tethys seaway played a major role in the oceanic circulation reorganisation during the middle Miocene. The results presented here provide new constraints on the timing of the East-Tethys seaway closure, and particularly indicate that, prior to 14 Ma, a deep-open East-Tethys should have allow the formation of TISW. Moreover, whereas the final closure of this seaway likely played a major role in the MMCT, we suggest that it was not the only driver of the global cooling and Antarctica ice

  11. Edad y rasgos petrográficos y geoquímicos de cuerpos subvolcánicos asignables a la Formación Cerro León, este del Macizo del Deseado, Santa Cruz Age and petrography and geochemistry features of subvolcanic outcrops from Cerro León Formation, east of the Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Guido

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos afloramientos de cuerpos subvolcánicos correlacionables con la Formación Cerro León en el sector oriental del Macizo del Deseado. Esta unidad aflora en dos sectores, en el bajo Leonardo y en el afloramiento Bahía Laura del Complejo Río Deseado. El primer sector presenta trece diques y un filón capa intruyendo a las sedimentitas pérmicas de la Formación La Golondrina y el segundo sector comprende tres diques que intruyen a rocas del basamento. Se trata de rocas de color gris a negro, frecuentemente alteradas, con textura microgranuda a porfírica, con fenocristales de plagioclasa, diópsido (En42 Fs11 Wo47 y en menor medida de hornblendas ricas en Mg (magnesio hastingsita, en una matriz holocristalina de textura intergranular. Son rocas subalcalinas de composiciones basalto-andesita y con afinidades calcoalcalinas. La edad Ar/Ar obtenida en una de estas muestras (180,1±1,5 Ma representa la primer determinación realizada en esta unidad y es coherente con las relaciones estratigráficas observadas para esta formación. La comparación con rocas ígneas jurásicas de la provincia geológica Macizo del Deseado, favorece la vinculación temporal y genética con el evento volcánico-piroclástico del Jurásico medio a superior (Formación Bajo Pobre y Grupo Bahía Laura. Sin embargo, la diferencia en las edades Ar/Ar, sugieren una interrupción entre el evento subvolcánico (180 Ma y el volcanismo Jurásico medio a superior (177 a 150 Ma. Se considera, preliminarmente, que los cuerpos subvolcánicos de la Formación Cerro León representarían las primeras evidencias magmáticas del rift jurásico en el Macizo del Deseado.New subvolcanic outcrops, correlated with the Cerro León Formation and located in the eastern Deseado Massif, are presented. This unit outcrops in two sectors, the Leonardo depression and the Bahía Laura outcrop of the Río Deseado Complex. In the first sector there are thirteen dikes and a sill

  12. The Kuroshio exchange with the South and East China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsuno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kuroshio flows along the edges of the marginal East Asian seas such as the South China Sea (SCS and East China Sea (ECS. Exchanges of materials and energy between the Kuroshio and the marginal seas partly control the environments of the marginal seas. In particular, saline water from the Kuroshio maintains certain salinity in the shelf water in the ECS. Nutrients from the subsurface of the Kuroshio may influence primary production on the shelf. We summarize how the Kuroshio comes into contact with the shelf water or marginal seas, describing phenomena related to the exchange between the Kuroshio and the ECS along with the SCS, using reports in the literature along with original data. The Kuroshio tends to intrude into the SCS through the Luzon Strait in various manners such as direct intrusion, associated with eddies and as a loop current. The Kuroshio intrusion into the shelf region of the ECS has distinct seasonal variation and the Taiwan Warm Current plays a significant role in the determination of water properties in the outer shelf associated with the Kuroshio intrusion. We then examine physical processes related to the interaction between the Kuroshio and shelf water. Interaction between the Kuroshio and the bottom topography is an important process in the control of the exchange around the shelf break. Vertical mixing and frontal eddies are also important factors that control the water exchange and formation of water masses in the outer shelf. Wind stress plays a significant role in the exchange with a rather event-like manner. To determine the source of the water masses, chemical tracers could be powerful tools and it is suggested that a significant part of the shelf water consists of Kuroshio intermediate water.

  13. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  14. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  15. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  16. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  17. The Geopolitical Destiny of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    though separated by a relative small distance from the Mayans , had no knowledge of them, as the two civilizations existed within completely different...climate and geographic settings, because of their North-South orientation. Incans were a high altitude mountain civilization , while the Mayans were a...organic system that is human civilization . The application of the geopolitical framework of analysis in East Asian history confirmed the role of

  18. "Globalization and Pollution Industries in East Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Iwami, Toru

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what the East Asian data tell us about the "pollution haven hypothesis." In the region, pollution goods are not traded so much directly, and their production is not clearly correlated with inward FDI and openness of the country in question. Although production of pollution goods is indirectly related to manufacturing exports as materials and intermediate goods, domestic consumption exerts larger impact on the production than exports. These facts imply that pollut...

  19. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the civilian Libyan plane in savage fashion in 1973 because she was informed that the aircraft was circling over the Dimona area when it had lost its...wounded or killed in another Mujahid attack on Feb. 1 at Kara - zemir, near the strategic. Panjshir Valley, north- east of the Afghan capi- tal...immune from the savage onslaught of the Velayat-e Faqih’s despotic Islamic regime. Many members of religious minorities, such as the Jews, the

  20. South East Europe, No. 9, Spring 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Growth in the six South East European countries (SEE6) rebounded to 2.1 percent in 2015, as investment revived. The SEE6 region is not only growing but also rebalancing to more durable sources of growth. While higher growth in 2015 brought new jobs in the private sector, and helped poverty reduction to resume, unemployment is still entrenched. In 2015, fiscal deficits continued to narrow i...

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    proportionate to their municipal adviser (Val d’Oise): "French and European lack of knowledge about the United States, but they are aid to Eastern...NEAR EAST 3 equal or better than its competition. In other words, the the Soviet Union, or, to be more precise, by returning the measure of the...organized by Sharp Drop in Production the Ministry of Agriculture, was held at the Mouflon Mr. Belabbes said that, from 1978 to 1985, production

  2. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    unified Korea has three broadly defined alignment options—tilt West towards the United States and Japan, tilt East towards the People’s Republic of China...PRC), or pursue neutrality /nonalignment, each with their own advantages, disadvantages, and nuanced variations. Given the range of strategic...alignment options and its tumultuous history, culture and existing security dilemma, Korea will likely opt for neutrality /nonalignment as the best option

  3. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    outbreaks were recorded in Peru, and an isolated case occurred in Algeria . Body lice are common human parasites in mountainous temperate areas of East...up to 160 m, although they generally inhabit much shallower water. Sea snakes feed on fish, crustaceans , or other marine life. Hydrophiids are so...Laveran, Algiers, Algeria 18 Industrial and Pharmaceutical Corporation, Rangoon, Burma 19 Rogoff Medical Research Institute, Beillinson Medical Center

  4. The American Military and the Far East,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    diplomacy and the failure of balanced security in the Far East--1921-1935. Naval War College Review 24:67-88, February 1972. 21 Kiralfy, Alexander . The...NAY" Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air Command an taff College, Air University, 1977. (UA 845 .M4) Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institute, Pentagon...Paers case collection: annotated proced luidand index. Berkeley, Calif.: Meiklejohn Civil Liber- tie-sInstitute, 1975. (on order) 47 Michael, Franz H

  5. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  6. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  7. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  8. Middle East Transformation from the Perspective of U.S. Middle East Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Rong; Tang Zhichao; Tian Wenlin

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East, one of the most turbulent regions in the world, has embarked on another round of chaos since America waged the Iraq war in 2003, new players vying to fill the power vacuum, entrenched hatred multiplying with new wounds. Ecstasy turned into agony as Americans watched the war unfold. U.S. think tank researchers and politicians, reflecting on the war and U.S. Middle East policy, urged the Bush administration to adjust the policy and break the strategic impasse. Under grave pressure from home and abroad, the White House finally began to respond. Against this backdrop, the year 2007 witnessed the most intensive and extensive shift of U.S. Middle East policy in recent years and a drastic return of realism in America's foreign policy. These policy changes rippled in the Middle East, precipitating policy changes of other powers and transformation of the geopolitical landscape. The Middle East, as we can see, is heading toward a new age of pain and growth.

  9. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  10. Influences of the variation in inflow to East Asia on surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality simulations in which the global chemical transport model CHASER and the regional chemical transport model WRF/chem are coupled have been developed to consider the dynamic transport of chemical species across the boundaries of the domain of the regional chemical transport model. The simulation captures the overall seasonal variations of surface ozone, but overestimates its concentration over Japanese populated areas by approximately 20 ppb from summer to early winter. It is deduced that ozone formation around Northeast China and Japan in summer is overestimated in the simulation. On the other hand, the simulation well reproduces the interannual variability and the long-term trend of observed surface ozone over Japan. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of the variation in inflow to East Asia on the interannual variability and the long-term trend of surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005. The inflow defined in this paper includes the recirculation of species with sources within the East Asian region as well as the transport of species with sources out of the East Asian region. Results of sensitivity experiments suggest that inflow to East Asia accounts for approximately 30 % of the increasing trend of surface ozone, whereas it has much less influence on the interannual variability of observed surface ozone compared to meteorological processes within East Asia.

  11. A Dynamical Downscaling Experiment over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, H.; Kwon, W.; Choi, D.; Kim, C.; Cha, Y.

    2009-05-01

    To assess future climate change for Korea due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, dynamical downscaling are carried out with MM5 at 18 km resolution over Korea driven at the lateral boundaries by meteorological field from atmospheric model ECHAM4 T106. Sea surface temperatures are from corresponding simulation with the ECHO-G. We analyze two 22-year regional climate simulations, one for present day conditions (1979-2000) and one for future condition (2079-2100) under SRES A1B Scenario. The simulated present day climate by the time-slice experiment with the high-resolution model ECHAM4 T106 show successful performance in simulating the northward migration and the local of the maximum rainfall during the rainy season over East Asia, although its rainfall amount was somewhat weak compared to the observation. Change of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the future tends to be increased especially over the east of Japan during July and September. Downscaled mean temperature over Korea during the period of 1979-2000 reproduce the realistic features although the results have cold bias. Simulated daily mean temperature will increase about 3.3É by the end of the 21st century compared with present day and, seasonally the rising is projected to be larger in winter than in summer. Also, simulated precipitation will increase about 15% by the end of of the 21st century compared with present day. These downscaled future climate scenario will be used for studies on impact, adapatation, and vulnerability of climate change over Korea.

  12. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  13. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.

    2010-01-01

    that the release of Arctic CH4 was implied in previous climate shifts as well as in the recently renewed rise in atmospheric CH4. These claims are not supported by all the literature they cite. Their reference 5 (1) presents measurements of emissions only of carbon dioxide, not CH4. Their reference 8 (2), a study......In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...

  14. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    military Jeep. Also included in this company’s production is the Morning Bird anti-aircraft mis- sile, which is a two-phase missile, with the first phase...led to the emergence and growth of the phenomenon within the society will be removed. Amputating this phenomenon means uprooting it from the body...one of the so-called seven villages in the hinterland east of Tyr. Center Groves were aglow with newly ripened oranges and birds were singing as if

  15. Latinas Crafting Sustainability in East Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Guajardo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    East Los Angeles has historically been recognized as a center for political and cultural activity with roots in the Chicana/o civil rights movement. Since 1970, Self Help Graphics and Art (SHG) opened its doors to many artists who later entered the art market and formed the canon of Chicana/o visual artists that today continue to exhibit at major museums. While infamous for its printmaking studio and gallery, this cultural space has long been home to events where generations of artists work...

  16. Benchmarking East Tennessee`s economic capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    This presentation is comprised of viewgraphs delineating major economic factors operating in 15 counties in East Tennessee. The purpose of the information presented is to provide a benchmark analysis of economic conditions for use in guiding economic growth in the region. The emphasis of the presentation is economic infrastructure, which is classified into six categories: human resources, technology, financial resources, physical infrastructure, quality of life, and tax and regulation. Data for analysis of key indicators in each of the categories are presented. Preliminary analyses, in the form of strengths and weaknesses and comparison to reference groups, are given.

  17. Genetic variation in the east Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastana, S S; Sokol, R J

    1998-01-01

    According to history, the population of the British Isles derives its genepool from a succession of invaders and immigrants. The settlement pattern of these invaders gave rise to a patchwork of genepools, shown in previous genetic surveys. Specimens from 1117 blood donors of regionally subdivided East Midlands (Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire) were analysed for 18 conventional genetic systems (blood groups, serum proteins and red cell enzymes), according to place of residence. Significant differences exist among the five geographically defined sub-populations, and it is argued that these are derived from the historical settlement of continental European populations in the region, especially the Danes and the Vikings.

  18. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  19. Application of MDSplus on EAST Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lianzheng; LUO Jiarong; LI lingling; ZHANG Mingxing; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    EAST is a fully superconducting Tokamak in China used for controlled fusion research. MDSplus, a special software package for fusion research, has been used successfully as a central repository for analysed data and PCS (Plasma Control System) data since the debugging experiment in the spring of 2006 . In this paper, the reasons for choosing MDSplus as the analysis database and the way to use it are presented in detail, along with the solution to the problem that part of the MDSplus library does not work in the multithread mode. The experiment showed that the data system based on MDSplus operated stably and it could provide a better performance especially for remote users.

  20. Water resources of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-12

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information is presented on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in children

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, Farah; Chehab, May; Bafaqih, Hind; AlMohaimeed, Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new human disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV). The disease is reported mainly in adults. Data in children are scarce. The disease caused by MERS-CoV in children presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations, and it is associated with a lower mortality rate compared with adults. Poor outcome is observed mainly in admitted patients with medical comorbidities. We report a new case of MERS-CoV infection in a 9-month-old child compli...

  2. Kuroshio Variability on the Shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Kuroshio Variability on the Shelf of the East China Sea Mark Wimbush & D. Randolph Watts Graduate School of Oceanography University of Rhode...and transport of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea (ECS) in conjunction with the ONR-supported project, “Variability of the Kuroshio in the East... China Sea, and its Relationship to the Ryukyu Current.” OBJECTIVES Through the aforementioned ONR-supported project, an array of eleven IESs

  3. 3D seismic analysis of the Collyhurst Sandstone: implications for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Davide; Williams, John; Kirk, Karen; Gent, Christopher; Bentham, Michelle; Fellgett, Mark; Schofield, David

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a vital technology towards low-carbon energy resources and the mitigation of global warming trends induced by rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is a key area for CCS in the western UK, having high CO2 storage potentials in explored hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Permo-Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, the theoretical storage potential of the EISB could be poorly estimated as the reservoir-prone Lower Permian formations are not considered in detail by current estimations. This work aims to fill this gap, focusing on the characterisation of the Lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation as a viable storage unit. The potential for CO2 storage is estimated as the total volume/area of suitable closures that are isolated by structural traps, occurring at depths suitable for CO2 injection and containment (>800m). Detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made using 3D seismic data to assess the storage potential of the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the southern EISB. The basin strata is compartmentalised by numerous N-S trending faults. A higher degree of compartmentalisation occurs within regional anticlines where elongated tilted blocks are observed, bound by predominantly west-dipping faults that induce a variable offset of the Collyhurst Sandstone strata. Contrastingly, higher lateral continuity of this formation is observed within graben basins were faults are less frequent and with minor offset, thus potentially creating larger storage closures. Fault dip orientation in the grabens is variable, with west and east dipping faults occurring as a function of large east-dipping listric faults. This study was complemented by the stress modelling of the interpreted faults in order to assess the risk of CO2 leakage. Analysis of borehole breakouts observed in four approximately vertical wells in the EISB suggest a maximum horizontal stress

  4. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  5. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  6. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  7. Earthquake-related soft-sediment deformation structures in Palaeogene on the continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake,as disastrous events in geological history,can be recorded as soft-sediment deformation.In the Palaeogene of the East China Sea shelf,the soft-sediment deformation related to earthquake event is recognized as seismic micro-fractures,micro-corrugated laminations,liquefied veins,'vibrated liquefied layers',deformed cross laminations and convolute laminations,load structures,flame structures,brecciation,slump structures and seismodisconformity.There exists a lateral continuum,the wide spatial distribution and the local vertical continuous sequences of seismites including slump,liquefaction and brecciation.In the Palaeogene of East China Sea shelf,where typical soft-sediment deformation structures were developed,clastic deposits of tidal-flat,delta and river facies are the main background deposits of Middle-Upper Eocene Pinghu Formation and Oligocene Huagang Formation.This succession also records diagnostic marks of event deposits and basinal tectonic activities in the form of seismites.

  8. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  9. Middle East experience in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinah, Ghaith F Abu; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Hassan, Azza Adel

    2013-02-01

    Palliative Care (PC) is still a relatively new concept in the Middle East (ME). It was first introduced in Saudi Arabia in 1992 and only recently in countries such as Qatar, Bahrain, and the UAE. Although the majority of Middle-Eastern countries, including Palestine, Iraq, Oman and Lebanon are in the capacity building phase, others such as Saudi and Jordan already have localized provision. In the absence of any of the ME countries approaching integration with the mainstream service providers, Saudi Arabia and Jordan are currently setting examples of achievement in the field. There are still countries with little or no known Palliative Care activity (Yemen and Syria). Political issues, scarcity of resources, and lack of education and awareness seem to be the common factors restricting the progress of this field in most countries. In order to improve the suboptimal PC services in the ME, emphasis should be directed toward providing formal education to professionals and raising awareness of the public. It is also necessary to put all differences aside and develop cross-border collaborations, whether through third party organizations such as the Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC) or otherwise. This review compiles the available literature on the history and progress of the field of PC in most ME countries, while pointing out the major obstacles encountered by the active parties of each country.

  10. Simulations of Reversed Shear Configuration in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xingping; WU Bin

    2007-01-01

    The reversed shear (RS) mode is one of the advanced configurations being considered in EAST.Predictive simulations of EAST reversed shear configuration are carried out using an 1.5D equilibrium evolution code.In order to have the desired monotonic q-profile during a tokamak discharge,a successful preparation phase is required.In our simulation,the plasma current is ramped up from 100 kA to a flat-top maximum of 1.0 MA for four seconds.An ICRH power of 1 MW is applied until the plasma shape is formed at the moment of 4 s,and then the power is raised to 3 MW.A LHCD power of 3.5 MW is applied from is to optimize the plasma current density profile.A series of simulations are performed to study the influence of the time of applying the auxiliary heating on the plasma parameters.Based on these simulations,a scheme is proposed and tested for the control of the safety factor profile,which is very useful in real time profile control in tokamak experiments.

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection is an emerging human disease that has been reported from the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East countries since 2012. Although zoonotic transmission was postulated, virological and serological finding suggest that the dromedary camels act as the potential reservoirs of MERS-CoV infection to humans. As October 2014, a totally 855 confirmed cases with 333 related deaths were reported to WHO. All cases occurred in or epidemiologically linked to affected countries. The virus ability to induce a pandemic attack is limited. The clinical presentations vary and range from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory disease and death. However, most severe disease occurs in elderly and in those with underlying conditions. Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV infection is health care facilities and in the community. The WHO encourages all member states to perform surveillance of patients with acute severe respiratory infection and to carefully monitor any unusual patterns. This paper aims to review the current key characteristics of MERS-CoV infection in human and update the WHO recommendations about this illness.

  12. South east England renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, A.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on a study into planning for renewable energy development in the South East region of the United Kingdom (UK). The study was performed by ETSU under contract to Directorate General XVII (DGXVII) of the European Commission (EC) under the ALTENER programme. Half the funding was provided by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) through the UK`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The study is one of a series concerned with regional assessment of and planning for renewable energies. A number of studies have already been completed by ETSU. These include ``An Assessment of the Potential Renewable Energy Resource in Scotland``, Planning and Renewable Energy in Cumbria``, An Assessment of Renewable Energy in the Southern Electric Region`` and ``Southern Region Renewable Energy Planning Study``. These reports are available through ETSU`s New and Renewable Enquiries Bureau. ETSU is also currently performing two similar studies covering Strathclyde and the East Midlands region of the UK under separate contracts and is about to begin work on two more, the first covering the Eastern region of the UK and the second Yorkshire and Lancashire. (author)

  13. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  14. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  15. 卡拉麦里地区黑山头组火山岩地球化学特征及构造环境分析%GEOCHEMISTRY CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLCANIC ROCKS OF HEISHANTOU FORMATION IN KALAMAILI, EAST JUNGGAR, AND TECTONIC SETTINGS IMPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高学; 李永军; 严镜; 吴宏恩; 杨宝凯; 闫存兴

    2011-01-01

    Carboniferous volcanic rocks mainly composed of basalts, basaltic andesites and andesites occur within Lower Heishantou Formation, north of Kalamaili ophiolite in the eastern Junggar, and are mainly high K calc-alkaline series. The volcanic rocks have moderate Mg#(8.62~43.90)values,relatively high alkali((Na2O+K2O)=4.19%~9.33%), and Na2O(2.20%~4.93%)>K2O(0.54%~4.40%), the content of TiO2 and P2O5 is high(TiO2=0.68%~1.28%,P2O5=O.10%~0.28%). The rocks are enriched in LREE more than HREE((La/Yb)N=1.06~3.56),and with slight fractionation of HREE((Gd/Yb)N=0.73~1.54),without significant Eu and Ce anomalies(ζEu=0.60~1.17, ζ5Ce=0.89~0.95), strongly enriched LlLE(like Rb and Th), moderate enriched Ba and K, and intensely depleted in HFSE(like Nb and Ta), weak depleted Zr, Hf and Ti, shows clearly "TNT" negative anomalies. The rocks have high Ba/La(13.30~124.43), Ba/Nb( 11.48-161.29), La/Nb(0.86~2.37),but low Nb/Y(0.2~0.4),Nb/Ta(7~16),Zr/Hn: 17-37) ratios.Geochronology and geochemistry characteristics, along with the discrimination diagrams, indicate the Early Carboniferous magmas movement not only shows the characteristics of intraplate magmatic evolution, but also has traces of arc volcanic rock geochemistry, they are maybe from extensional settings of post-collisional period. They are produced by the ascending and melting of asthenospheric material, and the magmas were contaminated by the arc component formed before Early Carboniferous in the processes of uplift and emplacement.%黑山头组火山岩位于新疆东准噶尔卡拉麦里蛇绿岩带东北缘,主要为玄武岩、玄武质安山岩和安山岩,属钙碱性-高钾钙碱性系列.火山岩Mg#介于8.62~43.90,全碱含量较高(Na2O+K2O为4.19%~9.33%),且Na2O(2.20% ~4.93%)>K2O(0.54%~4.40%),TiO2和P2O5含量较高(分别为0.68%~1.28%和0.10%~0.28%),轻稀上元素(LREE) 相对重稀土元素(HREE)富集((La/Yb)N=1.06~3.56),无明显重稀土分馏((Gd/Yb)N=0.73~1.54),

  16. Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopic constraints for crustal evolution during Late Neoproterozic from rocks of the Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: geodynamic development coeval with the East African Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikant, V.; Laux, J.H.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent post-750 Ma continental reconstructions constrain models for East African Orogeny formation and also the scattered remnants of ~640 Ma granulites, whose genesis is controversial. One such Neoproterozoic granulite belt is the Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica, isolated from the distinctly younger Pan-African orogen to the south in the central Droning Maud Land. To ascertain the duration of granulite-facies events in these remnants, garnet Sm-Nd and monazite and titanite U-Pb IDTIMS geochronology was carried out on a range of metamorphic rocks. Garnet formation ages from a websterite enclave and gabbro were 660±48 Ma and 587±9 Ma respectively, and those from Stype granites were 598±4 Ma and 577±4 Ma. Monazites from metapelite and metaquartzite yielded lower intercept UPb ages of 629±3 Ma and 639±5 Ma, respectively. U-Pb titanite age from calcsilicate gneiss was 580±5 Ma. These indicate peak metamorphism to have occurred between 640 and 630 Ma, followed by near isobaric cooling to ~580 Ma. Though an origin as an exotic terrane from the East African Orogen cannot be discounted, from the present data there is a greater likelihood that Mesoproterozoic microplate collision between Maud orogen and a northerly Lurio-Nampula block resulted in formation of these granulite belt(s).

  17. A note on the discovery of the suturocavate dinoflagellate cyst (Limbodinium absidatum) in the Middle East (Binalud Mountains, NE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, Abradat; Ghasemi-Nejad, Ebrahim; Ashouri, Alireza; Vahidi-Nia, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Limbodinium absidatum is a suturocavate dinocyst that is being reported here from the Binalud Mountains, NE Iran, which is also the first record of this rare species from the Middle East. A few specimens of L. absidatum are recorded from samples taken from the Dalichai Formation at a section measured at Ghoroneh. The stratigraphic range of this species (Late Callovian-Early Oxfordian) is very important for Jurassic palynologists. Morphological characteristics of this Sexiform species are described in detail to support the identification.

  18. Human Rights in the Context of Deepening Integration of East African Community (EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard MUKO OCHANDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the discourse on the process of political integration by studying East African Community (EAC’s integration efforts in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA. Data used has been assembled from various sources such as media reports, EAC documents and country statistical reports from various institutions such as bureaus of statistics, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Bank, Freedom House and Transparency International. This study has been on-going from 2008 to 2012. The study found that various structures have been created to aid the deepening integration efforts in East Africa. With the exception of human rights, the EAC treaty stipulates eleven areas of collaboration. It was also found that Tanzania scores better than other countries on political and civil liberties, while Human Welfare Indicators were a challenge in the entire EAC. The Gini index scores were high and worsening in some countries over time, indicating the presence of distributive injustices.Other areas of concern comprised media control, gender based challenges, harassment of opposition and poor protection of minorities and vulnerable populations. Four countries of the region are part of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRMprocess. The APRM as a process is meant to promote good governance and presents an opportunity for bettering human rights in the region.The study ends by recommending the mainstreaming of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA through the formation of East African Human Rights Commission (EAHRC within EAC structures.

  19. Redistribution of low-salinity pools off east coast of India during southwest monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, D. K.; Rao, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The east coast of India receives significant inputs of fresh water into the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon in comparison with the lower influx seen on the west coast. However, in situ observations made off the east coast suggest that in some years low-salinity pools appear offshore, as opposed to where the river discharge actually takes place. To date, no studies have offered any plausible reason for this anomaly. In an attempt to understand the processes involved, we used numerical modelling to elucidate the causes and mechanisms underlying the appearance of offshore low salinity pools. The model uses temperature and salinity information from the World Ocean Atlas 2001 as initial conditions, and is forced using wind stress derived from the weekly wind for July 2002 and 2010 from the NCEP FNL Operational Global Analysis, because of the need to validate the model using more recent observations. It was found that the formation of a low-salinity pool to the south of 16°N and its migration to an offshore region is a result of (i) coastal orientation, (ii) surface circulation supported by a weak East India Coastal Current that redistributes fresh water from two rivers, the Krishna and Godavari, and (iii) an influx of low salinity from the much larger river system to the north, resulting in anomalous pool(s) of low-salinity waters away from the coast. These findings are corroborated by CTD data, ARGO data, and Ocean Surface Current Analysis Real-Time currents.

  20. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  1. New Result on Methane Emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Sergienko, V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dmitrevsky, N.; Salyuk, A.; Yusupov, V.; Salomatin, A.; Karnaukh, V.; Chernykh, D.; Kosmach, D.; Ananiev, R.; Meluzov, A.; Nicolsky, D.; Panteleev, G.

    2013-12-01

    Methane release from thawing Arctic permafrost is one of the few carbon-climate mechanisms that could change projected climate forcing substantially in this century. Venting of methane to the atmosphere in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, the world's largest yet shallowest shelf, was recently shown to be ubiquitous. Here we report results of multi-year investigations performed in the coastal East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), where invasion of relatively warm seawater occurred most recently. Observational data and simulation of the warming effect of seawater on subsea permafrost suggest that disintegrating subsea permafrost allows formation of migration pathways for methane bubbles released from the sea floor. Sonar data collected in the coastal area and in the mid-outer shelf area together with data, obtained using high-resolution high-speed video camera, enabled area-weighted methane fluxes to be estimated. New factors controlling spatial and temporal variability of methane fluxes on the ESAS were found. In the outer shelf, it was shown that methane releases from the seabed via strong flare-like ebullition that produces fluxes much greater than on the shallow shelf, where largely frozen sediments restrict fluxes. The coastward progression of thawing subsea permafrost in a warming Arctic could potentially result in a significant increase in methane emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf.

  2. Overview of the geology of the east flank of the Front Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grose, T.L.T. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the geology encountered as part of a geology field trip. This stop identifies the monocline that forms the east flank of the Front Range and the west flank of the Denver Basin. The stratigraphic section viewed in cross section to the south is composed of: (1) migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneiss of Early Proterozoic age; (2) red sandstone and conglomerate of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Fountain Formation, 1,700 Feet thick; (3) Lyons Sandstone of Permian age, 200 feet thick; (4) shale, siltstone, and limestone of the Lykins Formation of Permian and Triassic age, 200 Feet thick; (5) gypsum, shale, and limestone of the Ralston Creek Formation of Jurassic age, 90 feet thick; (6) sandstone, shale, and limestone of the Morrison Formation of Jurassic age, 300 feet thick, locally containing dinosaur bones; (7) Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, including the Lytle Formation of sandstone and conglomerate, 80 feet thick, and the South Platte Formation of sandstone and shale, 220 feet thick.

  3. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  4. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  5. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  6. "Vexing" Questions: Rethinking the History of East LA Punk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunckel, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the author co-curated (with Pilar Tompkins Rivas) the art exhibition "Vexing: Female Voices from East LA Punk" at the Claremont Museum of Art in Claremont, California. Part of his motivation, as a scholar, was to generate discourse about the punk scene in East Los Angeles from 1979 to 1984 and to stimulate further research in…

  7. Pipeline contribution to the Middle East oil trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoja, B.A.

    1979-02-01

    The pipelines that physically exist in the Middle East are described. There are 7 pipelines in the Middle East that end in Mediterranean terminals with a total present capacity of 235 million tons annually. Three of the pipelines are out of service, three are being utilized only partially, and one is operating at full capacity. (MCW)

  8. The German East-West Divide in Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patuelli, Roberto; Vaona, Andrea; Grimpe, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , in particular between the East and the West. Based on analyses at the NUTS 3 regional level, we find different knowledge production functions for the East and the West. Moreover, we investigate how our results are affected by the adoption of alternative aggregation levels. Overall, our findings suggest...

  9. Central Park East Secondary School: Teaching and Learning through Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner-Mullings, Alia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article connects the theoretical perspective of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed with the teaching and learning styles of teachers and students at Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem, New York. It examines some of the ways the Freireian model has worked within the public school system and considers some of the…

  10. A grammar of Makalero : a Papuan language of East Timor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    This work is the first comprehensive description of Makalero, a language spoken by approximately 6,500 speakers in the Iliomar subdistrict, in the south-east of the Republic of East Timor. Makalero has been classified as belonging to the Trans-New Guinea family, making it one of the westernmost Pap

  11. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  12. The Challenge to the Peace and Security in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangYi; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    Today, there are three major economic communities in the contemporary world: North America, Europe and East Asia, among which the East Asian economic community distinguishes itself as the most dynamic and energetic one. The peace and stability in this region are not only of vital importance to the national security and economic development of both China and Japan,

  13. Communication in the Middle East: A Basic Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Allen H.

    This 48-item bibliography on communication in the Middle East includes books and journal articles published between 1951 and 1990. The bibliography includes materials dealing with Iran, Israel, Islam, media coverage of the Middle East, rhetorical strategies, and the rest of the Arab world. (RS)

  14. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Cenozoic ice sheet formation and stability. References Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. Geophysical Journal International, 174 (1), 1-13. Ferraccioli, F., Finn, C.A., Jordan, T.A., Bell, R.E., Anderson, L.M. & Damaske, D. 2011. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains Nature, 479, 388-392. Golynsky, A.V. & Golynsky, D.A. 2009. Rifts in the tectonic structure of East Antarctica (in Russian). Russian Earth Science Research in Antarctica, 2, 132-162. Vaughan, A.P.M., Kusznir, N.J., Ferraccioli, F. & Jordan, T.A.R.M. 2012. Regional heat-flow prediction for Antarctica using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-8095.

  15. The Distribution of Health Services in Iran Health Care System: A Case Study at East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor-khangah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary that various aspects of health information and statistics are identified and measured since health problems are getting more complex day by day. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the distribution of health services in the health care system in Iran and the case of study is East Azerbaijan province. Methods: This research was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all health service providers in East Azerbaijan Province in the public, private, charity, military, social security, and NGO sectors. In this study, the data from all functional health sectors, including hospitals, health centers, and clinical, rehabilitation centers and all clinics and private offices were studied during 2014. The data relevant to performance were collected according to a pre-determined format (researcher- built checklist which was approved by five professionals and experts Health Services Management (content validity. Results: The study findings showed that the public sector by 45.28% accounted for the highest share of provided services and the private sector, social security, military institutions, charities and NGOs institutions by 25.47%, 18.92%, 4.37%, 3.3%, and 2.66% next rank in providing health services in East Azerbaijan province have been allocated. Conclusion: The results show that most of the health services in East Azerbaijan Province belongs to the public sector and the private sector has managed to develop its services in some parts surpassed the public sector. According to the study findings, Policies should be aimed to create balance and harmony in the provision of services among all service providers.

  16. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  17. Alleged lethal sorcery in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of cultural and social perspectives exists on the concept of sudden and unexpected death. In countries, without a formal system of death investigation, sudden death is shrouded in mysticism often based on traditional belief systems. This cultural perspective on sudden death is often at variance with medical and forensic concepts and may include explanations such as sorcery, magic, and voodoo. In this case report, the postmortem findings in an alleged victim of lethal 'black magic', known as ema halo by the indigenous people of East Timor, is described. The alleged victim died suddenly in front of witnesses. At autopsy, marked dilation of a bicuspid aortic valve with annuloaortic ectasia and a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm was found after exhumation of the body. The findings mitigated the local belief in witchcraft and established a natural manner of death.

  18. An East Asian Monsoon in the Mid-Pliocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qing; ZHANG Zhong-Shi; GAO Yong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors simulate the East Asian climate changes in the mid-Pliocene (~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) with the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 (CAM3.1) and compare the simulated East Asian monsoon with paleoclimate data. The simulations show an obvious warming pattern in East Asia in the mid-Pliocene compared with the pre-industrial climate, with surface air temperature increasing by 0.5 4.0°C. In the warm mid-Pliocene simulation, the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) becomes stronger, while the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is similar relative to the pre-industrial climate. Compared with the paleoclimate data, our simulations depict the intensified EASM well but cannot reproduce the weakened EAWM. This model-data discrepancy may be attributed to the uncertainty in the reconstructed mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature.

  19. Non-separable time preferences, novelty consumption and body weight: Theory and evidence from the East German transition to capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Davide; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2016-12-09

    This paper develops a dynamic model to illustrate how diet and body weight change when novel food products become available to consumers. We propose a microfounded test to empirically discriminate between habit and taste formation in intertemporal preferences. Moreover, we show that 'novelty consumption' and endogenous preferences can explain the persistent correlation between economic development and obesity. By empirically studying the German reunification, we find that East Germans consumed more novel Western food and gained more weight than West Germans when a larger variety of food products became readily accessible after the fall of the Wall. The observed consumption patterns suggest that food consumption features habit formation.

  20. Power Compensation for ICRF Heating in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Chengming; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-08-01

    The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2015GB101001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575237, 11375235, 11375236)

  1. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  2. West-East Gas Project Locates Two Large Consumers in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The gigantic west-east gas pipeline is well on the way to begin delivering gas by October, despite a delay to the project's joint venture with foreign partners including ExxonMobil and Royal/Dutch Shell. PetroChina, the major Chinese backer of the project, is also expected to sign the long-awaited gas supply contracts in the next few weeks with two gas buyers, including a large petrochemical venture of German firm BASF.

  3. Hydrological Response of East China to the Variation of East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of hydrologic variables in East China, that is, runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture to the fluctuation of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM, is evaluated by the Mann-Kendall correlation analysis on a spatial resolution of 1/4° in the period of 1952–2012. The results indicate remarkable spatial disparities in the correlation between the hydrologic variables and EASM. The regions in East China susceptible to hydrological change due to EASM fluctuation are identified. When the standardized anomaly of intensity index of EASM (EASMI is above 1.00, the runoff of Haihe basin has increased by 49% on average, especially in the suburb of Beijing and Hebei province where the runoff has increased up to 105%. In contrast, the runoff in the basins of Haihe and Yellow River has decreased by about 27% and 17%, respectively, when the standardized anomaly of EASMI is below −1.00, which has brought severe drought to the areas since mid-1970s. The study can be beneficial for national or watershed agencies developing adaptive water management strategies in the face of global climate change.

  4. Combining farm and regional level modelling for Integrated Resource Management in East and South-east Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetter, R.P.; Berg, van den M.M.; Laborte, A.G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Keulen, van H.; Agustin, E.O.; Son, T.T.; Lai, N.X.; Guanghuo, W.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, in many of the highly productive lowland areas of East and South-east Asia a trend to further intensification and diversification of agricultural land use can be observed. Growing economies and urbanization also increase the claims on land and water by non-agricultural uses. As a result,

  5. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  6. A Spitzer View of Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Gutermuth, Robert A; Megeath, S Thomas; Allen, Thomas S; Myers, Philip C; Allen, Lori E

    2014-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 micron images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and 2MASS photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power law index of ~2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members ...

  7. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  8. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  9. Drivers of Plankton Patch Formation, Persistence and Decline in East Sound, Orcas Island, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    uptake rate of the tracer can then be used to calculate photosynthetic rates . Primary productivity experiments were conducted in a controlled...to estimate the rate of photosynthetic activity and capacity. The advantage of this experimental approach is the much greater replication as well as... rates of growth and grazing. OBJECTIVES The objective of the funded work is to quantify the relative importance of environmental and ecological

  10. Experiments on the formation of volcanic cones (In connection with East Indian volcanic islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1933-01-01

    Several investigators have tackled the problem of the main causes that produce the slopes of volcanic cones, especially with a view to explaining the characteristic concave profiles of strato-volcanoes *). A satisfactory result has not been arrived at, however. This became evident to the present aut

  11. Migration of natural gas and resevoir formation in east lower Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgan, H.; Devay, L.; Block, M.; Kettel, D.; Mattern, G.

    1983-07-01

    Natural gas exploration is dealt with. Eleven seismic horizons were mapped in a 5000 sq km area of Gamma logs and drill cores were used to obtain the facies distribution pattern of the Permian sandstone. Vitrinite reflectance data and the history of the development of the basin provided information for the theoretical paleotemperature gradient. The paleogeography of the carboniferous and the structural development of the basin led to estimates of the amount of natural gas generated and its migration. It is concluded that Permian sandstone contains several structures of different sizes, which very likely have different reservoir properties. The underlying carboniferous coal is theoretically sufficient to fill these structures with natural gas. Geologically, the area has good prospects for natural gas.

  12. The Format Registry Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary McGath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available File format identification is an important issue in digital preservation. Several noteworthy attempts, including PRONOM, GDFR, and UDFR, have been made at creating a comprehensive repository of format information. The sheer amount of information to cover and the constant introduction of new formats and format versions has limited their success. Alternative approaches, such as Linked Data and offering limited per-format information with identifiers that can be used elsewhere, may lead to greater success.

  13. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  14. Integrated Geophysical Studies in the East-Indian Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, V. C.; Sharma, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated geophysical surveys using vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF) EM, radiation counting, total magnetic field and self-potential (SP) measurements are carried out to characterize the geothermal area around a hot spring in the Nayagarh district, Orissa, India that lies in the East Indian geothermal province. The study was performed to delineate the fracture pattern, contaminated groundwater movement and possible heating source. VES interpretations suggest a three- to four-layer structure in the area. Resistivity survey near the hot spring suggests that weathered and fractured formations constitute the main aquifer system and extend to 60 m depth. Current flow measured at various electrode separations normalized by the applied voltage suggests that fractures extend to a greater depth. Detailed VLF study shows that fractures extend beyond 70 m depth. VLF anomaly has also very good correlation with the total magnetic field measured along the same profiles. Study results suggest that a gridded pattern of VLF survey could map the underground conductive fracture zones that can identify the movement of contaminated groundwater flow. Therefore, precautionary measures can be taken to check further contamination by delineating subsurface conducting structures. Self potential (SP) measured over the hot spring does not show a large anomaly in favor of the presence of a sulphide mineral body. A small positive (5 15mV) SP anomaly is measured which may be streaming potential due to subsurface fluid flow. A high radiation is measured about four kilometers from the hot spring, suggesting possible radiogenic heating. However, the exact nature of the heating source and its depth is not known in the area. Deep resistivity followed by a magneto-telluric survey could reveal the deeper structures.

  15. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Watts, Tony; Bell, Robin; Jamieson, Stewart; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    -related exhumation in interior East Antarctica. This raises the question of whether the modern Gamburtsevs may instead have been uplifted solely in response to changes in Cenozoic erosion patterns during the early stages of East Antarctic Ice Sheet formation superimposed upon an a Permian-age rift flank, or an even older highland. To address this question we combine results from: i) analyses of the subglacial landscape for the GSM (Rose et al., 2013 EPSL) with; ii) 2D and preliminary 3D flexural models of peak uplift caused by the isostatic responses to fluvial and glacial valley incision processes. We also compare geophysical relief and isostatic model outputs with estimates of erosion rates since the Oligocene and the total amount of incision estimated for the adjacent Lambert rift region (Thomson et al. 2013, Nature Geoscience). Flexural modelling outputs were also compared against the present-day elevations of up to 1500 m a.s.l of uplifted Oligocene-early Miocene glacial-marine sediments in the Lambert Glacier (Hambrey et al., 2000, Geology). Flexural models yield new estimates of peak uplift and regional lowering for continuous and broken-plate approximations respectively. These results can also be used to re-assess the possible ranges of pre-incision elevations of the "Gamburtsev plateau", which is of key importance when modelling early East Antarctic ice sheet development (e.g. De Conto and Pollard, Nature 2003).

  16. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  17. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  18. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  19. Convergence of Real Per Capita GDP within East Asian and Middle East Countries: Panel Unit Root Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aminifard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines convergence of real GDP per capita in the selected East Asian countries and this relationship with selected Middle East countries during the period 1950-2009. The reason behind this refers to the fact that East Asia countries (including China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and South Korea have been involved in achieving success arising from regional cooperation. On the other hand, the Middle East region has been well-known in producing and exporting oil (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. However, these countries have had strong relationship whit East Asian countries through trade and investment relations. Overall, the question is whether such strong relationship has led to a reduction in the real per capita gap between the selected countries of the both regions. To find the answer, income departures across countries are evaluated from several panel data unit root tests. We and no evidence supporting the existence of convergence process for the income in the East Asian and Middle East countries. But in each region, convergence within countries can not reject.

  20. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  1. Political Change in the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone

    This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other author...... of stability is presented and discussed. Although the analysis draws heavily on rent theory, it also applies findings from transition theory and revolution theory to illuminate the current political dynamics in the Middle East.......This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other...... authoritarian regimes have – despite political and economic pressure – so far been able to remain in power, or have even been only insignificantly affected. This paper applies central social science approaches in order to analyze recent developments in the region – a major task of theoretically oriented social...

  2. East Kentucky Bioenergy Capacity Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Michael; Montross, Michael; Mark, Tyler

    2016-04-14

    When you look across the landscape of Kentucky you will find a very diverse topography. In the western portions of the state you will find fertile and gently rolling soils that are prime land for traditional row crop production. As you move east towards the Appalachian Mountains the terrain becomes increasing roughed and less productive soils. One of the primary objectives of Morehead State University is to serve the eastern Kentucky population of Kentucky. Fitting within that mission is identifying new opportunities for people living in this region. With the passing of the Renewable Fuels Standard in 2005 there was a focus put on the production of biomass crops that can be used in the production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol. The majority of US ethanol production is derived from corn. The eastern portion of Kentucky is not well suited for corn production, but might be a location for other biomass crops to be produced. Additionally, many farmers in the region were looking for alternative crops to tobacco that might be well suited for the region.

  3. Modeling of EAST ICRF antenna performance using the full-wave code TORIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, E. M., E-mail: eedlund@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Access to advanced operating regimes in the EAST tokamak will require a combination of electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF), with the addition of lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) for current profile control. Prior experiments at the EAST tokamak facility have shown relatively weak response of the plasma temperature to application of ICRF heating, with typical coupled power about 2 MW out of 12 MW source. The launched spectrum, at n{sub φ} = 34 for 0-π -0-π phasing and 27 MHz, is largely inaccessible at line-averaged densities of approximately 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. However, with variable antenna phasing and frequency, this system has considerable latitude to explore different heating schemes. To develop an ICRF actuator control model, we have used the full-wave code TORIC to explore the physics of ICRF wave propagation in EAST. The results presented from this study use a spectrum analysis using a superposition of n{sub φ} spanning −50 to +50. The low density regime typical of EAST plasmas results in a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the minor radius which results in global cavity resonance effects and eigenmode formation when the single-pass absorption is low. This behavior indicates that improved performance can be attained by lowering the peak of the k{sub ||} spectrum by using π/3 phasing of the 4-strap antenna. Based on prior studies conducted at Alcator C-Mod, this phasing is also expected to have the advantage of nearly divergence-free box currents, which should result in reduced levels of impurity production. Significant enhancements of the loading resistance may be achieved by using low k{sub ||} phasing and a combination of magnetic field and frequency to vary the location of the resonance and mode conversion regions. TORIC calculations indicate that the significant power may be channeled to the electrons and deuterium majority. We expect that

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    single rock, not Nasirist citizen sent notice of the party’s formation to to say a single shell , at Israel. the interior minister last Tuesday [2...Holland has a for coffee and cocoa . We might face a similar situation similar agreement. Other advantages of the accord are since expatriate remittances

  5. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Kemal elen; Mehmet Sinan Dal; Sevgi Kalkanl; Murat Sayan; Tuba Dal; Celal Ayaz; Alicem Tekin; Tuncer zekinci; Suda Tekin Koruk; Tunga Barcin; Recep Tekin

    2015-01-01

    To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57 (88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantified by real-time PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed. Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B (48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs (12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE (9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG (3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C (1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1 (2/65, 3.1%) and F1 (2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9% (3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1% (8/61). Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Kemal; ?elen; Murat; Sayan; Tuba; Dal; Celal; Ayaz; Alicem; Tekin; Tuncer; ?zekinci; Suda; Tekin; Koruk; Tunga; Barcin; Recep; Tekin; Mehmet; Sinan; Dal; Sevgi; Kalkanl?

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57(88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantii ed by realtime PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms(CRFs) were identii ed by phylogenetic analysis(neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed.Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B(48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs(12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE(9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG(3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C(1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1(2/65, 3.1%) and F1(2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9%(3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1%(8/61).Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  7. Generalized Geology of the Far East (geo3al)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Far East (China,...

  8. Geologic Provinces of the Far East, 2000 (prv3al)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Far East (China, Mongolia, North and...

  9. East Asian monsoon climate simulated in the PlioMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the simulations with fifteen climate models in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP, the regional climate of East Asia (focusing on China during the mid-Pliocene is investigated in this study. Compared to the pre-industrial, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMM of all models shows the East Asian summer wind (EASW largely strengthens in monsoon China, and the East Asian winter wind (EAWW strengthens in south monsoon China but slightly weakens in north monsoon China in mid-Pliocene. The MMM of all models also illustrates a warmer and wetter mid-Pliocene climate in China. The simulated weakened mid-Pliocene EAWW in north monsoon China and intensified EASW in monsoon China agree well with geological reconstructions. However, the model-model discrepancy in simulating mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate, in particular EAWW, should be further addressed in the future work of PlioMIP.

  10. Unraveling the Mysteries of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-11

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC coronavirus epidemiologist, discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.  Created: 3/11/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/11/2014.

  11. Hydraulic Analysis for East Ojai, Ventura County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — East Ojai area experiences riverine flooding as well as alluvial fan flooding. A set of FEMA approved models including HES-RAS, FLO-2D, and FAN, are used to...

  12. A welcoming policy in post-socialist East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Steigemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparently, East European countries are less willing to accept refugees than other European countries. Their experience of ethnic and cultural diversity is weak and a genuine welcome has still to be developed.

  13. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  14. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  15. Census Tracts & Block Groups, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of 107 semi-permanent census tracts and the census blocks within the Parish of East Baton Rouge....

  16. East African runners: their genetics, lifestyle and athletic prowess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O

    2009-01-01

    East African runners have dominated distance running events for over 5 decades. Some explanations have been advanced to explain why such a small population has dominated distance running events over time. Suggested reasons include, among others, a genetic predisposition, diet, living at high altitude as well as sociocultural background. This chapter gives possible insight into the past, present and hopefully future success of East African runners; it mainly explores the foundations of running excellence, talent identification, diet and injury management methods used by East African runners. The chapter also explores means and ways by which East African runners can sustain their running excellence by using their past experiences, to perfect the present and predict the future.

  17. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  18. Motive force of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau moving to east

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A calculation formula on spherical pattern of Qinghai-Tibet plateau moving model is established. Tibet massif moves norward by east in speed of 28 mm/a, Ganshu-Qinghai massif moves to northeast in speed of 15 mm/a, Qomolangma Feng moves northward by a few east in speed of 35 ~42 mm/a. The low latitude perimeter is longer than the nigh latitude perimeter. When the Tibet massif moves northward, its latitude perimeter must be contracted and the Tibet massif must move eastward by Coriolis. Coriolis force is inertial in earth rotation. It makes the fall body turning to east and the rising block turning westward. In the Northern Hemisphere, it makes the northward body turning to east and the southward block turning to west.This is the reason why the tectonic zones of western Pacific are different from those of eastern Pacific.

  19. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  20. Religious Diversity in the Middle East before Christianity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩宇

    2012-01-01

      The Middle East is so religiously diverse that the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are intercon⁃nected and each originated within the Middle East. Islam in its many forms is by far the most heavily represented religion in the region though many branches and sects diversify and segment it. In addition to the widely acknowledged religions, smaller, mi⁃nority religions such as Bahá’í, Druze, Yazidi, Mandean, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Shabakism, Zoroastrianism are also prevalent throughout the Middle East. This article begins with Mideast civilization and attempts at outlining a religious map of the region. Finally, the study concludes that Hellenistic culture, Jewish religion system and Roman polity all had found their way into spread⁃ing the influence of Christianity before Christianity, the missionary religion established itself in the Middle East.

  1. Metro Council Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the twelve (12) Metropolitan Council Districts within the Parish of East Baton Rouge. The...

  2. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    A linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found numerically in a basin that resembles the Indian Ocean basin north of 29 degrees S, and they are forced...

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  4. City Limits, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the incorporated city limits of Baton Rouge, Baker, and Zachary within East Baton Rouge...

  5. Heterotrophic bacteria in soils of Larsemann Oasis of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilin, Nikita; Soina, Vera

    2015-04-01

    The study of diversity and functional state of microorganisms in subsurface rocks layers, their participation in the biochemical weathering and formation of organic horizons of soils is important for understanding ecology and microorganisms in Antarctic soils. The study of cultured forms of microorganisms and their potential viability is still relevant to characterize the physiological state, biological activity and resilience of microorganisms involved in the initial soil formation. Improvement of isolation techniques of viable bacteria from the extreme habitats has a particular importance for rising the efficiency of environmental monitoring. The aim of the study was to investigate the viable heterotrophic bacteria involved in the formation of soils from wet valleys Larsemann Oasis, which is one of the warmest ice-free space of East Antarctica. Soil samples were taken from the intermountain humid valleys, where silt-gravelly substrates formed moss, algae, lichen cover. We used nutrient solutions (trypticase soy, R2A and glucose-peptone) to isolate cultured bacteria and study their morphological types in the light microscope. The total number of microorganisms was determined by fluorescent microscopy with acridine orange. SEM was used for morphological studies of bacterial communities in situ. To activate the growth processes we added into nutrient solutions various regulatory metabolites that have dose-dependence and operate at the community level. Physiological and functional conditions were determined by the duration of the lag phase and specific growth rate of bacterial communities in nutrient solutions containing various organic substrates. Soils form under protection of «stone pavement» and organisms leave the surface, so the forming organo-mineral horizon occurs inside of rock, thus the microprofile can form on both sides of the organic horizons. UV radiation, lack of moisture and strong wind are main limiting factors for microorganisms' growth in

  6. Al Este del Cerro Pampa: ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana de la Pampa del Asador (Provincia de Santa Cruz East of the Cerro Pampa: enlargement of the obsidian availability area from Pampa del Asador (Santa Cruz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista Belardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La Pampa del Asador ha sido identificada como el lugar de proveniencia de distintos tipos de obsidiana, mayoritariamente negra, y el Cerro Pampa, ubicado en el extremo suroeste de la pampa, ha sido un punto central a partir del cual se ha medido la dispersión de los artefactos confeccionados en esta materia prima. Sobre la base de la interpretación de imágenes satelitales, análisis químicos y trabajos de campo se presenta y discute la evidencia provista por nódulos y artefactos de obsidiana recuperados en paleocauces y un abanico aluvial que se origina en la Pampa del Asador. Los resultados muestran la ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana 65 km hacia el este y 75 km al noreste del Cerro Pampa y, aunque presentando menor frecuencia relativa de nódulos y el decrecimiento de sus tamaños, el área se amplía a lo largo de la Pampa La Chispa. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones tanto en términos de la distribución de frecuencias de artefactos de obsidiana en el registro arqueológico regional como en los costos de aprovisionamiento de la roca.Pampa del Asador has been identified as the source of distinct types of obsidian (generally black, and Cerro Pampa, located in the extreme southwest of the Pampas, has been the central point from which the dispersal of artifacts fashioned from this obsidian has been measured. Based on the interpretation of satellite images, geochemical analysis, and field work, we present and discuss evidence provided by nodules and artifacts of obsidian recovered from paleo-drainage channels and an alluvial fan which originates in Pampa del Asador. The results expand the area of availability of obsidian 65 km east and 75 km northeast of Cerro Pampa, and also across Pampa La Chispa, although the relative frequency of nodules decreases and smaller size increases. These results have implications both in terms of the distribution and frequency of obsidian artifacts in the regional archaeological record

  7. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati; Mu'minatus Sholichah

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major...

  8. Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Z; Jiang, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East...

  9. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  10. Project Radiation protection East. Status Report, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Sundewall, H.; Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [TeknoTelje (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Project Radiation Protection East is a Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994 radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in the project. This report presents a summary over some 140 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. 12 tabs.

  11. Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfold, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Robinson, A. D.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; S. M. Phang; A. A. Samah; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; L. K. Peng; S. E. Yong; Harris, N. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    This is the published version. It first appeared at: http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/14/30705/2014/acpd-14-30705-2014.html. Anthropogenic emissions from East Asia have increased over recent decades, and under the prevailing westerly winds, these increases have led to changes in atmospheric composition as far afield as North America. Here we show that, during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter, pollution originating in East Asia also directly affects atmospheric composition in the deep ...

  12. Commercial collaborations in East Africa - a partnership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry; Jørgensen, Birgitte Hvingel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the accumulation of knowledge gathered by researching in an Action Research perspective, a context specific situation where UCN International Marketing and Trade students interact with commercial businesses with the intention of identifying market opportunities in East Afri....... Data is also comprised of research conducted in East Africa in another research project access2innovation (www.access2innovation.com), where cases are informative....

  13. Great Power Concert: Competition, Cooperation, and Stability in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Security Concerns,” Offshore , http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-72/issue-10/departments/beyond-the- horizon/east-african-energy...swagger it once had as a great power. The loss of its colonies in Vietnam in 1954, Tunisia in 1956, Morocco in 1956, and Algeria in 1962 due to violent...Concerns.” Offshore . http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/ volume-72/issue-10/departments/beyond-the-horizon/east-african-energy- development-future

  14. Design of geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, T; Liu, J; Jie, Y X; Wang, Y L; Gao, X; Qin, H

    2016-01-01

    The optimum scheme for geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak is proposed in this paper. The theoretical values of geometric phase for the probe beams of EAST Polarimeter-Interferometer (POINT) system are calculated by path integration in parameter space. Meanwhile, the influences of some controllable parameters on geometric phase are evaluated. The feasibility and challenge of distinguishing geometric effect in the POINT signal are also assessed in detail.

  15. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  16. Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl leaves, a skin care herb from East Kalimantan, using a melanin biosynthesis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2012-04-01

    In searching for a new material made from natural resources that could be used as a whitening agent, we focused on the plants used for skin treatment by the native people of East Kalimantan. The methanol extract of the leaves of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl showed antimelanogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. By activity-guided fractionation, 7-methoxycoumarin (1) was isolated as an active compound. The IC50 of 1 on mushroom tyrosinase was 2360 μM (L-tyrosine was used as the substrate) and above 2840 μM (L-DOPA was used as the substrate), respectively. Regarding melanin formation inhibition in B16 melanoma cells, the IC50 of 1 was 1780 μM with 83% cell viability at IC50. Based on these results, we validated that the leaf extract is in line with the traditional use of the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan.

  17. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Finn, Carol A; Jordan, Tom A; Bell, Robin E; Anderson, Lester M; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-11-16

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains' origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  18. Second phase of the extension of ASEAN: East Timor case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.

  19. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  20. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  1. East Capitali fondid on pakkunud ülihäid tootlusi / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Varahaldusfirma East Capital Baltimaade tegevust juhtiv Gert Tiivas ettevõtte asutamisest kümme aastat tagasi. Erinevalt konkurentidest on East Capital võtnud sihikule just arenevad turud, sh Venemaa ja Baltimaad. Vt. samas: 100 töötaja seas esindatud 24 rahvust; East Capitali fondid on popid Rootsi pensionäride seas. Tabel: East Capitali fondide tootlused

  2. Extended correlation of the Paleogene Faroe Islands and East Greenland plateau basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2008-01-01

    New analytical data are presented for 13 enriched high-Ti tholeiitic basalts from the top of the Faroese lava pile that was formed by the time of break-up of the North Atlantic  56-55  Ma ago and are located on the eastern continental margin of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples fall in three groups....../204Pb = 17.59-18.30 while the High-Ti3 group has 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88-19.12. The three Faroese lava groups can be correlated with the East Greenland syn-breakup basalt formations using their geochemistry, lava morphology and phenocryst contents. The High-Ti1 group correlates with the Milne Land......-Ti1 and Milne Land Formation lavas have a higher content of most incompatible elements compared to High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation. This is unexpected because the Zr/Nb ratio indicates that the High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation lavas are formed by lower degrees of melting. An explanation may...

  3. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  4. A Spitzer view of the giant molecular cloud Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapson, V. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E., E-mail: var5998@rit.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power-law index of ∼2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members with circumstellar disks/envelopes, we estimate the number of diskless pre-main-sequence stars by statistical removal of background star detections. We find that the disk fraction of the NGC 2264 region is 45%, while the surrounding, more distributed regions show a disk fraction of 19%. This may be explained by the presence of an older, more dispersed population of stars. In total, the Spitzer observations provide evidence for heterogenous, non-coeval star formation throughout the Mon OB1 cloud.

  5. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  6. The Role of Iran and America's Middle East Policy in Peace Process of Middle East 2001-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Jalalpoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Middle East peace process has become the most important international Middle Eastern politics phenomenon during the recent decades. Since the U.S. has realized the political, military and economic power of Iran and its influence as peace building in the Middle East, diplomacy with a common approach on the agenda has developed between these two countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate American and Iranian role in the Middle East and diplomatic relations between the two countries in the process of establishing peace in the region. The main question in the present research is that; what is the role of American and Iranian Middle East policy in the peace process in the Middle East during 2001-2016? To response to the question, a descriptive—analytical approach is implemented. The results suggest that the lack of diplomatic relations between Iran and America in the years 2001-2016 is one of the main reasons of the lack of security and peace in the Middle East. Accordingly, creating opportunities and establishing diplomatic relations (political, economic, social, and etc. between Iran and America with the interests of the two countries as the two poles of influence in all parts of the region, not only provides security, but also is an indicator to stabilize discipline and a lasting peace in the region. Last but not least, communication between Iran and the U.S. ensures safety of the region.

  7. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012).Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  8. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  9. On the east-west longitudinally asymmetric distribution of solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.

    2017-01-01

    A large data set of 78 solar proton events observed near the Earth's orbit during 1996-2011 is investigated. An east-west longitudinal (azimuthal) asymmetry is found to exist in the distribution of flare sources of solar proton events. With the same longitudinal separation between the flare sources and the magnetic field line footpoint of observer, the number of the solar proton events originating from solar sources located on the eastern side of the nominal magnetic footpoint of observer is larger than the number of the solar proton events from solar sources located on the western side. We emphasize the importance of this statistical investigation in two aspects. On the one hand, this statistical finding confirms our previous simulation results obtained by numerically solving five-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation of solar energetic particle (SEP) transport. On the other hand, the east-west longitudinally (azimuthally) asymmetric distribution of solar proton events accumulated over a long time period provides an observational evidence for the effects of perpendicular diffusion on the SEP propagation in the heliosphere. We further point out that, in the sense of perpendicular diffusion, our numerical simulations and statistical results of SEP events confirm each other. We discuss in detail the important effects of perpendicular diffusion on the formation of the east-west azimuthal (longitudinal) asymmetry of SEP distribution in two physical scenarios, i.e. `multiple SEP events with one spacecraft' and `one SEP event with multiple spacecraft'. A functional relation Imax(r) = kr-1.7 quantifying the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities is obtained and utilized in the analysis of physical mechanism. The relationship between our results and those of Dresing et al. is also discussed.

  10. Interaction between Meso-scale Eddies and Sub-polar Front in the East (Japan) Sea based on ARGO, AVHRR, and Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Y.; Kim, E.

    2008-12-01

    The East (Japan) Sea is drawing keen international attentions from broad spectrum of groups such as scientists, diplomats, and defense officers for its geopolitical situation, peculiar scientific assets recognized as miniature ocean. From physical oceanographic aspect, it is very rich with many features such as basin-wide circulation pattern, boundary currents, sub-polar front, meso-scale eddy activities and deep water formation. The circulation pattern in the East (Japan) Sea has been of major interests for its peculiar gyre, a western boundary current and its separation that resembles the currents such as Kuroshio and Gulf Stream. In relation to the gyre system in the East Sea, the formation of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC) has brought up with many numerical experiments. Numerical experiments suggested a new idea to explain the formation of the EKWC in that the potential energy supply into the Ulleung Basin (UB) from the meso-scale eddy is a key process. This is closely linked with the baroclinic instability and the meandering of offshore component of Tsushima Warm Current. The UB has drawn attentions for its role of the formation of two major boundary currents, EKWC, North Korea Warm Current (NKCC), their interaction with the mesoscale UWE, watermass exchange between the Northern Japan Basin and UB. Numerical experiments along with hydrographic and other satellite datasets such as AVHRR, altimeter and ARGO profiles have been analyzed to understand the formation of the UWE. We found that the influence of the bottom topography and frictional forcing against lateral boundary are all closely associated with the sub-polar front. Meandering of the axis of the sub-polar front is closely linked with the separation point of the EKWC, Ulleung Warm Eddy, and other small and meso-scale eddies on the sub-polar front. These will be demonstrated with results of the numerical modeling experiments and animation movie will be presented.

  11. GIS based application tool -- history of East India Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phophaliya, Sudhir

    The emphasis of the thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which gives an in depth information on history of East India Company. The GIS tool also incorporates various achievements of East India Company which helped to establish their business all over world especially India. The user has the option to select these movements and acts by clicking on any of the marked states on the World map. The World Map also incorporates key features for East India Company like landing of East India Company in India, Darjeeling Tea Establishment, East India Company Stock Redemption Act etc. The user can know more about these features simply by clicking on each of them. The primary focus of the tool is to give the user a unique insight about East India Company; for this the tool has several HTML (Hypertext markup language) pages which the user can select. These HTML pages give information on various topics like the first Voyage, Trade with China, 1857 Revolt etc. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the Indian map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the World map was designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface was intentionally kept simple and easy to use. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that pictures will help the user garner interest in the history of East India Company.

  12. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow.

  13. 'Bread Loaf' Mesa East of Phlegra Montes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] An isolated mesa east of the Phlegra Montes in northeastern Elysium Planitia has a cracked surface that, combined with its overall shape, gives the appearance of a giant loaf of bread. Other mesas with similar surfaces are found in the area, suggesting that at one time these mesas were part of a continuous layer of material. It is likely that at that time, some process caused the graben-like cracks to form. Later erosion of the cracked layer left only the isolated mesas seen in the THEMIS image. One clue that supports this scenario is the presence of many filled and eroded craters throughout the scene but no fresh ones. One way to produce this landscape begins with an ancient and heavily cratered surface that subsequently is buried by some other material. If this overburden was stripped off relatively recently, not enough time would have passed to allow for a new population of fresh craters to be produced. The result would be a landscape with isolated mesas of younger material on top of an ancient, cratered surface.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey

  14. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  15. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  16. Coagulation factor VA2440G causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M.; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers’ plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder–associated F5A2440G leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation. PMID:23979162

  17. Coagulation factor V(A2440G) causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers' plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder-associated F5(A2440G) leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation.

  18. East Antarctic ice sheet stability recorded in a high-elevation ice-cored moraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Nicole A.; Licht, Kathy J.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Kassab, Christine; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-03-01

    Till in an extensive blue ice moraine in the central Transantarctic Mountains at Mt. Achernar shows relatively continuous deposition by East Antarctic derived ice throughout the last glacial cycle. The most recently exposed material along the active margin of the Law Glacier (Zone 1) has hummocky topography that transitions into to a relatively flat region (Zone 2), followed by a series of ∼2 m high continuous, parallel/sub-parallel ridges and troughs (Zones 3-5). The entire moraine is ice-cored. Past surface changes of data, the U-Pb zircon data from till across all zones show little variability and are consistent with a Beacon Supergroup source, as samples show significant populations from the Proterozoic, ∼550-600 Ma and ∼950-1270 Ma, as well as the late Archean ∼2700-2770 Ma. The Mackellar, Fairchild, and lower Buckley Formations are interpreted as dominant sources of the detrital zircons. The zircon data lack the spatio-temporal variability indicated by the pebble fraction because the local Ferrar dolerite is not zircon bearing, highlighting the broader importance of using multiple techniques when interpreting provenance changes over time. Rather than reflecting major changes in ice flow path over time, the provenance changes are interpreted to indicate relative stability of the East Antarctic ice sheet, as the Law Glacier tapped into and eroded successively lower stratigraphic units of the Beacon Supergroup. This has important implications for interpreting offshore provenance records.

  19. Estratigrafía de la Formación La Yesera (Cretácico: Base del relleno sinrift del Grupo Salta, noroeste argentino Stratigraphy of the La Yesera Formation (Cretaceous: basal synrift fill of the Salta Group, Northwest Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio F. Sabino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Formación La Yesera, unidad basal del rift del Grupo Salta, se compone de capas rojas acumuladas entre el Neocomiano Tardío y el Cenomaniano. El espesor de la Formación supera los 700 m en el depocentro de Alemanía. En la unidad se distinguen tres secciones: la inferior y la superior que son psefíticas y la intermedia, psamo-pelítica. La sección inferior, Miembro Yacutuy, se compone de conglomerados de abanico aluvial y escasas intercalaciones de arenisca y pelita de planicies fangosas. La sección media, previamente reconocida como Miembro Las Chacras, consta de areniscas y limolitas acumuladas en planicies fangosas. La sección superior, Miembro Don Bartolo, se compone de conglomerados de abanico aluvial intercalados con coladas del Basalto Isonza. En el depocentro de Brealito la Formación La Yesera supera los 2.000 m de espesor. Además de los Miembros antes mencionados, se distingue en la parte superior de la sección media un depósito limolítico de 290 m donde intercalan calizas micríticas y pelitas verdes denominado Miembro Brealito. El basamento de la cuenca está formado por rocas competentes del Macizo Pampeano y por sedimentitas ordovícicas a devónicas. Estos dos tipos de basamento con distinta reología habrían determinado escenarios diferentes como respuesta a esfuerzos tensionales durante la formación de la cuenca. Se reconocen cuatro eventos volcánicos en la cuenca, los cuales se distribuyeron según lineamientos de orientación nordeste.The red beds of La Yesera Formation, which are the basal strata of the Salta Rift, accumulated from the Late Neocomian to the Cenomanian. The La Yesera Formation is thicker than 700 meters in the Alemanía sub-basin. The unit is made up of three sections: the lower and upper ones are dominated by conglomerates, and the middle section consists of sandstone and siltstone. It is proposed here to consider these sections as formal members. The lower section, or Yacutuy Member, is

  20. SSA 02-1 SALT AND HYPERTENSION IN MIDDLE EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions. The major reason for this is the great epidemiological transition in these countries. There is a great prevalence of smoking, increasing obesity, and a change in dietary patterns, as well, from traditional to ones higher in calories and processed foods.Diets high in salt increase blood pressure levels that are the leading contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality. Hypertension is very prevalent in the EMR and the Middle East. The average hypertension prevalence in this territory is around 30% and unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension rates were very high. Middle East ranks on the top levels for high salt intake compared to many other territories. The global salt consumption analysis showed that average sodium intake ranges from 3.74 to 4.12 grams of sodium per day in the Middle East. This corresponds to 9.35 to 10.3 grams of salt per day. This amount was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 5 g/day. Estimated intakes in Middle East countries were also diverse, ranging from 7,8 grams of salt per day in Lebanon to 15 grams of salt per day in Turkey.It is well known that decreasing dietary salt intake from 10 grams to 5 grams per day could reduce cardiovascular diseases rate by 17% worldwide. Several analyses have also showed that salt reduction strategies will be cost

  1. Giovanni Arrighi’s Tapestry of East & West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What a difference a year makes. While Giovanni Arrighi’s Adam Smith in Beijing is a complicated tapestry, threaded with multiple strands and sub-themes, if it offers any single master thesis, it is this: over the last four or so decades, the fading of US primacy and China’s precipitous ascent are dialectically interconnected, structured processes abetting one another. And, for good measure: China’s ascent just might culminate in the formation of a qualitatively novel, world community of market-linked states orbiting around East Asia, but without a dominant center (pp. 7-9. Were I putting together this review in mid-2008, I would express profound skepticism about both theses. Certainly, such skepticism would issue not from the conviction that US global power is invincible, but rather from an evidence-based belief that Arrighi habitually underestimates the extent to which China’s ongoing rise in the world order will be traumatically disrupted by the inevitable wipeout of highly leveraged paper assets on Wall Street (and the City of London, for that matter. Well, in the wake of the planetary financial crisis and economic slump, the early returns on China’s coping capacity are in. The ways in which China is responding to and weathering the storm vindicate more than a few of the claims and insights Arrighi advances in Adam Smith in Beijing, including some that I would have regarded with raised eyebrows a year ago. The thrust of this review is a critical assessment of Adam Smith in Beijing from the standpoint of how well or poorly its theoretical maneuvers and key arguments allow us to make sense of the current shake-up in the global system, with a focus on the interdigitated destinies of China and the US. In this evaluation I will take a page out of Arrighi’s own playbook and try to bear in mind the crucial distinction between geo-economic and geopolitical ebbs and flows of the moment and longer-term hegemonic ruptures and transformations.

  2. Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in

  3. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  4. The Alignment and Assembly for EAST Tokamak Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    EAST (HT-7U) is a large fusion experimental device. It is a full superconducting tokamak with 1 MA of plasma current, 1000 s of plasma duration, high elongation and triangularity. It mainly consists of superconducting magnets of poloidal and toroidal field (PF& TF),vacuum vessel (VV), thermal radiation shield (TRS) and cryostat vessel (CV). The significant difficulty for assembly of EAST is tight installation tolerances, which are in the order of several tenth of a millimeter. In particular, the alignment of plasma facing components to the magnetic axis of the device is less than ± 0.5 mm.At present, a reasonable assembly process of EAST has been defined, and based on it, the alignment method for EAST, including the survey control network, the location of the main components in different directions, the magnetic axis determination and the accurate positioning of the plasma facing components inside of the vacuum vessel and so on, has been defined by using the sophisticated optical metrology system (SOMS).This paper describes the assembly procedure of EAST and the installation tolerances associated with the main components. Meanwhile, how to establish the assembly survey control network,magnetic axis determination methods, are introduced in detail.

  5. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  6. Diagenesis and porosity evolution of sandstone reservoirs in the East Ⅱ part of Sulige gas field, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Renchao; Fan Aiping; Han Zuozhen; Wang Xiuping

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming an important controlling factor of gas exploration and exploitation in the east part of Sulige gas field in the Ordos Basin where the reservoir of main gas formations is tight sandstones.Employing experimental methods of slice identification,casting slice,scan electron microscope,and X-ray diffractions,we studied the characteristics of petrology and diagenesis on reservoirs in Shan1 section of Shanxi formation and He8 section of Shihezi formation of the Permian system in the East Ⅱ part of Sulige gas field.The results include:(1) the main sandstones in these areas are dominated by lithic sandstone and lithic silicarenite with low grade of maturity; (2) the diagenesis of sandstone in these areas mainly include compaction,cementation,corrosion and alteration.Conclusions are as follows:(1) the diagenetic stage reached period B of the middle diagenetic stage; (2) the early diagenetic compaction is one of the main factors to decreasing porosity:(3) the secondary pores formed by corrosion in acidity medium conditions in period A of the middle diagenetic stage can distinctly ameliorate the poor reservoir capability of sandstone and; (4) cementation in period B of the middle diagenetic stage is the most important factor leading to poor physical property of sandstone reservoirs.

  7. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  8. An Observational and Numerical Study on the Topographic Influence on Dust Transport in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xuegong; CHEN Shoujun

    2009-01-01

    Based on observations and numerical simulations, the topographic impacts on dust transport in East Asia were studied. Two regions frequently attacked by dust storms have been confirmed: one is the western part of Inner Mongolia and the southern Mongolia (namely the Mongolia Plateau), and the other is the Tarim Basin.The most frequent dust storm occurrence area within the first region appears in its hinterland while that of the second one lies in its southern boundary. Moreover, the region from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to the Loess Plateau is attacked by dust storms second frequently. The dust storms frequently occurring over the Mongolia Plateau are related not only to the abundant sand and dust sources, but also to the special topographic conditions of East Asia. The most significant factor that influences the dust storms forming in the hinterland of the Mongolia Plateau is the canyon low level jet (CLLJ), which dominates around the southern areas of the Altay-Sayan Mountains with an east-west direction in the beginning of its formation, and is accompanied by significantly enhanced surface wind afterwards. Due to the obstructive effects of the CLLJ, a lot of dust particles carried by the southward down-slope cold air mass would pile up over the southern slope of the Sayan Mountains. Meanwhile, uneven surface conditions are favorable for the dust particles to go up into the upper atmosphere. With the dust particles piling up continuously, a dust layer is formed in the troposphere and can be recognized as a "dust accumulating container", which provides abundant dust particles to be transported later to the downstream areas. Additionally, the topographic features of East Asia also exert a great influence on dust transport. Generally, the easterly CLLJ enhances the easterly dust transport. The down-slope air current over the southern Sayan Mountains and the air flow surrounding the TP near its northeastern edge enhance the southward dust

  9. Regional Confl icts in East Asia – a Role for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rise of China occurs in an adaptive and reactive regional system, giving impetus to the development of inclusive and expansive security architecture. This attempts to offset the statistical likelihood of confl ict with the rise of a major power as capability outweighs confl ict costs. China, in an effort to be a central player within this forming security architecture, contributes to its formation and participates in strategic narrative framing to defer from open confl ict and sabre rattling, while maintaining an increase in capabilities. This functionalist system of “open regionalism” incorporates external powers, furthering integrating the security concerns of the East Asian system with the security concerns of the world.

  10. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA,abundant microbe "bodies" and clear microbic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor.The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules.According to their morphological features,the microbes are classified into two types:one is named clumpy microbe,which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral,resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe,which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer,leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces.It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together,resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  11. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文宣; 周怀阳; 顾连兴; 张文兰; 陆现彩; 符琦; 潘建明; 张海生

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA, abundant microbe "bodies" and clear mi-crobic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor. The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules. According to their morphological features, the microbes are classified into two types: one is named clumpy microbe, which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral, resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe, which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer, leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces. It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together, resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  12. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter

  13. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  14. Periodicity of Climatic, Hydrological and Lacustrine Sedimentation Processes in the South of the East-European Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Pichura, V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Fourier analysis of a continuous series of observations (188 years) of the water discharge of the Dnieper River, the study has identified qualitatively distinct periods of the discharge formation and a cyclicity constituent of 12.5 years. By means of the piece regression models, which...... for simulation has been defined, which most accurately reflects the impact of natural climatic factors on the riverine discharge. The regression model for the conditions when the water discharge is over 1686 m3/s can be used for prognosis (and retrognosis) of extreme hydrological events in the south of the East...

  15. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.……

  16. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.

  17. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major cause of poverty is law enforcements that do not support fishermen and overfishing. While Lamongan more due to low fish prices and capital problems. While in Tuban fishermen due to limited infrastructure and lazy and extravagant lifestyle of the fishermen. These differences lead to different coping strategies so that later can form a concept model of poverty alleviation North Coast fishermen in East Java.

  18. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the middle east

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fallahian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is not well defined in the Middle East region. A review of the epidemiology and modes of transmission and spread of HCV infection in regions located in the Middle East, including Iran, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Cyprus, Sudan, Egypt, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Gaza Strip and West Bank, and Yemen, was undertaken. Public health strategies, well-programmed, population-based and certain HCV infection at-risk surveys, and transmission risk factors′ settings detection are insufficient in some countries of this region. Since significant diffe-rences in prevalence and epidemiology of HCV exist among the Middle East countries or even inside the countries, control strategies should take these differences into account.

  19. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  20. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  1. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  2. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  3. Luminescence dating of Late Quaternary sediments from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow-marine/coastal-fluvial and ......Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow...

  4. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  5. Simulation of EAST vertical displacement events by tokamak simulation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qinglai; Xiao, Bingjia; Guo, Yong; Liu, Lei; Xing, Zhe; Humphreys, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    Vertical instability is a potentially serious hazard for elongated plasma. In this paper, the tokamak simulation code (TSC) is used to simulate vertical displacement events (VDE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Key parameters from simulations, including plasma current, plasma shape and position, flux contours and magnetic measurements match experimental data well. The growth rates simulated by TSC are in good agreement with TokSys results. In addition to modeling the free drift, an EAST fast vertical control model enables TSC to simulate the course of VDE recovery. The trajectories of the plasma current center and control currents on internal coils (IC) fit experimental data well.

  6. The East model: recent results and new progresses

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Roberto, Cyril; Toninelli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The East model is a particular one dimensional interacting particle system in which certain transitions are forbidden according to some constraints depending on the configuration of the system. As such it has received particular attention in the physics literature as a special case of a more general class of systems referred to as kinetically constrained models, which play a key role in explaining some features of the dynamics of glasses. In this paper we give an extensive overview of recent rigorous results concerning the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model together with some new improvements.

  7. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    Intra-basaltic sediments 50 m below the top of the Paleogene lava succession at Kap Dalton, East Greenland, contain dinoflagellate cysts of late Ypresian-earliest Lutetian age, while sediments immediately above the lavas contain an assemblage of early Lutetian age. Combined with paleomagnetic...... results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  8. Simulations of Neutral Beam Ion Ripple Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉波; 丁斯晔; 吴斌; 胡纯栋

    2012-01-01

    Predictions on the ripple loss of neutral beam fast ions on EAST are investigated with a guiding center code, including both ripple and collisional effects. A 6% to 16% loss of neutral beam ions is predicted for typical EAST experiments, and a synergistic enhancement of fast ion loss is found for toroidal field (TF) ripples with collisions. The lost ions are strongly localized and will cause a maximum heat load of - 0.05 MW/m^2 on the first wall.

  9. Long run Relationship among East Asian equity markets and KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Bhatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of various stock markets plays a vital role in diversification while selecting securities in an investor’s portfolio. This study examines interdependence among the East Asian stock markets in relation to the Karachi Stock Exchange. Monthly data ranging from 2000 to 2010 is included and tested in this paper. This relationship is tested by using descriptive statistics and correlation matrix. Data stationarity is ensured by Unit Root Test. Evidence from Granger Causality and Impulse Response Test prove no relationship between KSE and stock markets of the East Asian countries while there exists certain level of unidirectional relationship from Japan to China and from Japan to Pakistan.

  10. The Representation of Older People in East Asian Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2016-11-15

    In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.

  11. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  12. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  13. Galaxy Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    We review the current theory of how galaxies form within the cosmological framework provided by the cold dark matter paradigm for structure formation. Beginning with the pre-galactic evolution of baryonic material we describe the analytical and numerical understanding of how baryons condense into galaxies, what determines the structure of those galaxies and how internal and external processes (including star formation, merging, active galactic nuclei etc.) determine their gross properties and evolution. Throughout, we highlight successes and failings of current galaxy formation theory. We include a review of computational implementations of galaxy formation theory and assess their ability to provide reliable modeling of this complex phenomenon. We finish with a discussion of several "hot topics" in contemporary galaxy formation theory and assess future directions for this field.

  14. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  15. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  16. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  17. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  18. East Coalinga polymer project: polymer comparisons. [California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, G.

    1976-01-01

    Shell Oil Co. conducted a series of injection and filtration tests in the E. Colainga field, California, to determine the injection characteristics of biopolymer and polyacrylamides. The choice of Xanflood biopolymer was made in order to evaluate the relative merits of polymer flooding and waterflooding in the Temblor Zone II reservoir. Conclusions to the field injection tests were (1) Xanflood biopolymers maintain their mobility properties during these tests; (2) it is possible to remove unhydrated Xanflood biopolymer or unhydrated biopolymer and bacterial debris with DE Filtration without significant loss in biopolymer viscosity; (3) the introduction of an optimum level of shear in the biopolymer mixing process increases the mobility control available for a given concentration of polymer; (4) currently available commercial biopolymers cause well-bore impairment so that effective filtration of the polymer solution is required to maintain injectivity; (5) at test injection rates (33 bpd/ft), polyacrylamide loses most of its mobility control by shear degradation at the injection well perforations; (6) polyacrylamide can be delivered to the sand face without severe loss of viscosity; and (7) polyacrylamide will not impair the formation. (12 refs.)

  19. Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of the South China Sea and the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically compares maritime territorial disputes in the East and South China Seas. It draws on the bargaining model of war and hegemonic stability theory to track the record of conflicts and shifts in the relative power balances of the claimants, leading to the conclusion that certainty and stability have improved in the South China Sea, with the converse happening in the East China Sea. To enrich the models, this article also considers social factors (constructivism and arrives at the same conclusion. This calls for a differentiated methodological approach if we are to devise strategies to mediate and resolve these disputes.

  20. Formation of gold mineralization in ultramafic alkalic magmatic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, I. D.; Kogarko, L. N.; Sazonov, A. M.; Kononkova, N. N.

    2016-06-01

    Study of mineral inclusions within alluvial gold particles of the Guli Complex (East Siberia) and findings of lode gold in rocks of the same intrusion have demonstrated that gold mineralization occurs in interstitions of both early high-magnesium rocks (dunite) and later alkalic and carbonatite rocks. In dunite the native gold occurs in association with Fe-Ni sulfides (monosulfide solid solution, pentlandite, and heazlewoodite). Formation of the gold-bearing alloys took place under a low oxygen potential over a broad range of temperatures: from those close to 600°C down to below 400°C.

  1. The Qishn Formation, Yemen: lithofacies and hydrocarbon habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beydoun, Z.R. (American Univ., Beirut (Lebanon)); Bamahmoud, M.O.; Nani, A.S.O. (Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Sana' a (Yemen, Republic of). Petroleum Exploration and Production Board)

    1993-08-01

    The Barremian-Aptian Qishn Formation of Yemen is broadly described in the context of its role as the lowest widespread transgressive unit of the Cretaceous system in the country and of the two laterally equivalent lithofacies groups that reflect the advance of the Cretaceous sea from east to west. This is undertaken against the background to the tectonic events that preceded its deposition and those that followed it during the remainder of the Cretaceous, so as to better understand its hydrocarbon habitat. (Author)

  2. Characteristic of geothermal fluid at East Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mochamad; Herdianita, Niniek Rina; Risdianto, Dikdik

    2016-09-01

    The research area is located in East Manggarai and its surrounding area, Flores. In the study area there are two geothermal systems, i.e. Mapos geothermal system which is associated with Anak Ranakah volcano and Rana Masak geothermal systems which is associated with Watuweri volcano. The difference within these systems is shown by the relative content of conservative elements of Cl, Li and B. Geothermal surface manifestations in Mapos include 4 hot springs having temperatures of 34,3-51,4°C and bicarbonate and sulphate-bicarbonate waters; the discharge area in Rana Masak consist of 3 hot springs with temperatures of 38-46,6°C and chloride and chloride-bicarbonate water. Stable isotopes δ18O and δD analyses showed that the geothermal fluid derived from meteoric water. The Mapos geothermal system is a high temperature system having reservoir temperature of 250-270°C with natural heat loss of 230 kW. The Rana Masak geothermal system is a low temperature system having reservoir temperature of 120-140°C with natural heat loss of 120 kW.

  3. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  4. Mass balance of the Lambert Glacier basin, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since it is the largest glacier system in Antarctica, the Lambert Glacier basin plays an important role in the mass balance of the overall Antarctic ice sheet. The observed data and shallow core studies from the inland traverse investigations in recent years show that there are noticeable differences in the distribution and variability of the snow accumulation rate between east and west sides. On the east side, the accumulation is higher on the average and has increased in the past decades, while on the west side it is contrary. The ice movement measurement and the ice flux calculation indicate that the ice velocity and the flux are larger in east than in west, meaning that the major part of mass supply for the glacier is from the east side. The mass budget estimate with the latest data gives that the integrated accumulation over the upstream area of the investigation traverse route is larger than the outflow ice flux by 13%, suggesting that the glacier basin is in a positive mass balance state and the ice thickness will increase if the present climate is keeping.

  5. ISLAM AND THE FAILURE OF MODERNIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahide

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to see the encounter between Islam and modernity in the countries where the majority of the inhabitants are Muslims, particularly in the Middle East that is currently in the state of turmoil. In General, modernity failed to adapt to the Islamic states, for example the failure of democracy, which became the current joint attention in some Arab countries where the iron fist regimes are still a part of the political system. Furthermore, this paper attempts to see why modernity is difficult to adapt itself in the Middle East which began to build relations with Europe in the 18th century. Bernard Lewis, an expert who focuses on the Islamic world, argued that the failure of modernity in the Middle East and Islamic countries because of cultural factors and understanding of religion that hampered the pace of modernity. The understanding of religion is still centered on debating the democratic system and gender equality which come from the West; all of which is part of modernity. In addition, the young generations that learn a lot from the West, are not given broader space to apply their knowledge in developing and setting up a system of nationhood and statehood. These are the core issues that will be discussed further in this paper. Keywords: Modernity, Middle East tensions, and Islam

  6. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in ...

  7. North-east India’s forgotten IDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monirul Hussain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Misguided policies have displaced millions in the seven states of north-east India. The needs of environmental, development and conflict-induced IDPs have been ignored. India lacks a national IDP policy and the government systematically refers to internally displaced persons as ‘migrants’.

  8. Growth and Poverty: Lessons from the East Asian Miracle Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Quibria

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of growth, inequality and poverty reduction in the East Asian miracle economies. This review suggests that the basic impetus for poverty reduction was robust economic growth, which was fostered by a conducive policy and institutional framework. This framework - which helped to create a 'level playing field' - encouraged high investment, production over diversion, and efficient use of investable resources

  9. Statistical characterization of turbulence in the boundary plasma of EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    In Ohmic heated low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the intermittent statistical characteristics of turbulent fluctuations have been investigated in the edge and the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma on EAST (the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) by fast reciprocating Langmuir probe...

  10. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease prevalence

  11. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  12. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  13. 'Open SESAME' for science in the Middle-East

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding has just been signed between CERN, SESAME and Jordan. SESAME, the international centre for Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is currently being built in Jordan. Its President of Council is no other than CERN's former Director-General, Herwig Schopper.

  14. East Asian Collections and Organizational Transformation in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses special aspects of East Asian collections and explores how organizational changes in academic libraries affect them, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Considers total quality management; continuous quality improvement; teamwork; staffing changes; specialization versus generalization; budgetary restraints and cost…

  15. First indication of Storegga tsunami deposits from East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Bennike, O.; Klug, M.; Cremer, H.

    2007-01-01

    A 2.73 m long sediment sequence from Loon Lake, located at 18m a.s.l. on outer Geographical Society Ø, East Greenland, was investigated for its chronology and changes in physical and biogeochemical properties, macrofossils, and grain-size distribution. The predominance of marine fossils throughout t

  16. Socialisation in Architectural Education: A View from East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olweny, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Concern for the state of architectural education in East Africa was a catalyst for this exploration of socialisation, which sought to understand socialisation and its influence on educational outcomes in the region. Socialisation within architectural education has long been known to influence how students acquire important aspects of the…

  17. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  18. Food Buying Practices of Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles in the spring of 1969, questions were asked concerning their families' buying and food practices. This paper reports on the information obtained from the 21 questionnaires which were returned. Answers to the following…

  19. Bathymetry (2011) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the...

  20. New criteria for the characterization of traditional East Asian papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avataneo, Chiara; Sablier, Michel

    2017-01-01

    We report a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) method capable of analyzing traditional East Asian papers. The method proposed is based on rapid and easy single step Py-GC/MS analysis that can be carried out with a minimum amount of matter, in the few microgram range. Three reference papers manufactured from kozo (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold & Zucc.), mitsumata (Edgeworthia chrysantha Lindl.), and gampi (Wikstroemia sikokiana Franch. & Sav.) with the traditional hand paper making processes were examined. The method allows discrimination between terpenic and steroid compounds, which were revealed as chemical markers of origin of the plant fibers. Each paper investigated was found to have characteristic pyrolysis fingerprints that were unique to the traditional handmade paper, demonstrating the potential for differentiation of these biochemical components of fiber plants on East Asian papers towards identification and conservation of cultural heritage. The investigation on Py-GC/MS was extended to liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis to characterize the biochemical components of fiber plants. The main contribution of this study is to provide molecular criteria for discriminating plant species used for traditional East Asian hand papermaking. Py-GC/MS complements efficiently microscope identification especially for adverse cases. A case study of archaeological Chinese paper painting artefacts was thereafter successfully investigated to address informative potential and efficiency of the criteria of identification on ancient and degraded East Asian paperworks.

  1. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    and multichannel seismic (MCS) survey acquired two intersecting wide-angle reflection and coincident MCS profiles across and along the East Greenland Ridge. We present the results of integrated reflection seismic interpretation, first-arrival tomography, 2D kinematic raytracing, full-wave amplitude modeling...

  2. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  3. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  4. Fataluku medicinal ethnobotany and the East Timorese military resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and poisonous plants used by the East Timor resistance was undertaken in the Lautem District of East Timor to study medicinal plant use in the region. Interviews were conducted with a single key consultant from the resistance army who belonged to the Fataluku culture. This study is of importance as a historical document and because no previous medicinal ethnobotanical studies on this region exist. Methods A rapid ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and poisonous plants was conducted through the proposed Conis Santana National Park in the Lautem district of East Timor. Medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by a Consultant and data was collected by the authors using classical descriptive ethnobotanical techniques (i.e. no quantitative measures through an unstructured open ended interview. Results During the survey 40 medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by the Consultant and collected by the authors. Defining characteristics of the Consultant's knowledge include a high frequency use of trees, heavily forested habitats, leaves, decoctions and drinks for a range of conditions relevant to a resistance army. Conclusion Despite limitations of the study, important contributions of this study include preservation of a part of the cultural history of the resistance movement and traditional botanical knowledge of the Fataluku. Furthermore, initial findings may indicate that traditional botanical knowledge is unique amongst different East Timorese cultures in terms of plant selection.

  5. Modern non-pollen palynomorphs from East African Lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelorini, V.; Verbeken, A.; van Geel, B.; Cocquyt, C.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an illustrated guide to the identification of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) preserved in lake-sediment archives from equatorial East Africa. Modern NPPs were recovered from recently deposited surface sediment in 20 small crater lakes in western Uganda, located along environmenta

  6. Modern human settlement in East Asia earlier than thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tracing through human migration history with the help of genes, Dr. SU Bing and coworkers from the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) lately revealed the evidence of a much earlier modem human settlement in East Asia than people previously thought.

  7. Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

    2008-01-01

    Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

  8. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access a

  9. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and...

  10. India's "Look East" Policy: Geopolitical,Historical and Perceptional Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqiang

    2004-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the India-ASEAN relations since India advanced and implemented the "Look East" strategy after the Cold War. India became ASEAN's sectoral dialogue partner in January 1992 and full dialogue partner in 1995, and joined ARF in July 1996. With the establishment of India-ASEAN Summit regime in 2002, the fourth "Ten Plus One" formally kicked off.

  11. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van W.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant arrang

  12. Introduction: History, Politics and Identity in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Edward

    2002-01-01

    The strength of nationalism in East Asia has in recent years attracted a great deal of attention, both among the scholarly community and in the media. However, with the notable exception of Japan, little attention has been devoted to the subject of history education. As a result, the ways in which history education across the region both…

  13. Overview of Sustainable Energy in Central Europe and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    JANDA, Karel; Tan, Tianhao

    2017-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief literature review of sustainable energy literature with focus on economic aspects of sustainability. This is followed by description of energy situation in Central Europe and East Asia with a focus on sustainable energy resources. Our analysis of energy sector describes energy sector and both fossil and renewable fuel energy supply with particular emphasize on electricity.

  14. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility o

  15. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  16. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  17. Rolls-Royce Becomes Provider for West-East Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Rolls-Royce, a leading provider of gas turbines for global energy markets, announced on February that it has won the contract to provide Rolls-Royce pipeline compression equipment for China's West-East Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP). The contract is valued at over US$150 million.

  18. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  19. Metaphors regarding the Concept of Book (near East University Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneyli, Ahmet; Akintug, Yeliz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the metaphors of the students, who are in the department of Psychological Counseling and Guidance in Near East University, about the concepts of a "book" and determine their perceptions. Qualitative method was used and 211 students were chosen according to the purposive and convenient case sampling. The data…

  20. East Sichuan to Double Gas Production in 10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huachun

    2001-01-01

    @@ The general plan for annual 10-billion-cubic-meter productivity of natural gas in East Sichuan basin has recently passed appraisal by the expert group, indicating that China's current largest onshore natural gas field under production will double its output in a period of more than nine years from now to 2010.

  1. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  2. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  3. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  4. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  5. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  6. Abrupt climate warming in East Antarctica during the early Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Heiri, O.; Wagner, B.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a centennial-scale warming event between 8600 and 8400 cal BP from Amery Oasis, East Antarctica, that is documented by the geochemical record in a lacustrine sediment sequence. The organic carbon content, the C/S ratio, and the sedimentation rate in this core have distinctly elevated value

  7. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  8. Modern Mathematics in East Africa: A Survey, 1961-1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, D.

    1973-01-01

    Shetched are the educational developments of East Africa, particularly in Tanzania. Emphasis is on establishing a modern mathematics program for the secondary school. The modifications made on the School Mathematics Project (SMP) curriculum and the development of the Entebbe Project designed to meet African needs are described. (JP)

  9. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  10. Present Condition, Problems and Prospects of East Asian Regional Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnYuejun; SongZhengben

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, with the speeding-up of economic globalization and regional integration, countries in East Asia, taking into consideration economic returns and national security, have actively conducted multilateral dialogue and cooperation in such areas as politics, economy and security in a pragmatic manner.

  11. Global AIDS medicines in East African health institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hardon; H. Dilger

    2011-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we follow the journey of global AIDS medicines into diverse health facilities in East Africa, which for decades have been subjected to neoliberal reform processes and increasing fragmentation. The introduction explores the multifaceted and multidirectional

  12. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Torres, D.J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, d18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pa

  13. East Man:A Chinese Brand of Independent Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Bai Yifeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ As a kind of building material, lacquer is very necessarily used in the room fitment. In order to protect the indoor environment and avoid the emission of poisonous gas, people always choose those high-quality imported lacquer despite the high price. However, a new Chinese brand lacquer has been produced, it's called East Man.

  14. Glossary of Terms Relating to Languages of the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This glossary gives brief, non-technical explanations of the following kinds of terms: (1) names of all important languages now spoken in the Middle East, or known to have been spoken in the area; (2) names of language families represented in the area; (3) descriptive terms used with reference to the writing systems of the area; (4) names of…

  15. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  16. Development and test of decoupler for ICRF antenna in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gen, E-mail: chengen@ipp.ac.cn; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun; Qing, Chengming

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The mechanism of decoupler for ICRF antenna is proposed. • Three candidate assembly positions for the decouper can be used. • The performance relies on the ohmic dissipation and the assembly position of decoupler. - Abstract: Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating has been adopted in EAST tokamak as one of main auxiliary heating methods. The ICRF antenna usually consists of multiple launching elements because of limited port and space of tokamak device. Mutual coupling between straps has been observed in previous EAST ICRF current drive experiments. Due to adverse effects of such mutual coupling, many issues induced by cross power cannot be ignored, such as power imbalance in feed lines, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and etc. To restrain such mutual coupling, A device named decoupler was developed and tested in EAST ICRF system. According to the admittance matrix of load, three assembly positions (oscillation position, optimum position, and smooth position) along transmission line for the decoupler were taken into account and tested. The test results showed that ohmic dissipation in decoupler could not be neglected, which partly influenced the decoupling performance. The oscillation position and optimum position could restrain such adverse effects of ohmic dissipation and showed good decoupling performance. However, they cannot ensure the steady operation during H-mod due to the load variation. Finally, the smooth position has been adopted for EAST I port antenna because of steady decoupling performance comprised with engineering error and load resilience, which sincerely enhance the capability of system operation.

  17. The Middle East in Conflict. Strategies and Worksheets: Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide presents strategies for teaching a unit on the Middle East conflict including a rationale, performance objectives, background information, and questions. Worksheets contain simulations, poetry, and news stories which are used to teach the origins of and issues concerning the conflict. A simulation of the 1897 Zionist Congress…

  18. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  19. The black Dutchmen : African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpow

  20. History of the volcanology in the former Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann van Padang, M.

    1983-01-01

    The description of the volcanoes in the former Netherlands East Indies are analysed in order of their publication, grouping them into three parts. The first group consists of information from old Javanese sources and incidental communications in travel accounts and the like, dating from the 16th, 17

  1. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  2. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  3. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  4. Palaeoenvironmental perspectives for sustainable development in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marchant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available East African ecosystems are shaped by long-term interaction with changing climate, human population, fire and wildlife. There remains today a strong connection between people and ecosystems, a relationship that is being strained by the rapidly developing and growing East African population, and their associated resource needs. Predicted climatic and atmospheric change will further impact on ecosystems culminating in a host of challenges for their management and sustainable development, further compounded by a backdrop of political, land tenure and economic constraints. Given the many direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide to surrounding human populations, understanding how they have changed over time and space deserves a special place on the ecosystem management agenda. Such a perspective can only be derived from a palaeoecology, particularly where there is high resolution, both through time and across space. The East African palaeoecological archive is reviewed, in particular to assess how it can meet this need. Although there remain crucial gaps, the number of palaeoecological archives from East Africa growing rapidly, some employing new and novel techniques to trace past ecosystem response to climate change. When compared to the archaeological record it is possible to disentangle human from climate change impacts, and how the former interacts with major environmental changes such as increased use of fire, changing herbivore densities and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. With this multi-dimensional perspective of environmental change impacts it is imperative that our understanding of past human-ecosystem interactions are considered to impart effective long term management strategies; such an approach will enhance possibilities for a sustainable future for East African ecosystems and maximise the livelihoods of the populations that rely on them.

  5. Pictorial Formats. Volume 1. Format Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    the pilot to help him evaluate when to change course to avoid objects in TF/TA modes. In addition to the projected flight path, there are commanded...TYPESFigMASTER5 Wepo Saus clr ase 00I 16I AI 󈧋TRA- X PI prI MEN p~ll It 62 AIR-TO-GROUND _ - PRGRAM ýRELEASE SELECTIONS _ZY - Figure 58 71T ý Weapon...development should always be done within the context oF a baseline aircraft weapon system. Further studies are needed to simulate and evaluate these formats

  6. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  7. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  8. Mid-Pleistocene vermiculated red soils in southern China as an indication of unusually strengthened East Asian monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Qiuzhen; GUO Zhengtang

    2006-01-01

    The mid-Pleistocene vermiculated red soils (VRS) from Xuancheng (Anhui Province) and Bose (Guangxi) are studied through soil micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical approaches. The results indicate a polygenetic nature of the VRS, having experienced multiple soil-forming stages. Three main stages have been recognized, attributable to distinct climate regimes. They include the formation of the homogeneous matrix of a red soil (stage 1), development of the white veins within the soil profile (stage 2), and formation of juxtaposed textural features (stage 3). The white veins, resulting from iron-depletion in the groundmass of the homogeneous matrix of a red soil, required abundant rainfall without significant seasonal desiccations. The geographically widely spread VRS south of the Yangtze River in China implies a Mid-Pleistocene extreme East Asian summer monsoon. This climate extreme might be closely linked with the changes in the strength of NADW.

  9. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  10. Features of the repetition frequency of edge localized modes in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xiao, C.; Xu, G.S.;

    2012-01-01

    (LHW) heating power on the EAST tokamak. The ELMs in EAST are Type III ELMs with high frequency (several hundred Hertz) and low amplitude. ELM features for the following two types of EAST discharges are investigated: discharges with only LHW and those with both LHW and ion cyclotron resonance frequency...

  11. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  12. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  13. From West to East and Back Again: Faith, Doubt and Education in Hermann Hesse's Later Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Hermann Hesse's penultimate novel, "The Journey to the East", from an educational point of view. Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of "the East" in seeking to understand himself and his society. While highly critical of elements of Western modernism, Hesse nonetheless viewed "the East" through Western lenses…

  14. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riney, T.D.; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (k/sub v/ approx. 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  15. 高分辨率层序地层划分在陆相油藏剩余油分布研究中的应用——以克拉玛依油田一东区克拉玛依组为例%Application of high resolution sequence stratigraphy on remaining oil distribution of continental reservoirs: case of Karamay formation of east Karamay oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 丁晓琪; 李学伟

    2013-01-01

    Because China has some of the most water-flooded oilfield in world, stable oil production relies on controlling water injection and increasing oil recovery. The sandstone stacked styles, heterogeneity, geometry of reservoirs can be studied by high resolution sequence stratigraphy with a kind of new vision, which closely links remaining oil distribution and extends new method for studying remaining oil distribution. This paper studies base level changing laws of different cycles based on detailed research of sedimentary mi-cro-facies of Karamay formation, then the short base level cycles of Karamay formation can be divided into 2 main classes and 12 small classes. The middle base level cycles control the development of short base level cycles, so the Karamay formation can be divided into 3 middle cycles and 14 short cycles, then the isochronous stratigraphic framework are built. The short base level cycles which are located in the middle base level cycles have different remaining oil distribution in isochronous stratigraphic framework. The result shows that the detailed sedimentary work is the base for studying sequence stratigraphy. The reservoirs that are deposited in the high accommodation can have good isochronous and low intraformational heterogeneity, so, the remaining oil distribute in thin, small, nonproduc-ing or low degree of water flooded area. Meanwhile, the reservoir that is distributed in low accommodation can have poor isochronous and high intraformational heterogeneity, and which are composed of noncontemporaneous deposit, so, the remaining oil is distributed in low permeable reservoirs in form of lens.%克拉玛依油田经过半个世纪注水开发,已进入开发后期,提高采收率的关键是明确剩余油的分布规律.在对研究区克拉玛依组沉积相研究的基础上,分析了不同类型剖面结构代表的基准面变化规律,将该组的短期基准面旋回划分为2大类12个小类.短期基准面旋回的规律性变化

  16. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  17. Enhancement of aerosol responses to changes in emissions over East Asia by gas-oxidant-aerosol coupling and detailed aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.

    2016-06-01

    We quantify the responses of aerosols to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide, black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds) over East Asia by using simulations including gas-oxidant-aerosol coupling, organic aerosol (OA) formation, and BC aging processes. The responses of aerosols to NOx emissions are complex and are dramatically changed by simulating gas-phase chemistry and aerosol processes online. Reduction of NOx emissions by 50% causes a 30-40% reduction of oxidant (hydroxyl radical and ozone) concentrations and slows the formation of sulfate and OA by 20-30%. Because the response of OA to changes in NOx emissions is sensitive to the treatment of emission and oxidation of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds, reduction of the uncertainty in these processes is necessary to evaluate gas-oxidant-aerosol coupling accurately. Our simulations also show that the sensitivity of aerosols to changes in emissions is enhanced by 50-100% when OA formation and BC aging processes are resolved in the model. Sensitivity simulations show that the increase of NOx emissions from 1850 to 2000 explains 70% (40%) of the enhancement of aerosol mass concentrations (direct radiative effects) over East Asia during that period through enhancement of oxidant concentrations and that this estimation is sensitive to the representation of OA formation and BC aging processes. Our results demonstrate the importance of simultaneous simulation of gas-oxidant-aerosol coupling and detailed aerosol processes. The impact of NOx emissions on aerosol formation will be a key to formulating effective emission reduction strategies such as BC mitigation and aerosol reduction policies in East Asia.

  18. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  19. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  20. Bacterial succession in Antarctic soils of two glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Antarctic glacier forefields are extreme environments and pioneer sites for ecological succession. Increasing temperatures due to global warming lead to enhanced deglaciation processes in cold-affected habitats, and new terrain is becoming exposed to soil formation and microbial colonization. However, only little is known about the impact of environmental changes on microbial communities and how they develop in connection to shifting habitat characteristics. In this study, using a combination of molecular and geochemical analysis, we determine the structure and development of bacterial communities depending on soil parameters in two different glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate that deglaciation-dependent habitat formation, resulting in a gradient in soil moisture, pH and conductivity, leads to an orderly bacterial succession for some groups, for example Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deltaproteobacteria in a transect representing 'classical' glacier forefields. A variable bacterial distribution and different composed communities were revealed according to soil heterogeneity in a slightly 'matured' glacier forefield transect, where Gemmatimonadetes, Flavobacteria, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria occur depending on water availability and soil depth. Actinobacteria are dominant in both sites with dominance connected to certain trace elements in the glacier forefields.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Wintertime Mesoscale Eddies in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 侯一筠; 方国洪

    2003-01-01

    A POM based three-dimension baroclinic prognostic model in σ-coordinate was established to simulate the eddies in the East China Seas wintertime circulation, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, Changjiang runoff, heat, flux, and wind stress on the sea surface. The model results showed that three branches separate from the Kuroshio flow toward the interior of the Yellow Sea, and form three eddies respectively. The middle eddy is centered at 124°37′E,37°00′N,the southern eddy is centered at 124°00′E,35°30′N. The large cyclonic eddy centered at 125°06′E,30°30′N and located southwest of Cheju Island is a closed structure formed by the northeastward flowing Taiwan Warm Current, northwestward flowing Yellow Sea Warm Current and southward flowing coastal current. The Kuroshio intrusion engenders an eddy west of Kyushu Island of Japan. The branching of the Kuroshio is the direct dynamic cause of the formation of this large eddy. Moreover, both the topographic influence and the northward wind prevailing in winter affect the eddy's formation obviously.

  2. A Study of East Asian Cold Surges during the 2004/05 Winter: Impact of East Asian Jet Stream and Subtropical Upper-Level Rossby Wave Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cherng Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold surges were unusually active in subtropical East Asia during January - February 2005. These cold surges were pre ceded by up stream wave trains, which originated in the Mediterranean-Sahara region and prop a gated east ward along the sub tropical jet stream over the Eurasian continent. The northerly of the upper-level cyclonic anomaly in East Asia coupled with the low-level northerly upon the arrival of wave activity, and this was followed by a quick south ward penetration of cold air mass and surface anticyclone. Diagnostic and numerical results suggest that the anomalously active wave activity affecting the East Asian cold surges may be attributed to an anomalously enhanced jet stream over the Middle East and an anomalously west ward extension of the East Asian Jet Stream. The configuration of these two subtropical jet streams established a strong wave guide through which wave activity forced in the Mediterranean-Sahara region could efficiently prop a gate to East Asia, resulting in above aver age cold surge events in subtropical East Asia. Wave-like perturbation tended to be amplified at the entrance to the East Asian jet through barotropic energy conversion from the mean flow.

  3. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS, that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF, black carbon (BC aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins and BC mixing state (10 bins for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10–20% over northern East Asia and 20–35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  4. Periodic gas release from the LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Smekens, J.

    2012-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in a densely populated district of the Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industries, farmlands, and 10,000 homes. Peak mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3/d were measured in the first few months of the eruption, which have decreased to water, is erupted at temperatures close to boiling. Gases are periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter, triggering mud fountains ~20 m in height. No appreciable gas seepage was detected in the quiescent intervals between bubble bursts. Absorption spectrometry in the infrared spectrum reveals that the gas released during explosions consists of 98.5% water vapor, 1% carbon dioxide, and 0.3% methane. On rare occasions, minor amounts of ammonia were also detected. Using simplified plume geometries based on observations, we estimate that LUSI releases approximately 1,500 T/yr of methane, which is equivalent to 0.5% of the yearly methane production from the 2.7 million heads of cattle in the East Java province. We observed explosion periods from 1 to 3 minutes with a median period of 100 s. Two conceptual models for the periodic behavior are assessed: 1) decompressional boiling of water as fluids ascend a pathway to the surface suggests that bubbles form 10s of meters below the surface and continue to expand as they rise; periodicity results from the time to reheat the fluid in the vicinity of bubble formation and 2) gas bubbles are seeded at much greater depths where carbon dioxide exsolves from solution and coalesce in a manner similar to that of slug flow.

  5. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Gourlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child, and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of ‘health passports’, as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  6. Evolution of nonlinear internal waves in the East and South China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Chang, Y. Steve; Hsu, Ming-K.; Liang, Nai K.

    1998-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from ERS-I have been used to study the characteristics of internal waves northeast and south of Taiwan in the East China Sea, and east of Hainan Island in the South China Sea. Rank-ordered packets of internal solitons propagating shoreward from the edge of the continental shelf were observed in the SAR images. On the basis of the assumption of a semidiurnal tidal origin, the wave speed can be estimated and is consistent with the internal wave theory. By using the SAR images and hydrographic data, internal waves of elevation have been identified in shallow water by a thicker mixed layer as compared with the bottom layer on the continental shelf. The generation mechanism includes the influences of the tide and the Kuroshio intrusion across the continental shelf for the formations of elevation internal waves. The effects of water depth on the evolution of solitons and wave packets are modeled by the nonlinear Kortweg-deVries (KdV) type equation and linked to satellite image observations. The numerical calculations of internal wave evolution on the continental shelf have been performed and compared with the SAR observations. For a case of depression waves in deep water, the solitons first disintegrate into dispersive wave trains and then evolve to a packet of elevation waves in the shallow water area after they pass through a "turning point" of approximately equal layer depths that has been observed in the SAR image and simulated by the numerical model. The importance of the dissipation effect in the coastal area is also discussed and demonstrated.

  7. Formation peculiarities of tourism documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhezhnych, Pavlo; Soprunyuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes formation peculiarities of tourism documentation, the role of tourism data consolidation for unified format creation and the the need to use existing software tools to handle tourism information, formation process of tourism documentation is presented.

  8. Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea Surface Fluxes and Thermohaline Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter CHU; CHEN Yuchun; Akira KUNINAKA

    2005-01-01

    We use the U.S. Navy's Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate the climatological water mass features and the seasonal and non-seasonal variabilities of the thermohaline structure, and use the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) from 1945 to 1989 to investigate the linkage between the fluxes (momentum, heat, and moisture) across the air-ocean interface and the formation of the water mass features. After examining the major current systems and considering the local bathymetry and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS) Basin, Cheju bifurcation (CB) zone, Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) region, Kuroshio Current (KG) region. The long term mean surface heat balance corresponds to a heat loss of 30 W m-2 in the ESC and CB regions, a heat loss of 65 W m-2 in the KG and TWC regions, and a heat gain of 15 W m-2 in the YS region. The surface freshwater balance is defined by precipitation minus evaporation. The annual water loss from the surface for the five subareas ranges from 1.8 to 4 cm month-1. The fresh water loss from the surface should be compensated for from the river run-off. The entire water column of the shelf region (ECS, YS, and CB) undergoes an evident seasonal thermal cycle with maximum values of temperature during summer and maximum mixed layer depths during winter. However, only the surface waters of the TWC and KG regions exhibit a seasonal thermal cycle.We also found two different relations between surface salinity and the Yangtze River run-off, namely, out-of-phase in the East China Sea shelf and in-phase in the Yellow Sea. This may confirm an earlier study that the summer fresh water discharge from the Yangtze River forms a relatively shallow, low salinity plume-like structure extending offshore on average towards the northeast.

  9. Characteristics and dynamic settings of the Central-east Asia multi-energy minerals metallogenetic domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    That more than 82 percent of proved sandstone-type uranium deposits coexist with proved oil-gas or coalfields in the world reflects the fact of coexistence and accumulation of multi-energy minerals including oil, gas, coal and uranium in the same basin. Especially, this phenomenon is most typical in the Central-east Asia energy basins. Across China, Mongolia and some central Asian countries, the giant Central-east Asia metallogenetic domain (CEAMD) stretches more than 6,000 km from Songliao Basin of China in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. The multi-energy minerals distribution characteristics of the domain include: their spatial distribution is complicated and ordered; the ore-bearing horizon relates closely to the geographical region; the accumulation/mineralization and localization time is the same or close; the occurrence setting and accumulation/mineralization have close correlation; and they have rich provenance for all the minerals. All of these imply that they have close relations between each other under a unified geodynamic background. The exogenetic uranium mineralization process in CEAMD can be divided into five phases using time limits of 100 Ma, (50±2) Ma, 20±(2―4) Ma, 8―5 Ma. The major mineralization periods and their differences in each primary uranium-bearing basin are identical to the oil-gas accumulation and localization periods and phases in the same basin, and are also in response to regional tectonics and controlled in general by the regional geodynamic environment. For industrial application and commercial exploitation, it is suggested that an important period for coexistence, accumulation and localization of oil, gas, coal and uranium and their interaction mainly occur in the late/last and post basin evolution. Through generalized analysis and comparison of accumulation/mineralization environment of the energy basins in CEAMD, the authors propose that the relatively stable regional tectonic background and moderate (weaker

  10. Optical dating of the anastasia formation, northeastern florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, K.E.; Rink, J.W.; Means, G.H.; Portell, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure was used to obtain optically stimulated luminescence ages to determine the depositional age of the upper part of the Anastasia Formation. This unit, which crops out along the east coast of Florida, is one of the most culturally and economically important coquina deposits in North America. Rock samples from the upper three meters of exposure at three locations were collected. Additional materials for paleontological analysis were also taken. Based on our samples, the luminescence ages of the Anastasia Formation are well within marine isotope stage 5, which is supported by the results of Osmond et al. (1970) based on U/Th ages. The associated fossil assemblages support our luminescence age determinations. Associated fossils fall within the Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age (300 10 ka) and the fossil mollusk assemblage consists entirely of modern species.

  11. Solar System formation

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A

    2009-01-01

    In this review, three major changes in our understanding of the early history of the Solar System are presented. 1) Early differentiation: A few recent results support the idea that protoplanet formation and differentiation occurred partly simultaneously than CAI formation. First, some iron meteorites, eucrites, and angrites older than the chondrules or even than the CAI have been found. Second, iron meteorites could be debris of early disrupted differentiated planetesimals, scattered from the terrestrial planet region to the Main Belt. Finally, chondrules contain fragments of planetesimal material. 2) Earth and Moon: An equilibration mechanism explains the identical Oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon. In addition, it has been shown that the Earth and the Moon mantles have the same 182^W anomaly, in contrast to what was believed before. Consequently, the Moon forming impact should have occurred after the extinction of the 182Hf radioactivity, about 60 Myr after Solar System formation. This ...

  12. Primordial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion...

  13. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  14. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  15. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  16. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  17. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific......A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system...... specifications which guarantee operational preorders to be precongruences. The technique is applied to the trace preorder, the completed trace pre order and the failures preorder. In the latter two cases, new syntactic formats ensuring precongruence properties are introduced....

  18. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  19. SESAME: physics for peace in the Middle East

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Allan, Jordan: a bridge of peace between nations is being constructed with the help of particle physics. Scheduled to be operational by 2011, SESAME, the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, brings together countries from all over the region. SESAME construction site (Photo R. Sarraf, copyright: Al-Balqa Applied University). On the east bank of the river Jordan, 30 km from Amman, lies SESAME. A collaboration of nine members, including Jordan, Israel, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt and Palestine, the project was created under the auspices of UNESCO. Following the same model as CERN, the underlying expectation is that SESAME will encourage peace by training a new generation of scientists from all over the region to work on a new synchrotron facility. Just as scientists from all over Europe collaborated at CERN in the aftermath of the Second World War, SESAME hopes to provide an environment where ...

  20. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.