WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoning pipelines working

  1. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  2. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  3. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  4. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  5. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  6. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  7. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ∼ 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

  8. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

  9. Television method of controlling stowing of abandoned workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, W.

    1978-01-01

    This method describes a method of monitoring stowing of an underground abandoned working by means of a television camera lowered through a drillhole from the surface. The method was used in Poland for the first time in the period from 1974 to 1976. The camera had been previously used to check the technical state of underground sewage systems. The sAV 18 camera can be lowered to a maximum depth of 400 m, it is explosion proof and can be used under conditions of explosion hazard. A scheme of the equipment is given. A method of determining size of old workings using the camera (with light source) is explained. Examples of photos made by the camera (on videotape) of the abandoned working being stowed with a sand-water mixture through a drillhole from the surface are also given. (In Polish)

  10. North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.

    1982-09-01

    Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

  11. Working group 7: pipeline risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, Shahani; Weir, David

    2011-07-01

    This seventh working group of the Banff 2011 conference provided an understanding of risk management process in the pipeline industry, including system-wide risk assessment, risk based integrity systems and risk control techniques. The presentations furnished a basis on which to discuss programs, processes and procedures including reliability based decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management policy. This workshop was divided into three sessions. The first session focused on the comparison between reliability methods and conventional deterministic methods in terms of accuracy, simplicity and sensitivity. Next, the importance of low probability high consequence events and the processes to prevent them were discussed. The last session discussed the consequences of management processes on failures and risks. The debates following these presentations tried to identify the best management practices to reduce risks, and the regulations and requirements to develop.

  12. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pence Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

  13. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at

  14. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  15. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  16. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  17. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  18. Working Paper 55 - Strategic Considerations for Building a Healthy Pipeline for Bank Group Operations

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The African Development Bank has, since 1982, experienced a problem withbunching of projects towards the fourth quarter of each year’s Lending Program.Contributing factors include both systemic and endogenous constraints as well asexogenous constraints. This paper proposes a holistic approach, that recognizesall the forces at work in the development of Public Investment Programs (PIPs) atthe RMC level as well as the Bank’s internal processes that help to guide andgenerate the pipeline.At the ...

  19. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  1. Crack initiation in steel parts working in boilers and steam pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Renowicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of material degradation on the crack initiation and on durability under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the operation data, the conditions of laboratory examinations of specimens were determined. A specialist apparatus unit was used for the examination, enabling the simulation of any spectrum of mechanical load and temperature changes.Findings: The material durability criterion has been defined based on an energy related approach to the problem of crack initiation in steels which work under thermal fatigue conditions.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a pipeline part, the present criteria should be expanded with critical values describing the total length of cracks initiated on the internal surface of a specimen.Practical implications: The paper refers to the research on steel 10H2M (10CrMo.910 used in the conventional boilers, superheaters and pipelines in power plants.Originality/value: Originality of the paper is the methodology of the lifetime prediction of steam pipeline parts working in thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.

  2. Development and production of equipment complex for welding and other type of working of plastic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of work on realizing program of welding and working of plastic tubes are presented. The program provides for development of welding equipment and standard-technical documentation for items, produced by welding of plasttic tubes 16-630 mm in diameter. The information, presented in the paper, is of particular interest for desing and mounting organizations, concerned with designing, production and mounting of process pipelines. It also promotes the formation of favourable situration in organizing demand for welding equipment as commodity-marketing requirement. 6 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... underground workings. 784.25 Section 784.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS...

  4. What Works and What Does Not: A Discussion of Popular Approaches for the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elise B. Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is reducing in almost all countries in which it is a traditional practice. There are huge variations between countries and communities though, ranging from no change at all to countries and communities where the practice has been more than halved from one generation to the next. Various interventions implemented over the last 30–40 years are believed to have been instrumental in stimulating this reduction, even though in most cases the decrease in prevalence has been slow. This raises questions about the efficacy of interventions to eliminate FGM and an urgent need to channel the limited resources available, where it can make the most difference in the abandonment of FGM. This paper is intended to contribute to the design of more effective interventions by assessing existing knowledge of what works and what does not and discusses some of the most common approaches that have been evaluated: health risk approaches, conversion of excisers, training of health professionals as change agents, alternative rituals, community-led approaches, public statements, and legal measures.

  5. Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loldrup Fosboel. P.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also

  6. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method to... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... the NPMS-required attributes, operators must submit the date of abandonment, diameter, method...

  7. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

  9. Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

  10. Experimental study of high-performance cooling system pipeline diameter and working fluid amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan; Hrabovsky, Peter; Papučík, Štefan

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with heat transfer resulting from the operation of power electronic components. Heat is removed from the mounting plate, which is the evaporator of the loop thermosyphon to the condenser and by natural convection is transferred to ambient. This work includes proposal of cooling device - loop thermosyphon, with its construct and follow optimization of cooling effect. Optimization proceeds by selecting the quantity of working fluid and selection of diameters vapour line and liquid line of loop thermosyphon.

  11. Experimental study of high-performance cooling system pipeline diameter and working fluid amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with heat transfer resulting from the operation of power electronic components. Heat is removed from the mounting plate, which is the evaporator of the loop thermosyphon to the condenser and by natural convection is transferred to ambient. This work includes proposal of cooling device - loop thermosyphon, with its construct and follow optimization of cooling effect. Optimization proceeds by selecting the quantity of working fluid and selection of diameters vapour line and liquid line of loop thermosyphon.

  12. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  13. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  16. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  17. Pipelines on irregular seabed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S.; Gjertveit, E.

    1985-01-01

    From the Statpipe project in the North Sea a unique experience has been gained on the design and construction of pipelines on seabed with large irregularities of different types. The Statpipe pipeline system consists of 4 pipeline legs and totals 842 km subsea and 40 km onshore lines. Two pipelines are crossing the Norwegian Trench at about 300 m water depth. In the Statpipe project pre-lay intervention to prepare the seabed for pipelaying was only required for less than a 1 km rock outcrop section in the landfall area. The offshore pipelines cross large areas of pockmarks and iceberg ploughmarks. However, after an extensive design effort a routing was found which avoided pre-lay intervention and limited the post-lay intervention work. Grout bag supports were installed underneath the most severe pipeline spans as a temporary measure, while permanent span correction was performed by trenching and gravel dumping. The above methods proved adequate for the largest ploughmark spans with height under the pipeline up to 3.3 m (moranic material) and pockmark spans in soft soil with height up to 6 m (trenching only). For pipelines in landfall areas, where the seabed is highly irregular due to rock outcrops, various construction methods are at disposal. The Statpipe project used a subsea bridge to span the irregularities, while another pipeline project (Oseberg) is constructing a subsea floor tunnel for later pull-in of the pipeline through a sealing plug at an offshore point.

  18. Measuring the Education Pipeline: Critical Data Elements Indicating Readiness, Transition and Success. "High School to Postsecondary Education and Work"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) has identified a common set of data that capture students' progress through the education pipeline at three key transition points: high school readiness, high school success/postsecondary readiness, and postsecondary and workforce success. For each of these transition points, key questions to be addressed by…

  19. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    “Transformation of abandonment, a new critical practice” Abstract. While the major cities in Denmark are experiencing growth in population and economy, the surrounding rural areas face abandoned villages and increasing decay. This research focuses on the abandoned houses, seeking an alternative...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...... are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life...

  20. The Influence Of Repair Welded Joint On The Life Of Steam Pipeline Made Of Cr-Mo Steel Serviced Beyond The Calculated Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to examine the influence of repair welded joints on the service life of steam pipelines for over 220 000 hours of service in creep conditions. The research included the study of the microstructure using scanning microscopy, the tests on mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature, determining the nil ductility transition temperature, and short-time creep tests to determine the residual life of the material. The tests allowed determining the time of further safe operation of elements of the steam pipeline with a repair welded joint, with reference to the base material, and the welded joint after service. The assessment of residual life and disposable residual life, and at the same time determining the possible time of further safe operation, has an essential meaning in the case of elements serviced considerably beyond the calculated working time.

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  3. Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  5. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  8. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  17. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  18. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  19. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  20. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road... sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon and construct...

  1. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  2. On the influence of the UOE forming process on material properties and collapse pressure of deep water pipelines: experimental work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timms, Chris; Swanek, Doug; DeGeer, Duane [C-FER Technologies, Alberta (Canada); Mantovano, Luciano O. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ernst, Hugo A. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Structural Integrity Dept.; Toscano, Rita G. [SIM y TEC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Souza, Marcos P.; Chad, Luis C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Large diameter pipes for onshore and offshore applications are manufactured using the UOE process. The manufacturing process consists in the cold forming of heavy plates followed by welding and then by an expansion. It has been demonstrated in previous work that, for deep water applications, the cold forming process involved in UOE pipe manufacturing significantly reduces pipe collapse strength. To improve the understanding of these effects, Tenaris has embarked on a program to model the phases of the UOE manufacturing process using finite element methods. Previous phases of this work formulated the basis for the model development and described the 2D approach taken to model the various steps of manufacture. More recent developments included modeling enhancements, some sensitivity analyses, and comparison of predictions to the results of full-scale collapse testing performed at C FER. This work has shown correlations between manufacturing parameters and collapse pressure predictions. The results of the latest phase of the research program are presented in this paper. This work consists of full scale collapse testing and extensive coupon testing on samples collected from various stages of the UOE pipe manufacturing process including plate, UO, UOE, and thermally aged UOE. Four UOE pipe samples manufactured with varying forming parameters were provided by Tenaris for this test program along with associated plate and UO samples. Full-scale collapse and buckle propagation tests were conducted on a sample from each of the four UOE pipes including one that was thermally aged. Additional coupon-scale work included measurement of the through thickness variation of material properties and a thermal ageing study aimed at better understanding UOE pipe strength recovery. The results of these tests will provide the basis for further refinement of the finite element model as the program proceeds into the next phase. (author)

  3. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream's strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  4. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  5. Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  7. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  8. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  9. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  10. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  12. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  13. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  15. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  16. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  17. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  18. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  19. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  20. 76 FR 10348 - Northwest Pipeline, GP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northwest Pipeline, GP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... activities: ] Abandon in-place approximately 15 miles of 16-inch- diameter pipeline; Relocate an existing pig \\1\\ receiver from MP 41.02 to MP 48.04 and remove aboveground facilities, including a pig...

  1. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  2. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  3. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  4. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  5. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  6. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexov; J.W.T. Hessels; J.D. Mol; B. Stappers; J. van Leeuwen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being deve

  7. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  8. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Lateral buckling and axial walking of surface laid subsea pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Obele, Ifenna

    2013-01-01

    Subsea pipelines are increasingly being required to operate at high temperature and pressure HT/HP. The pipeline installed on the seabed and left exposed have a potential to buckle, walk and change configuration under high temperature and pressure (HT/HP). This could lead to failure of the Pipeline if buckling and walking is not properly controlled or mitigated. The objective of the thesis work is to study and understand the influence of pipeline-soil interaction on the design ...

  10. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    OpenAIRE

    Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowaday...

  11. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... criteria and procedures for determining the adequacy of state pipeline excavation damage prevention...

  12. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  13. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  14. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  18. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  1. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  2. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  3. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  4. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  5. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  6. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  7. The evaluation of low-cycle fatigue durability of the pipeline material working at high temperature in original state and after exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the fatigue tests in range of low cycle fatigue for the materials used in energetic pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial state and after long term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC. On the basis of performed metallurgical studies of material waste after operating period according to the adapted quality criteria has been described. Low-cycle fatigue tests of the material showed the increase of durability after operating period and simultaneously decrease of saturation stress σan. Decrease of saturation stress σan for the assumed ranges Δεc of the material after its operating period related to saturation stress at the initial state manifests its decreasing of low-cycle loading transmission capacity. (author)

  8. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  9. Development of DP (Dynamic Positioning) to pull-in sub sea pipelines; Utilizacao de barcos de manuseio de ancoras operando com DP (Dynamic Positioning) para arraste de dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Manoel H.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Elton C. [Suporte Engenharia, Luziania, GO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sub sea pipeline construction at oil and gas fields, with high concentration of on-bottom facilities, becomes more difficult when mooring operations and pipeline approach to a congested platform have to be performed. One method that has often been applied in Brazil is the so-called 'DP (Dynamic Positioning) pull-in', where PETROBRAS owned pipelay Barge, BGL-1, is moored away from the congested area, while a DP anchor handler pulls the rigid pipeline from BGL-1 to a target near the platform. The method was conceived to avoid mooring operations near the congested platforms as well as to minimize risks due to the pipeline initiation process. Inside the congested area the initiation with aid of a 'dead-man' anchor on the sea bottom, which would be a more conventional solution, becomes impossible in most cases. This paper will discuss the engineering work required to perform the 'DP pull-in' as well as show the operational steps, from the start-up to the final abandonment of the pipeline initiation head inside the target area. (author)

  10. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  11. Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

  12. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  13. A Survey of Visual Analytic Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Meng Wang; Tian-Ye Zhang; Yu-Xin Ma; Jing Xia; Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Visual analytics has been widely studied in the past decade. One key to make visual analytics practical for both research and industrial applications is the appropriate definition and implementation of the visual analytics pipeline which provides effective abstractions for designing and implementing visual analytics systems. In this paper we review the previous work on visual analytics pipelines and individual modules from multiple perspectives: data, visualization, model and knowledge. In each module we discuss various representations and descriptions of pipelines inside the module, and compare the commonalities and the differences among them.

  14. Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

  15. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  16. Internal corrosion of transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elm, T. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jack, T. [Nova Chemicals Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Boivin, J. [Cormetrics Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 13 focused on the factors influencing internal pipeline corrosion failures as well as the challenges facing both oil and gas operators to mitigate and monitor internal corrosion. Some of the tools needed to effectively treat the internal corrosion life cycle were also discussed. It was noted that upstream pipelines face many of the same issues as transmission lines, but under different operating conditions. It was emphasized that the overall risk of corrosion is high, but the probability is often under-appreciated even in light of the consequences to public safety, environmental damage and loss of income. The root cause of internal corrosion is water. Areas where water collects are subject to ongoing attack by dissolved corrosive gases, dissolved salts, and corrosive bacteria. Risk assessment is useful in identifying critical points, determining mitigation requirements, and choosing an inspection method. Monitoring with fibre optic sensor technology is useful because it helps identify the source of the problem and helps regulate mitigation activities. It was emphasized that it is equally important to monitor the growth of corrosion features. In the United States, recent failures of gas transmission pipelines due to internal corrosion have resulted in more stringent regulations. Many failures have been prevented because of in-line inspection and pigging. The effect of transporting other substances, such as hydrogen or ethanol, in pipelines was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  17. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

    2010-01-01

    Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

  18. Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

  19. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  20. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  1. Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

  2. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  3. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  4. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  5. Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  6. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  7. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

  8. An environmental education program for maroon communities: the results of a work carried out along the Cabiunas-Vitoria gas pipeline; Programa de educacao ambiental para comunidades quilombolas: a experiencia do trabalho realizado no Gasoduto Cabiunas-Vitoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Vieira, Rosa M. [Telsan Engenharia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the Environmental Programmes developed for the works of Cabiunas-Vitoria Gas Pipeline (GASCAV) intended to fulfill the conditions of the Installation License, which defined the preparation of Specific Studies and Environmental Programmes to five quilombo communities located at GASCAV's influence area. The challenge of PETROBRAS/Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT Environmental Team was to align the Company's strategic guidelines related to Environmental and Social Responsibility to the necessary criteria for the approval of this Programme by environmental agencies which inspected the Programme: IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) and FCP (Palmares Cultural Foundation). This work aimed to present the methodology adopted to the proposal of the Environmental Education Programme to Quilombo Communities, as well as to discuss the results achieved with the implementation of this Programme. The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed at the quilombo communities has disseminated the environmental concepts and related to the afro culture, has established partnerships and strengthen the relationship with the surrounding communities. This fact promotes the integration of the Work's economic interests with the social and environmental ones, generating a socio environmental conscience among the residents. (author)

  9. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  10. Integrate Government, Society and Market into the Social Work Service System for Abandoned and Disabled Children%“政府—社会—市场”合作下的发展型孤残儿童社会工作服务体系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梅苹

    2012-01-01

      Based on practical experience from the Institutional Child Care Socialization program, and aiming for the protection of chil-dren's need and rights, this paper provides thoughts and suggestions on integrating government, society and market into the social work service system for abandoned and disabled children.%  本文以“机构照料儿童社会适应”服务项目的实践经验为基础,立足儿童需求为本和儿童发展权保障为本的福利理念,对构建“政府-社会-市场”合作下的孤残儿童社会工作服务体系提出了反思和建议。

  11. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llovet Lopez, J.; Ruiz Varela, M.; Josa March, R.; Vallejo Calzada, V. R.

    2009-07-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  14. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Grinding Properties of Abandoned Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fang-yu; WANG Li-jiu; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The grinding properties of abandoned concrete, which consists primarily of hardened cement, limestone aggregate and river sand, are studied. Theoretical models of grinding are used to explain the experimental observation. The results show that 1) The principle disintegration mechanism of hardened cement and river sand is volumetric grinding, although at later stages grinding of cement becomes difficult because of its flaked structure; 2) The limestone grinding process can be divided into two steps. First, volumetric grinding, with an obvious component of surface grinding, followed by primarily surface grinding as the micro-particle content increases; 3) Initially, the principle mechanism of grinding limestone and river sand is volumetric grinding, albeit less efficient grinding than if these components were ground separately, and; 4) After 10 to 20 min of grinding the grinding bottleneck phenomenon appears and after 20 min of grinding the content of micro-particles is large and surface grinding is the main mechanism while the particle size of the mixture is smaller than that of separately ground river sand and cement but bigger than that of separately ground limestone.

  16. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson...

  17. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  18. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  1. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  2. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  4. In Fair Weather Prepare for Foul ---In-service integrity inspection of oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZhaotian; XiongXiaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline transportation is one of the major ways for the oil/gas transmission. To ensure the safety of oil/gas transmission pipeline is very important because of its primary role in national economic development and people' s life quality improvement. In China, 20 000km of oil/gas pipelines are at work and 10 000km pipelines are being or will be constructed.

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  6. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  7. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  8. Progress with the LOFAR Imaging Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Pizzo, Roberto; van Diepen, Ger; van Zwieten, Joris E; van Weeren, Reinout J; Rafferty, David; van der Tol, Sebastiaan; Birzan, Laura; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Swinbank, John; Orru, Emanuela; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ker, Louise; Bonafede, Annalisa; Macario, Giulia; Ferrari, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    One of the science drivers of the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is large-area surveys of the low-frequency radio sky. Realizing this goal requires automated processing of the interferometric data, such that fully calibrated images are produced by the system during survey operations. The LOFAR Imaging Pipeline is the tool intended for this purpose, and is now undergoing significant commissioning work. The pipeline is now functional as an automated processing chain. Here we present several recent LOFAR images that have been produced during the still ongoing commissioning period. These early LOFAR images are representative of some of the science goals of the commissioning team members.

  9. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  10. Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

  11. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  12. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  13. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    .... On October 18, 2010 (75 FR 63774) PHMSA published an ANPRM titled ``Pipeline Safety: Safety of On... rules (65 FR 75378; 12/1/ 2000 and 67 FR 2136; 1/16/2002) requiring IM Programs for hazardous liquid pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778;...

  14. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Steam pipelines' effort and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Okrajni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

  16. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  17. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  18. Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

  19. Optimizing pipeline for a RISC processor with multimedia extension ISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhi-bin; LIU Peng; YAO Ying-biao; YAO Qing-dong

    2006-01-01

    The 32-bit extensible embedded processor RISC3200 originating from an RTL prototype core is intended for low-cost consumer multimedia products. In order to incorporate the reduced instruction set and the multimedia extension instruction set in a unifying pipeline, a scalable super-pipeline technique is adopted. Several other optimization techniques are proposed to boost the frequency and reduce the average CPI of the unifying pipeline. Based on a data flow graph (DFG) with delay information, the critical path of the pipeline stage can be located and shortened. This paper presents a distributed data bypass unit and a centralized pipeline control scheme for achieving lower CPI. Synthesis and simulation showed that the optimization techniques enable RISC3200 to operate at 200 MHz with an average CPI of 1.16. The core was integrated into a media SOC chip taped out in SMIC 0.18-micron technology. Preliminary testing result showed that the processor works well as we expected.

  20. NEWBORNS ABANDONMENT: THE DYNAMICS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS RELEVANCE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baleeva K. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of newborns abandonment in modern Russia is relevant but understudied. This article discusses the nature and dynamics of the problem. Newborns abandonment is considered in the framework of social and demographic modernization. The problem of newborns abandonment is studied in the context of social orphanhood in Russia. The author focuses on the history of the problem of newborns abandonment, its features in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and modern Russia. For a deeper understanding of the problem the author held a series of expert interviews and highlighted the main factors that influenced newborns abandonment in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. The main challenges in the development of prevention in modern Russia are identified. The author concludes on the need to reform the system for preventing newborns abandonment as part of the ideology of the family-centered approach and constructing a unified federal structure. The paper uses qualitative methods: literature review, expert interviews. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of social work, sociology, demography, politics, and economics

  1. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  2. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.

  3. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The wa

  4. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  5. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  6. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  7. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mica, Isabella [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.mica@st.com; Polignano, Maria Luisa [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Marco, Cinzia De [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes.

  8. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  9. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  10. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  11. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  12. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  14. Constructing computational pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  15. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  16. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  19. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... firm contract; or (2) A facility that did or could now qualify for automatic authorization as...

  20. Quarries - QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN: Abandoned Quarries in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN was derived from a comma-delimited text file named "QUALOC.TXT" contained on the following CD-ROM publication: Hasenmueller, W.A., and Ault,...

  1. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation...

  2. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  3. Channel morphology and flow structure of an abandoned channel under varying stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Katie H.; Gerken, Joseph E.

    2016-07-01

    Abandoned channels are those channels left behind as meandering rivers migrate over their floodplains and remain among the most enigmatic features of the riverscape, especially related to their hydraulics and geomorphology. Abandoned channels are being considered and implemented as restoration and rehabilitation strategies for large rivers but we do not yet have a sound understanding of their hydromorphodynamics. The overall objectives of this work were to assess the bed morphology and flow structure of a large, dynamically connected abandoned channel (e.g., the channel is inundated during annual or decadal floods through bank overflow) under varying stages. Here we document the hydromorphodynamics of an abandoned channel during 3.4, 9.2, and 37.9 return interval discharges using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Flow separation was observed along the channel entrance during the lowest flow surveying campaign but was not seen during the higher flow campaign. Width to depth ratio and channel width at the exit both progressively decreased from the first surveying campaign, despite the final campaign having the highest measured discharge. Large zones of flow stagnation and recirculation were observed, with depth-averaged velocity vectors not aligning in one direction, in the abandoned channel where water from the entrance was meeting water coming up from the exit during moderate discharges. The abandoned channel has been maintained for at least 25 years due to its low diversion angle and it being perched above the Kansas River. Results of this study provide insights of how flow hydraulics and physical characteristics of abandoned channel change under varying stages.

  4. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  5. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  7. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  8. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  9. Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

    2009-12-19

    The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

  10. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  11. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  12. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  13. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  14. [Automatic analysis pipeline of next-generation sequencing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Li; Fengyu, Li; Siyao, Zhang; Bin, Cai; Na, Zheng; Yu, Nie; Dao, Zhou; Qian, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has generated high demand for data processing and analysis. Although there are a lot of software for analyzing next-generation sequencing data, most of them are designed for one specific function (e.g., alignment, variant calling or annotation). Therefore, it is necessary to combine them together for data analysis and to generate interpretable results for biologists. This study designed a pipeline to process Illumina sequencing data based on Perl programming language and SGE system. The pipeline takes original sequence data (fastq format) as input, calls the standard data processing software (e.g., BWA, Samtools, GATK, and Annovar), and finally outputs a list of annotated variants that researchers can further analyze. The pipeline simplifies the manual operation and improves the efficiency by automatization and parallel computation. Users can easily run the pipeline by editing the configuration file or clicking the graphical interface. Our work will facilitate the research projects using the sequencing technology.

  15. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  16. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  17. Pneumatic capsule pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Partyka, J.; Rudd, L. [Laurentian Univ., School of Engineering, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    With the rising cost of transporting ores and concentrates, alternatives to the traditional means of transportation by rail, trucks and hoists are being actively sought, as a means of reducing operating costs. Pneumatic encapsulated pipeline (PCP) transportation of raw, processed, or waste materials is being looked upon as a potentially viable alternative for material handling in the mining industry. There are several operating PCP systems in Europe and in Japan, although there are as yet no similar applications in North America. To evaluate the viability of pneumatic capsule pipeline systems, a 600 mm diameter, 70 m long pilot PCP plant, made of rigid fibreglass, was constructed at Laurentian University and several tests have already been conducted. It was found that any bulk material can be transported by PCP safely, with relatively small amounts of power, over long distances, and at a significantly reduced cost, while maintaining complete control. Both underground as well as surface applications appear to be viable. This paper concentrates on the results of experiments designed to test the energy requirements of a PCP system. Future studies should focus on exploring and improving the ability of PCP systems to transport vertically which would be a great advantage to hauling ore from underground mines to the surface. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  18. Mudslide effects on offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, R.C.; Jones, W.T.

    1982-11-01

    In regions of unstable soils such as portions of the Mississippi Delta, occasional pipeline failures during periods of severe weather have been attributed to mudslides. The effects of such downslope soil movements on the deflection and resulting stress in a pipeline have been studied in an attempt to reveal methods of routing or design which would reduce the risk of failure. Results show that the chances of surviving a slide are increased if the pipeline outer diameter is reduced to as small a value as possible, if the pipe wall thickness is increased, and if some slack is available in the line. The chance of survival is greatest if the slide occurs in a direction perpendicular to the pipeline route since the failure mode is primarily one of tension. When the slide crosses the pipeline at other angles of incidence, the chance of survival is significantly lessened.

  19. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  20. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that they must make their pipeline emergency response...

  1. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  2. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  3. Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

    2004-12-01

    Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors

  4. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  5. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  6. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  9. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  10. The challenges of working values of SEH (Safety, Environment and Health) in the construction of Urucu / Manaus Gas Pipeline in the Amazon rain forest; Os desafios de trabalhar os valores de SMS (Seguranca, Meio ambiente e Saude) na construcao do Gasoduto Urucu/Manaus na Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jeane Ramos; Rocha, Katia Rosilene Soares da; Paredio, Lindoneide Lima [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellin, Madson Weider Elgaly [JPTE Engenharia, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barreto, Jean Luis Campos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work, aims to sharpen the main difficulties of acting in SMS and the corrective and preventive measures in the work of the pipeline Urucu / Manaus, located in the influence of the Solimoes River, covering several municipalities in the state of Amazonas (Coari, Codajas, Caapiranga, Anama, Iranduba, Manaus). Such pipeline has three spread, namely Spread A, from Urucu to Coari, Spread B1, from Coari to Anama, and Spread B2, from Anama to Manaus. For the purpose of the present case, we have focused on the Spread B2, from the city of Anama to Manaus, from km 475 to Km 662, being 174,400 m long. Its main line ends right within the premises of the Refinaria Isaac Sabba (a local refinery), which is located at Rua Rio Quixito - Distrito Industrial. The purpose of the pipeline is to convey natural gas to the Pressure Regulating Station, which is located close by the aforementioned refinery. The gas is transported to Maua Thermoelectrical, to generate energy for certain areas of the Amazon capital city. The information has been obtained through observations made on the difficulties faced by the workers to comply with safety behaviour while carrying out their activities. Also, by using several tools, such us Auditoria Comportamental (Behaviour Auditing) - Audicomp, Aplicacao de Listas de Verificacao - LV's (Verification Lists), as well as Indice de Praticas Seguras - IPS (Safety Practices Index). The collected data is analysed, and displayed in graphics, tables and processed in PETROBRAS internal systems, such Audicomp (Behaviour Auditing), SALV (Verification Lists Application System), and Auditoria de IPS (Safety Practices Index Auditing). The main difficulties to implement SMS (Safety, Environment and Health) in a pipeline works in the Amazon require from the transportation logistics, communication problems, lack of enough local skilled labor, the adverse region's season conditions, both flood and dry seasons, as well as to commit the local population with

  11. The Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Bryson, Stephen T.; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for several aspects of the Kepler Mission, including managing targets, generating on-board data compression tables, monitoring photometer health and status, processing the science data, and exporting the pipeline products to the mission archive. We describe how the generic pipeline framework software developed for Kepler is extended to achieve these goals, including pipeline configurations for processing science data and other support roles, and custom unit of work generators that control how the Kepler data are partitioned and distributed across the computing cluster. We describe the interface between the Java software that manages the retrieval and storage of the data for a given unit of work and the MATLAB algorithms that process these data. The data for each unit of work are packaged into a single file that contains everything needed by the science algorithms, allowing these files to be used to debug and evolve the algorithms offline.

  12. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  13. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  14. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  15. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  16. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... the Federal Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and...

  17. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  18. Global lateral buckling analysis of idealized subsea pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润; 刘文彬; 吴新利; 闫澍旺

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the curing effects of paraffin on the transport process and reduce the transport difficulty, usually high temperature and high pressure are used in the transportation of oil and gas. The differences of temperature and pressure cause additional stress along the pipeline, due to the constraint of the foundation soil, the additional stress can not release freely, when the additional stress is large enough to motivate the submarine pipelines buckle. In this work, the energy method is introduced to deduce the analytical solution which is suitable for the global buckling modes of idealized subsea pipeline and analyze the relationship between the critical buckling temperature, buckling length and amplitude under different high-order global lateral buckling modes. To obtain a consistent formulation of the problem, the principles of virtual displacements and the variation calculus for variable matching points are applied. The finite element method based on elasto-plastic theory is used to simulate the lateral global buckling of the pipelines under high temperature and pressure. The factors influencing the lateral buckling of pipelines are further studied. Based upon some actual engineering projects, the finite element results are compared with the analytical ones, and then the influence of thermal stress, the section rigidity of pipeline, the soil properties and the trigging force to the high order lateral buckling are discussed. The method of applying the small trigging force on pipeline is reliable in global buckling numerical analysis. In practice, increasing the section rigidity of a pipeline is an effective measure to improve the ability to resist the global buckling.

  19. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  20. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  1. The restorationof the dilapidated pipelines using compressed plastic pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the information on a promising technology for trenchless repair named Swagelining, which supposes pulling into the old pipeline the new polymer with its preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and further straightening. The coauthors present the results of the calculations determining the thickness of the polyethylene pipes after compression and straightening in the old pipeline depending on the initial diameter in case of different ratio of the diameter to the wall thickness (SDR and the dynamics of the changes in hydraulic performance after repair work on the pipeline using the method Swagelining. The concept of the energy saving potential is formed in addition to a no-dig repair for pressure piping systems, water supply, and its magnitude. On the basis of the research results, the authors formulate the principles of the energy efficiency potential after the implementation of the trenchless technology of drawing the old pipeline with new polymer pipes with their preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and subsequent area enlargement. The technology Swagelining is described and the authors develop a mathematical model that illustrates the behavior of the pipeline in the process of shrink operations. Such parameters are analyzed as changing the diameter of the pipeline at thermo-mechanical compression, the hydraulic parameters of the new (polymer and old (steel pipelines, energy savings on one-meter length of the pipeline. The calculated values of the electric power economy on the whole length of the pipeline repair section with a corresponding flow of transported waters.The characteristics and capabilities of the technology of trenchless renovation Swagelining allows achieving simultaneously the effect of resource saving (eliminationof the defects and, as a consequence, of water leakage and energy saving (reduction in the water transportation cost.A numerical example of the old steel pipeline renovation shows the

  2. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  3. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Najafi, Mohammand [U. OF TEXAS

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  4. Experiments on Interaction Between Current-Induced Vibration and Scour of Submarine Pipelines on Sandy Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhonghan; LIU Yubiao; LI Qingping; HUANG Qinghua; ZHU Farong

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the dynamic behavior of submarine pipelines exposed to current and the mechanism of the interaction between current-induced vibration and scour of pipelines on a sandy bottom, an experimental investigation is conducted with a small scale model. A test model which can be testedin the flume is set up by taking into account the typical working conditions of the pipelines and by applying the similarity theory. The interactions between the shape of the scour hole and the behavior of the pipeline as well as the flow patterns of the current are detailed, and the interaction mechanism outlined.The effect of vibration of the pipeline on the development of dynamic scour at different stages is found out. The proposed experimental method and test results provide an effective means for design of marine pipelines against scouring.

  5. USING COMPUTER MODELS FOR DESIGN OF COMPLEX PIPELINE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main rules of computer models construction were developed, which intended for pipeline networks design and they were considered as single whole hydraulic systems. The construction of new sections is possible after their design in order to provide operation in given regime. In heat networks operation we see the following problems: irregular change in pressure between direct and return pipelines, increased pressure in return pipeline, misalignment of network and others. Their causes may be: undersize thickness of pipelines, reduction in diameter caused by scales in internal surfaces of pipes, closure of gate valves in sections of networks with big speeds of heat coolant, “parasitic” circulations and others. Efficient mean for determining the main reasons of these problems, they may be in any heat pipeline, and also for new heating pipe networks design we consider computer models, which allow to simulate (practically in the whole volume hydraulic and temperature regimes of their work.  The purpose of work – using computer models for implementation of project of new heat removal pipe from Tolyatti central thermal station in order to heat the Central Region of Tolyatti, feeding from heat power station of the Volga car factory .With the help of developed computer model the location of equipment and their main characteristics were determined, they take into account joint work of two sources of heat (central thermal station of Tolyatti and the Volga car factory. 

  6. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  7. Should executive stock options be abandoned?

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Yin, Xiangkang

    2006-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals around the world have led many to single out executive stock options as one of the main culprits. More corporations are abandoning stock options and reverting to restricted stock. This paper argues that such a change is not entirely justifiable. We first provide a critical review of the pros and cons of executive stock options. We then compare option-based contracts with stock-based contracts using a simple principal-agent model with moral-hazard. In a general enviro...

  8. Framing land abandonment and its consequences on soil and vegetation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Sanz, Verónica; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Kukuls, Imants; Sultana, Daniel; Zdruli, Pandi; Fiori, Valeria; Zucca, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    intensities and consequences. This work will help to understand and summarize these driving forces and what the positive or negative consequences are of land abandonment in different regions beneath different edaphic and climatic conditions.

  9. Study on Detection Technique for Pipeline Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 王立坤; 周琰; 靳世久

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline integrity defect is a considerable portion in all the defects. Therefore, the study on detection technique is of great concern to the owners of pipelines. A real-time monitoring system of pipeline defect is established. For unexpected accidents of pipeline leakage, several methods of signal processing, including wavelet analysis are utilized. The leakage can be located accurately in time. This system is applied to many long distance pipelines in China, which has made great contributions to the economy.

  10. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-01-01

    The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petr...

  11. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  12. Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

  13. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  14. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  15. Pipeline Processing of VLBI Data

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C; Garrett, M

    2002-01-01

    As part of an on-going effort to simplify the data analysis path for VLBI experiments, a pipeline procedure has been developed at JIVE to carry out much of the data reduction required for EVN experiments in an automated fashion. This pipeline procedure runs entirely within AIPS, the standard data reduction package used in astronomical VLBI, and is used to provide preliminary calibration of EVN experiments correlated at the EVN MkIV data processor. As well as simplifying the analysis for EVN users, the pipeline reduces the delay in providing information on the data quality to participating telescopes, hence improving the overall performance of the array. A description of this pipeline is presented here.

  16. Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and

  17. Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

  18. Pipeline integrity through cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N. [Gas Authority India Ltd., New Delhi (India); Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is defined as a process for assessing and mitigating pipeline risks in an effort to reduce both the likelihood and consequences of incidents. Defects on pipelines result in production losses, environmental losses, as well as loss of goodwill and subsequent financial losses. This presentation addressed pipeline integrity through cathodic protection. It noted that pipeline integrity can be strengthened by successfully controlling, monitoring and mitigating corrosion strategies. It can also be achieved by avoiding external and internal corrosion failures. A good coating offers the advantages of low current density; lower power consumption; low wear of anodes; larger spacing between cathodic protection stations; and minimization of interference problems. The presentation reviewed cathodic protection of cross-country pipelines; a sacrificial cathodic protection system; and an impressed current cathodic protection system. The efficiency of a cathodic system was shown to depend on the use of reliable power sources; proper protection criterion; efficient and effective monitoring of cathodic protection; proper maintenance of the cathodic protection system; and effective remedial measures. Selection criteria, power sources, and a comparison of cathodic protection sources were also presented. Last, the presentation addressed protection criteria; current interruption circuits; monitoring of the cathodic protection system; use of corrosion coupons; advantages of weightless coupons; checking the insulating flanges for shorted bolts; insulated/short casings; anodic and cathodic interference; common corridor problems; and intelligent pigging. tabs., figs.

  19. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

    2004-10-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

  20. Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris; Wortman, David; Brown, Chris; Hassan, Syed; Humphreys, Ken; Willford, Mark

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  1. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  2. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  3. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  4. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant

  5. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  6. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  7. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  8. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  9. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice..., hazardous liquid, and liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities that operators should immediately...

  10. 75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management... of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on the implementation of pipeline control room management. The workshop is intended to foster an understanding of the Control Room Management Rule issued...

  11. Maintenance planning under imperfect inspections of corroded pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a maintenance policy is proposed for pipelines subject to corrosion, by taking into account imperfect inspection results. The degradation of the pipeline is induced by uniform and pitting corrosion, leading to losses in the pipe wall thickness. The inspection is applied to detect the corrosion defects, namely the corrosion depth and width. The inspection has a detection threshold under which no corrosion can be measured. Due to uncertainties, each inspection is affected by the probability of detecting small defects and the probability of wrong assessment in terms of defect existence and size. The present work aims at integrating imperfect inspection results in the cost model for corroded pipelines, where the failure probabilities are computed by reliability methods. A numerical application on a gas pipe shows the influence of inspection quality and cost on the choice of the optimal maintenance planning

  12. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  13. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  14. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Tu, Liangping; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Hou, Wen; Kong, Xiao; Wu, Yue; Zuo, Fang; Yi, Zhenping; Zhao, Yongheng; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Bing; Guo, Yanxin; Ren, Juanjuan [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Jie, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: weipeng@nao.cas.cn [School of Mechanical, Electrical, and Information Engineering, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); and others

    2014-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  15. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  16. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  17. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  18. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the...

  19. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee...

  20. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

    2005-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

  1. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  2. Blowdown Simulation of CO2 Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, A

    2015-01-01

    Pipelines are the most practical option for transporting large volumes of captured CO2 to appropriate storage sites as part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process. Proper maintenance, including periodic blowdown of pipelines or pipeline sections, is necessary for their safe operation, a pre-requisite for the public acceptance of CCS. Given the relatively high Joule-Thomson coefficient of CO2, blowdown can present significant risks to pipeline infrastructure. Depressurisation will res...

  3. Anping-Nanjing Gas Pipeline Formally Commissioned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jicheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 17, 2006, gas from Changqing gasfield in northern Shaanxi Province was poured into Anping-Nanjing gas pipeline, marking that the trunk line was successfully brought into operation and the West-East Gas Pipeline and No.2 Shaanxi-Beijing pipeline were successfully connected. Pressure was boosted immediately after its commissioning to ensure gas supply to Beijing and Shanghai. Gas supply to part areas along this pipeline will begin by May, 2006.

  4. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  5. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, R; Menossi, M

    2007-05-01

    The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA. PMID:17464422

  6. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  7. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  8. Research on Pipeline Holdup Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng; CHENG; Yi-mei; SUI; Hong-zhi; YIN; Hong-he

    2012-01-01

    <正>Some of the nuclear material could be deposited in the pipeline system of the nuclear facilities in the operation process. That kind of nuclear materials in the pipeline are called holdup. The measurement of pipeline holdup is not only important for the nuclear material accounting and control of facilities, but also important for the safe operation of facilities.

  9. Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

  10. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  11. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  12. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  13. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Sahli; Naser El-Sheimy

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected p...

  14. Stability analysis of abandoned drift for alternative utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Yoo, In-Kol; Kim, Moon-Seob; Kim, Ryang-Hee [Korea Resources Corp., Seoul(Korea); Yang, Hyung-Sik [Chonnam National University, Kwangju(Korea); Lee, Hi-Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jae-Dong [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This study was performed to find the way that is alternative utilization of the drift that had been abandoned by coal industry promotion. To determine whether abandoned drift would be maintained without supports or not, the safety inspection that consists of drift survey, laboratory tests, rock mass classification and numerical analysis was performed. According to the result, there were discontinuity sets those had unfavorable orientation to the drift and rock mass around the drift had generally poor condition. So, it would be much difficult that abandoned drift is maintained without supports. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is expanding and intensifying in many areas of the world, but abandoned agriculture is also becoming more widespread. Unfortunately, data and methods to monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over large areas are lacking. Remote sensing methods may be able to fill this gap though...... when used in conjunction with NDVI time series by more than 8% over the use of NDVI data alone. The approach that we identified here is promising and suggests that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture at broad scales, which is relevant to gain a better understanding of this important land use...

  16. Improvement in treatment of mixtures generated between batches of different products in OSBRA (Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline) pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotchetkoff Neto, Andre Paulo; Agostineti, Antonio; Almeida, Marcio Manhaes Gomes de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) starts at the Planalto Refinery (REPLAN) and supplies gasoline, diesel oil and LPG to the mid-west region of Brazil. The pipeline is 786 kilometers long with diameter of 20 inches in its first segment and 178 kilometers with 12 inches in the second. The fuels are pumped by seven unmanned pump stations and are delivered to five tank farms. At first, these products were pumped into the pipeline in batches of diesel or LPG between gasoline batches. These sequences allowed the dilution of the mixtures generated between the two products during the pipeline transportation to the pure product tanks, keeping compliance to the former standards. The diesel/gasoline mixtures were diluted direct to pure product tanks and the LPG/gasoline mixtures were submitted to flashing in a vessel before dilution. In 2001, the National Petroleum Agency changed the LPG and diesel oil standards. This new regulation turned the OSBRA installations unable to dilute the whole mixture volume generated during pipeline transportation. Sending part of the mixture back to the Refinery turned a mandatory task, increasing the costs and making the LPG pipeline transportation unprofitable. To overcome this situation, a new product was developed - QINTER. The QINTER can be diluted in suitable rates either to diesel or gasoline keeping the compliance of these fuels to the new standards at the receiving tanks. The QINTER is currently pumped into the pipeline between the batches of diesel oil and gasoline. The standard solution to treat the mixture created between LPG and gasoline batches, a fractional tower, was studied but it showed to be of dubious profitability and it would compel changes to the existing working schedule time, from Monday to Friday (6:00 am to 10:00 pm) to a 24:00 h/day continuous work. An alternative project was developed. Three flash recirculation vessels were designed to allow the mixtures of LPG with vapor stream and gasoline with liquid stream

  17. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  18. The Classroom to Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline doesn't just begin with cops in the hallways and zero tolerance discipline policies. It begins when teachers fail to create a curriculum and a pedagogy that connects with students, that takes them seriously as intellectuals, that lets students know teachers care about them, that gives them the chance to channel their…

  19. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  20. Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Buksa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to identify process failure modes or possibility of the appearance of non-compliance, as well as their possible causes. For qualitative analysis of key input variables of the process, in the paper is used Ishikawa diagram and p-chart.Findings: It is shown that proposed approach to risk assessment in shipbuilding pipeline production is applicable to real casa scenario. The analysis has identified the points in the process with the highest probability of occurrence of nonconformities, or the highest risk for error.Research limitations/implications: As the experimenting has been conducted in shipyard, within production process, research schedule must have been set in accordance with production pace. Also, due to character of production process the data collecting was adopted to the production plan in that particular moment.Practical implications: Dealing with causes of potential nonconformities in the process can significantly contribute to the reliability and robustness of the process. Corrective actions that have been taken based on results of analysis significantly contributed to the level of quality in the pipeline production process.Originality/value: The pepper is dealing with a well known method applied in different production environment that are mostly conservative in production approach. It was shown that successful application of proposed approach can yield benefits especially in improved quality of produced pipelines within shipbuilding industry.

  1. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  2. Robust Abandoned Object Detection Using Dual Foregrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Haga

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the tracking-based approaches that heavily depend on accurate detection of moving objects, which often fail for crowded scenarios, we present a pixelwise method that employs dual foregrounds to extract temporally static image regions. Depending on the application, these regions indicate objects that do not constitute the original background but were brought into the scene at a subsequent time, such as abandoned and removed items, illegally parked vehicles. We construct separate long- and short-term backgrounds that are implemented as pixelwise multivariate Gaussian models. Background parameters are adapted online using a Bayesian update mechanism imposed at different learning rates. By comparing each frame with these models, we estimate two foregrounds. We infer an evidence score at each pixel by applying a set of hypotheses on the foreground responses, and then aggregate the evidence in time to provide temporal consistency. Unlike optical flow-based approaches that smear boundaries, our method can accurately segment out objects even if they are fully occluded. It does not require on-site training to compensate for particular imaging conditions. While having a low-computational load, it readily lends itself to parallelization if further speed improvement is necessary.

  3. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  4. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  5. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  6. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  7. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  9. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1) Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2) Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  10. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Bailey, J I; Beard, S; Dicken, D; García-Marín, M; Geers, V; Glasse, A; Glauser, A; Gordon, K; Justtanont, K; Klaassen, P; Lahuis, F; Law, D; Morrison, J; Müller, M; Rieke, G; Vandenbussche, B; Wright, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  11. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  12. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Chen Wang; Nur Hamizah Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and ...

  13. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

  14. Feasibility analysis of using abandoned salt caverns for large-scale underground energy storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A method is proposed for the evaluation of using an abandoned salt cavern for energy (natural gas) storage. • A feasibility analysis is given of China’s first UGS (Underground Gas Storage) facility using an abandoned salt cavern. • Numerical modeling has been used to investigate mechanical safety of a gas pressurized cavern. • Chinese abandoned salt caverns show good feasibility of being converted to UGSs. • China’s bedded rock salt can meet the requirements for UGS. - Abstract: Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China’s first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns’ maximum diameters after operating for 20 years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11 MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20 years. The maximum

  15. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  16. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption... OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.12 Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases. In...

  17. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  18. Impact Against Offshore Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 a pipe at the Kvitebjørn oil field was impacted by an anchor and dragged out of its position. After the accident it was decided safe to run production, but later a leakage was found and the production was shut down. This gave rise to a need for further knowledge of the residual strength of impacted pipes.This thesis is part of an ongoing research program and a continuation of previous works. In 2010, scaled pipes were initially impacted in the pendulum accelerator at SIM lab, before t...

  19. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  20. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  1. Pressure equivalents in industrial gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metel' kov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure equivalence is a mathematical concept used to explain action and load parameters for pipelines. These two parameters are congruent to pressures encountered in pipelines. The research examined pressure equivalence in 820 by 8 millimeter pipelines in the Samotlor region and took into account the influence of support jams during first and second category jamming. It was determined that the absolute dimensions to pressure pulsations were significantly larger than plus or minus ten percent from (Prab) and even exceeded (Prab) in certain instances. The ratios at which (Prab) can be exceeded vary with relation to the jam supports and the maximum variations stem from yield in the metal pipelines themselves. The above concepts can be used to study the effects of pressure equivalence upon loads and pressures of Samotlor field pipelines and to select appropriate pipeline planning and construction methods. The conclusions drawn are valid for industrial surface pipelines used at below limit pressures. Annular and daily temperature variations in the outside air are considered with regard to their effect upon the pressure equivalence within the lower sections of the pipeline. Deviations here have been noted to exceed (formula). It was observed that in the case of underground pipelines, operated at below limit pressures, pressure equivalence occured in the upper section of the pipeline.

  2. Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

    Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

  3. Semiautomated measurement of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic technical parameters and properties are given for a newly developed ultrasonic nondestructive testing device for the detection of defects on the inner surface of austenitic tubes of WWER nuclear power plant primary circuits. In addition to the electronic part of the four-channel test equipment, the manipulator and probes have also been designed, and their function is described. The manipulator is designed for measurement on straight pipeline segments of 500 mm inner dia. (B.S.). 4 figs

  4. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  5. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  6. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  7. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  8. 76 FR 70217 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements.'' That final rule... 72878), titled ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements... the Federal Register of its intent to create a national registry of pipeline and liquefied natural...

  9. FPGA Implementation of Wave Pipelining CORDIC Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of the coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm with wave pipelining technique on field programmable gate array (FPGA) is described. All data in FPGA-based wave pipelining pass through a number of logic gates, in the same way that all data pass through the same number of registers in a conventional pipeline. Moreover, all paths are routed using identical routing resources. The manual placement, timing driven routing and timing analyzing techniques are applied to optimize the layout for achieving good path balance. Experimental results show that a 256-LUT logic depth circuit mapped on XC4VLX15-12 runs as high as 330MHz, which is a little lower than the speed of 336MHz based on the conventional 16-stage pipelining in the same chip. The latency of the wave pipelining circuit is 30.3ns, which is 36.4% shorter than the latency of 16-stage conventional pipelining circuit.

  10. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  11. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  12. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems and Liquefied Natural Gas Annual Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities that they... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...

  13. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  14. Remediation of the Old Ecological Load in the Protected Area of the Morava River – Re-abandonment of the Oil and Gas Production Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bujok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the former oil and gas producing wells that are or can be improperly abandoned creates a possible environmental hazard in terms of contamination of the groundwater and soil in the present. In the area of the Czech Republic, specifically in South Moravia part, which has a long oil and gas production history, plenty of such wells can be found. Finding out the information about their abandonment in archives is often very demanding (sometimes even impossible. During various survey works and re-abandonment attempts it was found out that many wells are originally abandoned improperly, insufficiently or not at all. The occurrence of such wells is not just potential but also very actual hazard for the cultural landscape of the South Moravia, especially for aquifers, agriculture and natural protected areas of national significance. This paper is focused on the possibility of the definitive abandonment of this particular ecological load. The proposed method was verified in laboratory conditions and in the field. It is now a standard form of the re abandonment of oil and gas wells without precise localization in the South Moravian oil fields.

  15. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

  16. Automatic Pipeline Surveillance Air-Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Alqaan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the developments of a vision-based system for aerial pipeline Right-of-Way surveillance using optical/Infrared sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The aim of research is to develop a highly automated, on-board system for detecting and following the pipelines; while simultaneously detecting any third-party interference. The proposed approach of using a UAV platform could potentially reduce the cost of monitoring and surveying pipelines when...

  17. MUSE Pipeline: the First Year in Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, Peter

    2015-12-01

    I will present the MUSE pipeline, in terms of calibration data required, reduction steps performed, computing requirements needed. I will then highlight some unusual algorithms. I will describe changes that became necessary during commissioning and the first year of operations and how the pipeline is now integrated into operations on Paranal. I will conclude by showing some example results that were enabled by the MUSE instrument and the pipeline in the first year.

  18. MUSE Pipeline: the First Year in Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I will present the MUSE pipeline, in terms of calibration data required, reduction steps performed, computing requirements needed. I will then highlight some unusual algorithms. I will describe changes that became necessary during commissioning and the first year of operations and how the pipeline is now integrated into operations on Paranal. I will conclude by showing some example results that were enabled by the MUSE instrument and the pipeline in the first year.

  19. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  20. Response of a pipeline to ground movements caused by trenching in compressible alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, D. R.; Taylor, M. E.; Pocock, R. G.

    Disturbance of the ground due to work on buried services, such as the renewal, replacement or construction of deep sewers, is likely to cause differential ground movements in the vicinity. This may be a factor contributing to failure in nearby service pipelines such as drainage, gas and water mains. The response of an instrumented shallow buried pipeline to ground movements caused by adjacent deep trenching in a compressible alluvium is described.

  1. DURABILITY-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF DOUBLE-LAYER STRUCTURES OF PIPELINES CONNECTED TO POLYMERIC SLEEVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the software programme is to assess the applicability of the trenchless repair method involving a polymeric sleeve in each specific case by taking account of the environment and the condition of the pipeline. The software is also capable of developing the requirements to be fulfilled by subcontractors in order to assure the appropriate quality of any repair work performed and the reliability of any pipeline sections repaired.

  2. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  3. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  4. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  5. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  6. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  7. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  9. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding. This advisory includes actions that operators should consider taking to ensure the integrity of pipelines in case of flooding. ADDRESSES: This document can...

  10. COLD FLOW IN LONG-DISTANCE SUBSEA PIPELINES

    OpenAIRE

    Akpabio, Moses Gideon

    2013-01-01

    As the world?s appetite for energy continues to grow, oil and gas developments are moving to ever deeper subsea environments, thereby causing hydrates-related issues to become a growing concern for the industry. Hydrates blockages, beyond the safety risk they represent, result in time-consuming and costly mitigation and remediation operations. Most hydrate experiences found in the literature, and the corresponding prevention and remediation strategies, concern subsea pipelines. This work re...

  11. The Alberta Pipeline Environmental Steering Committee: A model for cooperative resolution of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocke, L.K. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Kuipers, F. [Pembina Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In the past, industry and government independently conducted research and gathered information to address environmental issues. The results were not always mutually accepted. A number of emerging environmental issues arose in the mid 1980`s that demanded mutual resolution. As a result, the Alberta Pipeline Environmental Steering Committee was established in 1988. The Committee initially consisted of industry and government representatives. The membership has since been increased to include landowner representation, local government, federal interests and contractors. The Committee has four main purposes: (1) to assist government, industry and other interest groups in their pursuit of environmental protection and economical pipeline planning, construction, operation, abandonment and reclamation in Alberta; (2) to act as a vehicle for government to receive input from industry and other interest groups during policy formation; (3) to identify, prioritize and make recommendations for workable solutions on Alberta pipeline environmental issues; and (4) to help implement recommendations by organizations represented on the Committee. The benefits of this model are agreement on issue identification and mutual resolution. The success of the model has resulted in it being adopted for other sectors as well.

  12. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.

  13. Satellite Radar Interferometry For Risk Management Of Gas Pipeline Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoschi, Raluca; Schouten, Mathijs; Bas Leezenberg, Pieter; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    InSAR time series analyses can be fine-tuned for specific applications, yielding a potential increase in benchmark density, precision and reliability. Here we demonstrate the algorithms developed for gas pipeline monitoring, enabling operators to precisely pinpoint unstable locations. This helps asset management in planning, prioritizing and focusing in-situ inspections, thus reducing maintenance costs. In unconsolidated Quaternary soils, ground settlement contributes to possible failure of brittle cast iron gas pipes and their connections to houses. Other risk factors include the age and material of the pipe. The soil dynamics have led to a catastrophic explosion in the city of Amsterdam, which triggered an increased awareness for the significance of this problem. As the extent of the networks can be very wide, InSAR is shown to be a valuable source of information for identifying the hazard regions. We monitor subsidence affecting an urban gas transportation network in the Netherlands using both medium and high resolution SAR data. Results for the 2003-2010 period provide clear insights on the differential subsidence rates in the area. This enables characterization of underground motion that affects the integrity of the pipeline. High resolution SAR data add extra detail of door-to-door pipeline connections, which are vulnerable due to different settlements between house connections and main pipelines. The rates which we measure represent important input in planning of maintenance works. Managers can decide the priority and timing for inspecting the pipelines. The service helps manage the risk and reduce operational cost in gas transportation networks.

  14. STRESS AND STRAIN STATE OF REPAIRING SECTION OF PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikolaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of continuous operation of pipelines is an actual problem. For this reason should be developed an effective warning system of the main pipelines‘  failures and accidents not only in design and operation but also in selected repair. Changing of linear, unloaded by bending position leads to the change of stress and strain state of pipelines. And besides this, the stress and strain state should be determined and controlled in the process of carrying out the repair works. The article presents mathematical model of pipeline’s section straining in viscoelastic setting taking into account soils creep and high-speed stress state of pipeline with the purpose of stresses evaluation and load-supporting capacity of repairing section of pipeline, depending on time.  Stress and strain state analysis of pipeline includes longitudinal and circular stresses calculation  with  account of axis-asymmetrical straining and  was  fulfilled  on  the base of momentless theory of shells. To prove the consistency of data there were compared the calcu- lation results and the solution results by analytical methods for different cases (long pipeline’s section strain only under influence of cross-axis action; long pipeline’s section strain under in- fluence of longitudinal stress; long pipeline’s section strain; which is on the elastic foundation, under influence of cross-axis action. Comparison results shows that the calculation error is not more than 3 %.Analysis of stress-strain state change of pipeline’s section was carried out with development  of  this  model,  which  indicates  the  enlargement  of  span  deflection  in  comparison with problem’s solution in elastic approach. It is also proved, that for consistent assessment of pipeline maintenance conditions, it is necessary to consider the areolas of rheological processes of soils. On the base of complex analysis of pipelines there were determined stresses and time

  15. 76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ..., PHMSA published a notice with request for comments in the Federal Register (76 FR 45904). The notice... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  16. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ..., PHMSA published a notice with request for comments in the Federal Register (76 FR 81013). The notice... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  17. 75 FR 4610 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 61403... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  18. 78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... 23, 2013, (78 FR 23972). PHMSA received one comment in response to that notice. PHMSA is publishing... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  19. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Institute Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (8) Question & Answer Period. (9) Lessons Learned... challenges faced by the pipeline industry). Hazardous Liquid Gas Transmission/Gathering Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public...

  20. A method to determine expander spacing for steel pipelines in mining districts; Ein Verfahren zur Festlegung von Dehnerabstaenden fuer Stahlrohrleitungen im Bergbaugebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielberg, P. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany). Abt. Bergschaeden; Sroka, A. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen und Geodaesie

    2004-10-01

    In the Ruhr district, pipelines of public and private infrastructure are made of cast iron, steel, plastics or asbestos cement. Legal framework, technical regulations and normative standards define which pipeline materials may be used for the transmission of which kind of product. Thus ground water endangering substances as well as inflammable or explosive products are only permitted to be transported in steel pipelines. Ground movements, due to underground mining, are transmitted via the soil to the pipeline and cause extra strain within the steel pipeline. In extreme cases, durable deformations may occur, characterized by an oval profile or a fold in the pipeline. To avoid or minimize damages, balancing elements are installed into the concerning pipeline, reducing the ground movements which might otherwise cause damages. The distance between the balancing elements is not arranged by random, but by a developed calculation method which represents the actual available standards in science and technology. The calculation method considers all relevant influencing variables with impacts on the movement behaviour of steel pipelines in mining areas like technical data of pipeline design (e.g. steel grade, wall thickness, weld seam quality), soil conditions (e.g. friction), laying depths of the pipelines, the operational impacts (working pressure, corrosion) and the mining impacts. By today, mining has caused no damages to steel pipelines secured by this calculation method. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of abandoned surface settling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems that may appear during the ground reclamation of surface settling ponds of underground mines is enhanced radon exhalation from bottom sediments. This problem becomes more important when the concentration of radium isotopes in sediments is enhanced due to the discharge of radium-bearing waters into the pond. For investigations, special radon accumulation chambers have been designed and constructed. The concentration of radon in these chambers can be measured with the application of Lucas cells or activated charcoal detectors. In the latter method, radon is extracted from charcoal into a liquid scintillator and the sample is measured in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Therefore the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the second method is as low as 0.1 mBq·m-2s-1, while the LLD for Lucas cells is 1.5 mBq·m-2s-1. The above-mentioned methods for the measurement of radon exhalation have been applied to investigations of a surface settling pond of one Polish coal mine, abandoned and emptied at the beginning of 2002. An agreement between the mine management and the local authority was to make the ground reclamation of the pond. A thick layer of sediments with an enhanced concentration of radium isotopes covers the bottom of the pond. The maximum concentration of radium isotopes in these sediments is as high as 2000 Bq/kg for 226Ra and up to 4000 Bq/kg for 228Ra. Two years after the complete release of brines from the pond, bottom sediments are still soaked with water. Therefore, measurements of radon in soil gas were not possible. On the other hand, in some parts of the pond investigations of radon exhalation coefficient were done. The preliminary results of measurements, conducted in 2002, showed that radon exhalation rates in specific parts of the pond were higher than the highest values of radon exhalation from the ground in the Upper Silesia region. Values of exhalation coefficient up to 200 mBq·m-2s-1 were found. It must be pointed out that

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  3. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  4. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHhealth hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine

  5. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  6. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  7. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  8. The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50 m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8 years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench > piling and working areas > 20 and 50 m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6 years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6 years of restoration was close to 100 %, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2 years of restoration was much lower than that after 6 years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment.

  9. Abandoning nuclear energy, a total industrial absurdity; Sortir du nucleaire, un non-sens industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorin, F.

    2011-09-15

    The abandoning of nuclear energy can not be considered without economic and social damages, it would amplify the des-industrialization process of France and would spoil its energy independence and would mean a step backwards in terms of world strategy. In France the nuclear sector gives work to a total of 410.000 people and generates a total added value of 33 billions euros each year. It would make no sense to stop an activity whose perspective is promising: a lot of reactors in the world will need soon maintenance, upgrading or replacement. (A.C.)

  10. Mobile-based distributed system for managing abandoned or lost pets

    OpenAIRE

    GARROTE HILDEBRAND, DANIEL; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó Ten, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00551-5_24 This paper presents the work in progress of a mobile-based distributed system which aims to minimize the social impact of abandoned or lost animals. System is based on the use of smart mobile devices to provide message warnings of animals localized. Messages are stored in a database to be processed. In order to enter data such as photography, audio and artificial images, system uses different ...

  11. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the...

  12. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  14. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  16. China's First Digital Pipeline Moves Forward Completely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhanbin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The construction of China's first digital natural gas pipeline-Jining Branch of the West-East Gas Pipelinehas been accelerated completely. Up to May 8, the accumulative welded length of whole line exceeded 612 km, more than two thirds of the total length of the trunk pipeline of Jining Branch.

  17. Pipeline Protection Has Its Own Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines (hereinafter called "the Law") will be implemented officially on October 1 this year.This is the first time that oil and natural gas pipelines were protected and managed on legal basis.

  18. The School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Policies that encourage police presence at schools, harsh tactics including physical restraint, and automatic punishments that result in suspensions and out-of-class time are huge contributors to the school-to-prison pipeline, but the problem is more complex than that. The school-to-prison pipeline starts (or is best avoided) in the classroom.…

  19. Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

  20. Fitness for service assessment of defects in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Souza, Gerardo; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE A.S. (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    During normal operation a pipeline generates a series of defects that can affect its integrity. At some stage during the pipeline life will require an assessment of these defects in order to determine their ability to maintain safe operation. Defects can be classified as geometric defects (gouges, plain dents, dents containing other defects), volumetric defects (external or internal corrosion) or planar defects (cracks, SCC). In this work a methodology to the characterization and determination of the severity of defects detected by an ILI inspection in pipelines is presented. A series of practical procedures and instructive has been developed based on international codes, national regulations and industry best practices. The repair approaches were defined from the risk level that the company it is disposed to assume. The contributed examples were collected in high pressure pipelines of different ages, located on diverse geographical locations and over different operation conditions. (author)

  1. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  2. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/. PMID:27342282

  3. Precise location of nonmetallic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to conduct precise surveys of nonmetallic pipelines. After a thin stranded wire is pulled through a part of the pipe first an inductive or capacitative prelocation is made, in which especially curves are marked. After that with this wire a go-devil with a 500 mCi 60Co-radiation source is moved slowly from reference point to reference point. On the ground plane the corresponding maximum of the radiation intensity is detected and marked as the position of the pipe. About the experiences of the location of two local gas pipelines with 4987 and 11897 km length is reported. The average length of the located sections was about 300 m, the average distance between two reference points was a little more than 8 m. In the case of curves the distances were reduced to 0.5 - 1.0 m. The output of location was 16 h/km, the daily output ca. 600 m. The accuracy is better than +- 10 cm, while in the case of the inductive prelocation deviations of more than 50 cm could be found. During the locations the delivery of gas was uninterrupted. It can be carried out also in thickly populated regions without any danger by radioactive radiation. (Author)

  4. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/.

  5. Software for pipeline integrity administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soula, Gerardo; Perona, Lucas Fernandez [Gie SA., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinich, Carlos [Refinaria do Norte S. A. (REFINOR), Tartagal, Provincia de Salta (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    A Software for 'pipeline integrity management' was developed. It allows to deal with Geographical Information and a PODS database (Pipeline Open database Standard) simultaneously, in a simple and reliable way. The premises for the design were the following: didactic, geo referenced, multiple reference systems. Program skills: 1.PODS+GIS: the PODS database in which the software is based on is completely integrated with the GIS module. 2 Management of different kinds of information: it allows to manage information on facilities, repairs, interventions, physical inspections, geographical characteristics, compliance with regulations, training, offline events, operation measures, O and M information treatment and importing specific data and studies in a massive way. It also assures the integrity of the loaded information. 3 Right of way survey: it allows to verify the class location, ROW occupation, sensitive areas identification and to manage landowners. 4 Risk analysis: it is done in a qualitative way, depending on the entered data, allowing the user to identify the riskiest stretches of the system. Either results from risk analysis, data and consultations made about the database, can be exported to standard formats. (author)

  6. Detection of Unauthorized Construction Equipment in Pipeline Right-of-Ways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice Givens; James E. Huebler

    2004-09-30

    The leading cause of incidents on transmission pipelines is damage by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline is hit. Currently there is no method for continuously monitoring a pipeline right-of-way. Instead, companies periodically walk or fly over the pipeline to find unauthorized construction activities. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber buried above the pipeline as a distributed sensor. A custom optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is used to interrogate the fiber. Key issues in the development of this technology are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. Advantages of the reflectometry technique are the ability to accurately pinpoint the location of the construction activity and the ability to separately monitor simultaneously occurring events. The basic concept of using OTDR with an optical fiber buried above the pipeline to detect encroachment of construction equipment into the right of way works. Sufficiently rapid time response is possible; permitting discrimination between encroachment types. Additional work is required to improve the system into a practical device.

  7. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  8. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen welcomes the audience to the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. Jorgensen, with Space Gateway Support (SGS), is the pipeline project manager. To the right is Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges; Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  9. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  10. 78 FR 13075 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... planning at critical pipeline infrastructure sites; Establishes and maintains a working relationship with... practices and lessons learned; and Maintains a dynamic modal network through effective communications with... specifically empowered to develop policies, strategies, and plans for dealing with threats to...

  11. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct punctuation... revise substantial portions of their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, and add citations. The proposed amendment consists...

  12. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  13. Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

  14. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  15. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Kondo

    Full Text Available Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on the occurrence of crime surrounding abandoned buildings from January 2011 to April 2013 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in pre- and post-treatment measures of crime for buildings that were remediated as a result of the ordinance (n = 676 or permitted for renovation (n = 241, and randomly-matched control buildings that were not remediated (n = 676 or permitted for renovation (n = 964, while also controlling for sociodemographic and other confounders measured around each building. Building remediations were significantly associated with citywide reductions in overall crimes, total assaults, gun assaults and nuisance crimes (p < 0.001. Building remediations were also significantly associated with reductions in violent gun crimes in one city section (p < 0.01. At the same time, some significant increases were seen in narcotics sales and possession and property crimes around remediated buildings (p < 0.001. Building renovation permits were significantly associated with reductions in all crime classifications across multiple city sections (p < 0.001. We found no significant spatial displacement effects. Doors and windows remediation offers a relatively low-cost method of reducing certain crimes in and around abandoned buildings. Cities with an abundance of decaying and abandoned housing stock might consider some form of this structural change to their built environments as one strategy to enhance public safety.

  16. Abandoning Colorblind Practice in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lance C.; Geroski, Anne M.; Tyler, Katie B.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from three case vignettes and the extant literature, the authors seek to identify, problematize, and expand the discussion on colorblind approaches to diversity within the practice of school counseling. The authors discuss how such an approach to working with students from under-represented groups subtly blames the victim, limits the…

  17. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gulachenski; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Amy E. Lesen; Michael J Blum

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission...

  18. 77 FR 51614 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Abandonments to abandon a 0.1-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Niagara Subdivision, between milepost QDN 28.0 near North Avenue to the end of the track at milepost QDN 28.1, in Niagara Falls... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County, NY...

  19. The APOGEE Data Reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Nidever, D. L.; Nguyen, D.; Shetrone, M. D.; Majewski, S.; Schiavon, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The SDSS-III APOGEE survey is obtaining hundreds of thousands of individual high resolution near-IR spectra of Milky Way stars. Data are accumulated in data cubes, with individual non-destructive readouts occuring every 10 seconds, across three separate HgCdTe detectors. Exposures are obtained in pairs, with the detector array dithered by 0.5 pixel between exposures in the pair, to ensure well-sampled final images. Multiple pairs are taken in a given visit to a field, and multiple visits are made to each field. The spectra have significant contributions from night sky emission and telluric absorption. We describe the APOGEE data reduction pipeline that takes the multiple visits of multiple pairs of data cubes and reduces them, including measurements of radial velocities for each visit, to final, calibrated, combined spectra. _

  20. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  1. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  2. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  3. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  4. Modelling of geomagnetic induction in pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trichtchenko

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field variations induce telluric currents in pipelines, which modify the electrochemical conditions at the pipe/soil interface, possibly contributing to corrosion of the pipeline steel. Modelling of geomagnetic induction in pipelines can be accomplished by combining several techniques. Starting with geomagnetic field data, the geoelectric fields in the absence of the pipeline were calculated using the surface impedance derived from a layered-Earth conductivity model. The influence of the pipeline on the electric fields was then examined using an infinitely long cylinder (ILC model. Pipe-to-soil potentials produced by the electric field induced in the pipeline were calculated using a distributed source transmission line (DSTL model. The geomagnetic induction process is frequency dependent; therefore, the calculations are best performed in the frequency domain, using a Fourier transform to go from the original time domain magnetic data, and an inverse Fourier transform at the end of the process, to obtain the pipe-to-soil potential variation in the time domain. Examples of the model calculations are presented and compared to observations made on a long pipeline in the auroral zone.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geo-magnetic induction

  5. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  6. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  7. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  8. Management of a multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Roma (Italy). Div. Sistemi Automazione; Holden, D. [LICconsult, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The paper describes the SCADA (System Control and Data Acquisition) Tele-supervisory System for the Kandla-Bhatinda (KBPL) multi-product pipeline. The KBPL pipeline is 1,443 km in length; it is to carry petroleum products, in a batch cycle organization, from the Kandla foreshore terminal to Bhatinda. It consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations, and is equipped with a total of 85 block valves. All the stations have the capability for launching and receiving scrapers. The SCADA system consists of 10 Station Control Centers (SCC) and one Master Control Center (MCC), all located along the pipeline.

  9. Pipelines: prebuild remains focus of attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-21

    Progress on the prebuilding of the Alaska Highway Pipeline continues to dominate the Canadian pipeline scene as the deadline nears for decision making on several aspects of the project. If obstacles are removed in time for the western leg of the prebuild to proceed on the revised schedule, facilities for gas deliveries to California should be completed by fall 1980. Financing negotiations are continuing in both the US and Canada. Pipeline projects in Canada during 1980 are listed by line type, including gas transmission lines, crude oil and products lines, gas gathering systems, waterflood systems, and new projects not called gas transmission lines.

  10. The Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline Project

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Saira

    2008-01-01

    The planned Iran-Pakistan-India natural-gas pipeline (IPI Pipeline) has been in the Asian spotlight for many years and its full realisation would be politically ground-breaking. Its energy-supply route is planned to cross the political fault line between the two rivals Pakistan and India, who would thus be bound to cooperate with one another. In fact, planning the Pipeline is the first time in history that the two countries have ever even negotiated on a trilateral project. Additionally, intr...

  11. Future impact on natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary uses, while coal will displace natural gas in some power plant and feedstock applications. Although these shifts will result in some regional construction activity, they will probably not necessitate major arterial increases to the pipeline network. However, significant changes in supply sources may have a major impact on pipeline planning and construction.

  12. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power system ...

  13. Pipelines jockey to serve Florida gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Florida Gas Transmission Corp. (FGT), Houston, appears to have taken the lead in competition to serve Florida's growing gas markets. Florida Power and Light (FPL), Miami, decided to reserve transportation capacity on FGT's proposed Phase III expansion rather than the Sun Coast pipeline proposed by United Gas Pipe Line Co. (UGPL), Houston, and Coastal Corp. unit ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit (OGJ, Aug. 31, p. 31). Withdrawal of FPL, Florida's largest electric utility, from Sun Coast left the proposed 560 mile, 400 MMcfd intrastate gas transmission pipeline with only one major prospective client, Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg. That forces UGPL and ANR to dissolve the partnership

  14. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  15. 49 CFR 192.629 - Purging of pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purging of pipelines. 192.629 Section 192.629... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.629 Purging of pipelines. (a) When a pipeline is being purged of air by use of gas, the gas must be released into one end of the line in...

  16. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested...

  17. Knowledge Pipeline: A Task Oriented Way to Implement Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concept of knowledge pipeline: There are many pipelines named by tasks or business processes in an organization. Knowledge contributors put knowledge to its corresponding pipelines. A maintenance team could keep the knowledge in pipelines clear and valid. Users could get knowledge just like opening a faucet in terms of their tasks or business processes

  18. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to...

  19. Monitoring of pipeline ruptures by means of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, C.; Baldassarre, G.; Corrado, R.; Mazzeo, G.; Marchese, F.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-04-01

    Pipeline ruptures have deep economic and ecologic consequences so that pipeline networks represent critical infrastructures to be carefully monitored particularly in areas which are frequently affected by natural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, landslide, etc. In order to minimize damages, the detection of harmful events along pipelines should be as rapid as possible and, at the same time, what is detected should be an actual incident and not a false alarm. In this work, a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), already applied to the prevision and NRT (Near Real Time) monitoring of major natural and environmental hazards (such as seismically active areas, volcanic activity, hydrological risk, forest fires and oil spills) has been employed to automatically identify, from satellite, anomalous Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to explosions of oil/gas pipelines. In this context, the combination of the RST approach with high temporal resolution, offered by geostationary satellites, seems to assure both a reliable and timely detection of such events. The potentials of the technique (applied to MSG-SEVIRI data) were tested over Iraq, a region which is sadly known for the numerous (mainly manmade) accidents to pipelines, in order to have a simulation of the effects (such as fires or explosions near or directly involving a pipeline facility) due to natural disasters.

  20. A midas plugin to enable construction of reproducible web-based image processing pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Michael; Reynolds, Patrick; Hoogstoel, Marion; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin A.; Oguz, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    Image processing is an important quantitative technique for neuroscience researchers, but difficult for those who lack experience in the field. In this paper we present a web-based platform that allows an expert to create a brain image processing pipeline, enabling execution of that pipeline even by those biomedical researchers with limited image processing knowledge. These tools are implemented as a plugin for Midas, an open-source toolkit for creating web based scientific data storage and processing platforms. Using this plugin, an image processing expert can construct a pipeline, create a web-based User Interface, manage jobs, and visualize intermediate results. Pipelines are executed on a grid computing platform using BatchMake and HTCondor. This represents a new capability for biomedical researchers and offers an innovative platform for scientific collaboration. Current tools work well, but can be inaccessible for those lacking image processing expertise. Using this plugin, researchers in collaboration with image processing experts can create workflows with reasonable default settings and streamlined user interfaces, and data can be processed easily from a lab environment without the need for a powerful desktop computer. This platform allows simplified troubleshooting, centralized maintenance, and easy data sharing with collaborators. These capabilities enable reproducible science by sharing datasets and processing pipelines between collaborators. In this paper, we present a description of this innovative Midas plugin, along with results obtained from building and executing several ITK based image processing workflows for diffusion weighted MRI (DW MRI) of rodent brain images, as well as recommendations for building automated image processing pipelines. Although the particular image processing pipelines developed were focused on rodent brain MRI, the presented plugin can be used to support any executable or script-based pipeline. PMID:24416016

  1. A Midas Plugin to Enable Construction of Reproducible Web-based Image Processing Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGrauer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Image processing is an important quantitative technique for neuroscience researchers, but difficult for those who lack experience in the field. In this paper we present a web-based platform that allows an expert to create a brain image processing pipeline, enabling execution of that pipeline even by those biomedical researchers with limited image processing knowledge. These tools are implemented as a plugin for Midas, an open-source toolkit for creating web based scientific data storage and processing platforms. Using this plugin, an image processing expert can construct a pipeline, create a web-based UI, manage jobs, and visualize intermediate results. Pipelines are executed on a grid computing platform using BatchMake and HTCondor. This represents a new capability for biomedical researchers and offers an innovative platform for scientific collaboration. Current tools work well, but can be inaccessible for those lacking image processing expertise. Using this plugin, researchers in collaboration with image processing experts can create workflows with reasonable default settings and streamlined user interfaces, and data can be processed easily from a lab environment without the need for a powerful desktop computer. This platform allows simplified troubleshooting, centralized maintenance, and easy data sharing with collaborators. These capabilities enable reproducible science by sharing datasets and processing pipelines between collaborators. In this paper, we present a description of this innovative Midas plugin, along with results obtained from building and executing several ITK based image processing workflows for diffusion weighted MRI (DW MRI of rodent brain images, as well as recommendations for building automated image processing pipelines. Although the particular image processing pipelines developed were focused on rodent brain MRI, the presented plugin can be used to support any executable or script-based pipeline.

  2. Enlarging the STEM pipeline working with youth-serving organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, I.

    2005-12-01

    The After-School Astronomy Project (ASAP) is a comprehensive initiative to promote the pursuit of science learning among underrepresented youth. To this end ASAP specifically aims at building the capacity of urban community-based centers to deliver innovative science out-of-school programming to their youth. ASAP makes use of a modular curriculum consisting of a combination of hands-on activities and youth-led explorations of the night sky using MicroObservatory. Through project-based investigations students reinforce learning in astronomy and develop an understanding of science as inquiry, while also develop communication and computer skills. Through MicroObservatory students gain access to a network of educational telescopes, that they control over the Internet, software analysis tools and an online community of users. An integral part of ASAP is to provide professional development opportunities for after-school workers. This promotes a self-sustainable implementation of ASAP long-term and fosters the creation of a cadre of after-school professionals dedicated to facilitating science-based programs.

  3. Collapse of Corroded Pipelines under Combined Tension and External Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ye

    Full Text Available In this work, collapse of corroded pipeline under combined external pressure and tension is investigated through numerical method. Axially uniform corrosion with symmetric imperfections is firstly considered. After verifying with existing experimental results, the finite element model is used to study the effect of tension on collapse pressure. An extensive parametric study is carried out using Python script and FORTRAN subroutine to investigate the influence of geometric parameters on the collapse behavior under combined loads. The results are used to develop an empirical equation for estimating the collapse pressure under tension. In addition, the effects of loading path, initial imperfection length, yielding anisotropy and corrosion defect length on the collapse behavior are also investigated. It is found that tension has a significant influence on collapse pressure of corroded pipelines. Loading path and anisotropic yielding are also important factors affecting the collapse behavior. For pipelines with relatively long corrosion defect, axially uniform corrosion models could be used to estimate the collapse pressure.

  4. Application of subset simulation in reliability estimation of underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a computational framework for implementing an advanced Monte Carlo simulation method, called Subset Simulation (SS) for time-dependent reliability prediction of underground flexible pipelines. The SS can provide better resolution for low failure probability level of rare failure events which are commonly encountered in pipeline engineering applications. Random samples of statistical variables are generated efficiently and used for computing probabilistic reliability model. It gains its efficiency by expressing a small probability event as a product of a sequence of intermediate events with larger conditional probabilities. The efficiency of SS has been demonstrated by numerical studies and attention in this work is devoted to scrutinise the robustness of the SS application in pipe reliability assessment and compared with direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Reliability of a buried flexible steel pipe with time-dependent failure modes, namely, corrosion induced deflection, buckling, wall thrust and bending stress has been assessed in this study. The analysis indicates that corrosion induced excessive deflection is the most critical failure event whereas buckling is the least susceptible during the whole service life of the pipe. The study also shows that SS is robust method to estimate the reliability of buried pipelines and it is more efficient than MCS, especially in small failure probability prediction

  5. Pipeline engineering. 7th edition; Rohrleitungstechnik. 7. Ausgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H.J.; Reuter, G.; Hof, F.C. von [eds.; Thier, B. [comp.

    1998-12-31

    The 7th edition of this manual reviews the developments of the last few years. New features are, e.g., pipeline planning by computers in consideration of the classification of pipeline components and of operational and servicing criteria, and many others. The authors of the manual are experts from industrial enterprises, technical associations and working groups. The book addresses engineers in technical plants and projecting engineers, pipeline engineers, chemical engineers, chemists, technicians as well as students of these fields. [Deutsch] Mit der 7. Ausgabe des Handbuches `Rohrleitungstechnik` wird die Standardbuchreihe fortgesetzt und die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre auf diesem Gebiet aktuell und gebuendelt in 12 Kapiteln dargestellt. Rohrleitungsplanung mit methodischen Ablaeufen durch EDV-Systeme, die Einbeziehung der Klassifizierung der Rohrteile, sowie die staerkere Beruecksichtigung der betriebs- und instandhaltungstechnischen Kriterien der Anlage kennzeichnen die Ingenieurtaetigkeit der Rohrleitungstechnik fuer die Prozess- und Anlagentechnik. Wie komplex die Dimensionierung, Planung, Fertigung, Montage, Qualitaetspruefung und Betrieb von Rohrleitungen sich darstellen, wird deutlich, wenn man bedenkt, welche Einflussgroessen wirksam werden und beachtet werden muessen. Hier seien die erforderlichen Durchsatzmengen, die zugelassenen Druckabfaelle, Korrosionsbeanspruchungen, Temperaturbeanspruchungen, Waermeverluste, mechanische Beanspruchung auf Grund des Innendruckes, der moeglichen Schwingungen, des Eigengewichtes, der Rohrleitungsfuehrung und der Halterung beispielhaft genannt. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  7. Pipeline repair technology damage and repair assessment of pipelines with high residual stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Høie, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Today in the offshore industry, there are an increasing number of pipelines that require both maintenance and repair. A wide specter of research in pipeline repair technology is available. Damage to a pipeline could be a quite complex event to analyze, due to the many different combinations of internal pipe stresses and damage types. Standards, such as DNV and ASTM have experimental based assessment methods for evaluating many of these damage combinations, however, there are some of these met...

  8. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  9. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine

  10. 77 FR 19414 - Pipeline Safety: Public Comment on Leak and Valve Studies Mandated by the Pipeline Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines The contractor will conduct a study on the ability of transmission pipeline facility... study will evaluate Class 3 and Class 4 areas of natural gas transmission pipelines. The contractor must... valves. This review will be for hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines and determine how...

  11. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  12. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, EW

    2014-01-01

    Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha

  13. Pipelines in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1999) [pipelines_la_usgs_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains vector line map information of various pipelines throughout the State of Louisiana. The vector data contain selected base categories of...

  14. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  16. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  17. Optimising of pipeline maintenance using deposit profile technology

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With an aging pipeline system, the petroleum industry is experiencing new challenges in maintaining the pipeline integrity. In the Master’s thesis, a method and technology for internal pipeline diameter detection is presented. By measuring the pressure signature during a conventional utility pigging operation, the changes in internal pipeline diameter are detected. The method is evaluated and its applicability for optimising the pipeline maintenance programme is discussed. The first par...

  18. Sinopec Fuels Development of Pipelines in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    @@ Crude pipeline completed in Yangtze River Delta The Ningbo-Shanghai-Nanjing crude pipeline was recently wound up for construction following completion of the subsea segment in Hangzhou Bay,the last part of the pipeline. The 711 mm-diameter crude pipeline, designed and constructed by Sinopec, adopts the advanced SCADA system for full automation control. The pipeline is designed to have an annual crude transmission capacity of 20million tons.

  19. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  20. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  1. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  2. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  3. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  4. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  5. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  6. Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    In the past few years, pipelines providing astronomical data have been becoming increasingly important. The wide use of robotic telescopes has provided significant discoveries, and sky survey projects such as SDSS and the future LSST are now considered among the premier projects in the field astronomy. The huge amount of data produced by these pipelines raises the need for automatic processing. Astronomical pipelines introduce several well-defined problems such as astronomical image compression, cosmic-ray hit rejection, transient detection, meteor triangulation and association of point sources with their corresponding known stellar objects. We developed and applied soft computing algorithms that provide new or improved solutions to these growing problems in the field of pipeline processing of astronomical data. One new approach that we use is fuzzy logic-based algorithms, which enables the automatic analysis of the astronomical pipelines and allows mining the data for not-yet-known astronomical discoveries such as optical transients and variable stars. The developed algorithms have been tested with excellent results on the NightSkyLive sky survey, which provides a pipeline of 150 astronomical pictures per hour, and covers almost the entire global night sky.

  7. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  8. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  9. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  10. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  11. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and to propose mitigation strategies. The methodologies used in this study are combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of literature review, questionnaire survey, and interview. The results show that many risks are involved in housing project, including risks related to environmental impacts, construction, politics, law, management, finance, materials, and economy, of which the probability of risks from unexpected ground condition, project delays, bureaucracy, contractual disputes between developer and landlord, weakness in management by inexperience developer, and financial crisis is very high. It was also found that all relevant parties involved in housing industry are required to have extensive cooperation in advance and should perform systematic risk management strategies in order to mitigate the risks leading to problems associated with abandoned housing projects.

  12. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  13. Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gillmore

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m−3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

  14. Data Processing Pipeline for Pointing Observations of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xian-Min; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Wu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui; Deng, Jin-Song; Xin, Li-Ping; Cai, Hong-Bo; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline developed to reduce the pointing observation data of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT), which belongs to the Chang'e-3 mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The pointing observation program of LUT is dedicated to variable objects monitoring in a near-ultraviolet (245-345 nm) band. LUT works in lunar daytime for sufficient power supply, so some special data processing strategies have been developed in the pipeline. The procedures of the pipeline mainly include stray light removing, astrometry, flat fielding employing superflat technique, source extraction and cosmic rays rejection, aperture and PSF photometry, aperture correction, and catalogues archiving. It has been intensively tested and works smoothly with observation data. The photometric accuracy is typically ~0.02 mag for LUT 10 mag stars (30s exposure), with errors from background noises, residuals of stray light removing, and flat fielding. The accuracy degrades to be ~0.2 mag for stars of 13....

  15. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  16. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  17. The Ruptured Pipeline: Analysis of the Mining Engineering Faculty Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, M.

    2011-12-01

    The booming commodities markets of the past seven years have created an enormous demand for economic geologists, mining engineers, and extractive metallurgists. The mining sector has largely been recession proof due to demand drivers coming from developing rather than developed nations. The strong demand for new hires as well as mid-career hires has exposed the weakness of the U.S. university supply pipeline for these career fields. A survey of mining and metallurgical engineering faculty and graduate students was conducted in 2010 at the request of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The goals of the surveys were to determine the demographics of the U.S. faculty in mining and metallurgical engineering, the expected faculty turn over by 2010 and the potential supply of graduate students as the future professorate. All Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering degrees in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the specific courses required are set by the sponsoring professional society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. There are 13 universities in the U.S. that offer a degree in Mining Engineering accredited as Mining Engineering and 1 university that grants a Mining Engineering degree accredited under general engineering program requirements. Faculty numbers are approximately 87 tenure track positions with a total undergraduate enrollment of slightly over 1,000 in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are approximately 262 graduate students in mining engineering in the U.S. including 87 Ph.D. students. Mining Engineering department heads have identified 14 positions open in 2010 and 18 positions expected to be open in the next 5 years and an additional 21 positions open by 2020. The current survey predicts a 56% turn over in mining faculty ranks over the next 10 years but a retirement of 100% of senior faculty over 10 years. 63% of graduate students say they are interested in

  18. Evaluating drag force and geometric optimisation of pipeline inspection gadget (PIG body with bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  A pipeline inspection gadget (PIG is a device used to run through pipelines for cleaning, measurement and inspection operations. By-pass is the name for one or a set of orifices allowing flow from back to front of a PIG. It is used for speed control or to improve cleaning operations results. By-pass prevents speed excursions in gas pipelines thereby avoiding damage to the PIG or the pipe. Studies and algorithms have been developed to simulate the dynamics of PIGs running inside pipes. Most studies have been for gas pipelines; these have helped to design some PIG models. This work summarises a particular stage during a PIG design project. This PIG will work in liquid pipelines and can stop in the line for inspection and maintenance tasks. Studying fluid force on a PIG when it has low or zero speed is needed for evaluating project feasibility and conceptual design. Selecting a PIG form to minimise the force of interaction with fluid allows a low weight design and lower energy loss.  

  19. Image-processing pipelines: applications in magnetic resonance histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Anderson, Robert J.; Cook, James J.; Long, Christopher; Badea, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Image processing has become ubiquitous in imaging research—so ubiquitous that it is easy to loose track of how diverse this processing has become. The Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy has pioneered the development of Magnetic Resonance Histology (MRH), which generates large multidimensional data sets that can easily reach into the tens of gigabytes. A series of dedicated image-processing workstations and associated software have been assembled to optimize each step of acquisition, reconstruction, post-processing, registration, visualization, and dissemination. This talk will describe the image-processing pipelines from acquisition to dissemination that have become critical to our everyday work.

  20. Medical innovation, unmet medical needs, and the drug pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Charles M

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines and illustrates the working of a theoretical approach from the social sciences for analyzing medical innovation, unmet medical need, and the drug pipeline. Using the social history of three drugs made from recombinant DNA (insulin, human growth hormone, and tissue-plasminogen activator) the paper shows how drugs can be both technically and organizationally efficient while the needs they satisfy can be created or identified. The paper posits that drugs that require more organizational efficiency tend to satisfy identified, rather then created needs. Key words: Recombinant DNA, technical efficiency, organizational efficiency, anthropology. PMID:16493177

  1. The MUSE Data Reduction Pipeline: Status after Preliminary Acceptance Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Weilbacher, Peter M; Urrutia, Tanya; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Jarno, Aurélien; Bacon, Roland

    2015-01-01

    MUSE, a giant integral field spectrograph, is about to become the newest facility instrument at the VLT. It will see first light in February 2014. Here, we summarize the properties of the instrument as built and outline functionality of the data reduction system, that transforms the raw data that gets recorded separately in 24 IFUs by 4k CCDs, into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We then describe recent work regarding geometrical calibration of the instrument and testing of the processing pipeline, before concluding with results of the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe and an outlook to the on-sky commissioning.

  2. Research on a New-style Pipeline Inspection Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yun; YAN Guo-zheng; YAN Bo; DING Yong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The pipe inspection robot system is developed for automatic inspection of gas pipeline with pipe diameter between 400mm and 650mm. It is composed of a pipe robot crawling mechanism controlled by remote network system, nondestructive examination sensor system, ground working station and so on. This paper presents the pipe inspection robot system design, the key technique and the performance experiment of the robot. The main performance index of the pipe robot system prototype has reached domestic advanced level. The prototype has also the technical potential to be developed as a product used in industry for periodic check of main gas/oil pipe.

  3. Pipeline design software and the simulation of liquid propane/butane-light oils pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive and integrated suite of computer software routines has been developed to simulate the flow of liquids in pipelines. The fluid properties module accommodates Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids or mixtures including corrections for changes in properties with temperature and pressure. The hydraulic model calculates pressure drop in single or looped pipelines based on the diameter, route (length) and profile data provided. For multi-product pipelines the hydraulics module estimates energy loss for any sequence of batches given the size and fluid properties of each batch, and the velocity in the pipeline. When the characteristics of existing or proposed pipeline pumps are included, location and size of pumps can be optimized. The effect of heat loss on pressure drop is predicted by invoking the module which calculates the fluid temperature profile based on operating conditions, fluid properties, pipe and insulation conductivity and soil heat transfer data. Modules, created to simulate heater or cooler operations, can be incorporated to compensate for changes in temperature. Input data and calculated results can be presented in a format customized by the user. The simulation software has been successfully applied to multi-product, fuel oil, and non-Newtonian emulsion pipelines. The simulation and operation of a refinery products pipeline for the transportation of propane, butane, gasline, jet and diesel batches will be discussed. The impact of high vapor pressure batches (i.e., propane and butane) on the operation of the pipeline and on the upstream and downstream facilities will be examined in detail.

  4. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  5. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... published on December 4, 2009, (74 FR 63906). The rule required that operators of gas distribution pipelines... pipeline industry representatives on topics relating to their experiences implementing the distribution... to all. There is no cost to attend. The meeting will be held at the OMNI Hotel, 1300 Houston...

  6. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lott, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particular

  7. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., coating anomalies, in-line inspection data, corrosion coupon data, corrosion inhibitor usage, analysis of... stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hazardous liquid pipeline systems. Comments should address the public... pipelines from the adverse effects of internal and external corrosion (Subpart H of 49 CFR Part...

  8. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... July 29, 1993 (ADB-93-03), and the most recent Advisory Bulletin (ADB-11-04) on July 27, 2011, 76 FR... Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding. This advisory includes actions that operators...

  9. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... remote control and automatic control valves can be installed to lessen the volume of natural gas and... Capabilities and Research 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30 p.m. Panel 3: Considerations for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection Systems 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p.m. Panel 4: Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System...

  10. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... final rule published December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63906), is correctly revised from February 2, 2010, to... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. E9-28467 appearing on page 63906 in the Federal Register of Friday, December 4, 2009... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE15 Pipeline...

  11. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the... complete Privacy Act Statement was published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 Pipeline Safety: Notice of...

  12. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... October 18, 2010, (75 FR 63774), PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... FR 63774), PHMSA published an ANPRM seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline...

  13. 77 FR 38132 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov before submitting any such..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals With Disabilities For information on... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical...

  14. Optimized design and simulation of high temperature pressure pipeline strain monitoring with optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yueming; Lou, Jun

    2011-08-01

    High temperature pressure piping have been applied widely in the chemical industry, the petroleum enterprises and the electrical power plants, and corresponding accidents happened frequently every year owing to the pipeline leakage and explosion. By massive accident statistics and analysis, the high temperature creep and the pipeline inside wall corroding are the main causes to result in the pipeline leakage and explosion accident. By real time sensing the strain change of pipeline outer surface, the online working status of the high temperature pipeline could be monitored and the leakage and explosion accidents would be avoided. Now several methods can be considered to sensing and monitoring the strain change of the high temperature pipeline surface, including Electricity sensor examination method, ultrasonic wave examination method and infrared thermal imagery examination method. After careful analysis and contrast, Electricity sensor examination method was given up for it couldn't be working steadily under high temperature conditions and easily excitated electric sparks which would result in flammable explosive danger in chemical industry and petroleum enterprises. Ultrasonic wave examination method and infrared thermal imagery examination method could avoid the shortages of Electricity sensor examination method based on the non-destructive examination theory, but the ultrasonic wave method could be applied only in examining the pipeline wall thickness, the inside wall crack as well as the material air bubble flaws restricted in its working principle. Consequently ultrasonic wave method examination method wasn't suitable to sense and monitor the strain change of the high temperature pipeline surface; Infrared thermal imagery examination method has low sensing resolution and can only examine internal etching pit and wall thickness attenuating, so it is unable to examine the pipeline surface strain change on time. Therefore three reported real-time examination

  15. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  16. Skaha Lake crossing, innovations in pipeline installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the construction of a 10.8 km long NPS16 (406 mm, 16 inch diameter) pipeline, across Skaha Lake, in the south Okanagan valley, British Columbia, Canada. The water crossing is part of the 32 km South Okanagan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (SONG) operated by BC Gas. The pipeline is located in a region dependent on year-round tourism. Therefore, the design and construction was influenced by sensitive environmental and land use concerns. From earlier studies, BC Gas identified surface tow or lay as preferred installation methods. The contractor, Fraser River Pile and Dredge departed from a conventional laybarge methodology after evaluating environmental data and assessing locally available equipment. The contractor proposed a surface tow with multiple surface tie-ins. This approach modification to the ''Surface Tow and Buoy Release Method'' (STBRM) used previously with success on relatively short underwater pipelines. A total of 10 pipe strings, up to 1 km long, were towed into position on the lake and tied-in using a floating platform. The joined pipeline was lowered to the lakebed by divers releasing buoys while tension was maintained from a winch barge at the free end of the pipeline. From analysis and field verified measurement the installation stresses were well below the allowable limits during all phases of construction. The entire construction, including mobilization and demobilization, lasted less than three months, and actual pipelaying less than three weeks. Installation was completed within budget and on schedule, without any environmental or safety related incidents. The SONG pipeline became operational in December 1994

  17. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  18. Proliferating pipelines: next growth wave gathering force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-11-05

    The fresh burst of activity in pipeline planning and construction following the buyout of Vancouver--based Westcoast Energy by Duke Energy of Charlotte, North Carolina is discussed. Although construction tapered off over the past year after the completion of the Maritime and Northern Pipeline (M and NP) and Alliance pipelines, the expansion of pipeline construction has not yet reached its peak. The scale of the Westcoast-Duke deal ($8.5 billion) underlines the extent of changes in the pipeline industry, much of which is yet to be realized. New developments described are such as Enbridge Inc's second stage in a long-range extension of the Interprovincial Pipe Line for oil from the West to Central Canada and the US Midwest to carry the projected 38 per cent increase in western oil production by 2010. In the north-eastern section of Alberta Trans Mountain Pipe Line is putting the finishing touches to its $700 million Corridor Pipeline to provide 400,000 barrels/day of additional capacity. On the Atlantic coast four new pipeline projects are lined up and a fifth is waiting in line, only two years after gas production started offshore of Nova Scotia. This includes the last missing link in the cross-Canada pipeline link. Enbridge and Montreal-based Gaz Metropolitain set a target of late 2004 for putting in service their proposed 262 km-long line to draw gas off the M and NP in New Brunswick and move its west to Quebec City for Gaz Metropolitain and to Toronto-based Enbridge Consumer Gas. In another development PanCanadian Energy signed a 10-year transportation deal with M and NP to ship 400,000 million cu ft per day from its one billion dollar Deep Panuke production development offshore of Nova Scotia. There are other developments waiting in the wings such as Houston-based Tatham Inc with its North Atlantic Pipeline Project calling a $3.2 billion, 2,200 km seafloor gas line grid to be built in stages reaching northward from the US to the Sable area and eventually to

  19. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  20. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  1. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  2. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  3. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  4. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  5. White Innocence and Mexican Americans as Perpetrators in the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses white innocence as a mechanism that may contribute to perceptions of Mexican Americans as perpetrators. These perceptions are crucial to ways teachers and administrators respond to student actions as the initial steps in the school-to-prison pipeline. Specifically, this work reviews the rhetoric of white innocence in a high…

  6. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... fitness for service processes. At this workshop, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  7. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  8. Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Elbakidze, Marine;

    2011-01-01

    Farmland abandonment restructures rural landscapes in many regions worldwide in response to gradual industrialization and urbanization. In contrast, the political breakdown in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union triggered rapid and widespread farmland abandonment, but the spatial patterns...... substantial spatial variation in abandonment rates. However, many of our a priori hypotheses about the direction of variable influence were rejected. Most importantly, abandonment rates were higher in the plains and lower in marginal areas. The growing importance of subsistence farming in the transition...... period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe...

  9. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  10. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  11. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  12. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  13. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  14. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2003-04-17

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the 1st quarter of 2003 included fine-tuning and debugging of the custom Optical Time Domain Reflectometer being constructed for data collection and analysis. The detector was redesigned reducing the noise floor by over a factor of ten. While GTI's OTDR was being improved, a new, commercial OTDR was used to verify that the technique is capable of measuring one pound continuous force applied to the Hergalite. Optical fibers were installed at the ANR Pipeline test site along an operating pipeline.

  15. Algorithms for near real-time detection of gas leaks from buried pipelines using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G. D.; Silver, E. A.; Pickles, W.; Male, E.

    2009-12-01

    Gas leaks from buried pipelines can directly impact the health of overlying vegetation. The leak can produce patches of highly stressed or dead vegetation. Plant health can be assessed remotely by measuring the depth of the chlorophyll absorption, which is located between 550 nm and 700 nm in reflectance imagery. Chlorophyll absorption is readily recognizable in multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as a strong absorption band centered on red light (typically 680 nm wavelength). We have examined several methods of measuring chlorophyll absorption with the goal of automating vegetation stress detection above underground pipelines in order to facilitate same-day detection of potential pipeline leak locations. One method, in which we measure vegetation stress as the ratio of the measured reflectance at peak absorption to the spectral continuum, was particularly successful. We compare the results of this measurement with a manual analysis of 0.18 m resolution imagery of several controlled CO2 leaks, finding the automatic analysis to be robust. High spatial resolution is shown to greatly increase the quality of the results, however, we show that this method works in even 3 m resolution imagery of an underground pipeline methane leak. This algorithm runs very quickly for large images. We are developing the image analysis algorithm to operate in real-time while flying buried pipeline right of way with hyperspectral sensors.

  16. The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Dean B; Schoo, Adrian; Berggren, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline. PMID:26321193

  17. A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

  18. Overcoming regulatory, political and operational challenges to boost Alaska E and P and pipeline activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addressed a range of issues associated with the development of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline, including fundamentals regarding North American gas supply and demand for power generation, industrial use and residential and commercial use; pipeline routing. It also addressed issues regarding the United States Energy Bill and Alaska readiness in terms of regulatory approvals and right-of-way applications, TransCanada readiness, and other key issues. Natural gas supply from the East Coast, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, United States Rockies, Gulf of Mexico and other localities in the United States were illustrated in a graph along with natural gas market prices and a comparison of recent NYMEX gas price forecasts. The author indicates that 10 to 15 billion cubic feet per day of new supply will be needed. The Mackenzie project continues to work towards an in-service date of 2009. However, a strong competitor and alternative to northern gas is liquefied natural gas (LNG). The issue of integrating Alaskan gas into the existing Alberta pipeline grid was also discussed along with technologies to improve pipeline costs and issues regarding First Nation consultations. TransCanada believes that Alaskan gas can be delivered to markets in the United States by 2012 if existing pipeline infrastructures are used as well as existing legislation in Canada. 4 figs

  19. Development and Application of Oil-Spill Risk Assessment Model for Offshore Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan; WANG Jia; WEI Wenpu; YANG Yong; AN Wei

    2014-01-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects:corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault;the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts’ opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipe-line in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  20. The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Dean B; Schoo, Adrian; Berggren, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline.

  1. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  2. Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Czyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.

  3. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G.F.

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  4. Liquid holdup in wet-gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of two-phase flow was conducted to investigate liquid holdup in wet-gas pipelines. The liquid-holdup data were obtained by passing spheres through a 1,333-ft [406.3-m] -long, 3.068-in. [77.93-mm] -ID horizontal pipe and measuring the liquid volumes removed. Three different two-phase mixtures were used. The holdup data were compared with predicted holdup values and were used to evaluate a mechanistic model for stratified flow. None of the methods could accuratly predict liquid holdup in this low-holdup region. Two new empirical liquid-holdup correlations for horizontal flow were proposed. The first is strictly for wet-gas pipelines (0< y/sub L/<0.35); the second is for any horizontal pipeline (0< y/sub L/<1.0)

  5. A New Opportunity Facing the Pipeline Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changpu

    2001-01-01

    @@ According to the State and CNPC programs for development,the nation's oil/gas pipeline sector is faced with an unprecedented historic opportunity, about to enter its golden period of development.The three major pipelines () SeNing-Lan (from Sebei of Qinghai Province to Lanzhou by way of Xining) for natural gas, LanCheng-Yu (from Lanzhou to Chengdu extending to Chongqing) for finished oils, and Zhong-Wu (from Zhongxian County of Chongqing to Wuhan)for natural gas, either under construction or planned to be constructed, have all been listed as the national priority projects of infrastructure construction. And the double-line project of the existing Shaan-Jing (Shaanxi Province to Beijing) gas pipeline has finished the procedure for establishment.

  6. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  7. Corrosion fatigue properties of thermally insulated pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion fatigue properties of thermally insulated pipeline were investigated in synthetic groundwater by electrochemical test, corrosion fatigue test and SEM analysis. Since the potential difference between the weldment and the base metal was small, the pipeline steel was not susceptible to galvanic corrosion. No fatigue limit was apparent for corrosion fatigue testing with remarkable reduction of fatigue lifetime. The effects of insulation and stress on the corrosion fatigue resistance of pipeline steel were studied through Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) during corrosion fatigue testing. The result of LPR measurement indicated that the corrosion rate was determined not by the water content of PUR foam but by the magnitude of applied stress. The better corrosion fatigue property of the insulated steel was attributable to the formation of a protective rust layer under the insulation, which reduced the acceleration of corrosion process and the propagation of fatigue crack. This was confirmed by the results of EIS measurements and SEM observation

  8. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network...... of representatives for major stakeholders in international trade, whom evaluate it positively and are willing to invest, develop and test the prototype of the Shipping Information Pipeline....

  9. Engineering critical assessment of PETROBRAS Camarupim pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.R. [Microalloying International, Houston, TX (United States); Gatlin, R.W. [Global Industries, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zumpano Junior, P.; Kaspary, T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This paper presents details of an Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) performed to develop girth weld flaw acceptance criteria for the PETROBRAS Camarupim Pipeline which was installed in Espirito Santo Basin, ES, offshore Brazil in May 2008 by Global Industries. The pipeline was constructed using 24-inch diameter API Grade X65 pipe with wall thicknesses of 0.875-inch (22.2 mm) and 1.00 inch (25.4 mm). Although the Camarupim pipeline will initially transport sweet gas there is the potential for mildly sour service operation in mid to late life. To assess the effect of sour service on the material toughness properties a series of slow strain rate fracture toughness tests were performed in a Project representative sour service environment. In addition the results of sour service fatigue crack growth tests were analyzed to develop a conservative sour service fatigue crack growth law for the ECA analysis. (author)

  10. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  11. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  12. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  13. Abandonment Fears in Persons with Alzheimer's at Adult Day Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Judkins, Wayne A

    1999-01-01

    In my research, I examined abandonment fears in persons with Alzheimerâ s disease at the Salem Veterans Affairs adult day care center. I observed fifty hours at the center, and conducted open-ended interviews with two of the participants and their respective caregivers. These two participants (Ellen and Opel) at the center expressed abandonment fears much more frequently than any of the other participants. I found that most of the time, these two women would express their abandonment f...

  14. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that greenhouse gas emission inventories are likely missing methane emission sources. We conducted the first methane emission measurements from abandoned oil and gas wells and found substantial emissions, particularly from high-emitting abandoned wells. These emissions are not currently considered in any emissions inventory. We scaled methane emissions from our direct measurements of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania and calculate that they represent 4–7% of current tota...

  15. Model of flow programming in combination pipeline; Modelo de programacao de fluxo em polidutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matagao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos; Arruda, L.V.R. de [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis (France)]|[Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Neves Junior, Flavio [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex (France)]|[Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This work proposes a pipeline multi-product scheduling methodology, developing an auxiliary quantitative model for the operational decision-make process. It will be developed a study upon a tank farm and a pipeline connecting a refinery to a harbor. The objective is the minimization of an economic cost function. This function includes storage tanks load and unload, operation costs and also the cost of plug products. Mixed integer linear programming techniques were used. It is taken into account the pipeline operational constraints, pumping sequence constraints and tankage constraints. The proposed model will allow to obtain a product pumping sequence that minimizes both storage tanks changeover and the number of pumping interface inclusions. (author)

  16. Derrick Hindery. From Enron to Evo. Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Enron to Evo is a long-term study of Enron and Shell’s construction of the Cuiabá pipeline in eastern Bolivia. The pipeline goes through the middle of the Chiquitano forest and affects a population of about 8,000. The project also has a negative impact on four critical ecoregions; the Gran Chaco and Cerrado, which are a mixture of grasslands and scattered trees, the Chiquitano dry forest, and the Pantanal wetlands. The Cuiabá pipeline has been highly contested by the thirty-four Chiquitano and two Ayoreo communities that live in the area. After years of field research, extensive interviews and document analyses, Dr. Hindery manages to expose the murky ways in which the hydrocarbon industry works in Bolivia. This is an industry where the powerful –mainly multinational oil companies and the Bolivian government– abuse the ecoregion and the indigenous populations that live on it.

  17. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-07-19

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the third quarter of the project (2nd quarter of 2002) includes design of the diode laser driver and high-speed detector electronics and programming of the custom optical time domain reflectometer.

  18. Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Wave inside CEUP Fuel Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions dependent large pressure variations are one of the working characteristics of combination electronic unit pump (CEUP fuel injection system for diesel engines. We propose a precise and accurate nonlinear numerical model of pressure inside HP fuel pipeline of CEUP using wave equation (WE including both viscous and frequency dependent frictions. We have proved that developed hyperbolic approximation gives more realistic description of pressure wave as compared to classical viscous damped wave equation. Frictional effects of various frequencies on pressure wave have been averaged out across valid frequencies to represent the combined effect of all frequencies on pressure wave. Dynamic variations of key fuel properties including density, acoustic wave speed, and bulk modulus with varying pressures have also been incorporated. Based on developed model we present analysis on effect of fuel pipeline length on pressure wave propagation and variation of key fuel properties with both conventional diesel and alternate fuel rapeseed methyl ester (RME for CEUP pipeline.

  19. Extending the Fermi-LAT Data Processing Pipeline to the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Stephan; Glanzman, Tom; Johnson, Tony; Lavalley, Claudia; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; 10.1088/1742-6596/396/3/032121

    2012-01-01

    The Data Handling Pipeline ("Pipeline") has been developed for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) which launched in June 2008. Since then it has been in use to completely automate the production of data quality monitoring quantities, reconstruction and routine analysis of all data received from the satellite and to deliver science products to the collaboration and the Fermi Science Support Center. Aside from the reconstruction of raw data from the satellite (Level 1), data reprocessing and various event-level analyses are also reasonably heavy loads on the pipeline and computing resources. These other loads, unlike Level 1, can run continuously for weeks or months at a time. In addition it receives heavy use in performing production Monte Carlo tasks. The software comprises web-services that allow online monitoring and provides charts summarizing work flow aspects and performance information. The server supports communication with several batch systems such as LSF and BQS a...

  20. Safety management of pipelines based on structural reliability: historical perspective and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Andre Teofilo; Bazan, Felipe Alexander Vargas [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Mendes, Renato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento; Gardiner, Michael [GL Noble Denton, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Since the early beginnings in the sixties and seventies, Structural Reliability theory has reached a mature stage encompassing solid theoretical developments and increasing practical applications. Structural reliability methods have permeated the engineering profession, finding applications in code calibration, structural optimization, life extension of existing structures, life-cycle management of infrastructure risks and costs, and so on. This review paper shows that the ground work for Reliability Based Design and Assessment (RBDA) of onshore pipeline systems is already developed. Hence, this allows the economic management of the risks involved in operation of pipeline systems. It is shown that RBDA is a rational tool to safely manage the operational life of pipeline systems, optimizing initial design and the expenditures in inspection and maintenance operations. (author)