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Sample records for abandoned uranium mines

  1. Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  2. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA and...

  4. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  5. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  6. The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Bing

    2004-01-01

    The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m 3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

  7. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qihong; Zhao Fuxiang; Wang Lihua

    2008-01-01

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure γ radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  9. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Regions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  10. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region Polygons, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  11. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  12. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the...

  13. The role of naturally occurring biofilm in the treatment of mine water in abandoned uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielnicki, S.; Sklodowska, A.; Michalska, B.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium mine in Kowary (SW Poland) was active from 1948 to 1967. After exploitation ceased the mine was abandoned and from the beginning of 21"s"t century it is a touristic attraction of this region of Poland. The largest uranium mining fields, Kowary and Kowary-Podgorze, were located in southern part of the metamorphic cover of the Karkonosze Granite. In the mine dumps at Kowary- Podgorze ore fragments containing up to 0.15% of uranium can still be found. Several dumps have been left in the Kowary Podgorze vicinity as the post mining uranium waste. The dump of adits Nos. 19 and 19a at Kowary Podgorze is located in the Jedlica River valley. Water from adit No. 19a is still discharged by the pipe directly to the Jedlica River. In the end of this pipe a small dam was built to regulate the level of water in adit and small reservoir of mine water was created in this place. The level of uranium observed in water before dam is between 10 μg/dm"3 and 670 μg/dm"3. The bottom of reservoir is covered by strongly mineralized biofilm containing up to 60 mg U/kg (dry weight), 1 500 mg As/kg, 10 000 mg Al/kg and about 1700 mg Mn/kg. Water in Jedlica River contains 6- 7 μg U/dm"3, 16 μg As/dm"3 and about 10 μg Mn/dm"3 and these values are within the limits for non contaminated surface water. The water from the reservoir together with the biofilm is discharged minimum twice a year immediately to Jedlica River causing a temporary increase of contaminants (beyond the limits) and dispersion of uranium and arsenic up to 20 km from the main source of pollution. It seems that biofilm from reservoir acts as an active filter that removes main contaminants from mine water mainly through biosorption. Laboratory studies show that sorption complexes are relatively stable. Maximum 10% of absorbed uranium was eluted by EDTA buffer or acetic acid (soluble and carbonate fraction). Arsenic was eluted in 25% by phosphate buffer (ion exchange) and almost all iron and cadmium (occurring in

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  15. Research on clay covering experiment in a abandoned uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The clay covering experiment was designed in a abandoned uranium mining area, including experiment principle, determining size of experimental site, experiment method, choosing cover materials and determining cover thickness. According to the experiment results, the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness, the diffusion coefficient of radon in clay were fully discussed. Also, the corresponding function expressions were established. The linear correlation coefficient test results showed that the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness was significantly correlated. According to the correlation function expression between the radon exhalation rate and the cover thickness, the cover thickness of the decommissioning sites can be determined, in order to provide a scientific basis for the design and environmental impact assessment on decommissioning disposal project of a uranium mine. (authors)

  16. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  17. Spatial distribution of environmental risk associated to a uranium abandoned mine (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I. M.; Ribeiro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar is located at Arcozelo da Serra, central Portugal. The mine was exploited in an open pit and produced about 12430Kg of uranium oxide (U3O8), between 1987 and 1988. The dominant geological unit is the porphyritic coarse-grained two-mica granite, with biotite>muscovite. The uranium deposit consists of two gaps crushing, parallel to the coarse-grained porphyritic granite, with average direction N30°E, silicified, sericitized and reddish jasperized, with a width of approximately 10 meters. These gaps are accompanied by two thin veins of white quartz, 70°-80° WNW, ferruginous and jasperized with chalcedony, red jasper and opal. These veins are about 6 meters away from each other. They contain secondary U-phosphates phases such as autunite and torbernite. Rejected materials (1000000ton) were deposited on two dumps and a lake was formed in the open pit. To assess the environmental risk of the abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar, were collected and analysed 70 samples on stream sediments, soils and mine tailings materials. The relation between samples composition were tested using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) (multivariate analysis) and spatial distribution using Kriging Indicator. The spatial distribution of stream sediments shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Th and U contents), decreases along SE-NW direction. This component is explained by the samples located inside mine influence. The probability of expression for principal component 2 (explaining Be, Na, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, Ba, Tl and Bi contents), increases to middle stream line. This component is explained by the samples located outside mine influence. The spatial distribution of soils, shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Mg, P, Ca, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr

  18. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg-1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the respective BAFs for 232Th were 3% and 9%. For stable 206Pb the STOM and STOM+INT BAFs were 16% and 3% for the most contaminated samples, whereas those from the field had 44% in the

  19. Residential proximity to abandoned uranium mines and serum inflammatory potential in chronically exposed Navajo communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Molly E; Lewis, Johnnye; Miller, Curtis; Hoover, Joseph; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Shuey, Chris; Cajero, Miranda; Lucas, Selita; Zychowski, Katherine; Pacheco, Bernadette; Erdei, Esther; Ramone, Sandy; Nez, Teddy; Gonzales, Melissa; Campen, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population. To investigate a potential link between exposures to AUM and serum inflammatory potential in affected communities, primary human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated for 4 h with serum provided by Navajo study participants (n=145). Endothelial transcriptional responses of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were measured. These transcriptional responses were then linked to AUM exposure metrics, including surface area-weighted AUM proximity and estimated oral intake of metals. AUM proximity strongly predicted endothelial transcriptional responses to serum including CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (Puranium did not, even after controlling for all major effect modifiers. Inflammatory potential associated with proximity to AUMs, but not oral intake of specific metals, additionally suggests a role for inhalation exposure as a contributor to cardiovascular disease.

  20. THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE ABANDONED URANIUM MINING EXPLOITATIONS ON ROCKS AND SOILS - ZIMBRU PERIMETER, ARAD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA M. BANU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mining exploration and exploitation, especially the activity of uranium mineralization exploration and exploitation has a negative impact on the environment by the alterations of the landscape and the degradation of the environmental factors' quality. The principal environmental factors that could be affected by mining operations resulting from uranium exploitation are: water, air, soil, population, fauna, and flora. The aim of this study is, first, to identify the sources of pollution (natural radionuclides - natural radioactive series of uranium, radium, thorium, potassium and heavy metals that are accompanying the mineralizations for two of the most important environmental factors: rocks and soils: and, second, to assess the pollution impact on those two environmental factors. In order to identify this pollutants and their impact assessment it was selected as a study case an abandoned uranium mining perimeter named the Zimbru perimeter located in Arad County, Romania.

  1. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  2. Hydrology of an abandoned uranium mine waste rock dump, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Moliere, D.R.; Saynor, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Field studies were conducted on an abandoned, degraded uranium mine in Kakadu National Park to obtain waste rock dump runoff data to test the ability of a landform evolution model to predict gullying caused by concentrated flow. Runoff data were collected from natural rainfall events on a concentrated flow site and an overland flow erosion site on the waste rock dump at Scinto 6 mine. The data were used to fit parameters to a rainfall/runoff model using a non-linear regression package (NLFIT-DISTFW) which allows a single set of parameters to be fitted to four discharge hydrographs simultaneously. The model generally predicted peak discharge and the rising stage of the observed hydrographs well but there was some lag in the falling stage of the predicted hydrographs. Kinematic wave parameters are dependent on each other and the concentrated flow parameter set was not significantly different from the overland flow set. The infiltration parameter sets were statistically different and difference in cumulative infiltration between sites is controlled by sorptivity

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mines with Enforcement Actions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 13 mines total that have enforcement actions and are classified as priority mines. USEPA and NNEPA prioritized 46 mines based on gamma radiation levels,...

  4. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Trust Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent mines included in the Navajo Environmental Response Trust. This mine category also includes Priority mines....

  5. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  6. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause-effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority and Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mines with Tronox enforcement actions as of March 2016 that are also classified as priority mines. USEPA...

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Trust Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mine areas included in the Navajo Environmental Response Trust. This mine category also includes Priority...

  9. Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

    2010-05-01

    The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or

  10. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO 4 3- concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO 4 3- at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with flowing

  11. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba

  12. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S....

  13. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — List of mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S. government (also known as the Tronox settlement)

  14. Arsenic and uranium transport in sediments near abandoned uranium mines in Harding County, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipp, Gregory G.; Stone, James J.; Stetler, Larry D.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed as part of ongoing environmental investigations of historical U mining impacts within Custer National Forest in Harding County, South Dakota. Correlations between As and U content, grain size and soil mineralogy were determined to identify contaminant fate and transport mechanisms. Soil samples collected near the mining source zone and up to 61 km downgradient of the minesites were analyzed. Samples were homogenized and wet sieved through polymer screens, and metal(loid) concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis identified quartz as the primary mineral for all size fractions, with varying amounts of analcime, indicative of volcanic origin. Selected samples were examined for trace mineral composition using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of Fe sulfides and Fe (hydr)oxides indicate heterogeneity in redox potentials on a microscopic scale. Elevated metal(loid) concentrations were associated with trace concentrations of Fe sulfide, indicating an influence on metal transport during weathering. Sequential chemical extractions (SCE) performed on source sediment fractions demonstrated that most As and U was adsorbed to Fe- and Mn-oxides and carbonates with lesser amounts bound by ion exchange, organics and Fe sulfides. Large changes in U/Th and As/Th ratios were observed to coincide with geochemical changes in the watershed, suggesting that metal(loid)-Th ratios may be used in environmental investigations to identify geochemically-significant watershed conditions.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  16. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, G.

    1975-01-01

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB) [de

  17. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Abandoned Uranium Mines in the Navajo Nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Aerial radiological surveys of forty-one geographical areas in the Navajo Nation were conducted during the period of October 1994 through October 1999. The surveys were conducted at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 and were performed by personnel of the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) located in Las Vegas, Nevada, a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office. The aerial survey and subsequent processing characterized the overall radioactivity levels and excess bismuth 214 activity (indicator of uranium ore deposits and/or uranium mines) within the surveyed areas. A total of 772,000 aerial gamma spectra and associated position parameters were obtained and analyzed during the multi-year operation. The survey determined that only 15 square miles (39 square kilometers) of the 1,144 square miles (2,963 square kilometers) surveyed (approximately 1.3 %) had excess bismuth indications above the minimum reportable activity, thus reducing the area requiring further investigation by a nominal factor of 76. Radiation contour data files, produced by RSL, were converted to Geographic Information System-compatible digital files and provided to EPA and EPA contractors for inclusion in numerous reports and graphics products

  18. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  19. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  20. Aerial Radiological Survey of Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Map Service, Navajo Nation, 1994-1999, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains data from aerial radiological surveys of 41 potential uranium mining areas (1,144 square miles) within the Navajo Nation that were...

  1. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  2. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The international uranium market appears to be currently over-supplied with a resultant softening in prices. Buyers on the international market are unhappy about some of the restrictions placed on sales by the government, and Canadian sales may suffer as a result. About 64 percent of Canada's shipments come from five operating Ontario mines, with the balance from Saskatchewan. Several other properties will be producing within the next few years. In spite of the adverse effects of the Three Mile Island incident and the default by the T.V.A. of their contract, some 3 600 tonnes of new uranium sales were completed during the year. The price for uranium had stabilized at US $42 - $44 by mid 1979, but by early 1980 had softened somewhat. The year 1979 saw the completion of major environmental hearings in Ontario and Newfoundland and the start of the B.C. inquiry. Two more hearings are scheduled for Saskatchewan in 1980. The Elliot Lake uranium mining expansion hearings are reviewed, as are other recent hearings. In the production of uranium for nuclear fuel cycle, environmental matters are of major concern to the industry, the public and to governments. Research is being conducted to determine the most effective method for removing radium from tailings area effluents. Very stringent criteria are being drawn up by the regulatory agencies that must be met by the industry in order to obtain an operating licence from the AECB. These criteria cover seepages from the tailings basin and through the tailings retention dam, seismic stability, and both short and long term management of the tailings waste management area. (auth)

  3. Evaluation of water column and sediment toxicity from an abandoned uranium mine using a battery of bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Figueiredo, D.R. de; Marques, S.M.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium mining activities in Cunha Baixa, Mangualde (Portugal), were extensive between 1967 and 1993, with high production of poor ore. Ore exploitation left millions of tons of tailings in the surrounding area, close to human houses. Contamination of the area (water and soil compartment) presently represents a serious hazard to humans and wildlife. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of water and sediments from a pond that floods a uranium mine pit, in two periods (spring and autumn). High contents of metals were found in water samples (chiefly Mn, Fe, Al, U, Sr). A battery of assays was applied to screen the acute toxicity of the different compartments using algae, crustaceans and dipterans. Results showed that the sediments were non-toxic, unlike the superficial water. Water toxicity was higher in the autumn, when the effluent was more acidic, compared to spring. In the water toxicity assays, the relative sensitivity of the test species used was Daphnia longispina > Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata > Daphnia magna. The present study is part of the chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of the aquatic compartment performed in the Tier 1 of the Ecological Risk Assessment of the Cunha Baixa mining area

  4. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  5. Old dumps of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    The production of natural uranium through mining and milling results in large volumes of low-level radioactive waste, mainly in mine dumps and mill tailings. Hazards which relate to abandoned uranium production sites and environmental remediation approaches are described in reference to the Wismut case. During the period 1947 to 1990 the former Soviet-German Wismut Corporation produced about 200 000 t of uranium from several deposits in Thuringia and Saxonia within a relatively small and densely populated area. These activities resulted in major land disturbance and other environmental damage. Restoration problems are highlighted. (orig.)

  6. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  7. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  8. Uranium mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katam, K.; Sudarsono

    1982-01-01

    Uranium mine ventilation system aimed basically to control and decreasing the air radioactivity in mine caused by the radon emanating from uranium ore. The control and decreasing the air ''age'' in mine, with adding the air consumption volume, increasing the air rate consumption, closing the mine-out area; using closed drainage system. Air consumption should be 60m 3 /minute for each 9m 2 uranium ore surfaces with ventilation rate of 15m/minute. (author)

  9. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  10. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  12. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  13. Characterization and treatment of water used for human consumption from six sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Kollar, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was the characterization and improvement of the quality of water used for human consumption of unregulated/regulated water sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area (NE Arizona, western edge of the Navajo Nation). Samples were collected at six water sources which included regulated sources: Wind Mill (Tank 3T-538), Badger Springs and Paddock Well as well as unregulated sources: Willy Spring, Water Wall and Water Hole. Samples taken from Wind Mill, Water Wall and Water Hole were characterized with high turbidity and color as well as high level of manganese, iron and nickel and elevated value of molybdenum. High level of iron was also found in Badger Spring, Willy Spring, and Paddock Well. These three water sources were also characterized with elevated values of fluoride and vanadium. Significant amounts of zinc were found in Water Wall and Water Hole samples. Water Wall sample was also characterized with high level of Cr(VI). Compared to primary or secondary Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency (NNEPA) water quality standard the highest enrichment was found for turbidity (50.000 times), color (up to 1.796 times) and manganese (71 times), Cr(VI) (17.5 times), iron (7.4 times) and arsenic (5.2 times). Activities of (226)Ra and (238)U in water samples were still in agreement with the maximum contaminant levels. In order to comply with NNEPA water quality standard water samples were subjected to electrochemical treatment. This method was selected due to its high removal efficiency for heavy metals and uranium, lower settlement time, production of smaller volume of waste mud and higher stability of waste mud compared to physico-chemical treatment. Following the treatment, concentrations of heavy metals and activities of radionuclides in all samples were significantly lower compared to NNEPA or WHO regulated values. The maximum removal efficiencies for color, turbidity, arsenic, manganese, molybdenum and

  14. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  15. Construction over abandoned mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, P R; Head, J M

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is given for engineers involved with the planning and development of sites previously undermined for coal and other minerals. Past methods of mining employed in Britain are described, and their short- and long-term effects on surface stability are assessed. Where modern methods of mining are relevant, or where structural design techniques for the surface effects of mining can be applied, these are included for illustration and completeness. Additional objectives over and above those for conventional site investigations are identified, and details are provided for the planning and execution of a mining investigation. Techniques for consolidation of old mine workings and remedial measures for mine shafts are described. Foundation design options are included for cases where expected ground movements can be accommodated. A comprehensive guide to sources of information on previous mining is presented, together with an example of a specification suitable for the consolidation of old shallow mine workings. (50 refs.)

  16. Uranium mines of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A; Gusakov, E.G.; Marushenko, A.A.; Botov, A.Yu.; Yunusov, M.M.

    2002-12-01

    The book describes location laws, the main properties of geological structure and industrial perspectives for known uranium mines of the Republic of Tajikistan. Used methods of industrial processing of uranium mines are described. The results of investigations of technological properties of main types of uranium ores and methods of industrial processing of some of them are shown. Main properties of uranium are shortly described as well as problems, connected with it, which arise during exploitation, mining and processing of uranium ores. The main methods of solution of these problems are shown. The book has interest for specialists of mining, geological, chemical, and technological fields as well as for students of appropriate universities. This book will be interested for usual reader, too, if they are interested in mineral resources of their country [ru

  17. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  18. Uranium mining in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, M.

    2006-01-01

    The mines of northern Saskatchewan make Canada the worlds leading uranium producer in Canada supplied 29% of global demand, or 11.60 million tonnes of the metal in 2004. Here are two bright ideas - how to mine an orebody by neither pit nor underground method, and how to mine high-grade ore without miners - that Cogema and Cameco are pursuing in the Athabasca Basin

  19. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  20. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  1. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  2. Toxicity assessment of the water used for human consumption from the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area prior/after the combined electrochemical treatment/advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human lymphocytes using a battery of bioassays. On the bases of the tested parameters, it could be concluded that water used for drinking from the tested water sources must be strictly forbidden for human and/or animal consumption since it is extremely cytogenotoxic, with high oxidative stress potential. A combined electrochemical treatment and posttreatment with ozone and UV light decreased the level of all physicochemical and radiological parameters below the regulated values. Consequently, the purified sample was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic, indicating that the presented method could be used for the improvement of water quality from the sites highly contaminated with the mixture of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  3. ERA's Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.

    1997-01-01

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA's preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U 3 O 8 in the year to June 1997

  4. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sub-level development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  5. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sublevel development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  6. The case against uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotham, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    Australia is a potential uranium supplier. The case against uranium mining is presented. Biological effects of radiation, risks involved in reactor operation and the problems of waste disposal are discussed

  7. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  8. Uranium mills and mines environmental restoration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Estevez, C.; Lozano Martinez, F.

    2000-01-01

    ENRESA and ENUSA have dismantled and restored a uranium mill in Andujar (Andalucia), a uranium facility based on open pit mining and plant in La Haba (Extremadura) and 19 old uranium mines in Andalucia and Extremadura. The Andujar Uranium Mill was operated from 1959 to 1981 and has been restorated between 1991 and 1994. The site included the tailings pile and the processing plant. The Haba Uranium Site included the Plant (operating from 1976 to 1999), four open-pit mines (operating from 1966 to 1990), the heaps leaching and the tailings dam and has been restorated between 1992 and 1997. The 19 abandoned uranium mines were developed by underground mining with the exception of two sites, which were operated by open pit mining. Mining operations started around 1959 and were shutdown in 1981. There was a great diversity among the mines, in terms of site conditions. Whereas in some sites there was little trace of the mining works, in other sites large excavations, mining debris piles, abandoned shafs and galeries and remaining surface structures and equipment were encountered. (author)

  9. Worldwide ISL Uranium Mining Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.; Stander, S.; Martynenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: • ISL uranium production historical review and current status; • ISL versus conventional mining; • Acid versus alkaline ISL; • ISL cost considerations; • Principal criteria and parameters for ISL mining; • ISL production forecast and resources availability

  10. Extremely high radon activity concentration in two adits of the abandoned uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary (Sudety Mts., Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of radon activity concentration were conducted for a period of 6 months, from April to September 2011, in the air of two adits constituting part of the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary. Adits no. 19 and 19a in Kowary had been chosen owing to the occurrence within them of the highest documented radon concentrations in Poland, With levels higher than a million Bq m -3 . The main goal of this study was to characterize the level of 222 Rn activity concentration registered in selected workings of this underground space, investigate 222 Rn changes and their characteristics over selected periods of time (an hour, a day, a month, six months) and determine the effective doses, which provided the basis for estimating the risk of exposure to increased ionizing radiation for employees and visitors to the mine. The highest values of 222 Rn activity concentration inside the adits occurred at the time when visitors, guides and other members of the staff were present there. The recorded values of radon activity concentration, regardless of the time and the month when the measurement was performed, remained at an average level of 350-400 kBq m -3 . These values were far above the limit of 1.5 kBq·m -3 recommended by international guidelines. The maximum values ranged from 800 to more than 1000 kBq·m -3 . Radon activity concentration changes occurred only in periods determined by 7-h cycles of connecting and disconnecting the mechanical ventilation. For about 7 h after activating the ventilation system, between 7 a. m. and 2 p. m., and after closing the adit, between 7 p. m. and 2 a. m., 222 Rn activity concentrations decreased to levels even as low as 100 kBq·m-3. However, as early as 3-4 h after disconnecting the ventilation system, there was a sharp rise in the values of 222 Rn activity concentration, to the level higher than 800 kBq·m-3. The risk of receiving a radiation dose higher than the national standard of 1 mSv/year by members of the

  11. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  12. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  13. Health in uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Safety in mining radioactive ores, and in milling and treating them, has been a serious preoccupation for some thirty years. Much earlier than this, however, a high incidence of lung cancer had been reported among the miners of the Erzgebirge mountains in the German-Czechoslovak border region (places familiar under the names of Schneeberg and St. Joachims thai). Investigations into deaths from radium poisoning began at these mines in 1937, and the results seemed to indicate a causal connection between the radioactive substances and the development of lung cancer and other diseases. These matters were discussed in Vienna at the symposium on Radiological Health and Safety in Nuclear Materials Mining and Milling, 26-31 August 1963. The symposium was organized by IAEA and co-sponsored by ILO and WHO; some 70 papers were presented. The purpose of the meeting was to collect and compare the very widely scattered research results and practical experience in this field. One conclusion which emerged was that the milling of uranium ore involves no unusual problem. Provided standard controls - as applied to the treatment of other minerals - are strictly enforced, exposure to radiation can be kept to a minimum. In the actual mining of uranium, the problems are only beginning to be clearly defined, but it seems to be well established that exposure of miners to excessive levels of radon will have most serious consequences. In a complicated pattern there are many factors at work, ranging from the physical behaviour of sundry radioactive substances to the personal histories of individual miners. The need for considerably more research was stressed throughout the discussions.

  14. Health in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Safety in mining radioactive ores, and in milling and treating them, has been a serious preoccupation for some thirty years. Much earlier than this, however, a high incidence of lung cancer had been reported among the miners of the Erzgebirge mountains in the German-Czechoslovak border region (places familiar under the names of Schneeberg and St. Joachims thai). Investigations into deaths from radium poisoning began at these mines in 1937, and the results seemed to indicate a causal connection between the radioactive substances and the development of lung cancer and other diseases. These matters were discussed in Vienna at the symposium on Radiological Health and Safety in Nuclear Materials Mining and Milling, 26-31 August 1963. The symposium was organized by IAEA and co-sponsored by ILO and WHO; some 70 papers were presented. The purpose of the meeting was to collect and compare the very widely scattered research results and practical experience in this field. One conclusion which emerged was that the milling of uranium ore involves no unusual problem. Provided standard controls - as applied to the treatment of other minerals - are strictly enforced, exposure to radiation can be kept to a minimum. In the actual mining of uranium, the problems are only beginning to be clearly defined, but it seems to be well established that exposure of miners to excessive levels of radon will have most serious consequences. In a complicated pattern there are many factors at work, ranging from the physical behaviour of sundry radioactive substances to the personal histories of individual miners. The need for considerably more research was stressed throughout the discussions.

  15. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  16. Uranium recovery from mine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In many plant trials it has been proven that very small amounts (10 to 20 ppm) of uranium dissolved in mine water can be effectively recovered by the use of ion exchange resins and this uranium recovery has many advantages. In this paper an economic analysis at different levels of uranium contamination and at different market prices of uranium are described. For this study an operating mine-mill complex with a sulphuric acid leach circuit, followed by solvent extraction (SX) process, is considered, where contaminated mine water is available in excess of process requirements. It is further assumed that the sulphuric acid eluant containing uranium would be mixed with the mill pregnant liquor stream that proceeds to the SX plant for final uranium recovery

  17. Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Quanhui

    2002-01-01

    Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

  18. Uranium - a challenging mining business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelhofer, J.W.; Wedig, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The main application of uranium is its use as a fuel for the nuclear electricity generation. Presently about 68,000 t (177 mill. lbs) of uranium are annually required, of which 41,500 (108 mill. lbs) are provided from fresh mine production whereas 26,500 t (69 mill. lbs) are stock drawdown supplies from civil or military sources. Two-thirds of production are recovered by underground mining and about 75% (30,350 t) of the world's uranium mine production are extracted from top ten mines. All major uranium mining companies are making efforts to enlarge their production capacities: The paramount Cameco's Cigar Lake project has been delayed due to mine water inflow. Production is expected to commence by latest in 2010; the nameplate capacity of 6000 t/a should be reached in 2011. AREVA reported plans to invest about Euro 500 to 600 mill. to double its uranium production by 2010. In 2006 Denison Mines and International Uranium Corporation announced that they have entered into an agreement to merge the two companies in order to create a mid-tier, North American-focused uranium producer with the potential annual production of more than 5.5 mill. lbs of U 3 O 8 by 2010. The skyrocketing global electricity demand, growing public acceptance and more favourable policies have initiated a new round of global development of the nuclear industry. Against this backdrop, about 30,000 t/a to 40,000 t/a of additional mine production will be required within the upcoming 20 years to substitute secondary uranium supplies and to meet the expected increased demand; new start-up junior mining companies (e.g. Paladin) will contribute to this increased production. (orig.)

  19. Geophysical methods in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, K.

    1989-01-01

    In uranium prospecting, exploration, milling, and mining there is an urgent need to have information on the concentration of uranium at all steps of handling uranium containing materials. To gain this information in an effective way modern geophysical methods have to be applied. Publications of the IAEA and NEA in this field are reviewed in order to characterize the state of the art of these methods. 55 refs

  20. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  1. Ideate about building green mine of uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zuyuan

    2012-01-01

    Analysing the current situation of uranium mining and metallurgy; Setting up goals for green uranium mining and metallurgy, its fundamental conditions, Contents and measures. Putting forward an idea to combine green uranium mining and metallurgy with the state target for green mining, and keeping its own characteristics. (author)

  2. Mitigating soil contamination at abandoned Moroccan mine sites ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Abandoned mines are putting people and ecosystems at risk in ... environmental and health concerns to surrounding communities. .... carbon-rich phosphate mine waste from the neighboring Youssoufia ... The research team is testing the development of lightweight ceramics by mixing the coal tailings with ...

  3. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  4. Regulatory challenges of historic uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.; Stenson, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The radium and uranium mining industry began in Canada in 1930 with the discovery of the Port Radium deposit in the Northwest Territories. During the 1950s more uranium mines opened across Canada. Most of these mines ceased operation by the end of the 1960s. Some were remediated by their owners, while others were abandoned. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), predecessor to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), was created in 1946. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that the AECB took an active role in regulating health, safety and environmental aspects of uranium mining; so many of the older mines have never been licensed. With the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) in May 2000, this situation has been reviewed. The NSCA requires a licence for the possession of nuclear substances (including uranium mine tailings), or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (including uranium mines and mills). Furthermore, governments (federal and provincial) are also subject to the NSCA, a change from the previous legislation. The CNSC has an obligation to assess these sites, regardless of ownership, and to proceed with licensing or other appropriate regulatory action. The CNSC has reviewed the status of the twenty sites in Canada where uranium milling took place historically. Eight are already licensed. Licensing actions are being pursued at the other sites. A review of nearly 100 small uranium mining or exploration sites is also underway to determine the most appropriate regulatory approach. This paper focuses on regulatory issues surrounding the historic mining and milling sites, and the regulatory approach being taken, including licensing provincial and federal government bodies who own some of the sites, and ensuring the safe management of sites that were abandoned. (author)

  5. Domestic uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A field hearing was held in Riverton, Wyoming on the erosion of the state's uranium industry as production and capital investment have declined and inventories have continued to rise because of a shift to foreign suppliers. The result has been serious unemployment in Wyoming and a decline in uranium mines from 5400 in 1980 to the present 1200. The seven witnesses spoke for the mining industry and state and federal government. Among the issues raised were mining regulations and the cancellation of nuclear rejects which have impacted the health of the industry. Additional statements and a report supplied for the record follow their testimony

  6. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  7. Restoration activities in uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quiros, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    From the end of the 80's up to now, several tasks have been carried out in Spain on restoration in the field of uranium mining and milling, significant among them being Andujar Uranium Mill (FUA) closure and La Haba closure. Also, a study has been carried out on restoration of inoperative and abandoned uranium mine sites. At present, detailed plans are being worked out for the project on the closure of the Elefante plant. All activities have been developed in the common framework of national standards and regulations which are generally in compliance with the standards, regulations and recommendations of international organizations. This paper describes briefly the standards and the criteria applied to the restoration tasks at various sites of the uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain. The restoration activities have different characteristics La Haba facility is an isolated and conventional facility to produce uranium concentrate; in the case of old and abandoned uranium mines the intervention criteria is more relevant than the activities to be carried out; the closure (the first phase of licensing) and restoration activities of Elefante plant have to be developed taking into account that it is sited within the area of Quercus plant which is currently in operation. (author)

  8. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  9. Improvements of uranium mine ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changrong; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Zehua; Wang Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    Ventilation has been proved to be a main method to eliminate radon and its daughters in uranium mines. According to the practical rectifications of uranium mine ventilation system, the improved measures are summarized. (authors)

  10. Golden prospects for uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Beisa Mines Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Union Corporation, looks a born winner. Although only due for completion in 1982 it can already boast several 'firsts' in the mining industry. It is, of course, the first mine in South Africa to be developed as a primary producer of uranium with gold as a by-product. Its No. 1 Ventilation Shaft is also the smallest diameter shaft in SA to use a rocker-arm shovel loader for rock removal. Moreover, Beisa will be the first mine to use the revolutionary carbon-in-pulp process on a large scale

  11. Application for trackless mining technique in Benxi uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingguo

    1998-01-01

    The author narrates the circumstances achieving constructional target in Benxi Uranium Mine under relying on advance of science and technology and adopting small trackless mining equipment, presents the application of trackless mining equipment at mining small mine and complex mineral deposit and discusses the unique superiority of trackless mining technique in development work, mining preparation work and backstoping

  12. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  13. THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSZULA MYGA-PIĄTEK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

  14. Uranium exploration, mining and ore enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Wentzlau, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the different types of uranium deposits and their importance. It is shown that during the present depressed uranium market situation, mainly high grade deposits such as unconformity-related deposits can be mined economically. The different successive exploration steps are outlined including methods used for uranium. Uranium mining does not greatly differ from normal mining, but the uranium metallurgy needs its own specialized but already classic technology. Only a relative small amount of uranium can be expected from projects where uranium is produced by in situ leach methods or by extraction from phosphoric acid. A short summary of investment costs and operating costs is given for an average uranium mine. The last chapter deals with the definition of different reserve categories and outlines the uranium reserves of the western world including the uranium production (1983) and the expected uranium production capacity for 1985 and 1990. (orig.) [de

  15. Selection of mining method for No.3 uranium ore body in the independent mining area at a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Fulong; Ding Dexin; Ye Yongjun

    2010-01-01

    Mining operation in the existed mining area at a uranium mine is near completion and it is necessary to mine the No.3 uranium ore body in another mining area at the mine. This paper, based on the geological conditions, used analogical method for analyzing the feasible methods and the low cost and high efficiency mining method was suggested for the No.3 ore body in the independent mining area at the uranium mine. (authors)

  16. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  17. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  18. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  20. Optimization of mining design of Hongwei uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao; Yuan Baixiang

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the mining conditions of Hongwei uranium mine, optimization schemes for hoisting cage, mine drainge,ore transport, mine wastewater treatment, power-supply system,etc are put forward in the mining design of the mine. Optimized effects are analyzed from the aspects of technique, economy, and energy saving and reducing emissions. (authors)

  1. Mitigating soil contamination at abandoned Moroccan mine sites ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Photo credit: Flickr Abandoned mines are putting people and ecosystems at risk in Morocco Since the advent of modern excavation techniques in the ... For example, principal investigators Benzaazoua and Hakkou had a key opportunity to influence practice when they were asked to prepare a course on ...

  2. Environmental restoration. Stabilization of mining tailing and uranium mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Carboneras, P.

    1998-01-01

    ENRESA has dismantling a uranium mill facility and restored the site since 1991 to 1994. Since 1997, 19 uranium mines are being re mediated. The Andujar uranium mill was operational since 1959 to 1981. The remedial action plan performed in the Andujar mill site involved stabilizing and consolidating the uranium mill tailings and contaminated materials in place. Mill equipment, building and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailings mass has been reshape by flattening the side slopes and cover system was placed over the pile. The uranium mines are located in Extremadura and Andalucia. There is a great diversity among the mines in terms of the magnitude of the disturbed areas by mining work and the effects on the environment, including excavations, waste rock piles, abandoned shafts and galleries, and remaining of surface structures and facilities. Remedial measures include the sealing for shafts and openings to prevent collapse of mine workings and subsidence, the dewatering and the open-pit excavation and the treatment of the contaminated waters, the disposal and the stabilization of mining debris piles to prevent dispersion, the placement of a re vegetated cover over the piles to control dust and erosion, and the restoration of the site. (Author)

  3. Uranium evaluation and mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    accurate, comprehensive, and understandable appraisal of the world's potential uranium resources, and the ability to discover, develop and produce these resources within an acceptable time frame are absolutely essential to making meaningful decisions in relation to the future supply of nuclear fuel. Therefore, the methods used to appraise undiscovered uranium resources were examined and compared in the light of the needs of the world nuclear power industry as a whole. Notable among these methods is one based on interactive genetic models. It is currently being developed to reduce the amount of subjectivity inherent in most of the currently used appraisal techniques The goal is to use more geologic data and depend less on the intuition and experience of the estimator. The more esoteric statistical techniques based on past production rates, prices, rates of increase or decrease in reported reserves or resources, etc., while of unknown or unproved value, were not discussed at the symposium. The symposium provided a forum for discussion of closely related subjects as well. One of the major problems in reporting internationally in uranium resources is classification of the resources into various categories and defining those categories. Conceptually, among earth scientists, there is general agreement, but defining these concepts is a difficult task. At least three organizations have undertaken to develop classifications and definitions to satisfy the needs of international reporting. Two of these were described at the symposium. (The third has been used by the joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources but was not described.) The techniques of winning uranium from its several sources include, besides mining by conventional open pit or underground methods, in situ leaching of low-grade ores in special environments, and from ores left in mines In addition, virtually all marine phosphates contain some uranium that can be recovered as a by-product in the manufacture of

  4. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  5. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  6. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.; Abouguendia, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  7. Nuclear Avenue: “Cyclonic Development”, Abandonment, and Relations in Uranium City, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boschman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise and abandonment of Uranium City constitutes an environmental history yet to be fully evaluated by humanities scholars. 1982 marks the withdrawal of the Eldorado Corporation from the town and the shuttering of its uranium mines. The population declined to approximately 50 from its pre-1982 population of about 4000. This article is inspired by findings from the authors’ initial field visit. As Uranium City is accessible only by air or by winter roads across Lake Athabasca, the goal of the visit in May 2017 was to gather information and questions through photographic assessment and through communication and interviews with residents. This paper in part argues that the cyclonic development metaphor used to describe single-commodity communities naturalizes environmental damage and obscures a more complicated history involving human agency. Apart from the former mines that garner remedial funding and action, the town site of Uranium City is also of environmental concern. Its derelict suburbs and landfill, we also argue, could benefit from assessment, funding, and remediation. Canada’s 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report provides a way forward in healing this region, in part by listening to the voices of those most affected by environmental impacts caused not by a metaphorical cyclone but by other humans’ decisions. As descendants of European immigrants to Turtle Island (the Indigenous term referring to North America, the authors are also subjects of the very terms—cyclonic development, abandonment, remediation—used to describe the history of the land itself: in this case, a mining town in the far northern boreal forests and Precambrian Shield.

  8. Current status of purification of mine waters which arose from uranium ore mining at the Pucov and Olsi-Drahonin sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jez, J.

    1999-01-01

    The abandoned, flooded uranium mines, the uranium deposits, and the mine waters are described. At Pucov, the mine water purification consists in reduction of insoluble contents. The technology also enables uranium and radium to be removed from the mine water; this approach was practised in 1992-1997, now, however, the radionuclide levels are low enough not to require any special purification. At Olsi-Drahonin, the technology of the decontamination stations is aimed at reducing the concentrations of insolubles, uranium, and radium in the water treated. The concentration of iron is reduced as well. The decontamination facilities at the two mining sites are described in detail. (P.A.)

  9. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  10. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wutzler, B.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  11. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  12. A clean environment approach to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grancea, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    A global and multi-faceted response to climate change is essential if meaningful and cost-effective progress is to be made in reducing the effects of climate change around the world. There is no doubt that the uranium mining sector has an important role to play in such a goal. Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of baseload low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and the associated uranium demand, enhancing awareness of leading practices in uranium mining is indispensable. Actors in the uranium mining sector operate in a complex world, throughout different geographies, and involving global supply chains. They manage climate-sensitive water, land and energy resources and balance the interests of various stakeholders. Managed well, uranium mining delivers sustainable value for economic growth, employment and infrastructure, with specific attention given to the preservation of the environment. In the early phases of the industry, however, downside risks existed, which created legacy environmental and health issues that still can be recalled today. This article addresses key aspects of modern uranium mining operations that have been introduced as regulations and practices have evolved in response to societal attitudes about health, safety and environmental protection. Such aspects of mine management were seldom, if ever, respected in the early stages of uranium mining. With the implementation of modern mine lifecycle parameters and regulatory requirements, uranium mining has become a leader in safety and environmental management. Today, uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances and is now the most regulated and one of the safest forms of mining in the world. Experiences from modern uranium mines show that successful companies develop innovative strategies to manage all the

  13. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  14. Medium-term erosion simulation of an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.R.; Willgoose, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study forms part of a collaborative project designed to validate the long-term erosion predictions of the SIBERIA landform evolution model on rehabilitated mine sites. The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms resulting from runoff and erosion over many years. SIBERIA needs to be calibrated before evaluating whether it correctly models the observed evolution of rehabilitated mine landforms. A field study to collect data to calibrate SIBERIA was conducted at the abandoned Scinto 6 uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The data were used to fit parameter values to a sediment loss model and a rainfall-runoff model. The derived runoff and erosion model parameter values were used in SIBERIA to simulate 50 years of erosion by concentrated flow on the batters of the abandoned site. The SIBERIA runs correctly simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The observed gully position, depth, volume, and morphology on the waste rock dump were quantitatively compared with the SIBERIA simulations. The close similarities between the observed and simulated gully features indicate that SIBERIA can accurately predict the rate of gully development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. SIBERIA is an appropriate model for assessment of erosional stability of rehabilitated mine sites over time spans of around 50 years. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  15. Uranium mining: Environmental and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is important not only to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity in the coming decades - particularly in the developing world - enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This was the objective of a recent NEA report entitled Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining, providing a non-technical overview of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that it was first mined for military purposes until today. (author)

  16. Reclamation of derelict land: procedure for locating abandoned mine shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for locating abandoned shafts has been compiled from the experiences of those familiar with the problem. The procedure begins with a careful study of all the maps, aerial photographs and documents related to the mining activity and may include specialized surveys using geophysical, geochemical and aerial photographic methods when specific conditions are known or are likely to exist at the site. Direct methods, of either excavation, probing or drilling are required in each instance to confirm the location. Most of the methods are illustrated with case histories, and seismic and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail in appendices. Also in appendices, specific sources of information relating to mining are listed. Physical characteristics of mine shafts which are likely to have a bearing on the finding of the shaft are discussed, and an outline of the costs of the methods is presented. A glossary of mining terms used in the document and a detailed bibliography are provided.

  17. Environmental effects of uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibbs, N.H.; Rath, D.L.; Donovan, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium exploration and mining is increasing as the Nation's demand for energy grows. The environmental impacts associated with this exploration and mining are not severe and compare favorably with impacts from the production of other energy resources

  18. Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  19. Detection of uranium mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorov, V.; Ryjinski, M.; Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    In undisturbed natural uranium ore the 238 U decay chain isotopes appear in secular decay equilibrium with activity ratios equal to one. In the course of ore processing the bulk of the uranium decay products is separated from the uranium product and concentrated in the tails. Therefore the disturbed activity ratios of short-lived daughters to long-lived parents can be indicators of ore processing. Using 234 Th and 238 U activities (the short-lived daughter with T 1/2 =24.1 days and the long- lived parent respectively) one can roughly estimate how much time has elapsed since ore processing occurred. Equilibrium is reached in about three months after processing and the 234 Th and 238 U activity levels are approximately equal (taking into account the error of measurements). Higher or lower 234 Th activity levels, relative to 238 U, indicate the material has been recently processed. Assuming the product is depleted in Th and the tails are enriched, the activity of 234 Th in fresh product should be lower than 238 U and higher in fresh tails. The 234 Th/ 230 Th activity ratio can also be used for age estimations ( 230 Th is a long-lived nuclide). Five samples were taken from the Ranger Uranium Mine and Concentration Plant in Australia, and one sample was taken from the Jabiluka mine (10 km far from the Ranger Mine). The samples included non-processed ore, coarse ore from the stockpile, final crushed ore, fresh and old tails, and fresh product (U 3 O 8 ). All the samples were analyzed by HRGS to measure the activities of gamma emitting nuclides. XRF and IDMS were used to measure uranium content and isotopic composition. The 238 U activity was calculated from these measurement results. The 234 Th activity was measured by HRGS with a planar HPGe detector and a calibrated low activity 241 Am solution as an internal standard. The 234 Th/ 230 Th activity ratio was measured using the 60 keV energy region where both isotopes have gamma lines. Use of gamma lines with close

  20. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, D.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  1. The future of the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Galaud, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the state of natural Uranium market today. In a first part, the author gives a brief history about nuclear programs history in Usa and Europe and describes natural Uranium demand and supply (Uranium mines, recycling, excessive civil stocks, military stocks using). In a second part, evolutions and futures of Uranium industry is studied: using of excessive stocks in Western Europe, using of military stocks, recycling of Uranium from spent fuels reprocessing, uranium deposits, future natural uranium market. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 3 photos

  2. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  3. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, Margarete

    1984-12-01

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  4. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Anjos, R.M.; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222 Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m 3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m 3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m 3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina

  5. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes, correct... portions of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes... Streams. PART 785--REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING 785.13, 785.14, 785.15...

  6. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

  7. Soil bioengineering methods for abandoned mine land surface drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotir, R.B.; Simms, A.P.; Sweigard, R.J.; Hammer, P.; Graves, D.H.; Adkins, M. [Robbin B. Sotir & Associates, Marietta, GA (USA)

    1999-07-01

    Research to determine the suitability of soil bioengineering for slope stabilization at abandoned surface mining sites is described. The technology uses live woody plant material as a structural component, in this case live fascine with coir erosion control fabric made from coconut. A large water collection pond draining to nine channels on the slope below was constructed as a test site. The pond has drainage channels for testing at low, intermediate, and steep slope grades. Each group of three channels is composed of one riprap rock channel, one gabion channel, and one soil bioengineering channel. The channels will be tested summer 1999. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs., 8 photos.

  8. Preliminary analysis about reducing production costs in uranium mining and metallurgy at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao

    1999-01-01

    The production costs in uranium ming and metallurgy have been analyzed quantitatively term by term according to present production situation for The Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Corp, which is part of Fuzhou Uranium Mine. The principal factors influencing on the production costs and the main means reducing the production costs have been found

  9. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  10. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participation; Organizational structure; Personnel and staffing policies; Purchasing and procurement systems; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000...

  11. Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R D [Liverpool Univ.; Johnson, M S; Hutton, M

    1978-01-01

    Spoil tips associated with abandoned non-ferrous mines contain anomalously high levels of heavy metals compared with other contaminated environments. Little attention has been given to the impact of such contaminated environments on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, lead in soil, vegetation, ground-living invertebrates and indigenous small mammal populations are reported for two derelict mines in Wales. Small mammal body and tissue lead concentrations were markedly elevated compared with control populations and with published data for other lead-contaminated areas. Oedema, intranuclear inclusion bodies and mitochondrial abnormalities--symptoms of clinical plumbism--were identified in kidney tissue in populations with highest tissue lead concentrations. The results and their relevance to other lead-contaminated areas, including roadside verges, are discussed.

  12. Design research of uranium mine borehole database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaming; Hu Guangdao; Zhu Xianglin; Chen Dehua; Chen Miaoshun

    2008-01-01

    With short supply of energy sources, exploration of uranium mine have been enhanced, but data storage, analysis and usage of exploration data of uranium mine are not highly computerized currently in China, the data is poor shared and used that it can not adapt the need of production and research. It will be well done, if the data are stored and managed in a database system. The concept structure design, logic structure design and data integrity checks are discussed according to the demand of applications and the analysis of exploration data of uranium mine. An application of the database is illustrated finally. (authors)

  13. Natural Radioactivity around Former Uranium Mine, Kalna in Eastern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Hansman, J.; Krmar, M.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.; Kozmidis-Luburic, U.

    2013-01-01

    'Grabovnica' near small village Kalna was one of the first uranium mine established in Yugoslavia. In 1963, the Nuclear Energy Commission began operating the mine and mill. Between 1964 and 1966, the staff at this mine extracted and produced an estimated 900 kg of UO2 and 400 kg of uranium metal. The Kalna ore was of poor quality, containing very low uranium content, which required higher-cost mining and refining methods. That was the main reason for closing this mine. This paper presents results obtained by measuring the activity concentration of soil and water samples by gamma spectrometry and also indoor 222Rn activity concentrations in houses in the nearby village Kalna. The investigations of radioactivity content of the samples collected around abandoned mine 'Grabovnica' are carried out in order to determine the present state of the environment in this area. Most of the examined samples show elevated radioactivity. Only six samples (from 14 measured by gamma-spectroscopy) have external hazard index less than one. There are two soil samples taken from the entrance to the main shaft which have really high external hazard index. The obtained results also show higher activity concentration of 137Cs in some samples. The highest activity concentration of 222Rn is found in one house which is working area. All houses are very well ventilated which greatly affect 222Rn activity concentrations in air, so there is no need for any intervention. The mine was never officially decommissioned. The results obtained might be useful for the future decommissioning procedure. Future investigations should include other mentioned former mine locations in East Serbia and also comparison with areas of this origin worldwide.(author)

  14. Study of uranium mine aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzic, J.-Y.

    1976-05-01

    With a view to radiation protection of uranium-miners a study was made of the behaviour of radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere of an experimental mine where temperature, pressure, relative himidity and ventilation are kept constant and in the air of a working area where the nature of the aerosol is dependent on the stage of work. Measurements of radon and daughter products carried out in various points of working areas showed that the gas was quickly diluted, equilibrium between radon and its daughter products (RaA, RaB, RaC) was never reached and the radon-aerosol contact was of short duration (a few minutes). Using a seven-stage Andersen impactor particle size distribution of the mine aerosol (particle diameter >0.3μm) was studied. The characteristic diameters were determined for each stage of the Andersen impactor and statistical analysis verified that aerosol distributions on the lower stages of the impactor were log-normal in most cases. Finally, determination of size distribution of α-radioactivity showed it was retained on fine particles. The percentage of free α-activity was evaluated using a diffusion battery [fr

  15. Environmental protection issues in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1999-01-01

    The extent to which the environment in the vicinity of the Ranger uranium mine has been protected throughout the past twenty years has been assessed on the basis of radiological, chemical and biological monitoring. Based on this experience, a risk assessment of the proposed development of the Jabiluka mine has been carried out. It is concluded that mining of uranium at Ranger has not given rise to adverse effects on the people or the ecosystems of Kakadu National Park and the natural values of the Park are not threatened by the development of the Jabiluka mine

  16. Potential for mine water reuse in an abandoned coal mine in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A.; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Loredo, J. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated the potential re-utilization of mine water in industrial activities. Mine water characterization studies were conducted to evaluate mine waters from the abandoned La Camocha Mine in northwestern Spain. Hydrochemical studies have indicated that the water is bicarbonated with a low sulphate and iron content, and a neutral pH. The concentrations of trace metals are below water legislation for human consumption levels. The water can economically be transported for use in the irrigation of a botanical garden and sports centre located in the same region as the mine. Use of the water will help to preserve rivers and other waterways in the region, and may also minimize the environmental impacts of pumping activities at the mine. Fluid properties for various water samples were provided. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  18. Instrumentation for the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Brief descriptions are presented concerning instruments used in uranium mining, including R meter, radon daughter working level counter, radon gas detectors, alpha contamination monitors, air samplers, ore grade evaluators and gamma energy analyzers

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  20. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  1. Radiation hazard surveillance in spanish uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.; Liarte, J.

    1963-01-01

    The regulations applied in the uranium mines which belong to the Junta de Energia Nuclear to control the radioactive hazards, and to get the personal protection avoiding overexposures in the external radiation and inhalation of radioactive dust and gases are given. The Radon daughters concentration in the atmosphere of Avery one of the mines and the external radiation exposure and uranium excretion in urine of the miners during 1962 are specified. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Mineral phases identification inside an abandoned Zn/Pb mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goienaga, N.; Carrero, J.A.; Olivares, M.; Castro, K.; Fernandez, L.A.; Madariaga, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work is the identification of the sulphurated phase's outbreak on an aragonite, dolomite and calcite-based original rock inside an abandoned mine. The studied Blende/Galena (ZnS/PbS) Mine, located in Lanestosa (Bizkaia, North of Spain) was operative until 1950. After decades, the area has only supported wild life and thus nowadays it could be considered as a polluted site which has become naturalized. The main alteration factors inside the mine are percolated water, gases come from the outside (CO 2 , O 2 ) and biological activities. Mining activities generates loads of ore minerals and unwanted materials that with the time impact the surrounding environment. The waste includes granular, broken rock and soils ranging in size from the fine sand to large boulders, with the content of fine material largely dependent on the nature of the formation and extraction methods employed during mining. Waste materials geochemistry varies widely from mine to mine and may vary significantly at individual mines over time as different lithologic strata are exposed and geochemical processes alter characteristics of the waste. In order to determine the finest mineral composition in the galleries, several samples were collected. Once dried in a fume hood and sieved, the portions below 250 μm were subjected to non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis. The measurements reflected the ore precursors (primary phases: Blende, and Galena), several primary carbonates (dolomite, calcite and aragonite) with secondary minerals in trace levels (Brookite, Libethenite, Fluorapatita, Anatasa, Quartz, Apatite, Augite, Diopside, Anthracite, Hematite, Cosalite, Epidote, Rutile) and transformation products, probably of recent formation (Smithsonite, Massicot, Plattnerite, Gypsum, Siderite, Mendiphite, Escorodite, Gauberite, Goethite or Mascagnite). The origin of the secondary mineral may be related to percolated rain and snow water. This

  3. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.J.

    1982-05-01

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  4. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  5. The new uranium mining boom. Challenge and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the results from the Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology Conference (UMH VI) held in September 2011, in Freiberg, Germany. The following subjects are dealt with in depth: uranium mining, phosphate mining and uranium recovery. Cleaning up technologies for water and soil are also discussed at length. Analystics and sensors for uranium and radon and modelling round up this comprehensive volume. (orig.)

  6. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHhazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste

  7. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)

  8. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed

  9. Methods and measures of enhancing production capacity of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuhui

    2013-01-01

    Limited by resource conditions and mining conditions, the production capacity of uranium mines is generally small. The main factors to affect the production capacity determination of uranium mines are analyzed, the ways and measures to enhance the production capacity of uranium mines are explored from the innovations of technology and management mode. (author)

  10. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (US). Wildlife & Fisheries Resources Programme

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  13. Narbalek uranium mine: from EIS to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Nabarlek uranium mine operated in Northern Australia from 1979 until 1989 and was the first of the 'new generation' of uranium mines to go through the cycle of EIS, operation and decommissioning. The paper describes the environmental and operational approval processes, the regulatory regime and the decommissioning procedures at the mine. The mine was located on land owned by indigenous Aboriginal people and so there were serious cultural considerations to be taken into account throughout the mine's life. Site work for decommissioning and rehabilitation was completed in 1995 but revegetation assessment has continued until the present time (1999). The paper concludes with the latest assessment and monitoring data and discusses the lessons learned by all parties from the completion of the cycle of mine life 'from cradle to grave'. (author)

  14. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8

  15. Should Australia mine and export uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, M.; Broadbent, Steve.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, the case for and against the mining and export of Australian uranium is discussed. For those in favour of uranium export, the nuclear energy, a source of energy which could bring a much needed boost to Australian export and employment, is being stifled by specious 'scare tactics' about the danger and misuse of uranium. It is also shown that uranium is the only feasible energy source, being cheaper, safer and cleaner when compared with other energy sources. Meanwhile, the opponents of nuclear energy, argue that uranium mining is environmentally destructive, is a danger to workers and residents health, it is bad for economy and it provides raw materials for nuclear weapons. 2 tabs

  16. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.

    2010-01-01

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  17. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  18. Remediating the South Alligator Valley uranium mining legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, M.; Waggitt, P.

    2010-01-01

    In late 1950s and early 1960s 13 uranium mines operated in the South Alligator Valley of Australia's Northern Territory. Once sales contracts had been filled the mines were abandoned and no remediation took place. In the 1980s the valley was designated as part of Stage 3 of the adjacent World Heritage-listed, Kakadu National Park. Proposals for remediation were only seriously put forward when the land was returned to the traditional Aboriginal owners, the Gunlom Land Trust, in 1996. Although they leased the land back so it would remain a part of Kakadu National Park the traditional Aboriginal owners required remediation to be complete by 2015. This paper tells the story of the development and implementation of the remediation process from the start of planning in 1998 to completion in 2009; and finally it describes the development of stakeholder relationships and the initial plans for long term stewardship. (author)

  19. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmail Fatehifar; Sakineh Jadidi; Bahram Vosugh; Fazel Khaleghi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Behzad Hajalilou

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water sa...

  20. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  1. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... of their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct..., make grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, and add citations. The Arkansas... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING 785.14, 785.16, 785.18, and 785.25 Mountaintop Removal Mining; Permits...

  2. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  3. Optimization of uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schecter, R.S.; Bommer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of well pattern and well spacing on uranium recovery and oxidant utilization are considered. As expected, formation permeability heterogeneities and anisotropies are found to be important issues requiring careful consideration; however, it also is shown that the oxidant efficiency and the produced uranium solution concentrations are sensitive to the presence of other minerals competing with uranium for oxidant. If the Damkohler number for competing minerals, which measures the speed of the reaction, exceeds that for uranium, the competing mineral will have to be oxidized completely to recover a large proportion of the uranium. If the Damkohler number is smaller, it may be possible to achieve considerable selectivity for uranium by adjusting the well spacing. 9 refs

  4. Health concerns in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Mortality of uranium miners from both lung cancer and other respiratory diseases is strongly dependent on exposure to radon daughters, cigarette smoking and height. Lung cancer among 15 different mining groups (uranium, iron, lead, zinc) was analyzed to determine what factors influence incidence and the induction-latent period. At low exposure or exposure rates, alpha radiation is more efficient in inducing lung cancer, producing an upward convex exposure-response curve. The induction-latent period is shortened by increased age at start of mining, by cigarette smoking and by high exposure rates. Instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures to estimate risk at low levels, it is suggested that it might be more appropriate to use cancer rates associated with background radiation as the lowest point on the exposure-response curve. Although health risks are much greater in uranium mines than mills, there is some health risk in the mills from long-lived radioactive materials

  5. The Namibian uranium mining model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiegers, Wotan; Tibinyane, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Namibia wishes to be a world class producer of Uranium and a prosperous country to achieve the Nation’s 2030 Vision. • The Government and the Uranium Industry formed a Smart Partnership to protect our ‘Brand’. • The Government and the Uranium Industry are committed to implement ‘world best practices’. • Namibia will be guided by the IAEA and the WNA.

  6. Uranium mines and French mining companies: a magnificent adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2008-01-01

    The French mining adventure still arouses enthusiasm. The search for uranium began in 1945 with the creation of the Cea (Atomic Energy Board) whose one mission was to supply the nascent French nuclear programme with the necessary materials. Prospecting works were then led throughout France, Madagascar, the Ivory Coast and the French equatorial Africa. More than 60 years later the only surviving actor of this quest for uranium has become the mining department of Areva Nuclear Cycle which is itself a sub-company of Areva. The author, who was an ancient high executive of Cogema draws a detailed history of the French uranium mining industry with with its ups and downs, by analysing the impact of the 2 oil crisis and of the decline of nuclear energy in the decade following the Chernobyl accident. (A.C.)

  7. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  8. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Ammonium carbonates are commonly used as the lixiviant for in-situ leaching of uranium ores. However this leads to the deposition of ammonium ions in the uranium ore formation and the problem of ammonia contamination of ground water which may find its way into the drinking water supply. The ammonia contamination of the ore deposit may be reduced by injecting an aqueous solution of a potassium salt (carbonate, bicarbonate, halide, sulfate, bisulfate, persulfate, or monopersulfate) into the deposit after mining has ceased

  9. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  10. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  11. Natural radionuclides in the environment and problems of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (U-238, U-235, Th-232, K-40, and their decay products); distribution of radionuclides; α, β and γ radiation; uranium in rocks; uranium in soil and water; uranium mining (hazards of uranium and radon during mining and in tailings); assessment of risk. (U.K.)

  12. Recovery of uranium in mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, P.

    1967-01-01

    In a brief introductory survey the author indicates the date on which leaching was first observed in the CEA mines and lists the main factors necessary for, or favourable to, the solubilization of uranium in mines. Information is given on the various sources of this type at present identified in France and the methods used to recover uranium in mines situated near ore-concentration plants. An explanation is given for the use of the calcium precipitation technique in connection with waters produced in mines not situated near ore-concentration plants. Data are given on the results of laboratory tests carried out on waters containing uranium, together with a description of an industrial-scale facility built in consequence of these tests. Details are given of the statistical results obtained. The author concludes by outlining the programme which will be implemented in the near future with a view to increasing the tonnage of uranium produced by in situ leaching and indicates that the CEA engineers are very optimistic about the prospects of this new low-cost method of producing uranium. (author) [fr

  13. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  14. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  15. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, K.

    2005-01-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  16. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for ninth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. A viability determination is required annually, for the years 1983 through 1992, by Section 170B of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1983, Public Law 97-415, which amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Topics include: evolution of the U.S. uranium industry; nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections; and attributes of industry viability

  17. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Vera Tome, F.; Gomez Escobar, V.; Blanco Rodriguez, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222 Rn in air and water, 222 Rn exhalation, effective 226 Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226 Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete

  18. Final environmental impact statement. Marquez uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As one of many activities TVA has undertaken to ensure an adequate supply of uranium for these plants, TVA has proposed to underground mine, through its operator, the uranium deposits located in the Canon de Marquez in McKinley County, New Mexico. Construction and operation of the underground mine would be expected to have the following environmental effects: (a) a temporary change in land use for 48.5 hectares from wildlife habitat and recreation to mineral extraction; (b) a minor alteration in topography near the proposed pond sites due to reclamation of waste rock piles; (c) minimal impacts on land due to limited vehicular traffic and road construction; (d) temporary depression of ground water levels in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in the mine vicinity during mine life; (e) short-term project-induced impacts to surface water and shallow ground water quality; (f) a temporary decrease in air quality in the vicinity of the mining operations due to fugitive dust and exhaust emissions from combustion-driven mining and support vehicles and releases of radon and short-lived radon progeny from ventilation shafts and ore piles; (g) a temporary decrease of plant and animal species at the mine site; (h) a minor and temporary effect on aquatic systems downstream from the mine and settling ponds due to sedimentation; and (i) a minor increase of noise levels in the immediate vicinity of mine shafts and vents. The no action alternative and alternatives for securing uranium ore by other methods were considered but were found insufficient to meet TVA objectives. None of the alternatives explored were environmentally preferable. TVA also evaluated site specific alternatives including the following: different shaft and support building siting, mining techniques, and reclamation options. 25 figures, 20 tables

  19. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is now involved from the early planning stages in the development of uranium mine/mill facilities. As a result, new facilities (including tailings management areas) are designed and developed to meet a high standard. The impact of the mines and tailings areas in the Elliot Lake area on ground and surface waters and air quality is discussed in detail

  20. Development and prospect of china uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Weimin; Wang Haifeng; Niu Yuqing; Gu Wancheng; Zhang Feifeng

    2007-01-01

    The development of industry of uranium mining and metallurgy in China has been reviewed generally, emphasizing on investigation approaches and application levels of uranium mining technologies such as in-situ leaching, heap leaching, stope leaching: on the basis of analysis on status of uranium mining and metallurgy and problems existed, also considering the specific features of deposit resources, the development orientation of uranium mining and metallurgy in China is pointed out. The industry of China uranium mining and metallurgy is faced to new opportunity of development and challenge in 21st century, the only way to realize sustainable development of uranium mining and metallurgy and harmonious development between economy and environment is to develop new technology on mining, ore beneficiation and metallurgy, increase the utilization level of uranium resources, low down impact on environment caused by mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  1. Electrostatic purification of uranium mine stope atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.; Phyper, J.D.; Lowe, L.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitators have been and are currently being used to reduce levels of radioactive aerosols in uranium mine stope atmospheres. Historically, while the electrostatic precipitators have been reported to be successful in reducing levels of radioactive aerosols many practical problems have been encountered with their use in the underground mine environment. Electrical short circuiting appears to have been the major problem with the use of precipitators in humid underground environments. On the basis of literature reviewed for this study it seems that the problems encountered in the past can be overcome. The most likely use of a precipitator in an underground uranium mine is to treat some or all of the air immediately upstream of a work station. The possible locations and uses of a precipitator would vary from work station to work station and from mine to mine. The desirability and cost of using elctrostatic precipitators to purify the air entering a work station are application specific. SENES Consultants therefore is not recommending for or against the use of electrostatic precipitators in underground uranium mines. The information provided in this report can be used however to assist in such determinations. 72 refs

  2. Application of the small trackless equipments in Benxi uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong; Liu Shengzheng

    2004-01-01

    The application of the small trackless equipments in Benxi uranium mine is introduced in this paper. The running data of these equipments are tested and discussed. It is proved that these equipments can run normally and meet the needs of uranium mining. Some experimental data will be very useful for building small mines and rebuilding small mines in China

  3. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.N.; Cohen, D.B.; Durham, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    A project was carried out using lysimeters to determine the leaching of radioactive constituents and BaRaSO 4 from abandoned uranium mine tailings. Lime addition to the surface of acidic abandoned tailings did not reduce the level of radioactive constituents in the leachate. Considerable increases in levels of the radionuclides 230 Th, 232 Th and 22 /8Th, as well as gross alpha and beta activity in the leachate, occurred five months after recycling of BaRaSO 4 sediments to the surface layers of abandoned tailings. After nine months of leaching, the levels of 226 Ra in the leachate were 30% greater than the tailings plus sediment treatment than from tailings only (control). Another experiment compared the quality of effluent flowing over chemically-fixed (solidified) BaRaSO 4 sediments with that of non-fixed (control) in simulated sedimentation ponds. During seven months the release of 226 Ra to water from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments remained 3 for phosphorus removal) was applied to supply 3 percent organic matter in the top 15 cm of the revegetated lysimeters. Undiluted effluent and leachate from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments and fresh tailings were 100 percent lethal to Daphnia pulex and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in static 96-hour bioassay tests. Diluted (50 percent) effluent samples were non-toxic. (auth)

  4. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  5. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, B.W.; Whillans, R.T.; Williams, R.M.; Doggett, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  6. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  7. Heat flow characteristics of Xiangshan uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoming

    1996-01-01

    By studying Xiangshan uranium mine on the heat generation of radioactive element, the author expounds its geothermal character and evaluates the influence on geothermal flux, geothermal gradient and geothermal field. The results show that the geothermal structure is changed due to the enrichment of radioactive elements, but the geothermal field is slightly influenced

  8. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Moulding, T.; Alderman, G.

    2006-01-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  9. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  10. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  11. Environmental considerations. Environmental impacts of uranium mining in South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallus, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent investigations of uranium mining and milling activities in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico revealed serious environmental problems associated with these activities. An investigation was undertaken in the South Texas Uranium Belt to determine whether or not similar or other environmental problems existed. The study describes: (1) the history of uranium mining and milling in South Texas, (2) the area economy and demography, (3) the occurrence of uranium ore and (4) the regulatory aspects of uranium mining and milling in South Texas. The commercial recovery and processing of uranium in this area is described in some detail. Exploration, open pit mining, in-situ solution mining and processing techniques for ''yellowcake'' (U 3 O 8 ), the uranium product of the area, are discussed. The state and federal regulations pertinent to uranium mining and milling are summarized. Finally, the environmental effects of these activities are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are drawn

  12. Radiation protection programme for uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbeye, M.J.

    2014-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) was developed to ensure that measures are in place for the occupational protection and safety in uranium mining facility. This work has established a number of protective measures that should be taken by the individual miners, licensee and all staff. It is not known whether Kayerekera Uranium mine has the technical and administrative capability for an effective radiation protection programme. The key in the mining facility is the control of dust through various means to prevent the escape of radon gas. Personal hygiene and local operating rules have been discovered to be very important for the protection and safety of the workers. The following components have also been discovered to be vital in ensuring safety culture in the mining facility: classification of working areas, monitoring of individuals and workplace, assignment of responsibilities, emergency preparedness, education and training and health surveillance. The regulatory body (Environmental Affairs Department of Malawi) should examine the major areas outlined in the RPP for Kayerekera uranium mine to find out the effectiveness of the RPP that is in place. (au)

  13. Uranium Mining in and for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Stein, P.

    2012-01-01

    The exhibition „Uranium Mining in and for Europe“ took place in the European Parliament in Brussels on September 25/26 2012. This brochure sheds light on this highly topical issue with additional information to the exhibition but also as a stand-alone pu¬blication. It shows why uranium mining is again on the agenda in Europe and the risks resulting from a possible revival of this technology. After a short introduction on general aspects of nuclear energy our brochure focuses on uranium mining: necessary process steps, energy needs and CO2 emissions and the environmental impacts. Several examples illustrate the current develop-ment in several countries of the European Union. Our brochure is for all those who want to gain deeper understanding of nuclear energy. The panels of this exhibition are available for lending on request; the digital version can be found on the home page of the Austrian Institute of Ecology. Special thanks go to Peter Diehl and a multitude of European NGOs, which provided their knowledge on current issues on uranium mining and that way made an important contribution to this brochure. The exhibition and this brochure were commissioned by the Vienna Ombuds Office for Environmental Protection (Wiener Umweltanwaltschaft). Both are based on an earlier version of the exhibition which was titled “Return of Uranium Mining to Europe?” from 2008, developed in the framework of the Joint Project with the support of the Austrian Lebensministerium. We appreciate your interest in this important topic and hope you will find this brochure to be stimulating and informative reading. (author)

  14. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  15. New developments in uranium mining in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium mining is so far restricted to underground mines only. Uranium mining is similar to other non-coal (metalliferous) mining. Mode of entries has been adits, inclines and vertical shafts. Decline have been constructed at Narwapahar and Turamdih. Access decline (7 deg) at Narwapahar has been driven to about 900 m length and reached depth of about 100 m. Stoping methods are mainly with filling, open stopes supported with adequate pillars with or without post filling to prevent surface subsidence are also being adopted. Appreciable degree of mechanization has been adopted in Jaduguda mines however, Narwapahar mine has been made highly mechanized. Face mechanization in the present operations is by way of air leg mounted jack hammers and stope wagons for drilling and small capacity (upto 1 cu. yd) rail mounted/trackless loaders for loading. Alimak raise climber has been used for raising work. For horizontal transport in mines, Hunselet diesel locomotives (4 tonne size) with Granby car, 3.5 tonne capacity, are being used, vertical transport is by means of drum winders and tower mounted friction winders. At Narwapahar mine twin boom drill jumobs, LHDs-1.78 m 3 and 2.8 m 3 capacity, PLDTs-15 tonner and 23 tonner capacity and relevant service equipment like passenger carriers, supply trucks, service cum lube truck, motor grader, etc. are being used. These rubber tyrred trackless equipment enter the mine directly from the surface through the service/access decline entry. These new developments in mining are detailed hereinafter. (author). 11 figs., 4 photos

  16. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    Factors considered by the author to be responsible for the image crisis being experienced by all types of mining are discussed. The additional problems introduced by the presence of radiation in uranium mining are detailed along with the associated regulatory concerns. The Canadian regulatory system as it pertains to uranium mining is outlined very generally, followed by the author's views on improving the image of both uranium mining and the nuclear industry as a whole

  17. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  18. Mining inventory of Uruguay : Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the aim of Uruguay Uranium prospecting in this document has been summarized the following items: lithostratigraphy, background, economics aspects, radiation measuring, geochemistry, geophysics in Yerba Sola, Magnolia, Paso Amarillo, La Mercedes, Puntas de Abrojal, Las Chircas, La Divisa, Chuy, Apretado and Frayle Muerto

  19. Recovery of uranium in mine waters; Recuperation de l'uranium dans les eaux des mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugier, P [Direction des Productions, CEA, Chatillon-Sur-Bagneux (France)

    1967-06-15

    In a brief introductory survey the author indicates the date on which leaching was first observed in the CEA mines and lists the main factors necessary for, or favourable to, the solubilization of uranium in mines. Information is given on the various sources of this type at present identified in France and the methods used to recover uranium in mines situated near ore-concentration plants. An explanation is given for the use of the calcium precipitation technique in connection with waters produced in mines not situated near ore-concentration plants. Data are given on the results of laboratory tests carried out on waters containing uranium, together with a description of an industrial-scale facility built in consequence of these tests. Details are given of the statistical results obtained. The author concludes by outlining the programme which will be implemented in the near future with a view to increasing the tonnage of uranium produced by in situ leaching and indicates that the CEA engineers are very optimistic about the prospects of this new low-cost method of producing uranium. (author) [French] Apres un bref rappel historique precisant la date de constatation du phenomene de lixiviation dans les mines d'uranium du Commissariat et un rapide inventaire des principales conditions necessaires ou favorisant la solubilisation de l'uranium dans les mines, auteur indique les differentes sources actuellement reconnues en France et les methodes utilisees pour recuperer l'uranium dans les mines situees pres d'une usine de concentration des minerais. Il donne ensuite les raisons motivant le choix du procede de precipitation calcique pour les eaux produites dans des mines eloignees des usines de concentration des minerais. Les resultats d'essais de laboratoire effectues sur des eaux chargees en uranium sont donnes et l'installation industrielle realisee a la suite de ces essais est decrite; les resultats statistiques obtenus sont detailles. En conclusion de son expose, l

  20. Nuclear safety, environmental and community impacts of uranium mining - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scissons, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is mandated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA, the CNSC's mandate is set out in Section 9 of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act.) for regulating all nuclear facilities and nuclear-related activities in Canada. Before any person or company can prepare a site, construct, operate, decommission or abandon a nuclear facility, or possess, use, transport or store nuclear substances, they must obtain a licence issued by the CNSC. This paper provides an overview of the licensing of uranium mines and mills in Canada, taking into consideration the requirements of the NSCA and associated regulations concerning the environment, the people and the communities we protect. Describing the role of the CNSC and our regulatory framework will form a key foundation to this paper. This paper will also explain the different licensing phases and their focus for uranium mines and mills. It will conclude with an overview of our community involvement (social, public aspects) and our joint regulatory approach for defence in depth. (orig.)

  1. Health concerns in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Mortality of uranium miners form both lung cancer and other respiratory diseases is strongly dependent on exposure to radon daughters, cigarette smoking and height. Lung cancer among 15 different mining groups (uranium, iron, led, zinc) was analyzed to determine what factors influence incidence and the induction-latent period. At low exposure or exposure rates, alpha radiation is more efficient in inducing lung cancer, producing an upward convex exposure-response curve. The induction-latent period is shortened by increased age at start of mining, by cigarette smoking and by high exposure rates. For a follow-up period of 20 to 25 years, the incidence increases with age at start of mining, with magnitude of exposure and with amount of cigarette smoking. Instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures to estimate risk at low levels, it is suggested that it might be more appropriate to use cancer rates associated with background radiation as the lowest point on the exposure-response curve. Although health risks are much greater in uranium mines than mills, there is some health risk in the mills from long-lived radioactive materials

  2. ERA`s Ranger uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA`s preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the year to June 1997.

  3. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Yuan Baixiang; Xu Lechang

    2012-01-01

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  4. Radiological protection in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Celia Marina

    1978-01-01

    The radiosanitary hazards that workers of an uranium ore can suffer were studied. The more used control methods for the the evaluation of doses received by the workers was studied too. It was developed a technique using the scintillation chamber method for the detection of radon. Emanation and diffusion methods were used for extraction of radon from water. A program of radiological protection based on ICRP recommendation was analysed for uranium mines. This program includes: ventilation needs calculation methods, a study of radiological protection optimization based on 'cost-benefit' analysis, a monitoring plan and a study about radioactive waste management. (author)

  5. A guide to the licensing of uranium and thorium mine and mill waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document is issued to assist industry and the public in understanding the licensing process used by the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and do describe and consolidate the requirements, criteria and guidelines the AECB uses in the regulation of uranium and thorium mine and mill waste management systems. All phases of these systems are addressed, including pre-development activities, siting and construction, operation, and decommissioning and abandonment

  6. Setting rehabilitation priorities for abandoned mines of similar characteristics according to their visual impact: The case of Milos Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Mavrommatis; Maria Menegaki

    2017-01-01

    Mine rehabilitation is nowadays an essential part of the mine life-cycle. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate legislative framework and the lack of appropriate financial instruments in the past, abandoned mined land is present in almost all regions with a mining history. Especially in times of fiscal and financial belt tightening, where direct funding is almost impossible, the restoration of abandoned mines becomes a difficult task and, consequently, prioritization of the restoration projects...

  7. Management of waste from uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Levins, D.; Ring, B.; Zuk, W.

    1997-01-01

    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. Most of the early production came from Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory and Mary Kathleen in Queensland. The second generation of uranium mines (Ranger, Nabarlek and Olympic Dam) came on line in the 1970s and 1980s at a time of increased environmental awareness and public scrutiny. The waste management practices at these mines are in accordance with best practicable technology for the uranium mining industry. This paper describes Australia's experience in managing the front end of the fuel cycle; uranium mining and ore processing. (orig.)

  8. Restoration of groundwater after solution mining at the Highland Uranium Project, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J. [Waste Technology Group, British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Huffman, L. [Power Resources Inc., Highland Uranium Mine, Glenrock, Wyoming (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Highland Project, located in Converse County, Wyoming, has had a successful 11 year history of in-situ leach mining of Tertiary roll-front uranium deposits. The uranium ore is oxidized and solubilized by circulating native groundwater, containing additional dissolved O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, within confined fluvial aquifers at depths of 200 - 250 m. The changing chemistry of this groundwater during leaching is discussed, as are the various treatment techniques that have been used to restore this fluid at the end of mining. Examples are provided which demonstrate the varying effectiveness of each technique for the reduction of elevated concentrations of different groundwater parameters. The complications arising from the proximity of the earliest wellfields to abandoned, conventional mine workings, as well as unexpected side effects from each restoration method, have combined to make an interesting case history from this long established mining operation. (author)

  9. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.E.; Schuman, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  10. Some health aspects of Canadian uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Stewart, C.G.

    1979-03-01

    The radiological health hazards associated with uranium mining in Canada are reviewed. Radiation hazards to individual members of the general population currently living in the vicinity of the mines appear to be extremely low. The major health hazards are those associated with underground mining. Hazards associated with the inhalation of radon daughters in the mines were estimated from analyses of available data from the U.S.A. and Czechoslovakia. These data can be fitted by various mathematical models including quasi-threshold models. On the reasonable assumption of a linear relationship between dose and effect, the risk would appear to be about 6.1 induced lung cancers per million WLM per year, which, averaged over a period of incidence of 15 years, would be equivalent to a total of about 100 induced cancers per million WLM. This value may be too high for estimation of the most probable risk of radon daughters to the general public. (author)

  11. Economics of Australian uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, P.

    1983-07-01

    This paper argues that the uranium industry in Australia is inefficient in economic terms. The author also states that it is inefficient in that various social resources are tied up in producing a material which has an intrinsically negative value, in being the raw material for nuclear weapons, and having unacceptable social costs in safety, environmental and cultural problems throughout the process of production and usage

  12. Exploration and uranium mining in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Niger is a Sahelian country bordered by Algeria and Libya to the north, Mali and Burkina Faso to the west, Benin and Nigeria to the south and Chad to the east. Niger has approximately 17 million habitants in the last census (2013) and covers an area of 1.27 million km"2. Niger’s climate is very hot and dry (45-50°C in the hot season, 30°C in the winter), daily ranges of temperature vary from 20 to 30°C. There is a rainy season with light rain fall (40 mm) extending from June to September. Niger’s economy is centered on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry and uranium production. Uranium exports accounted for 70% of the national export economy during the 1970s, but falling prices have caused the contribution from uranium to shrink substantially in recent years. Uranium ore deposits in the Niger Republic are located in the western part of the country, west of the Aïr Mountains. The Arlit site is located 250 km north of Agadez, and 1200 km north-west of Niamey, the capital of Niger. After the discovery of the first uranium occurrences in 1956, systematic exploration programmes were conducted between 1960 and 1968 along the western sedimentary margin of Aïr Mountains, in North Central Niger by French company CEA. These programmes led to the discovery of several uranium deposits including the Arlit and Akouta deposits which are presently being mined respectively by SOMAIR and Cominak. Further works by CEA and its 100% subsidiary COGEMA and other companies consisted basically in follow up of the different targets outlined by the above programmes. The rocks hosting the uranium mineralisation are commonly arenites of the Carboniferous age Guezouman and Tarat Formations. Some beds within the Tchirozerine Formation of Jurassic age and the Irhazer Formation of Cretaceous age also contain uranium. The depositional environment of these formations was fluvial to deltaic. Apparently uranium was leached from the basement. Tectonic, lithological and geochemical

  13. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  14. The pit ventilation features and the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenhui; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xianjie

    2001-01-01

    According to the pit arrangement features of trackless mining uranium mine, based on the fundamental of radon permeation and control, and analysis of radon pollution characteristics and radon education, the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine has been raised

  15. Uranium mining - what are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    The author discusses the effects of uranium mining on worker health and the environment, describes methods of handling mill tailings, and compares risks to the public from radiation with risks from non-nuclear energy sources. Information on nuclear issues in the news media is often sensationalistic; the public needs an open, honest information flow from industry, the scientific community, and government to reach a rational perception of the issues and risks

  16. The crisis in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballery, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    For over ten years, the uranium mining industry within the OECD and elsewhere has been undergoing its worst ever crisis. At a time when it seemed assured of a promising future, the economic recession of the 1980s took the wind out of its sails. This paper describes the factors causing the crisis, strikes the balance of production, demand and stocks and gives forecasts for the next years. 3 figs., 9 refs

  17. Lime in gold and uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Staden, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role of lime in gold and uranium extraction and looks more closely at the industry's efforts to improve the environment by vegetation of sand dumps and slimes dams. He then comes to the conclusion that lime has been and still is the most effective, practical and cheapest chemical that can be used in the South African gold and uranium mining industry to settle pulps, protect cyanide solutions, aid the vegetation of dumps and neutralise acidic waters and residues. The gold and uranium industry is very pollution concious, and in South Africa the importance of the role that lime plays in combating air and water pollution cannot be over emphasised

  18. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.

    2014-01-01

    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  19. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  20. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Laura E. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States); Cotter, Ed [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado 81503 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that

  2. Environmental protection technologies and prospect for uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie

    2002-01-01

    Based on practices of production and environmental protection of China's uranium mining and metallurgy, control and protection of the three wastes in uranium mining and metallurgy are discussed. Prospects for environmental protection technologies of uranium mining and metallurgy is made

  3. Summary of Environmental Data Analysis and Work Performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Support of the Navajo Nation Abandoned Mine Lands Project at Tse Tah, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Madrid, Victor M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report summarizes work performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Navajo Nation Services Contract CO9729 in support of the Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation Program (NAMLRP). Due to restrictions on access to uranium mine waste sites at Tse Tah, Arizona that developed during the term of the contract, not all of the work scope could be performed. LLNL was able to interpret environmental monitoring data provided by NAMLRP. Summaries of these data evaluation activities are provided in this report. Additionally, during the contract period, LLNL provided technical guidance, instructional meetings, and review of relevant work performed by NAMLRP and its contractors that was not contained in the contract work scope.

  4. The uranium mining district Baden-Baden/Gernsbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A number of statements are made on the fauna, flora, ecology, mining and industrial settlements concerning the planned uranium mining district in Waldbachtal with the aim to instruct the 'visitor in this recreational area' about possible radiation hazards. (DG) [de

  5. Energies and media nr 28. Uranium mining exploitations and residues. Uranium mines in Niger. Depleted uranium as a by-product of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (USA, China, India, UK, Sweden, Italy and France), this publication addresses the issue of uranium mining exploitations and of their residues. It comments the radioactivity in mining areas, briefly discusses the issue of low doses, describes the uranium ore and its processing, indicates which are the various residues of the mining activity (sterile uncovered tailings, non exploitable mineralized rocks, ore and residue processing, residue radioactivity, mine closing down, witnesses on health in ancient mines). Some reflections are stated about uranium mines in Niger, and about depleted uranium as a by-product of the enrichment activity

  6. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  7. Uranium mining environmental restoration project (PRAMU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) started its activities 50 years ago and obtained significant results. At the present time, the CNEA is defined as an Institution of research and development in the nuclear field. It is also responsible for the management of radioactive wastes and the dismantling of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Mining and milling activities have been carried out during the past 40 years and at present the CNEA is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to restore the environment as much as is possible in all places where uranium mining and milling activities were developed when taking into consideration both economic and technical reality. First, the characteristics of the problems in each site are determined through appropriate studies which identify the existing or potential impacts, the possible pathways of contamination, etc. The sites being studied are: MALARGUE (Mendoza Province), CORDOBA (Cordoba Province), LOS GIGANTES (Cordoba Province), HUEMUL (Mendoza Province), PICHINAN (Chubut Province), TONCO (Salta Province), LA ESTELA (San Luis Province), LOS COLORADOS (La Rioja Province). PRAMU seeks to improve the current conditions of the tailings deposits and mines and to ensure the long term protection of people and the environment. The CNEA is required to comply with all legislation that is in force and is under the control of various national, provincial and local State institutions. The main objectives of the project for the various sites are: (a) Malargue site: to implement the actions necessary for environmental restoration and management of the tailings derived from the uranium ores processed in the industrial plant; (b) Cordoba and Los Gigantes sites: to design, engineer and execute the activities required for closure of the sites; (c) Other sites (Huemul, Pichinan, Tonco, La Estela, Los Colorados): to develop an environmental evaluation and, on the basis of

  8. Considerations and data on the uranium deposits in West-Mecsek Mountains, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdi-Krausz, G.; Harsanyi, L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1987, the Government of Hungary closed the uranium mining in the Mecsek Mountain. Data are presented on the uranium reserves in the abandoned site of West-Mecsek. The history of uranium mining and the total amount of produced uranium are up to 31 December 1997 is presented. Some countries in Europe also abandon uranium mining, others develop it (Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia etc.). The Hungarian uranium reserves should be registered as a part of the national assets. (R.P.)

  9. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  10. Uranium mining industry: the challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    In the global power generation nuclear industry plays a vital role in this modern era which is wholly energy driven. While the demand for nuclear power generation has been growing worldwide, concerns about supply of critical nuclear equipment is one of the key areas which supports the growth of the nuclear industry. As the reemergence of nuclear industry in the global energy arena indicates a significant growth of nuclear power, forecasting the demand for various critical equipment components is critical to industry's growth together with the supply of enriched/processed uranium and related services. India is stepping in this industry in a big way and with Indo-US Nuclear deal, it is going to be a world player in its own right. The basic raw material for nuclear energy is the uranium which has the potential to be highly dangerous substance when not treated in the proper manner, remaining radioactive for hundreds and thousand of years. Uranium mining could permanently damage the environment for tens of thousand of years, if not properly mined and managed

  11. Microbial decontamination of uranium mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, B.C.; Babel, W.

    2001-01-01

    One of the problems one is faced with when uranium mines are closed is the decontamination of acid mine drainage (AMD) from tailings and flooding of the underground mines. The high concentrations of sulfates and metals in mining water make it impossible to dispose of the water into rivers without having to decontaminate it first. A bioremediation process is proposed in which sulfate-reducing bacteria are used to remove metals, neutralize the water and reduce the sulfate concentrations. Methylotrophic sulfate-reducing strains have been isolated which can be used in such a process. Lab scale experiments with different reactor types were carried out in order to find the optimum design for this bioremediation process. Comparisons were made between methanol and other electron donors with regards to their suitability as substrate for this process. Methanol was found to be most suited. Laboratory data suggest that immobilizing the bacteria on pumice particles increases the sulfate-reduction rate (SRR) up to three fold to 18 mg/l.h, compared to the rates of free flowing cells of between 3.7 and 6.8 mg/l.h. Preliminary experiments on a larger scale (15 l) using acid mine drainage pH 2.5 show SRR of 0.71 mg/l.h. In biosorption experiments up to 140 mg of aluminium per g biomass was removed from the water. One strain was found to reduce uranium VI, thus changing it from the soluble to the insoluble form. The application of the proposed process with regards to bioremediation of AMD are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

    2012-03-16

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

  13. Radiochronological age of a uranium metal sample from an abandoned facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, L.A.; Stalcup, A.M.; Glover, S.E.; Spitz, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940 and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope 230 Th from the decay of 234 U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 ± 1.5 years. (author)

  14. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, L.A.; Williams, R.W.; Glover, S.E.; LaMont, S.P.; Stalcup, A.M.; Spitz, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope 230 Th from the decay of 234 U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 ± 1.5 years.

  15. Two uranium mines in Niger: Somair Cominak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleix, C.; Renardet, P.

    1987-01-01

    The research work undertaken by the Atomic Energy Commission on the territory of the Republic of the Niger has led to the discovery of two major uranium deposits, Arlit and Akouta, which are situated at the of the Sahara to the West of the massif of l'Air at approximately 850 km from Niamey. These deposits are exploited by two firms according to Nigerian law with a head office at Niamey. The firm Somair acts for Arlit and operates an open pit; the mining company Akouta works the Akouta deposit which is deeper and entails an underground operation. The production capacities are 2300 t and 2000 t of uranium metal per year, respectively [fr

  16. The flow properties of colliery spoil rockpaste as used in the infilling of abandoned mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghataora, G.S.; Jarvis, S.T. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Colliery spoil is the major constituent of colliery spoil 'rockpaste' which has been used to infill abandoned limestone mines in the West Midlands of England since the early 1980s. The other constituents of rockpaste are pulverised fuel ash, lime and water. A key property of the rockpaste is its ability to flow within the mine workings over considerable distances before setting. This paper describes the work carried out to identify suitable sites as sources of colliery spoil for making rockpaste and goes on to consider the flow properties of the material and the monitoring methods used on-site. A full-scale trial comprising infilling a 6600 m{sup 3} section of an abandoned mine was conducted prior to the infilling of the Littleton Street Mine which had a volume of about 500 000 m{sup 3}. As well as describing the methods used for monitoring the movement of rockpaste material, a description is also given of a dip-meter developed specifically for the purpose of measuring the level of paste in the mine. The monitoring systems developed for use in the two case studies presented in this paper are now being used extensively for infilling other abandoned mine workings. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab., 1 plate.

  17. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of fractional forms of Pb that are liable to leach out/down from the soil matrix of the abandoned mine site to surface-andunderground water bodies of the nearby localities, and to determine ...

  18. Water management at Roessing uranium mine, Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, M.T.R.; Brent, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Water Management at a large uranium mine and leaching plant located in a desert environment is described in respect of reducing water consumption and controlling and containing contaminants. The extent to which water consumption has been reduced by innovative measures to reduce water losses and increase water recycle is described. Although the recycling of untreated solutions generated in the process has had negative effects on plant throughput and recovery, the overall benefit has been significant. Measures employed to ensure that no contamination of local groundwater occurs are described. (author)

  19. Best practice in situ recovery uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.; Carson, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Government policy is to ensure that uranium mining, milling and rehabilitation is based on world best practice standards. A best practice guide for in situ recovery (ISR) uranium mining has been developed to communicate the Australian Government's expectations with a view to achieving greater certainty that ISR mining projects meet Australian Government policy and consistency in the assessment of ISR mine proposals within multiple government regulatory processes. The guide focuses on the main perceived risks; impacts on groundwaters, disposal of mining residues, and radiation protection. World best practice does not amount to a universal template for ISR mining because the characteristics of individual ore bodies determine the best practice. (author)

  20. Actual Uranium Exploration and Mining Activities in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kache, Mamane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011, many mining companies are not interested in uranium. It leads to the decrease in uranium spot price and the delay of IMOURAREN Project. Only, 47 exploration licenses for 12 mining companies are now valid in Niger.

  1. Choice of compressed air fed system of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Congkui; Lei Zeyong

    2006-01-01

    The selection of compressed air fed system in a uranium mine is discussed. The research indicates that the movable air compressor is better than the fixed one in energy saving, once capital cost and operational cost when it is applied in an underground uranium mine. (authors)

  2. Licensing of uranium mine and mill waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamney, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    Systems for the management of wastes arising from uranium mining facilities are subject to regulatory control by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). This paper describes the primary objectives, principles, requirements and guidelines which the AECB uses in the regulation of waste management activities at uranium mining facilities, and provides an understanding of the licensing process used by the AECB

  3. Some aspects of radiological protection in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Napolitano, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic principles of radiation protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP are presented and the main radiological risks for the uranium mining workers are discussed. Finally some criteria for planning the radioactive waste management in uranium mines are given [pt

  4. Environmental impact of solution mining for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkin, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    Compared with most other mining systems, uranium solution mining has a negligible effect on such environmental factors as surface disturbance, interference with natural groundwater quality and distribution, and aerial discharge of radionuclides. The following topics are discussed: the process, personnel safety and health, tailings disposal, impact on groundwater, operating licenses and controls, legislation, and economics. It is concluded that engineered well systems and controlled input/production flow rates, combined with full recirculation systems that maintain constant fluid volumes in the mineralized formations, result in containment of leach solutions within the operating area. The very dilute leach solutions, compatible with natural groundwaters, ensure that no environmental damage results, even if a loss of control occurred. Reduction in the number of processing steps and virtual elimination of operator hazards, waste disposal and land rehabilitation costs help in reducing overall costs

  5. Uranium mining and production of concentrates in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the uranium requirements for the atomic power programme of the country, uranium deposits were explored, mined and concentrates were produced indigenously. The geology of the areas, mode of entries and the various extraction methods deployed in different mines with their constraints are described. The various equipments used in mining and processing activities are elaborated. The flow sheets for processing the uranium ore and that of the effluent treatment plant are given in detail. The future plans of the company for undertaking the new projects to meet the demand of uranium requirement for the increasing nuclear power programme are given. (author). 18 figs

  6. Managing environmental and health impacts of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Ron; Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but to society at large. Given the projected growth in nuclear generating capacity expected in the coming decades, particularly in the developing world, awareness of leading practice uranium mining needs to be increased globally. This report provides a non-technical overview of the driving forces behind and the outcomes of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that uranium was first mined for military purposes during the Cold War until today. (authors)

  7. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  8. Analysis on present radon ventilation situation of Chinese uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Hu Penghua

    2010-01-01

    Mine Ventilation is the most important way in lowering radon of uranium mines. At present, radon and radon daughter concentration of underground air is 3∼5 times higher than any other air concentration of foreign uranium mines, as the same input for Protective Ventilation between Chinese uranium mines with compaction methodology and international advanced uranium mines. In this passage, through the analysis of Ventilation Radon Reduction status in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and shortcomings between variety of ventilation and radon reduction, it illuminated the reasons of higher radon and radon daughter concentration in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three aspects, which are Ventilation Radon Reduction Theory, Ventilation Radon Reduction Measures and Ventilation Management. And to above problems, this passage put forward some proposals and measures about some aspects, such as strengthen examination and verification and monitoring practical situation, making clear ventilation plan, in according to mining sequence strictly, training Ventilation technician forcefully, enhance Ventilation System management, development of Ventilation Radon Reduction technology research in uranium mines and carrying out ventilation equipments as soon as possible in further and so on. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection in uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The first phase of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is exploration for uranium and the next is mining and milling of uranium ore. This phase is mostly characterised by low levels of radioactivity and radiation exposure of the workers involved. Yet it is a paradoxical truth that incidence of cancer among the work force, especially miners, due to occupational radiation exposure (from radon and decay products) has been proved only in uranium mines in the entire Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Of course such incidence occurred before the detrimental effect of radiation exposure was realised and understood. Therefore it is important to familiarise oneself with the radiation hazards prevalent in the uranium mining and milling facilities so as to take appropriate remedial measures for the protection of not only the workers but also the public at large. There are both open cast and underground uranium mines around the world. Radiation hazards are considerably less significant in open cast mines than in underground mines unless the ore grade is very high. By default therefore the discussion which ensues relates mainly to radiation hazards in underground uranium mines and associated milling operations. The discussion gives a brief outline of typical uranium mine and mining and milling operations. This is followed by a description of the radiation hazards therein and protection measures that are to be taken to minimise radiation exposure. (author)

  10. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology

  11. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology.

  12. Romanian regulatory framework for uranium mining and milling (present and future)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodna, A.L.; Dumitrescu, N.

    2002-01-01

    In Romania, all operations in the nuclear field, including uranium mining and milling, are regulated by Law no. 111/1996 (republished in 1998), regarding the safe conduct of nuclear activities. These activities can be performed only on the basis of an authorization released by the national regulatory authority, i.e. the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control. The specific requirements which must be carried out by the owner of an operating licence for a uranium mining and milling operation are stipulated by the Republican Nuclear Safety Norms for Geological Research, Mining and Milling of Nuclear Raw Materials. These regulatory requirements have been in force since 1975. The regulatory norms include provisions that the effective dose limit for workers should not exceed 50 mSv/year and also that liquid effluents released into surface waters must have a content of natural radioactive elements that meets the standards for drinking water. The norms do not contain provisions concerning the conditions under which the mining sites and the uranium processing facilities can be shut down and decommissioned. The norms also do not contain requirements regarding either the rehabilitation of environments affected by abandoned mining and milling activities, nor criteria for the release of the rehabilitated sites for alternative uses. To implement the provisions of Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM in Romania, new Fundamental Radiological Protection Norms have been approved and will soon be published in the 'Monitorul Official' (Official Gazette of Romania). One of the main provisions of these norms is the reduction of the effective dose limit for the workers to 20 mSv/year. Changes in the Republican Nuclear Safety Norms for Geological Research, Mining and Milling of Nuclear Raw Materials, are also planned; these changes will be consistent with the Fundamental Radiological Protection Norms. To cover existing gaps, the new norms for uranium mining and milling will include

  13. Exposure to radon in caves and abandoned mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The significance for health of exposure to radon daughters during leisure excursions in discussed mines or caves is considered for visitors with interests in speleology, mineral collecting, mining history and youth training. General members of the public might also enter tunnels. Potential annual exposures based on radon measurements in various mines and caves are estimated and it is concluded that the annual exposure of individuals who undertake frequent and prolonged trips to underground systems might exceed 10 6 Bq h m -3 . Exposures to general members of the public are likely to be much lower. The National Radiological Protection Board has developed proposals for a coherent and comprehensive scheme to promote dose limitation in a wide range of circumstances. These are described, with current initiatives on consultation with National Associations, local Government and many special interest groups. (author)

  14. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida, E-mail: mgutierrez@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Mickus, Kevin, E-mail: kevinmickus@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Camacho, Lucy Mar, E-mail: lucy.camacho@tamuk.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas & M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  15. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-01-01

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  16. Discussion for management of ventilation system in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Ren Jianjun; Hu Penghua

    2014-01-01

    Radon exhaustion and ventilation are surely regarded as key links for safety production and radiation protection in underground uranium mines, and the crucial point to achieve safety production goals lies in timely and accurately adjusting and controlling of ventilation technical measures and ventilation system management with the changing operation conditions of mines. This paper proposes corresponding countermeasures based on the respectively systematical analysis of daily ventilation management, ventilation facilities and structures management, and ventilation system information management in uranium mines. Furthermore, standardized management approaches and suggestions are put forward to realize standardization of uranium mines' ventilation management and radon exhaustion technique. (authors)

  17. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A program is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  18. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A programme is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  19. Comparing the hazards of coal and uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, J.

    1987-01-01

    The article from a paper presented to the Uranium Institute Symposium, London, 1986. The risk calculation is based on: a) the fuel required to generate 1 GWe year of power, b) the productivity of uranium and coal mining, and c) the risk to a miner from one year of mining, and the risk to the public that results from 1 GWe year's worth of mine and mill operation. The evaluation reveals that the ratio of coal mining risk to uranium risk on a GWey basis differs from country to country, but falls in the range 10 to 30, coal being the higher. (U.K.)

  20. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Wise, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  1. Effects of abandoned arsenic mine on water resources pollution in north west of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajalilou, Behzad; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Khaleghi, Fazel; Jadidi, Sakineh; Vosugh, Bahram; Fatehifar, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health and welfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environ-ment of mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to wa-ter resources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine ef-fects on drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of min-ing area in the North West of Iran. Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of min-ing area were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according to standard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS) and for wheat samples X - Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP) were used. Information about possible health effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villages and health center of Herris City. The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000 µg/L in Valiloo mine opening water). With increasing distance from the mine, concentration was decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no health effects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic. Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around en-vironment of the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater and also downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  2. Uranium and thorium mining regulations: Amendments relating to financial assurances and decommissioning of uranium mining facilities. Consultative document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Sheridan Park, ON (Canada). CANDU Operations

    1993-12-23

    The purpose of this document is to describe the objectives, scope, substance and application of proposed amendments to the Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations; in particular, amendments relating to the provision of financial assurances for the decommissioning of Canadian uranium mines. (author).

  3. Possibility of uranium synthesis from radioactive waste and mine waters of uranium mine kiik-tol of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Hakimov, N.

    2005-01-01

    The article investigates the method of synthesis of U 3 O 8 from radioactive waste of Gafurov District of Republic of Tajikistan and uranium extraction from mine waters of Kiik-Tol mine. In addition, the authors showed the method of solubility of Uranium Oxide U 3 O 8

  4. Uranium and thorium mining regulations: Amendments relating to financial assurances and decommissioning of uranium mining facilities. Consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the objectives, scope, substance and application of proposed amendments to the Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations; in particular, amendments relating to the provision of financial assurances for the decommissioning of Canadian uranium mines. (author)

  5. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    copper and lead sulpho-salts (Dzigbordi-Adjimah, 1988). ... The resulting solution was analysed for trace metals at the Institute of Mining and Mineral ..... found in the samples (Tables 3 and 4) may be due to the mineral-water interactions and.

  6. Environmental impact assessment in an abandoned metal mine in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Jimenez, E.; Oropesa, A.; Esteban, E.; Haro, A.; Carpena, R. O.; Tarazona, J. V.; Penalosa, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding the environmental effects of mine tailing sites. Tailing are produced during ore processing and are characterized by high levels of heavy metals. Toxic metals in the tailing can be released in the environment by erosion and leaching processes and they contaminate water, soil and plant ecosystems resulting in human health and ecological risk. (Author)

  7. Geoscientific investigations in the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad for safe disposal of certain radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1980-01-01

    Besides the disposal of high-active waste in a salt formation the national policy of the Federal Republic of Germany provides for a second underground storage facility for non-α-emitting and low-active waste. Due to the short decay times of such wastes the demands made on the geological barrier are in some respect different, in particular as regards long-term stability and impermeability to liquids. Within the 1000-year-phase all wastes will have reached a concentration with a content of radionuclides far below that of a uranium deposit. The abandoned iron ore mine Konrad (Lower Saxony) has some exceptional geological features which make it a very good choice for a radioactive waste repository. The mine is 1200 m deep. Stopes and galleries are extremely dry. The hanging rock formations are mainly claystones. The mining installations are of modern design. The geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have to examine in detail the covering claystone formations for their extension and mineralization, the origin and the age of the mine's seepage water as well as the mechanical stability of the underground cavities during and after the operational period. Via radiological investigations a catalogue of various low-active waste types, the waste volumina and the total activities accumulating over a period of 30 years is being established. For a safety assessment the hazard indices of a uranium ore deposit containing 0.2 wt% U 3 O 8 and a waste repository corresponding to the above figures were compared. The research programme has not been terminated yet since it is being financed by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) of the Federal Republic of Germany until the end of 1981

  8. Comparative research on decommissioning disposal effect of two uranium mines at home and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuke; Peng Daofeng; Liu Qingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Taking two typical decommissioned uranium mines at home and abroad for an example, disposal means and effects of two uranium mines were compared and analyzed in three aspects of waste dump disposal, mine sealing treatment, and wastewater disposal. The results showed that two uranium mines were basically identical in the disposal standards and disposal means, but the works in the source survey, wastewater disposal and long-term supervision done by oversea uranium mine were more detailed than domestic uranium mine. (authors)

  9. Water management at Ranger Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The water management system at the Ranger Uranium Mine is described. Any water that may have come into contact with material containing more than 0.02% uranium must be retained within the Restricted Release zone (RRZ) from which no water may be released except under specified conditions and with the written approval of the Northern Territory supervising authority. The RRS contains the tailings dam, the mine pit and retention ponds 2 and 3. Outside the RR2, retention ponds 1 and 4 act as silt traps, allowing sediment to settle out prior to water discharge. The Office of Supervising Scientist has developed receiving waters quality standards for Magela Creek which are given in a table. There have now been established sufficient regulatory criteria to allow the release of waste water directly to Magela Creek without compromising the environment. Consideration of releases has been confined to the comparatively good quality run-off waters in the RRZ and no release of the more contaminated process and tailings water stream is contemplated

  10. Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Gavin M

    2008-02-01

    The release of radon gas and progeny from the mining and milling of uranium-bearing ores has long been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. The standards for exposure to radon and progeny have decreased over time as the understanding of their health risk has improved. In recent years there has been debate on the long-term releases (10,000 years) of radon from uranium mining and milling sites, focusing on abandoned, operational and rehabilitated sites. The primary purpose has been estimates of the radiation exposure of both local and global populations. Although there has been an increasing number of radon release studies over recent years in the USA, Australia, Canada and elsewhere, a systematic evaluation of this work has yet to be published in the international literature. This paper presents a detailed compilation and analysis of Australian studies. In order to quantify radon sources, a review of data on uranium mining and milling wastes in Australia, as they influence radon releases, is presented. An extensive compilation of the available radon release data is then assembled for the various projects, including a comparison to predictions of radon behaviour where available. An analysis of cumulative radon releases is then developed and compared to the UNSCEAR approach. The implications for the various assessments of long-term releases of radon are discussed, including aspects such as the need for ongoing monitoring of rehabilitation at uranium mining and milling sites and life-cycle accounting.

  11. Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, Gavin M.

    2008-01-01

    The release of radon gas and progeny from the mining and milling of uranium-bearing ores has long been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. The standards for exposure to radon and progeny have decreased over time as the understanding of their health risk has improved. In recent years there has been debate on the long-term releases (10,000 years) of radon from uranium mining and milling sites, focusing on abandoned, operational and rehabilitated sites. The primary purpose has been estimates of the radiation exposure of both local and global populations. Although there has been an increasing number of radon release studies over recent years in the USA, Australia, Canada and elsewhere, a systematic evaluation of this work has yet to be published in the international literature. This paper presents a detailed compilation and analysis of Australian studies. In order to quantify radon sources, a review of data on uranium mining and milling wastes in Australia, as they influence radon releases, is presented. An extensive compilation of the available radon release data is then assembled for the various projects, including a comparison to predictions of radon behaviour where available. An analysis of cumulative radon releases is then developed and compared to the UNSCEAR approach. The implications for the various assessments of long-term releases of radon are discussed, including aspects such as the need for ongoing monitoring of rehabilitation at uranium mining and milling sites and life-cycle accounting

  12. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Kelly, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  13. Environmental protection at ISL uranium mining sites in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grutsynov, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The ecological aspects of uranium mining with particular focus on in situ leaching (ISL) are addressed in the paper. As compared to conventional mining methods, from the ecological point of view, ISL has proved to be advantageous. Innovations developed and introduced in the Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) with the purpose of reducing the impact of the uranium production cycle on the environment are described. (author)

  14. Management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations have not given rise to much concern about their hazards, and with advancing technologies for mill processing and waste management, the situation will continue to improve. However, the disposal of large quantities of waste produced in mining and milling does have an environmental impact, owing to the long half-lives and the ready availability of the toxic radionuclides Ra-226 and Rn-222. This article deals with the management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

  15. Evaluation of residual uranium contamination in the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Spitler, Grant; Succop, Paul; Rice, Carol

    2013-02-01

    A single, large, bulk sample of uranium-contaminated material from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill was separated into different types and sizes of aliquots to simulate samples that would be collected during site remediation. The facility rolled approximately 11,000 tons of hot-forged ingots of uranium metal approximately 60 y ago, and it has not been used since that time. Thirty small mass (≈ 0.7 g) and 15 large mass (≈ 70 g) samples were prepared from the heterogeneously contaminated bulk material to determine how measurements of the uranium contamination vary with sample size. Aliquots of bulk material were also resuspended in an exposure chamber to produce six samples of respirable particles that were obtained using a cascade impactor. Samples of removable surface contamination were collected by wiping 100 cm of the interior surfaces of the exposure chamber with 47-mm-diameter fiber filters. Uranium contamination in each of the samples was measured directly using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, results for isotopic uranium (i.e., U and U) measured with the large-mass and small-mass samples are significantly different (p 0.05) from results for the large- or small-mass samples. Large-mass samples are more reliable for characterizing heterogeneously distributed radiological contamination than small-mass samples since they exhibit the least variation compared to the mean. Thus, samples should be sufficiently large in mass to insure that the results are truly representative of the heterogeneously distributed uranium contamination present at the facility. Monitoring exposure of workers and the public as a result of uranium contamination resuspended during site remediation should be evaluated using samples of sufficient size and type to accommodate the heterogeneous distribution of uranium in the bulk material.

  16. Managing environmental and health impacts of uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.E.; Cameron, R., E-mail: robert.vance@oecd.org, E-mail: ron.cameron@oecd.org [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (France)

    2014-07-01

    As the raw material that fuels nuclear power plants that generate significant amounts of electricity with full life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources, uranium is a valuable commodity. Yet uranium mining remains controversial, principally because of environmental and health impacts created when mining was undertaken by governments to meet Cold War strategic requirements. Uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances today. Since the era of military production, societal expectations of environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public have evolved as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Key aspects of leading practice uranium mining are presented (conventional worker health and safety, worker radiation protection, public health and safety, water quality, tailings and waste rock management) and compared with historic practices to demonstrate the scale of differences. The application of additional aspects of uranium mine life cycle management (public consultation, environmental impact assessment, analysis of socio-economic impacts/benefits, environmental monitoring, financial assurance, product transport, security and safeguards, emergency planning and knowledge transfer), introduced as the industry matured, enhance overall management practices for the long term. Results from several case studies show that improved management of key aspects of uranium mining, combined with the incorporation of new life cycle parameters, have transformed the industry into the most regulated and arguably one of the safest and environmentally responsible types of mining in the world. (author)

  17. Uranium mining and its direction of development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Fuxian

    1993-01-01

    The features, current situation, achievements, problems and directions of development of uranium mining in China are presented. For over 30 years, the great successes have been achieved in the mining systems and technologies, the trackless mining and solution mining, the ventilation and radiation protection. But the economic benefit is still poor in mining due to the complex geological conditions, small ore bodies and their scattered distribution with lower uranium grade, low level of mechanization in mining and lower production efficiency. So it will be the direction of development in future to accelerate the development in mining science, to improve traditional mining technologies, to construct and to transform the mines with the purpose of increasing the benefit and decreasing the costs of production

  18. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kawamoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  19. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Gu, H.

    1995-01-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Vibration Effect of Earthquakes in Abandoned Medieval Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2013), s. 221-234 ISSN 2213-5812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : vibration effect of earthquake * Nový Kostel focal zone * Jeroným Mine Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40328-013-0018-4

  1. A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft 3 . A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry

  2. Summarizing of new techniques in uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Delin; Zhang Fei; Su Yanru; Zeng Yijun; Meng Jin

    2010-01-01

    According to character of national resources and uranium mining and metallurgical science and technology members research achievements, new techniques in ten scientific research area of in-situ leaching, heap leaching, multi-metal comprehensive recovery, bio-metallurgy etc. for 10 years is introduced in this paper. The level of innovation ability is shown by technical index, resources recovery and reduction capital cost etc. datum. The application bound of natural uranium resource is enlarged and production ability of national uranium is increased. It is put forward renovation and development ideas for uranium mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  3. Discussion on the safety production risk managmeent of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Luo Yun; Hu Penghua; Zhu Disi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the modern safety risk management theories and according to the actual situation, risk management for work safety in uranium mines is discussed from three aspects: risk identification,risk analysis and evaluation, and risk control. Referring to the '4M(Men,Machine,Medium,Management) factors' and 'Three types of hazards' theory, the classification of uranium mine accidents and risk factors are analyzed. In addition, the types and evaluation indexes of major risks of uranium mines as well as the 'spot, line, area' model of risk identification and analysis and the 'hierarchical' risk control mechanism are also studied. (authors)

  4. Investigation for closedown activities in the uranium mine Zirovski vrh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, F.; Likar, B.; Logar, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The uranium mine Zirovski vrh was temporarily shut down by order of Government of the Republic of Slovenia in the second half of the year 1990. After the Slovenian parliament passed the law on definite closing down of the uranium mine exploitation and on rehabilitation the effect of mining on the environment in July 1992 was starting to make the Programme of the Permanent Closing down of the Uranium ore Exploitation and Permanent Protection of the Environment in Uranium Mine that is in final phase. In the meantime the studies that would define necessary parameters for elaborating the projects of closure have been done. Two essential studies for the realization of closure of mine are working out: 1. Previous dewatering of the deposit by boreholes for diminishing of pollution of mine water by uranium; 2. Filling of partially collapsed stops by hydromettallurgical waste to assure permanent stability above the mine spaces. The aim of the first study is to reduce percolation of mine water through the mineralized parts of the deposit by drilling boreholes in the footwall and in the hanging wall. Pollution of mine water which outflows from the lowest tunnel in the local creek Brebovscica should be diminished. Tests of stability and lixiviation on the cubes that are made of hydrometallurgical waste are the topic of the second study. Cement and different additives are added in the cubes and testings have been made in situ. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining - Extended Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, the report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes made primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today's leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in the report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts. (authors)

  6. Theoretical study of the dissolution kinetics of galena and cerussite in an abandoned mining area (Zaida mine, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Lamiae; Dekayir, Abdelilah

    2018-05-01

    In the abandoned mine in Zaida, the pit lakes filled with water constitute significant water reserves. In these lakes, the waters are permanently in contact with ore deposit (cerussite and galena). The modelling of the interaction of waters with this mineralization shows that cerussite dissolves more rapidly than galena. This dissolution is controlled by the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration in solution. The lead concentrations recorded in these lakes come largely from the dissolution of cerussite.

  7. A WebGIS Decision Support System for Management of Abandoned Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Stanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a WebGIS application aimed at providing safe and reliable data needed for reclamation of abandoned mines in national parks and other protected areas in Vojvodina in compliance with existing legal regulations. The geodatabase model for this application has been developed using UML and the CASE tool Microsoft Visio featuring an interface with ArcGIS. The WebGIS application was developed using GeoServer, an open source tool in the Java programming language, with integrated PostgreSQL DB and the possibility of generating and publishing WMS, WFS and KML services. The WebGIS application is publicly available, based on an appropriate central database, which for the first time encompasses all available data on abandoned mines in Vojvodina, and as such may serve as a model for similar databases on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  8. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment of the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    The attitude of the Canadian public to the mining industry as a whole has changed in recent years to one of mistrust because of the public perception of mining as environmentally harmful and humanly degrading. In addition, uranium mining has had to cope with the public fear of radiation. The uranium mining industry is closely regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board, not only in the area of radiation protection but also in other fields affecting worker health and safety. Uranium mining has been the subject of many hearings in Canada, and all but one have concluded that it is environmentally and socially acceptable. It is up to the mining industry to convey this message to the public

  9. An assessment of the radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a study which investigated the regional radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. The study was performed by IEC Beak Consultants Ltd. under a contract awarded by Environment Canada in partnership with the Atomic Energy Control Board. This preliminary assessment suggests there is a negligible combined regional radiological impact from simultaneous operation of the three operating mines investigated as part of the present study. The mines are spaced too far apart for any superposition of emissions to be significantly greater than a small fraction of background levels. The most exposed individual not directly associated with any of the mining operations is estimated to receive a total radiation dose equal to about 3% of the dose due to natural background radiations. This increment is equivalent to the increment in natural background that would be received by an individual moving from Vancouver to Wollaston Post, before mining began in the area, as a result of reduced atmospheric shielding from cosmic radiation. Radiological impacts on biota are estimated to have insignficant effects on natural populations in all cases. However, since the study only investigates the effects of operational releases of radionuclides, the results do not imply that uranium mining developments will or will not have significant long-term radiological impact on northern Saskatchewan. Radiological impact assessments described in this report are estimates only. There are some uncertainties in the available data and modelling methodology. The radiological impact of abandoned tailings areas was not included in this study

  10. Developments in uranium solution mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.

    2001-01-01

    The last five years have seen rapid developments in uranium solution mining in Australia, with one deposit brought into production (Beverley, 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 ) and another close to receiving development approval (Honeymoon, 500 expanding to 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 proposed). The deposits were discovered during extensive exploration of the Frome Basin in South Australia in the early 1970s and were mothballed from 1983 to 1996 due to Government policies. Uranium mineralisation at Beverley, Honeymoon and other related prospects is hosted in unconsolidated coarse grained quartz sands which are sealed in buried palaeovalleys. Both projects have successfully trialled acid leaching methods and have confirmed high permeability and confinement of the target sands. At Beverley an ion exchange process has been adopted, whereas at Honeymoon solvent extraction has been trialled and is proposed for future production Australian production economics compare favourably with US counterparts and are likely to be within the lower quartile of world costs

  11. The problem of radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Pradel, J.

    1955-01-01

    The exploitation of uranium ores constitute the first stage in the use of the atomic energy. With the current methods of exploitation, we meet in these mines various dangers of irradiation and contamination which the presence of the radon constitutes one of the most important aspects. The supportable maximum concentration is currently of 10 -10 c of radon by liter of air. It seems, even while considering that the RaA, RaB and RaC descendants are not in balance, that it cannot be fix a less rigorous limit. Indeed the limit proposed by the ''Commission Internationale de Protection Radiologique'' give, for an exhibition of 40 hours per week a dose calculated to the level of the bronchi of: 9,5 rem/week with 100% of RaA and 50% of RaB and RaCs, or 19 rem/week with 100% of RaA, RaB and RaC instead of 0,3 rem. It is necessary, also, to take into account because of the risk is not unique for the miner who is expose to the radiation of ore and breath dusts of uranium. (authors) [fr

  12. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Section 170B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 97-415, requires that the Secretary of Energy submit to Congress an annual assessment of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility to develop the criteria for use in estimating the viability of the industry. These criteria include four major attributes of industry viability - resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. Having established these criteria, the Secretary of Energy is required to monitor the industry and make an annual assessment of its viability for 1983 through 1992. The first six assessments were issued in the years 1984 through 1989 based on information available for 1983 through 1988, respectively. The current report provides the data and analyses, based on the information available through the end of the calendar year 1989, supporting the seventh annual assessment of the uranium industry's viability. It presents information on the four major attributes. Data on past and present industry behavior, as well as projections of the future status of the industry (assuming current market conditions), were used to examine the industry's ability to respond, over a 10-year period, to two hypothetical supply disruption scenarios. 20 figs., 23 tabs

  13. Uranium and thorium mining and milling: material security and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Zaitseva, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: At present physical protection for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle is typically at a significantly lower level than at any other part of the nuclear fuel cycle. In view of past experiences (Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, India) it is feasible to take into consideration some generic threat scenarios, potentially resulting in loss of control over uranium or thorium, respectively their concentrates, such as: illegal mining of an officially closed uranium- or thorium mine; covert diversion of uranium- or thorium ore whilst officially mining another ore; covert transport of radioactive ore or product, using means of public rail, road, ship, or air transport; covert en route diversion of an authorized uranium- or thorium transport; covert removal of uranium-or thorium ore or concentrate from an abandoned facility. The Stanford-Salzburg database on nuclear smuggling, theft, and orphan radiation sources (DSTO) contains information on trafficking incidents involving mostly uranium, but also some thorium, from 30 countries in five continents with altogether 113 incidents in the period 1991 to 2004. These activities range from uranium transported in backpacks by couriers in Afghanistan, to a terrorist organization purchasing land in order to mine covertly for uranium in Australia, and the clandestine shipment of almost two tons of uranium hexafluoride from Asia to Africa, using the services of a national airline. Potential participants in such illegal operations range from entrepreneurs to members of organized crime, depending on the level of sophistication of the operation. End-users and 'customers' of such illegal operations are suspected to be non-state actors, organizations or governments involved in a covert operation with the ultimate aim to acquire a sufficient amount of nuclear material for a nuclear device. The actual risk for these activities to succeed in the acquisition of an adequate amount of suitable radioactive material depends on one or

  14. Characterization and phytoremediation of abandoned contaminated mining area in Portugal by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canha, N.; Freitas, M.C.; Anawar, H.M.; Dionisio, I.; Dung, H.M.; Pinto-Gomes, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to find out a vascular plant species that accumulate relatively high concentrations of arsenic (As) for its use as phytoremediator at abandoned and contaminated mining areas, such as Sao Domingos mines (Portugal). The assessment of As contamination levels in soils and plants of other similar sites in the north of the country (Castromil and Poco de Freitas) was also conducted; and the sample analyses were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Agrostis genera have shown higher As transfer coefficients than other studied plant species and, in particular, Agrostis curtisii has shown a reasonable ability to accumulate high concentration of this toxic element. (author)

  15. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  16. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site

  17. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  18. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoni Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  19. Study of heavy metals transport by runoff and sediments from an abandoned mine: Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.

    2009-04-01

    Over time, several studies have been designed to understand heavy metals fate and its impact on the environment and on human health. However, only a few studies have focused on the transport of heavy metals in mining areas through the various hydrological processes such as runoff, infiltration, and subsurface flow. In particular, heavy rainfall events have a great impact on the dispersion of metals existing in the soil. This problem is often more serious in abandoned and inactive mining sites causing environmental problems. In Portugal, there are 175 identified abandoned mines that continuously threaten the environment through acid drainage waters that pollute the soil as well as surface and groundwater. An example is the abandoned mine of Alagoa, located near the village of Penacova (Centre of Portugal); in this site mining activities ceased about 30 years ago. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream; the mining excavation by-products were deposited on these slopes. We have selected this mine as a case study, aiming at understanding the transport mechanisms and dispersion of heavy metals and at contributing to the definition of the most appropriate mitigation measures for this area that is contaminated by heavy metals from the mine tailings. So far a total of 30 soil samples from 3 contaminated zones were collected and analysed for pH, texture and heavy metal content, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that the contents of Zn and Pb in the soil samples are in the range from 95-460 mg/kg and 67-239 mg/kg, respectively, which exceed the critical limit-values defined by the Portuguese legislation. These metals are dispersed downslope and downstream from the mine tailings by storm water. The next step of this work is to investigate the transport of heavy metals by runoff, by mobilization of sediments and by subsurface flow. Three spatial scales tests will be conducted: on the mine tailings, on the slope

  20. The role of public consultation in leading practice uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.

    2014-01-01

    As the raw material used to fuel nuclear power plants to generate significant amounts of electricity with life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources, uranium is a valuable energy commodity. Yet the mining of uranium remains controversial, principally because of the environmental and health impacts created in the early years of the industry when uranium mining was conducted by governments to meet military requirements during the Cold War. At the time, maximising production in the face of rapidly rising demand was the principal goal and little concern was given to properly managing environmental and health impacts or community relations. Uranium mining is now conducted under significantly different circumstances than those in the early era of production for military purposes. Since then, societal expectations of environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public have evolved as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Leading practice uranium mining is now the most regulated and arguably one of the safest forms of mining in the world. Public consultation was seldom, if ever, undertaken in the early stages of uranium mining. As with other forms of mining, societal attitudes about health and safety and environmental protection have been accompanied by an expectation that public participation should be an integral part of planning and approval processes for uranium mines along with transparency and assurances of performance throughout the entire life cycle of the facility. Leading practice uranium mining includes repeated opportunities for public consultation throughout the life of a mining facility. Major milestones for public consultation in the mine life cycle include the environmental impact assessment process that engages the interested public and special interest groups, such as local native and aboriginal populations. In order to demonstrate that

  1. History of ventilation and of air conditioning in Dolni Rozinka uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltr, S.

    1987-01-01

    At a time of the start of mining operations in the Dolni Rozinka uranium mine, ventilation had been provided using the underpressure technique with diagonal winding shafts. From 1967 the overpressure system had been used. The system is described in detail and its constraints are listed. In 1983, on the basis of an analysis and model tests, the ventilation system was replaced by a underpressure system which satisfied the current hygiene specifications, was costsaving and reliable. Since 1985, an air conditioning system has been in operation featuring mobile cooling units and a closed-circuit air conditioning water system that is separated from the mining water pumping system. In view of the favourable temperature factors of the deposit, the mobile air conditioning units are only installed in blind headings. When the through-flow wind stream is achieved, air conditioning is abandoned. (J.B.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  3. Nichols Ranch ISL Uranium Mine - A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, G.; Thomas, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Nichols Ranch ISL Uranium Mine is located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. The mine is owned and operated by Uranerz Energy Corporation (Uranerz), a U.S. corporation headquartered in Casper, Wyoming. Nichols Ranch started operations in February 2014 and is the newest uranium mine to go into production in the USA. The uranium being extracted is hosted in a sandstone, roll-front deposit at a depth ranging from 400 to 800 feet [~120 to ~240 m). The In-Situ Recovery (ISL) mining method is employed at the Nichols Ranch mine which is the method currently being utilized at most uranium mines in the USA. Environmental permit applications for the Nichols Ranch mine were submitted to the appropriate regulatory agencies in late 2007. It required more than three and a half years to obtain all the necessary permits and licenses to construct and operate the mine. Construction of the mining facilities and the first wellfield started in late 2011 and was completed in late 2013. Mining results to date have been better than anticipated and Uranerz expects to reach its 2014 production target. The most challenging part of getting a new uranium mine in production in the United States of America was the three plus years it took to get through the environmental permitting process. Uranerz was one of three companies in 2011 that applied for permits to construct and operate uranium mines in Wyoming at essentially the same time. The Nichols Ranch mine is licensed to produce up to two million pounds per year of uranium (as U_3O_8) [~770 tU] ready for shipment to the converter. At this time only the ion exchange portion of the central processing plant has been installed at Nichols Ranch with uranium loaded resin being shipped to Cameco’s nearby Smith Ranch – Highland ISL uranium mine for elution, precipitation, drying and packaging under a toll processing agreement. Cameco provides Uranerz with dried and drummed yellowcake that Uranerz owns which is shipped to the

  4. An evaluation of the uranium mine radiation safety course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The report evaluates the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course focussing on the following areas: effectivenss of the course; course content; instructional quality; course administration. It notes strengths and weaknesses in these areas and offers preliminary recommendations for future action

  5. Environmental aspects of the Canadian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourt, G.R.

    This paper covers a brief history of uranium mining in Canada, environmental problems, control measures, monitoring of various contaminants in air and water, the development and adherence to standards and limited information on cancer incidence and effects of smoking. (author)

  6. Environmental Development Plan: uranium mining, milling, and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) aspects of the uranium mining, milling, and conversion technologies. The plan represents the collective perceptions of EH and S concerns and requirements and knowledge of ongoing research programs of most of the Federal agencies involved in significant EH and S R and D program management, standards setting, or regulatory activities associated with uranium mining, milling, and conversion

  7. Development of Uranium Mining by ISL in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhov, Yuriy; Gorbatenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 60s, feasibility of Uranium production from low-grade ores by in-situ leaching (ISL) was proved. This radically changed the situation in the raw material base in Kazakhstan. Rapid development of uranium mining by ISL in Kazakhstan caused by factor of availability of large sandstone type uranium deposits. Kazakhstan continuously carries out exploration and prospecting to expand the resource base of uranium. In 2011 and 2012 uranium resources increased by more than 110 thousand tU and 40690 tU was mined. Resource growth is 2.5 times higher than the depleting. Since 2012 Kazatomprom is prospecting for new uranium sandstone deposits in southern Kazakhstan by efforts of Volkovgeologia and at their own expense. The program lasts until 2030. Prior to 2015, allocated more than 20 mils. U.S. dollars in prospecting works. In near future the discovery of new deposits is expected.

  8. The US uranium mining industry: 1980 and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1980, 16 800 tonnes of uranium were produced in the United States, making it the largest producing nation with about 40% of Western World (WOCA) production. By 1990, US production had fallen to approximately 3500 tonnes U, representing only about 10% of WOCA production. Clearly the US uranium mining industry was strongly altered by the events of the intervening years. Widespread focus on declining prices overshadowed a second important set of events. Namely, the rapidly changing regulatory and environmental atmosphere in the United States which continues adversely to affect conventional uranium mining. As a result of these events, the size and structure of the US uranium mining industry was irrevocably changed. Within this altered industry is a rapidly maturing technology that provides a more efficient and lower-cost means of uranium production, in-situ leaching (ISL). By exploiting the advantages of relatively low capital investments, shorter development times, reduced labour costs, and increased production flexibility of ISL mining, the US uranium mining industry will be a competitive component of the world's uranium supply for the 1990s. (author)

  9. Simulation of long-term erosion on an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.; Willgoose, G.; Evans, K.

    1999-01-01

    The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms over many years as a result of runoff and erosion. This study discusses testing of the reliability of the erosion predictions of the model in a field study. Using erosion parameters calibrated from field studies of rainfall and runoff from the waste rock dump batters, the SIBERIA landscape evolution model was calibrated and then used to simulate erosion over 50 years on the abandoned Scinto 6 mine site. Scinto 6 is a former uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The SIBERIA runs simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The waste rock of the mine had been dumped in the characteristic pattern of a flat top and steep sided batters typical of many former and current dumps and there had been significant degradation from both sheet and gully erosion. Traditional erosion models cannot model this type of degradation because their erosion model cannot change the landform, while SIBERIA does change the landform. The gully position, depth volume and morphology on the waste rock dump were compared with that of SIBERIA simulations. The geomorphic development of the waste rock dump indicated that SIBERIA can simulate features that arise from the long-term effect of erosion and also their rate of development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. The detailed results of this specific study will be discussed with specific discussion of the type of data required and the implications of the uncertain erosion physics on the reliability of the predictions

  10. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  11. Ten years of the uranium mines at Hamr na Jezere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehlik, J.

    1976-01-01

    The ten-year long history of the uranium mine at Hamr na Jezere near Ceska Lipa (Czechoslovakia) is briefly discussed. The deposit is of the sedimentary-epigenetic origin and is located in complex hydrogeologic conditions in the so-called Lusatian Cretaceous system in the Bohemian Cretaceous Plateau. The deposit is characteristic of a considerable proportion of zirconium which forms complex minerals with uranium. The ore is exploited using two mining procedures. In areas with favourable geologic and hydrogeologic conditions it is the conventional mining method, in other parts chemical in-situ leaching is employed. The main demands placed on the two mining technologies include the undisturbed Turonian drinking water aquifer, minimum intrusion into the landscape and the treatment of radioactive waters before discharge into public water supplies. The importance of the Hamr deposit and the further development of the Uranium Mines Concern are indicated. (B.S.)

  12. Production from new uranium mines a Cogema resources Saskatchewan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B.

    2001-01-01

    The province of Saskatchewan is best known for the large flat tracts of land in the south that are primarily used for agricultural purposes. Less well known is the fact that the northern part of the province hosts the richest uranium mines in the world. In fact, to use a petroleum analogy, Saskatchewan has been referred to as the 'Saudi Arabia' of the uranium producing countries. The mining industry in Saskatchewan is a flourishing, high technology industry and supplies approximately one-third of the annual world primary production of uranium. The purpose of this paper is to examine the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan and why this province stands alone as the dominant uranium producer in the world and will maintain that position into the foreseeable future. As well, an overview of the significant role played by COGEMA Resources in developing the Saskatchewan uranium industry will be undertaken. This company whose roots date back almost 40 years in the province, now holds significant interests in all four of the mines currently producing uranium. With investments of over one billion dollars (U.S.) in this province, COGEMA has established itself as a long-term player in the Saskatchewan Uranium Industry. (author)

  13. Lagoa Real design. Cachoeira mine. Uranium ratio from gamma profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, B.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents the satisfactory accuracy of uranium ratio from gamma profile, using an equation from simple regression. The comparative study between radiometric ratios calculated from gamma data in boreholes and uranium ratio determined by Delayed Neutron Analysis shows a good measure of correlation in Cachoeira Mines. (author)

  14. A strategy for modeling ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R; Younger, P L

    2001-01-01

    Discharges of polluted water from abandoned mines are a major cause of degradation of water resources worldwide. Pollution arises after abandoned workings flood up to surface level, by the process termed ground water rebound. As flow in large, open mine voids is often turbulent, standard techniques for modeling ground water flow (which assume laminar flow) are inappropriate for predicting ground water rebound. More physically realistic models are therefore desirable, yet these are often expensive to apply to all but the smallest of systems. An overall strategy for ground water rebound modeling is proposed, with models of decreasing complexity applied as the temporal and spatial scales of the systems under analysis increase. For relatively modest systems (area modeling approach has been developed, in which 3-D pipe networks (representing major mine roadways, etc.) are routed through a variably saturated, 3-D porous medium (representing the country rock). For systems extending more than 100 to 3000 km2, a semidistributed model (GRAM) has been developed, which conceptualizes extensively interconnected volumes of workings as ponds, which are connected to other ponds only at discrete overflow points, such as major inter-mine roadways, through which flow can be efficiently modeled using the Prandtl-Nikuradse pipe-flow formulation. At the very largest scales, simple water-balance calculations are probably as useful as any other approach, and a variety of proprietary codes may be used for the purpose.

  15. Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert; ); Hinton, Nicole; Huffman, Dale; Harris, Frank; Arnold, Nikolas; Ruokonen, Eeva; Jakubick, Alexander; Tyulyubayev, Zekail; Till, William von; Woods, Peter; ); Hall, Susan; Da Silva, Felipe; Vostarek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for nuclear power plants that generate significant amounts of electricity with life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the mining of this valuable energy commodity remains controversial, principally because of environmental and health impacts associated with the early years of uranium mining. Maximising production in the face of rapidly rising demand was the principal goal of uranium mining at the time, with little concern given to properly managing environmental and health impacts. Today, societal expectations and regulation of the industry are directed much more towards radiation protection, environmental stewardship, health and safety. With over 430 operational reactors in the world, nuclear fuel will be required for many decades in order to meet requirements to fuel the existing fleet and demand created by new reactors, given the projected growth in nuclear generating capacity, particularly in the developing world. New mines will in turn be needed. As a result, enhancing awareness of leading practices in uranium mining is increasingly important. This report aims to dispel some of the myths, fears and misconceptions about uranium mining by providing an overview of how leading practice mining can significantly reduce all impacts compared to the early strategic period. It also provides a non-technical overview of leading practices, the regulatory environment in which mining companies operate and the outcomes of implementing such practices. Societal expectations related to environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public evolved considerably as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Uranium mining is now conducted under significantly different circumstances, with leading practice mining the most regulated and one of the safest and environmentally responsible forms of mining in the

  16. Relationship between plant biodiversity and heavy metal bioavailability in grasslands overlying an abandoned mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Pastor, J

    2008-04-01

    Abandoned metal mines in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid, Spain, are often located in areas of high ecological value. This is true of an abandoned barium mine situated in the heart of a bird sanctuary. Today the area sustains grasslands, interspersed with oakwood formations of Quercus ilex and heywood scrub (Retama sphaerocarpa L.), used by cattle, sheep and wild animals. Our study was designed to establish a relationship between the plant biodiversity of these grasslands and the bioavailability of heavy metals in the topsoil layer of this abandoned mine. We conducted soil chemical analyses and performed a greenhouse evaluation of the effects of different soil heavy metal concentrations on biodiversity. The greenhouse bioassays were run for 6 months using soil samples obtained from the mine polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and from a control pasture. Soil heavy metal and Na concentrations, along with the pH, had intense negative effects on plant biodiversity, as determined through changes in the Shannon index and species richness. Numbers of grasses, legumes, and composites were reduced, whilst other species (including ruderals) were affected to a lesser extent. Zinc had the greatest effect on biodiversity, followed by Cd and Cu. When we compared the sensitivity of the biodiversity indicators to the different metal content variables, pseudototal metal concentrations determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were the most sensitive, followed by available and soluble metal contents. Worse correlations between biodiversity variables and metal variables were shown by pseudototal contents obtained by plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results highlight the importance of using as many different indicators as possible to reliably assess the response shown by plants to heavy metal soil pollution.

  17. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  18. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Radiation protection in uranium mining and metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie.

    1988-01-01

    The main radioactive contaminants in uranium mines are radon and its daughters, while in uranium plants the dust produced in crushing operation is the main source of contamination. In this paper the radiation protection levels and the problems present in China's uranium mines and plants are described and analyzed. 15 protective measures are presented by the auther. The main measurements are: to increase mechanization and automation levels in technology, to reduce the direct contact of man's body with radioactive materials, to strongthen the ventilation for removing radon, to establish a complete ventilation system, and so on

  20. New uranium mines start up as Canada ensures future supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, R.

    1995-01-01

    Canada's uranium production increased once again to an output of 9173 tonnes U in 1994. Canada ranks first in the world, and it supplies about 30 percent of the world market based on currently available data. Of this total, 8530 tonnes were produced in Saskatchewan, with Rio Algom's Stanleigh mine, Ontario's last remaining mine, providing the remainder. (author)

  1. Uranium Mining (Environment Control) Act 1979 No 46 of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to control the mining of uranium in the Alligator Rivers Region with a view to lessening any damage which may be caused to the environment. The Act provides for the control of mining of certain substances, for an authorization system for construction and use of facilities, equipment and processes as well as for environmental protection requirements. (NEA) [fr

  2. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 μm and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 μm as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  3. Development of a concrete placement device for support of abandoned mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, M.; Burnett, J.M.; El-Korchi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Burnett Associates, Inc. (BAI), under contract to the US Bureau of Mines, has developed a reliable and cost effective method of remote placement of point support columns in abandoned mines through boreholes to provide local support, especially under surface structures in subsidence prone areas. The development of the system to remotely build a concrete support cylinder in an abandoned mine required the coordination of mechanical system and concrete design. The mechanical system was designed to remote place concrete in a cylindrical shape. The concrete was designed to meet the requirements of low slump with high enough strength to resist the forces applied by the ground above mine. The support cylinder is fabricated through an 8-inch borehole by pumping concrete through a second 4-in pipe inside the borehole. The 4-in pipe has a flexible trunk on the lower end that is bent from the surface when it is inside the mine void. When pumping starts, the 4-in pipe is rotated and a spiral of concrete is placed on the mine floor. Operation continues until the concrete seals at the roof. A normal weight concrete as recommended by ACI 211 having a maximum slump of 1--2 in, a maximum coarse aggregate size of 1/2 in, and a minimum compressive strength of 5,000 psi was used. Cylinders have been fabricated to roof heights of 6 ft. There does not appear to be a technical height limitation. The concrete cylinder can support up to 40 x 10 6 lbs when fully cured and filled with gravel, depending on cylinder diameter

  4. Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Naftz, David L.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research by the U.S. Geological Survey has characterized contaminant sources and identified important geochemical processes that influence transport of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling wastes. 1) Selective extraction studies indicated that alkaline earth sulfates and hydrous ferric oxides are important hosts of 226Ra in uranium mill tailings. The action of sulfate-reducing and ironreducing bacteria on these phases was shown to enhance release of radium, and this adverse result may temper decisions to dispose of uranium mill tailings in anaerobic environments. 2) Field studies have shown that although surface-applied sewage sludge/wood chip amendments aid in revegetating pyritic spoil, the nitrogen in sludge leachate can enhance pyrite oxidation, acidification of groundwater, and the consequent mobilization of metals and radionuclides. 3) In a U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyfunded study, three permeable reactive barriers consisting of phosphate-rich material, zero-valent iron, or amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide have been installed at an abandoned uranium upgrader facility near Fry Canyon, UT. Preliminary results indicate that each of the permeable reactive barriers is removing the majority of the uranium from the groundwater. 4) Studies on the geochemistry of rare earth elements as analogues for actinides such as uranium and thorium in acid mine drainage environments indicate high mobility under acid-weathering conditions but measurable attenuation associated with iron and aluminum colloid formation. Mass balances from field and laboratory studies are being used to quantify the amount of attenuation. 5) A field study in Colorado demonstrated the use of 234U/238U isotopic ratio measurements to evaluate contamination of shallow groundwater with uranium mill effluent.

  5. Health physics in the Novazza (Bergamo, Italy) uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassignani, S.; Fenzi, A.; Turchi, A.

    1979-01-01

    In this article the potential radiological hazards due to internal and external exposure of workers in the Novazza uranium mine are considered, as well as the surveillance systems adopted into the mine galleries from the current pre-operational stage. The problem is outlined of assuming for the professionally exposed workers an exposure limit allowing to reduce the hazards to negligible levels, taking the operational requirements into account. Finally, a summary of the daily measurements of radon daughters is presented, together with the methods currently applied in the estimate of the radiological impact of the uranium mine on the environment

  6. Potential for enhancing nongame bird habitat values on abandoned mine lands of western North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, J.B.; Hopkins, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout western North Dakota the number of unreclaimed surface coal and coal-uranium mines might total over 1100. We examined the potential for enhancing the nongame bird habitat values of unreclaimed mine lands in the arid, western region of North Dakota. Generally, the greatest variety of birds occurred in natural and planted woodlands, while fewer birds occurred in unreclaimed mine lands, grasslands, shrublands and croplands. Deciduous woodland types supported more species of birds than coniferous types. Planted woodlands supported about the same number of bird species as some natural deciduous woodland types and more species than coniferous woods. Unreclaimed mine lands supported more species than grasslands and croplands, and about the same number of species as native shrublands. The highest bird densities were in planted woodlands. Bird diversity varied positively with habitat diversity. The bird fauna of unreclaimed mine lands can be enhanced by creating more diverse habitats. Seventeen guidelines to enhance unreclaimed mine lands for nongame birds are presented. These guidelines can be used in preserving habitats threatened by surface mining and reclaiming previously mined lands

  7. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  8. Uranium mining in Australia: dreams--and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    By the early 1980's if the current mining projects described are allowed to go on stream, Australia will be able to produce at least 10 900 tons of U$sub 3$O$sub 8$ annually from ores whose grade ranges from a low of 0.150% to a high of 2.300%. The Jabiluka Project of uranium mining is described, and plans for other mines are discussed in Queensland, South and Western Australia. 2 refs

  9. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  10. Uranium mining and processing: their radiation impact into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, Peter; Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Based on Thorium and Uranium determination in soil and plants samples collected in the region of Aktau, Kazakhstan the distribution pattern of environmental pollution by these elements was correlated with the radiation dose. The main radiation source was the waste deposit of the equipment used by the uranium processing (dose higher than 5 μSv/h). The mining area and also the transportation way from mine to the uranium factory has also an radiation impact which is difficult to estimate. Based on the data found by plants and soil samples all the area under study has a higher pollution level by Thorium and Uranium than the control area (about 0.1μSv/h). Due to observed strong wind blowing in different directions it is possible that the particle of uranium ore has been transported for long distance and polluted the plants and upper soil layer. The further investigations should get more information about this supposition. (author)

  11. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization of uranium tailings from Tummalapalle uranium mining site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.C.; Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gupta, Anil; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Molla, S.; Rana, B.K.

    2018-01-01

    Mining of uranium bearing minerals is essential for the extraction of uranium to meet the power requirements of India. Mining and milling activities produce large quantities of low active tailings, as wastes, which are contained in Tailings Ponds. The nature of tailings depends on the mineralogy of ore and host rock and their quantity depends on the configuration of the ore body and mining methods. The mobility of an element from these tailings depends on elemental concentration, pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity, bulk density and porosity of the tailings etc. This necessitates complete characterisation of the tailings. In this paper we aim to characterize the uranium mill tailings generated from Tummalapalle uranium mining facility in Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh, India

  12. Environmental problems relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the mining and milling of uranium as they relate to the environment are discussed. The industry is primarily under the jurisdiction of the federal government and administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This authority can in some instances be relegated to the states. Certain areas of jurisdiction have been given over to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the courts. The Safe Drinking Water Act is discussed as it relates to in situ leach mining. The role of the Department of Interior in the regulating of uranium mining, as described in the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, is discussed. The requirement for environmental impact statements prior to licensing by the NRC or the individual states is also discussed. Air quality and radioactive waste disposal as they relate to uranium mining are also discussed

  13. Challenges in radon management at uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulka, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radon and its radioactive decay products are present some unique challenges to radiation protection professionals working at the uranium mining operations. This paper will detail some examples of these challenges and methods that can be employed to ensure doses to workers and members of the public are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Examples will be presented for conventional open pit and underground mining and In Situ recovery operations. One of the challenges facing new operations seeking approval is the demonstration that radon and its radioactive decay products sourced from the operations will not adversely impact local populations, Methodologies recently employed in the most recent environmental impact statements from uranium mining companies seeking approval are reviewed. The International Commission of Radiological Protection are currently reviewing the dose conversion factors used radon and its decay products. The challenges this change will present to uranium mining operators are presented.

  14. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  15. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhao Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and permeability of coal mass, but also causes the basic physical and mechanical properties changing, such as elastic modulus and Poisson ratio. It eventually results in some reduction in pillar strength. Based on the fractional swelling as a function of time and different loading pressure steps, the relationship between volumetric stress and adsorption pressure increment is acquired. Eventually, this paper presents a theory model to analyze the pillar strength reduction after CO2 adsorption. The model provides a method to quantitatively describe the interrelation of volumetric strain, swelling stress, and mechanical strength reduction after gas adsorption under the condition of step-by-step pressure loading and the non-Langmuir isothermal model. The model might have a significantly important implication for predicting the swelling stress and mechanical behaviors of coal pillars during CO2 sequestration in abandoned coal mines.

  16. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  17. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  18. Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The modern uranium mining industry was born in the middle of the 20th century at a time of rapid industrial and social change and in an atmosphere of concern over the development of nuclear weapons. At many uranium mining operations, the need to produce uranium far outweighed the need to ensure that there were any more than vestigial efforts made in protecting the workers, the public and the environment from the impacts of the mining, both radiological and non-radiological. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the world began to take greater care of the total environment with the introduction of legislation and the development of operating procedures that took environmental protection into account. The uranium mining industry was part of this change, and standards of environmental management began to become of significance in corporate planning strategies. However, by the 1980s, as uranium mining companies began to address the issues of environment protection, the industry began to suffer a cyclical slowdown. By the 1990s, the industry was at a nadir, but the surviving uranium producers continued to develop and implement a series of procedures in environmental management that were regarded as best practices. This, in part, was necessary as a means to demonstrate to the regulators, governments and the public that the mining operations were being run with the intention of minimizing adverse impacts on the workers, people and the environment. This ensured that mining would be allowed to continue. The decline in uranium mining activity bottomed out in the 1990s, but a resurgence of activity began in the new century that is likely to continue for some time. This has been, in part, due to market conditions and concerns about the shortfall of current production from primary sources (uranium mines) against current reactor fuel demands; the anticipated decrease in future availability of secondary sources such as stockpiles; and the increased interest in nuclear power

  19. Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching in Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunhui

    2002-01-01

    Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching was carried out according to ore characteristics of Fuzhou Uranium Mine and results from small test. Technological and economic indexes, such as leaching rate, acid consumption, leaching cycle, etc. are discussed. The general idea applying the test results to commercial production is presented, too

  20. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, K.K.; Trevits, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  1. Midwest Joint Venture high-grade uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Midwest Joint Venture (MJV) owns a high-grade uranium deposit in northern Saskatchewan. The deposit is located too deep below surface to be mined economically by open pit methods, and as a consequence, present plans are that it will be mined by underground methods. High-grade uranium ore of the type at MJV, encased in weak, highly altered ground and with radon-rich water inflows, has not before been mined by underground methods. The test mining phase of the project, completed in 1989, had three objectives: To evaluate radiation protection requirements associated with the handling of large quantities of radon-rich water and mining high-grade uranium ore in an underground environment; to investigate the quantity and quality of water inflows into the mine; and, to investigate ground conditions in and around the ore zone as an aid in determining the production mining method to be used. With information gained from the test mining project, a mining method for the production mine has been devised. Level plans have been drawn up, ventilation system designed, pumping arrangements made and methods of ore handling considered. All this is to be done in a manner that will be safe for those doing the work underground. Some of the mining methods planned are felt to be unique in that they are designed to cope with mining problems not known to have been encountered before. New problems underground have required new methods to handle them. Remote drilling, blasting, mucking and backfilling form the basis of the planned mining method

  2. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  3. Inventory of closed and abandoned mines : Methods for performing the inventory and for risk classification with diverse data availability levels

    OpenAIRE

    Luodes, Nike M.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional mining techniques have not been aware of the importance of the long term effects that the mining activity can cause: the main being represented by Acid Mine Drainage where chemical changes in sulphide rich tailings can bring in solution heavy metals, penetrate through the containing structure access and accumulate in the environment. The abandoned and unstable facilities located on the site can by their own represent risks for people and animals accessing the area. Several cou...

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  5. Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel discusses the nuclear industry and its dependence on a steady supply of competitively priced uranium as a key factor in its long-term sustainability. A better understanding of uranium ore geology and advances in exploration and mining methods will facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new uranium deposits. The practice of efficient, safe, environmentally-benign exploration, mining and milling technologies, and effective site decommissioning and remediation are also fundamental to the public image of nuclear power. This book provides a comprehensive review of developments in these areas: • Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle • Presents a comprehensive and systematic coverage of geology, mining, and conversion to fuel, alternative fuel sources, and the environmental and social aspects • Written by leading experts in the field of nuclear power, uranium mining, milling, and geological exploration who highlight the best practices needed to ensure environmental safety

  6. The health dangers of uranium mining and jurisdictional questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, E.R.; Woollard, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    Uranium mining and milling presents a danger to the health of workers from gamma radiation, radon and thoron daughters, uranium oxides, and dust. The public is threatened by radon products, short and long term tailings failures, radium, uranium, and other chemicals. Present dose limits to workers and the public exposed to radiation from all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle have been set by organizations with vested interests in the nuclear industry and are too high. Uranium workers have in the past been poorly monitored and protected against radiation and other occupational hazards. Uranium tailings disposal methods at present are not adequate; tailings will remain hazardous for tens of thousands of years and will probably require deep geologic disposal. The non-substitutable end uses of uranium are nuclear power and nuclear weapons production, both of which have entirely unacceptable health effects

  7. Uranium ore mining in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertle, H.J.; Schmid, K.

    1979-01-01

    Since energy supply has to be secured in the long term (hardly without a uranium contribution), the disparate laws governing the uranium market need a closer lock, taking into account the economic advantages or uranium as compared with other energies, the strategic importance, market fluctuations and price formation. Regarding costs, the paper highlights the imbalance between the modest increase in uranium reserves and the steadily growing production costs over the last four years. In this context, the pattern of exploration outlays of a number of countries active in the uranium field since 1972 and the size of the main uranium reserves of the Western World are relevant. Lastly, an attempt is made to estimate uranium availability, production and demand for the period 1985 to 1990 on the basis of two scenarios, one based on a moderate rate of nuclear power development and one on an accelerated rate. (orig./HS) [de

  8. A real-time monitoring system for the assessment of stability and performance of in abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydan, O.; Tano, H.; Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's. There is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in collapses. The authors describe an integrated real-time monitoring system and they report some measured data up to now. The responses of monitoring system during a large roof collapse under gravitational condition as well as during and after two earthquakes are presented and their implications are discussed. (authors)

  9. A real-time monitoring system for the assessment of stability and performance of in abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydan, O. [Tokai Univ., Dept.of Marine Civil Engineering, Shizuoka (Japan); Tano, H. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Koriyama (Japan); Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K. [Tobishima Construction Company, Nagoya Branch (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's. There is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in collapses. The authors describe an integrated real-time monitoring system and they report some measured data up to now. The responses of monitoring system during a large roof collapse under gravitational condition as well as during and after two earthquakes are presented and their implications are discussed. (authors)

  10. Numerical simulation studies of the groundwater discharge to streams from abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.S.; Gillham, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the results of simulation studies of groundwater discharge to streams from abandoned uranium mill tailings and the effects of this discharge on the flux of contaminants to surface water systems. In particular, a discussion of the sensitivity of subsurface discharge to specific geometirc, climatic and hydrogeologic factors is presented. Simulations were carried out using a two-dimensional numerical finite-element unsaturated-saturated flow model. A total of twenty-six simulations were made. The first twenty-four of these considered a tailings medium with homogeneous and isotropic hydraulic properties and with textural properties similar to those of sandy geological materials. In addition, two simulations were carried out for tailings materials with hydraulic properties that are similar to those of silt-loam. The results indicated that the actual quantity of subsurface discharge depends on many factors including rainfall rate and duration, surface slope, and texture. However, for the medium-fine sand material, subsurface discharge was always a significant component of the total discharge. Within the context of uranium tailings management this implies that large quantities of contaminants from subsurface sources of medium-textured tailings can be expected to be discharged to streams during stormflow events. Therefore there is reason to suspect that untreated runoff from such tailings will contain significant concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time

  11. Radium and heavy metal transport beneath an abandoned uranium tailings dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.J.; Sinclair, G.; Lowson, R.T.

    1988-09-01

    An abandoned uranium tailings dam at Moline in the Northern Territory of Australia was the site of a study to assess the movement of potentially toxic elements from tailings into subsoil. The tailings at Moline were first laid down in 1959 and have since been leached by prevailing rainfall. Sixteen sampling sites were selected to give a good representation of the dam. At each site, a trench was excavated through the tailings and into the subsoil, then samples of subsoil were taken at 10 cm intervals down to a depth of 50 cm. A sample of the tailings overlying the tailings-subsoil interface was also taken. Samples were analysed for radium, uranium, copper, zinc, and lead. At most sites there was only minor accumulation of these elements in the 0-10 cm subsoil layer immediately below the interface, with concentrations typically one or two orders of magnitude less than the concentrations in overlying tailings. Below 10 cm, the concentrations were typically at or close to background concentrations

  12. A plant taxonomic survey of the Uranium City region, Lake Athabasca north shore, emphasizing the naturally colonizing plants on uranium mine and mill wastes and other human-disturbed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, V.L.

    1982-07-01

    A goal of this study was to acquire more complete baseline data on the existing flora of the Uranium City region, both in natural and human-disturbed sites. Emphasis was given to determining which plant species were naturally revegetating various abandoned uranium mine and mill waste disposal areas, other human-disturbed sites, and ecologically analogous sites. Another goal was to document the occurrence and distribution in the study region of rare and possibly endangered species. A further objective was to suggest regionally-occurring species with potential value for revegetating uranium mine and mill waste sites. Field investigations were carried out in the Uranium City region during August, 1981. During this time 1412 plant collections were made; a total of 366 plant species - trees, shrubs, forbs, graminoids, lichens, and bryophytes were recorded. The report includes an annotated checklist of plant species of the Uranium City region and a reference index of plant taxa indicating species that have high revegetation potential

  13. Evaluation of environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.; Lopez Romero, A.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium mining and production activities have been carried out by ENUSA since 1973. This report describes the evaluation of environmental aspects connected with uranium mining and milling. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  15. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  16. Social Licensing in uranium mining: Experiences from the IAEA review of planned Mukju River Uranium Project, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to enhance the operational performance and the occupational, public and environmental health and safety of uranium mining and processing facilities across all phases of the uranium production cycle. These include exploration, resource assessment, mining, processing, waste management, site management and remediation, and final closure.

  17. Uranium production, exploration and mine development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R. E

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Canada has been the world leader in uranium production since the early 1990's and production in 2005 was 11,629 te U. The Elliott Lake region of Ontario was once the centre of production, but after the last facilities closed in 1996, all production now comes from the Athabasca Basin in northern Saskatchewan. Average grades of the world's two largest high grade deposits at McArthur River and Cigar Lake are 10 to 100 times the grade of deposits mined elsewhere. McArthur River has been in production since late 1999 and first production from Cigar Lake is expected in 2007. If all expansion and probable mine openings come to fruition, annual Canadian production could amount to 16,000 te U by 2011. All currently operating uranium mines have been the subject of a comprehensive environmental assessment and review process. Uranium mining brings significant benefits to local area residents in northern Saskatchewan. Residents of northern Saskatchewan are active participants in Environmental Quality Committees. Recent survey results show the majority of Saskatchewan residents support the continuation of uranium mining in the province. The closed uranium mines in Canada have been successfully decommissioned and rehabilitated in particular in the Elliott Lake region of Ontario. The principle exploration target in Canada remains the Athabasca Basin, but activity has also been reported in several of the other territories and provinces. Natural Resources Canada estimates that some $CAN81M was spent on exploration in Canada in 2005. Under the Canadian Constitution, natural resources are owned by the provinces or by the federal government if they are on federal lands north of 60 0 C latitude. The provinces have jurisdiction over exploration activities within their borders and for most commodities have jurisdiction over mine development and production, operations, health and safety and environmental matters. Once a company starts to develop a deposit into a mine

  18. Potential health and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes. Volume 3. Appendixes. Report to the congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Contents include: summary of federal laws potentially affecting uranium mining; federal water programs and right activities; congressionally approved compacts that apportion water; state laws, regulations, and guides for uranium mining; active uranium mines in the United States; inactive uranium mines in the United States; general observations of uranium mine sites in Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Wyoming; influence of mine drainage on seepage to groundwater and surface water outflow; computation of mass emission factors for wind erosion; aquatic dosimetry and health effects models and parameter values; Airborne pathway modeling; and health risk assessment methodology

  19. Models for estimating the radiation hazards of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    Hazards to the health of workers in uranium mines derive from the decay products of radon and from uranium and its descendants. Radon daughters in mine atmospheres are either attached to aerosols or exist as free atoms and their physical state determines in which part of the lung the daughters deposit. The factors which influence the proportions of radon daughters attached to aerosols, their deposition in the lung and the dose received by the cells in lung tissue are discussed. The estimation of dose to tissue from inhalation or ingestion of uranium and daughters is based on a different set of models which have been applied in recent ICRP reports. The models used to describe the deposition of particulates, their movement in the gut and their uptake by organs, which form the basis for future limits on the concentration of uranium and daughters in air or on their intake with food, are outlined

  20. Models for estimating the radiation hazards of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Hazards to the health of workers in uranium mines derive from the decay products of radon and from uranium and its descendants. Radon daughters in mine atmospheres are either attached to aerosols or exist as free atoms and their physical state determines in which part of the lung the daughters deposit. The factors which influence the proportions of radon daughters attached to aerosols, their deposition in the lung and the dose received by the cells in lung tissue are discussed. The estimation of dose to tissue from inhalation of ingestion or uranium and daughters is based on a different set of models which have been applied in recent ICRP reports. The models used to describe the deposition of particulates, their movement in the gut and their uptake by organs, which form the basis for future limits on the concentration of uranium and daughters in air or on their intake with food, are outlined. 34 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Antibiotic cytotoxic effects of microorganisms isolated from Jachymov uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuska, J.; Fuskova, A.

    1982-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from old relinquished uranium mines in Jachymov; they had been growing for several decades in darkness in temperatures of 5 to 12 degC and relative humidity from 80 to 100%. The concentration of uranium salts in mine waters varied from 10 -4 to 10 -5 g.l -1 , that of Rn in the atmosphere was from 0.04 to 40 Bq.l -1 . Of 324 cultures, 18.8% inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Candida pseudotropicalis and 16.6% that of HeLa cells. The frequency of microorganisms inhibiting the growth of HeLa or Ehrlich ascites cells was markedly higher in this set of cultures than among microorganisms kept in culture collections or isolated from other natural habitats. About 10% of the isolated cultures were mycelia sterilia. The following antibiotics were isolated from microorganisms obtained from uranium mines: frequentin, vermiculin, vermicillin, vermistatin, cytostipin and duclauxin. (author)

  2. South African gold and uranium ore mining in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentrich, W.

    1977-01-01

    1976 was a difficult year for the South African gold and uranium ore mining industry, the region of Witwatersrand (Transvaal province) producing some 75% of all the gold mined in the western world besides being an important producer of uranium oxide. Despite the gold production, declining since 1971, not showing a downward tendency anymore as far as the quantity was concerned, the economic result, however, deteriorated as a consequence of continuously falling gold prices, but also on account of the inflationary rise in wages and the prices for energy and materials. Much higher prices for uranium oxide, which some mines produce as interim products from the 'degolded' slurries of their gold ore leaching plants, improved the economic overall result only to a small degree. (orig.) [de

  3. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanping; Luo Chunling; Gao Yun; Li Fangbai; Lin Lanwen; Wu Changan; Li Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg -1 with the mean value of 129 mg kg -1 . In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 μg L -1 in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg -1 for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg -1 and 164 μg L -1 , respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  4. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  5. Remote thermal IR surveying to detect abandoned mineshafts in former mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, D.A.; Marsh, S.H.; Gibson, A.; Ager, G.J.; McManus, K.B.; Caunt, S.; Culshaw, M.G. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In former mining areas it is critical to locate unknown, abandoned mineshafts prior to the development of a site. Abandoned mineshafts are ground disturbances that have very localized effects on the morphology and the physical, chemical, drainage and moisture properties of the surface geological materials and thus thermo-physical properties. Remotely sensed thermal IR surveys provide the potential for a rapid, inexpensive and non-intrusive technique for mineshaft detection. The key parameters of thermal IR radiation and the application of remote thermal IR surveys to planning are described, using case histories from former mining areas in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire. Field-measured IR temperature differences correlated well with different ground conditions caused by changes in vegetation, disturbance, compaction and moisture-drainage regimes. A thermal anomaly over an area of c. 6 m{sup 2} above a known mineshaft was characterized by traces of methane and temperatures higher by 0.5-1{sup o}C than those of the adjacent ground surface. Using thermal IR images, collected with the Daedalus 1260 Airborne Thematic Mapper, a scheme was developed to classify and map mineshafts with and without any observed visual characteristics. When applied using thermal imagery obtained from commercial flights the scheme identified several potential sites of abandoned mineshafts in an area designated for the redevelopment of the Nottingham Business Park, East Midlands. The thermal anomalies were associated with minor topographic features such as mounds, depressions and dereliction, as well as compositional features caused by coal enrichment and Coal Measures mudstone infill. These features had very little surface expression and were confirmed only using soil stripping.

  6. Groundwater restoration with in situ uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In situ leach mining of uranium has developed into a major mining technology. Since 1975, when the first commercial mine was licensed in the United States, the percentage or uranium produced by in situ mining has steadily grown from 0.6 to 10 percent in 1980. Part of the reason for this growth is that in situ mining offers less initial capital investment, shorter start-up times, greater safety, and less labor than conventional mining methods. There is little disturbance of the surface terrain or surface waters, no mill tailings piles, and no large open pits, but in situ leaching mining does have environmental disadvantages. During the mining, large amounts of ground water are cirulated and there is some withdrawal from an area where aquifers constitute a major portion of the water supply for other purposes. When an ammonia-based leach system is used, the ammonium ion is introduced into an area where cation exchange on clays (and some production of nitrate) may occur. Also, injection of an oxidant with the leach solution causes valence and phase changes of indigenous elements such as As, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, S, and V as well as U. Furthermore, the surrounding ground water can become contaminated by escape of the leach solution from the mining zone. This chapter presents an overview of the in situ mining technology, including uranium deposition, mining techniques, and ground water restoration alternatives. The latter part of the chapter covers the situation in South Texas. Economics and development of the industry, groundwater resources, regulation, and restoration activities are also reviewed

  7. Commercial application of bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Fan Baotuan; Meng Yunsheng; Xiao Jinfeng; Chen Sencai; Wu Jinjing; Liu Chengwu; Wu Yichang; Zeng Ruilong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the situation of commercial application on bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou Uranium Mine is introduced, and the construction of biomembrane oxidizing tank, regeneration and recycled utilization of barren solution are summarized. Total five heaps, 18436 t, uranium ore are leached by bacteria during the half of a year. The result is consistent with that of commercial experiment. The technology of bacterial heap leaching is more perfected

  8. A new era for uranium mining in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonet, M.; Marvy, A.

    1997-01-01

    North America will be one of the few places in the world where continuous development of new uranium mining projects and renewed, more intense exploration will occur for the coming years. Although the present project approval process and regulatory regime can be seen as a burden, past discoveries of world-class deposits have made North America the best place to invest in uranium production for many years to come. (author) 1 fig

  9. Aquifer restoration techniques for in-situ leach uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Bell, N.E.; Mercer, B.W.; Serne, R.J.; Shade, J.W.; Tweeton, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    In-situ leach uranium mines and pilot-scale test facilities are currently operating in the states of Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. This report summarizes the technical considerations involved in restoring a leached ore zone and its aquifer to the required level. Background information is provided on the geology and geochemistry of mineralized roll-front deposits and on the leaching techniques used to extract the uranium. 13 references, 13 figures, 4 tables

  10. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  11. Genesis of uranium deposits of the Tono Mine, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, N.; Kubo, K.; Hirono, S.

    1974-01-01

    The uranium deposits of the Tono mine, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, occur in the basal part of the Toki group of Miocene age, and are distributed in the tributaries or at the head of channels on the plane of unconformity under the formation. These features characterize the basal ground-water type of uranium deposit, and they are unique in that their typical ore mineral is a zeolite of the heulandite-clinoptilolite group, uranium being adsorbed in it. The paper presents the history of formation of the Tsukiyoshi deposits, the most intensely explored in the Tono mine. The matrices of conglomerates and sandstones of the Toki group usually contain tuffaceous material, which has been montmorillonitized or zeolitized diagenetically. The conduit of uranium-bearing ground waters that migrated from the basement granites into the Tertiary sediments was controlled by the impermeable barriers, which are rocks in which montmorillonite predominated, or by the Tsukiyoshi fault, as well as by channel structures. Where the waters became rather stagnant, uranium was adsorbed in zeolite from them. Enrichment of uranium further proceeded locally as follows. Pyrite was oxidized to produce sulphuric acid solution which leached the uranium that had been adsorbed in zeolite. The pH of the uranium-rich solution became higher and higher in the course of migration and, as soon as it reached about 4, the uranium in the solution was again adsorbed in zeolite, the uranium content of which may have been enriched up to 0.9%. Coffinites have been formed where uranium was accumulated over the adsorption capacity of zeolite or where strongly reducing conditions were maintained by carbonaceous matter. (author)

  12. Groundwater restoration of uranium ISL mines in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, G.; Kuchelka, R.

    1993-01-01

    Although the in-situ leach (ISL) mining of uranium in the US started in the 1960's, the real expansion of this form of mining, which is also called solution mining, took place in the early to mid 1970's in Texas. Some of the early test work used an acid lixiviant but it was soon recognized that, because of environmental considerations, the use of alkaline lixiviants would be preferable to the regulatory agencies and the public. In the past, the two types of alkaline based lixiviants used at US ISL mines were ammonia bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. A few ISL mines get by with just adding carbon dioxide to the well field solution. Ammonia bicarbonate is no longer being used today in the US because of the difficulties and expense of restoring the water quality to acceptable standards following mining. This paper briefly describes ISL mining principles and then details procedures and techniques used at USA ISL uranium mines to restore water quality in the mined aquifer. The basic elements are fairly constant but there can be considerable variation in type of water treatment equipment, methods of waste water disposal and use of chemical reducing agents. Three case histories are also presented

  13. INTERACTIVE ABANDONED MINE LANDS WORKSHOP SERIES - ACID MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this interactive workshop is to present and discuss active and passive acid mine wastes cleanup technologies and to discuss the apparent disconnect between their development and their implementation. The workshop addressed five main barriers to implementing innovat...

  14. Approach to increasing techno-economic effects of ventilation in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinhuo

    1989-01-01

    The main factors affecting techno-economic effects of ventilation in uranium mines are discussed in this paper. Under the conditions of technical feasibility and economic rationality, the method of economic analysis for ventilation and radiation protection in uranium mines is proposed. The technically feasible and economically reasonable suggestions are presented for increasing the techno-economic effects of ventilation in uranium mines

  15. Comprehensive evaluation on rationality of ventilation system in uranium underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qinglin

    1991-01-01

    A new method is presented for evaluating rationality of uranium mine ventilation system using fuzzy mathematics. The mathematical models for fuzzy comprehensive evaluation are introduced. Based on practice of uranium mine ventilation, the evaluation factors and the evaluation procedure are given. Using the presented method, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out for ventilation systems before and after regulation in Fuzhou Uranium Mine

  16. The current situation of uranium mining in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdi-Krausz, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the history of uranium production in Hungary. It focuses on the Mecsek Ore Mining Company, now known as Mecsekuran Limited, and its relationship with the Hungarian Government. From the start of uranium production in 1963 until May 1989 all production was exported to the Soviet Union under a bilateral contract. In exchange the Soviet Union agreed to provide fabricated fuel for the future Hungarian nuclear power plant. In May 1989 the Government of Hungary announced closure of its uranium mining operations because of the high cost of production. The paper describes the history of events since 1989, as well as the current plans to terminate all uranium production by 31 December 1997. The Mecsek Mountains lie in the southern part of Hungary, west from the Danube, about 30 km from the former Yugoslavian border, and north from the city of Pecs. Its eastern side is built up from medieval limestone and dolomites, while the western part is from sandstone and clay from the geological Paleozoic. In the eastern part high quality cokeable coal has been mined for more than 200 years, east from the city of Pecs; and in the western part uranium ore was discovered and the mining began only a few decades ago. (author)

  17. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  18. Uranium mining: present indian scenario and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ramendra; Acharya, D.

    2003-01-01

    Mining industry has long been considered a high risk investment, tied down with long gestation periods. Large manpower deployment as also health and safety are other concerns associated with mining. Greater focus on sustainable development has seen metal prices falling worldwide. This has been largely due to greater recycling as well as development of alternate manmade material. Growing social concerns of the working environment as well as the impact of mining activity on ecology in its neighborhood are other areas drawing attention of the mining community. Uranium mining shares all these concerns besides issues related to its radioactive aspects. Technology continues to evolve in order to meet these challenges and make mining an attractive investment destination. Development of cleaner fuels, greater use of hydraulic power, microprocessor based fuel injection systems, flow of information, its efficient processing and a host of technology enabled systems are driving this evolution. These have influenced the entire gamut of mining activities from mine entries, mine layouts, mining methods to rock breakage and hoisting. Social concerns have prompted mine closure and related costs being factored in, at the mine opening stage itself. This paper describes some of these evolutions in India while looking at the emerging technologies and practices worldwide. (author)

  19. International developments in uranium mining and mill site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarch, H.; Kuhlmann, J.; Daroussin, J.L.; Poyser, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the end of production, mine sites, mill sites, tailings ponds, heap leaching residues in uranium mining districts world-wide have to be remediated in a responsible and sustainable manner in order to minimize long term environmental impacts. Current practice, regulatory environments and rehabilitation objectives in some of the most important uranium producing countries are briefly characterized as well as applicable radioprotection and geotechnical criteria. Important local and regional variables are outlined which determine optimal site specific solutions. Examples from Europe and North America are shown. Monitoring and control requirements as well as areas of current and necessary research and development are identified

  20. Mining and processing of uranium ores in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Mamilov, V.A.; Korejsho, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experience gained in uranium ore mining by modern methods in combination with underground and heap leaching is summarized. More intensive processing of low-grade ores has been achieved through the use of autoclave leaching, sorptive treatment of thick pulps, extractive separation of pure uranium compounds, automated continuous sorption devices of high efficiency for processing the underground- and heap-leaching liquors, natural and mine water, and recovery of molybdenum, vanadium, scandium, rare earths and phosphate fertilizers from low-grade ores. Production of ion-exchangers and extractants has been developed and processes for concomitant recovery of copper, gold, ionium, tungsten, caesium, zirconium, tantalum, nickel and cobalt have been designed. (author)

  1. Stakeholder cooperation: regulating a uranium mine with multiple statutory approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine operates under an Authorisation issued by the Northern Territory Government. In addition, the site is regulated by a set of Environmental Requirements attached to the uranium export permit issued by the Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. A Heap Leach facility proposed for the site could result in a third approval being issued, in accordance with the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Finding the correct balance to regulate the mine in light of these approvals will be a challenge for the range of stakeholders involved in regulation and oversight of this operation. (author)

  2. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Compliance Program for Uranium Mines and Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryer, D., E-mail: denis.schryer@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the principal nuclear regulator in Canada. The CNSC is empowered through the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) and its associated regulations, to regulate the entire nuclear cycle which includes: uranium mining and milling, uranium refining and processing, fuel fabrication, power generation and nuclear waste management. A CNSC uranium mine licence is required by a proponent to site, prepare, construct, operate, decommission and abandon this nuclear facility. The CNSC licence is the legal instrument that authorizes the regulated activities and incorporates conditions and regulatory controls. Following a favourable Commission Tribunal decision to issue a licence to authorize the licensed activities, CNSC develops and executes a compliance plan of the licensee’s programs and procedures. The CNSC compliance plan is risk-informed and applies its resources to the identified higher risk areas. The compliance program is designed to encourage compliance by integrating three components: promotion, verification and enforcement and articulates the CNSC expectations to attain and maintain compliance with its regulatory requirements. The licensee performance is assessed through compliance activities and reported to the Commission to inform the licensing process during licence renewal. The application of the ongoing compliance assessment and risk management model ensures that deviations from impact predictions are addressed in a timely manner. The Uranium Mines and Mills Division of the CNSC are preparing to meet the challenges of the planned expansion of their Canadian uranium mining industry. The presentation will discuss these challenges and the measures required to address them. The Uranium Mines and Mills Division (UMMD) have adopted a structured compliance framework which includes formal procedures to conduct site inspections. New UMMD staff are trained to apply the regulations to licensed sites and to manage non

  3. Regulation of uranium mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Australia, uranium and other 'prescribed substances', including thorium, and any element having an atomic number greater than 92, are the property of the Commonwealth under the Atomic Energy Act 1953. However, the regulation of mining in Australia is managed by the States. The Uranium Mining Environment Control Act, was passed by the NT in 1978 and this remains the primary legislation through which uranium mining is regulated. Under working arrangements with the Commonwealth, the NT carries out regulatory activities including monitoring, evaluation and surveillance, in respect of each of the operating mines. The monitoring is overseen, validated and its continuing relevance audited by the Commonwealth Office of the Supervising Scientist and the Northern Land Council representing the local traditional owners. Environment Impact Assessment is co-ordinated jointly by the Commonwealth and the NT and has recently been concluded for the Jabiluka Project. Delays in final approval on this project are occasioned by social concerns expressed by some of the traditional indigenous owners and anti-nuclear protestors. Although Jabiluka is not in a World Heritage area, the concerns have resulted in intervention by the World Heritage Commission. This has required the Company and the Government to modify the way they handle the approval process. This paper analyses the development of the regulatory system which evolved to ensure best practice environmental, occupational health and safety management on the NT uranium mines. (author)

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  5. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation

  6. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board considers the health and safety of workers and members of the public to be of primary concern in the assessment of any proposed uranium mine or mill. Of great importance also is the influence mining practices may have on waste streams, subsequent waste management, and consequently the environment. Past mistakes and the reluctance of mining companies to talk openly to the public have resulted in the loss of credibility of the uranium mining industry. The public is subjected to the biased views of nuclear critics and does not have a balanced picture of the industry. The health hazards of radiation are generally overstated, and society is not willing to accept the small risks associated with nuclear power. Complete openness on the part of the industry and regulatory agencies will be required in order to regain public confidence

  7. Remediation of the Gunnar uranium mine site, northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, H.T.; Brown, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Gunnar uranium mine, located in northern Saskatchewan, operated from 1955 to 1963. When the mine was closed, the site was not remediated to the standards that are in place for today's uranium mines. Waste rock and mill tailings were left un-covered and water quality issues were not addressed. As a result, the current state of the site impacts the local environment. The company that operated the Gunnar Mine no longer exists. In 2006, the Government of Saskatchewan and the Government of Canada entered into an agreement to share the costs for remediating the site. An environment assessment of the project to remediate the site is currently underway. This paper provides an update of the issues and the progress being made. (author)

  8. A study on the distribution of radioactivity in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1976-01-01

    Scintillation counting techniques developed for routine radiological health monitoring in the uranium mine at Jaduguda are described. A brief description of the mine and mining activities is given and the radiological hazards encountered in a uranium mine are summarised. The main hazard is the inhalation hazard due to radon and air borne, short lived radon daughter products. A summary of results of monitoring (radon in air and water) conducted during the last 10 years using the methods described in these studies is presented. Based on the monitoring data, the cumulative exposure of miners to radon daughters has been estimated. The values applicable to certain categories of workers as a whole are given. From the data it appears that the muckers are the most exposed. The average figure in their case is 3.32 WLM which is much less than the standard adopted in U.S.A. (4 WLM year). (A.K.)

  9. Some characteristics of the air in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.; Barzic, J.Y.; Madelaine, G.J.; Zettwoog, P.

    1978-01-01

    The radon content in the atmosphere of a uranium mine, 183 pCi l -1 , was found during the varied phases of the excavation (drilling, blasting, and clearing) to vary between 63 and 3600 pCi l -1 . Radioactive equilibrium was not found to be reached for radon and its daughter products. By means of a seven-stage Andersen cascade impactor, the particle size distribution for the aerosols of the mine was determined as well as the alpha-particle activities on each disk of the impactor and on the millipore filter placed behind each stage. This yielded the information that the major portion of alpha activity in the test mine is connected with aerosols having a radius 1 μm) is very small (<3%). This indicates that if the Andersen impactor is used carelessly, it may yield an erroneous distribution of the radioactivity in a uranium mine. 11 tables. 13 figures

  10. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, V. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Mediciny)

    1982-06-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself.

  11. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusak, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  12. Occupational dermatoses in the uranium mining and processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcova, M [Zavodni Ustav Narodniho Zdravi Uranoveho Prumyslu, Pribram (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-04-01

    Experience gained so far by the Department of Dermatovenerology in the uranium industry discloses that the incidence of occupational dermatoses is relatively low in this industry. It represents about 1% of all newly ascertained skin diseases per year. Allergic contact eczemas after having been in contact with rubber products, chiefly rubber boots, predominate. Under the working conditions in mining and preparing uranium ore, ionizing radiation cannot induce non-stochastic effects of the type of radiation dermatitis on the skin. A higher incidence was, however, ascertained in uranium miners of basaliomas, which agrees with the estimation of the dose of external alpha radiation in the basal epidermis layer.

  13. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Australia has almost twenty per cent of the Western World's low-cost uranium reserves, located mostly in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. At present, only one uranium mill is operating in Australia, but a number of new mills are planned for the early 1980s. Details are given of Australian uranium mining and milling proposals and the measures taken to minimize their environmental impact. Major factors affecting environmental impact are discussed, including treatment of liquid wastes, water management, control of radon and other airborne releases, and disposal of tailings. (auth)

  14. REMOVAL AND CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM FROM WASTE MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Augusta Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of leaching agents, such as sodium citrate and ammonium carbonate, were assessed for the extraction of uranium from one mining residue containing 0.25% U. Concentration techniques such as precipitation and ion exchange were employed to recover the uranium from the leaching liquor. Leaching results showed maximum uranium extraction of about 40% for both reagents. The use 10 mol L-1 NaOH to precipitate the uranium from the leach liquor leads to a recovery of 62%; what was considered not satisfactory. In view of this, resins were used to concentrate the uranium from the liquor and the metal loading obtained at pH 3.9 was higher for the resin DOWEX RPU, whose maximum loading maximum capacity was 148.3 mg g-1, compared to 126.9 mg g-1 presented by the resin IRA 910 U.

  15. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission (CNEN), Avenida Santana, 680, Centro, Caetite-Bahia, 46400-000 (Brazil); Zuddas, Pierpaolo [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP place Jussieu, Tour 56-55, case 116, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  16. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scislewski, Alexandro; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  17. Dose rate in a deactivated uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse G.A.C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Marques, José M.; Carmo, Alessander S. do; Dias, Ayandra O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopes@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit is a deactivated uranium mine and milling situated in Caldas, MG, BR. Although disabled, there are still areas considered controlled and supervised from the radiological point of view. In these areas, it is necessary to keep an occupational monitoring program to ensure the workers' safety and to prevent the dispersion of radioactive material. For area monitoring, the dose rate, in μSv∙h{sup -1}, was measured with Geiger Müller (GM) area monitors or personal electronic monitors type GM and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), in mSv∙month{sup -1}, along the years 2013 to 2016. For area monitoring, 577 samples were recorded; for personal dosimeters monitoring, 2,656; and for TLD monitoring type, 5,657. The area monitoring showed a mean dose rate of 6.42 μSv∙h{sup -1} associated to a standard deviation of 48 μSv∙h{sup -1} with a maximum recorded value of 685 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 96 % of the samples were below the derived limit per hour for workers (10 μSv∙h{sup -1}). For the personal electronic monitoring, the average of the data sampled was 15.86 μSv∙h{sup -1}, associated to a standard deviation of 61.74 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 80 % of the samples were below the derived limit and the maximum recorded was 1,220 μSv∙h{sup -1}. Finally, the TLD showed a mean of 0.01 mSv∙h{sup -1} (TLD detection limit is 0.2 mSv∙month{sup -1}), associated to a standard deviation of 0.08 mSv∙h{sup -1}. 98% of the registered values were below 0.2 mSv and less than 2 % of the measurements had values above the limit of detection. The samples show areas with low risk of external exposure, as can be seen by the TLD evaluation. Specific areas with greater risk of contamination have already been identified, as well as operations at higher risks. In these cases, the use of the individual electronic dosimeter is justified for a more effective monitoring. Radioprotection identified all risks and was able to extend individual electronic monitoring to all

  18. Dose rate in a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse G.A.C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Marques, José M.; Carmo, Alessander S. do; Dias, Ayandra O.; Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit is a deactivated uranium mine and milling situated in Caldas, MG, BR. Although disabled, there are still areas considered controlled and supervised from the radiological point of view. In these areas, it is necessary to keep an occupational monitoring program to ensure the workers' safety and to prevent the dispersion of radioactive material. For area monitoring, the dose rate, in μSv∙h"-"1, was measured with Geiger Müller (GM) area monitors or personal electronic monitors type GM and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), in mSv∙month"-"1, along the years 2013 to 2016. For area monitoring, 577 samples were recorded; for personal dosimeters monitoring, 2,656; and for TLD monitoring type, 5,657. The area monitoring showed a mean dose rate of 6.42 μSv∙h"-"1 associated to a standard deviation of 48 μSv∙h"-"1 with a maximum recorded value of 685 μSv∙h"-"1. 96 % of the samples were below the derived limit per hour for workers (10 μSv∙h"-"1). For the personal electronic monitoring, the average of the data sampled was 15.86 μSv∙h"-"1, associated to a standard deviation of 61.74 μSv∙h"-"1. 80 % of the samples were below the derived limit and the maximum recorded was 1,220 μSv∙h"-"1. Finally, the TLD showed a mean of 0.01 mSv∙h"-"1 (TLD detection limit is 0.2 mSv∙month"-"1), associated to a standard deviation of 0.08 mSv∙h"-"1. 98% of the registered values were below 0.2 mSv and less than 2 % of the measurements had values above the limit of detection. The samples show areas with low risk of external exposure, as can be seen by the TLD evaluation. Specific areas with greater risk of contamination have already been identified, as well as operations at higher risks. In these cases, the use of the individual electronic dosimeter is justified for a more effective monitoring. Radioprotection identified all risks and was able to extend individual electronic monitoring to all risk operations, even with the use of the TLD

  19. Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

  20. Preliminary environmental impact statement for the Kvanefjeld uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilegaard, K.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental impacts of the mining and milling of uranium from the Kvanefjeld are assessed in order - to provide a general description of the Narssaq area, with special reference to the ecological aspects, - to identify potential pollutants, and if possible to quantify these, - to identify critical pathways and populations, - to evaluate the technical design of the mine and mill in relation to the environment, - to evaluate alternatives, - to provide guidelines for preoperational environmental studies. (EG)

  1. Setting rehabilitation priorities for abandoned mines of similar characteristics according to their visual impact: The case of Milos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Mavrommatis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine rehabilitation is nowadays an essential part of the mine life-cycle. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate legislative framework and the lack of appropriate financial instruments in the past, abandoned mined land is present in almost all regions with a mining history. Especially in times of fiscal and financial belt tightening, where direct funding is almost impossible, the restoration of abandoned mines becomes a difficult task and, consequently, prioritization of the restoration projects is necessitated. So far, several models have been developed for that purpose. The existing models, however, usually underestimate that, especially for non-reclaimed mines located close to populated areas, landscape degradation generated by surface mining is a critical factor. To this end, this paper presents, through an illustrative example, a new approach providing the means for prioritizing mine restoration projects based on the visibility of surface mines with regard to the neighboring areas of interest. The proposed approach can be utilized as an additional module in existing prioritization models, or it can be used standalone when considering a group of surface mines where what distinguishes them from each other is primarily the disturbance of the landscape.

  2. Feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines as an energy resource for space heating

    OpenAIRE

    Athresh, AP

    2017-01-01

    This research project aims to study the feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines for space heating applications using a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in open loop configuration and take a conceptual idea to a commercial deployment level. The flooded coal mines are the legacy that has been left behind after the three centuries of continuous operations by the coal mining industry. The closure of all coal mines in the UK has led to the flooding of all those aband...

  3. Basic status of uranium mine production at the beginning of the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the new century, the global uranium mine production declined slightly, the spot uranium price was close to or slightly higher than that of the last century. The uranium consumption in global nuclear electricity generation does not fluctuate greatly, remains stable as a whole. Although certain accidents have taken place during the period of uranium mine production, uranium production remains stable, uranium's demand and supply remain balanced basically. In the global uranium mine production at the beginning of the new century, production from hard rock uranium mines still plays the leading role, and production from in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mines increases by a small margin and makes up one fifth of the total global uranium mine production. Several transnational uranium industry companies have become the main stockholders of low cost uranium production centers all around the world. Most mining uranium deposits and uranium production centers have centralized in a few countries. The globalized distribution of uranium resources during the progress of the world's economy globalization has taken shape in the uranium industry. (authors)

  4. Sustainability of new uranium mining projects in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarra, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    The regulatory framework issued in the 1994-1995 period, connected mining activities in Argentina with international good environmental practices. Agreements between National Government and Provinces allow the application of the regulations, while Act No 24.585, the milestone about the matter, establishes the steps for the approval of the Report of Environmental Impact, on successive stages of the project. Specifically for uranium mining and milling, the assessment of the radiological protection aspects of the planned activities is assigned to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The National Atomic Energy Commission is at present carrying out two uranium mining projects, that involve the Sierra Pintada and Cerro Solo deposits. The goal of them is restart uranium production in the country in the medium term, by lowing the gap between indigenous and market uranium prices. The first one consists in updating the feasibility study of the, at present inactive, Sierra Pintada Production Center (Mendoza Province). Studies for improving the mining and treatment methods are performed in the project, co-ordinately with the investigation and forecast of mining waste and processing tailings management. Besides, the procedures will be determined taking into account the methodology to be applied when getting the closure stage, about the existing waste and tailings. Development of the Sierra de Pichinan District, Chubut Province (U-Mo), is the objective of the second project. It is remarkable that about Cerro Solo, the main ore deposit belonging to this area, at the prefeasibility stage, CNEA is currently encouraging private investment through a bidding process. Environmental studies are an important aspect of the activities carried out and planned in the area. As a conclusion, with regard uranium mining and milling activities in Argentina, the regulations and environmental technical-scientific knowledge are becoming friendly with the sustainable practice. (author)

  5. Reactive transport modeling of uranium 238 and radium 226 in groundwater of the Königstein uranium mine, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, O.; Merkel, B.

    Knowledge of the transport behavior of radionuclides in groundwater is needed for both groundwater protection and remediation of abandoned uranium mines and milling sites. Dispersion, diffusion, mixing, recharge to the aquifer, and chemical interactions, as well as radioactive decay, should be taken into account to obtain reliable predictions on transport of primordial nuclides in groundwater. This paper demonstrates the need for carrying out rehabilitation strategies before closure of the Königstein in-situ leaching uranium mine near Dresden, Germany. Column experiments on drilling cores with uranium-enriched tap water provided data about the exchange behavior of uranium. Uranium breakthrough was observed after more than 20 pore volumes. This strong retardation is due to the exchange of positively charged uranium ions. The code TReAC is a 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D reactive transport code that was modified to take into account the radioactive decay of uranium and the most important daughter nuclides, and to include double-porosity flow. TReAC satisfactorily simulated the breakthrough curves of the column experiments and provided a first approximation of exchange parameters. Groundwater flow in the region of the Königstein mine was simulated using the FLOWPATH code. Reactive transport behavior was simulated with TReAC in one dimension along a 6000-m path line. Results show that uranium migration is relatively slow, but that due to decay of uranium, the concentration of radium along the flow path increases. Results are highly sensitive to the influence of double-porosity flow. Résumé La protection des eaux souterraines et la restauration des sites miniers et de prétraitement d'uranium abandonnés nécessitent de connaître le comportement des radionucléides au cours de leur transport dans les eaux souterraines. La dispersion, la diffusion, le mélange, la recharge de l'aquifère et les interactions chimiques, de même que la décroissance radioactive, doivent être

  6. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  7. Radiation protection of workers from uranium mines and of the public living nearby uranium mining and milling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Mikhail; Romanov, Vladimir; Shandala, Nataliya; Gneusheva, Galina; Titov, Alex; Novikova, Natalia; Smith, Graham

    2008-01-01

    As part of the program of nuclear power development, the Russia Federation plans to increase uranium production and to improve supply from existing uranium mining and milling facilities. Moreover, development of new uranium ore deposits is also envisaged. A corollary of these developments is the placing of a high priority on environmental and human health protection Special attention should be paid to assurance of health protection both of workers and of the public living nearby such facilities. This paper reviews the status and development of understanding of facilities in the Russian Federation from a regulatory perspective. (author)

  8. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U 3 O 8 production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U 3 O 8 production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U 3 O 8 respectively. U 3 O 8 production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future 222 Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that 222 Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total 222 Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total 222 Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate

  9. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  10. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Plants from the abandoned Nacozari mine tailings: evaluation of their phytostabilization potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina E. Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytostabilization is a remediation technology that uses plants for in-situ stabilization of contamination in soils and mine tailings. The objective of this study was to identify native plant species with potential for phytostabilization of the abandoned mine tailings in Nacozari, Sonora in northern Mexico. A flora of 42 species in 16 families of angiosperms was recorded on the tailings site and the abundance of the most common perennial species was estimated. Four of the five abundant perennial species showed evidence of regeneration: the ability to reproduce and establish new seedlings. A comparison of selected physicochemical properties of the tailings in vegetated patches with adjacent barren areas suggests that pH, electrical conductivity, texture, and concentration of potentially toxic elements do not limit plant distribution. For the most abundant species, the accumulation factor for most metals was <1, with the exception of Zn in two species. A short-term experiment on adaptation revealed limited evidence for the formation of local ecotypes in Prosopis velutina and Amaranthus watsonii. Overall, the results of this study indicate that five native plant species might have potential for phytostabilization of the Nacozari tailings and that seed could be collected locally to revegetate the site. More broadly, this study provides a methodology that can be used to identify native plants and evaluate their phytostabilization potential for similar mine tailings.

  12. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia El Baz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3.

  13. Glionitrin A, an antibiotic-antitumor metabolite derived from competitive interaction between abandoned mine microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.B.; Kown, H.C.; Lee, C.H.; Yang, H.O. [Korean Institute of Science & Technology KIST, Kangnung (Republic of Korea)

    2009-02-15

    The nutrient conditions present in abandoned coal mine drainages create an extreme environment where defensive and offensive microbial interactions could be critical for survival and fitness. Coculture of a mine drainage-derived Sphingomonas bacterial strain, KMK-001, and a mine drainage-derived Aspergillus fumigatus fungal strain, KMC-901, resulted in isolation of a new diketopiperazine disulfide, glionitrin A (1). Compound 1 was not detected in monoculture broths of KMK-001 or KMC-901. The structure of 1, a (3S,10aS) diketopiperazine disulfide containing a nitro aromatic ring, was based on analysis of MS, NMR, and circular dichroism spectra and confirmed by X-ray crystal data. Glionitrin A displayed significant antibiotic activity against a series of microbes including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An in vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay revealed that 1 had potent submicromolar cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, A549, AGS, and DU145. The results provide further evidence that microbial coculture can produce novel biologically relevant molecules.

  14. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Soraia; Baz, Mohamed; El Gharmali, Abdelhay; Imziln, Boujamâa

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S) revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3). PMID:25763383

  15. Generation of Acid Mine Lakes Associated with Abandoned Coal Mines in Northwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, Deniz; Balci, Nurgul; Baba, Alper

    2016-05-01

    A total of five acid mine lakes (AMLs) located in northwest Turkey were investigated using combined isotope, molecular, and geochemical techniques to identify geochemical processes controlling and promoting acid formation. All of the investigated lakes showed typical characteristics of an AML with low pH (2.59-3.79) and high electrical conductivity values (1040-6430 μS/cm), in addition to high sulfate (594-5370 mg/l) and metal (aluminum [Al], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], nickel [Ni], and zinc [Zn]) concentrations. Geochemical and isotope results showed that the acid-generation mechanism and source of sulfate in the lakes can change and depends on the age of the lakes. In the relatively older lakes (AMLs 1 through 3), biogeochemical Fe cycles seem to be the dominant process controlling metal concentration and pH of the water unlike in the younger lakes (AMLs 4 and 5). Bacterial species determined in an older lake (AML 2) indicate that biological oxidation and reduction of Fe and S are the dominant processes in the lakes. Furthermore, O and S isotopes of sulfate indicate that sulfate in the older mine lakes may be a product of much more complex oxidation/dissolution reactions. However, the major source of sulfate in the younger mine lakes is in situ pyrite oxidation catalyzed by Fe(III) produced by way of oxidation of Fe(II). Consistent with this, insignificant fractionation between δ(34) [Formula: see text] and δ(34) [Formula: see text] values indicated that the oxidation of pyrite, along with dissolution and precipitation reactions of Fe(III) minerals, is the main reason for acid formation in the region. Overall, the results showed that acid generation during early stage formation of an AML associated with pyrite-rich mine waste is primarily controlled by the oxidation of pyrite with Fe cycles becoming the dominant processes regulating pH and metal cycles in the later stages of mine lake development.

  16. Uranium mining and rehabilitation: International aspects and examples from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.H.; Mager, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1945 to 1994 about 1.87 million t U have been produced worldwide. The maximum of production reached about 70,000 t U in 1981, now the production has fell to about 32,000 t U. Due to the decrease of the annual output, employment in uranium production has decreased, however the productivity has been increased in most countries. As any mining, uranium mining has an impact on the environment. Especially the radioactivity of the ores and waste material may create radiological hazards to the population when protection measures are not observed carefully. The impact of uranium production to the environmental is illustrated by various examples. The costs which are necessary to decommission and rehabilitate uranium production facilities can reach high levels depending on the specifics of the recultivation activities. International examples are given. The production of uranium in Eastern Germany is described briefly, and the reclamation activities of the former Wismut mining and milling facilities is illustrated by selected examples. (author). 5 tabs

  17. Uranium solution mining: comparison of New Mexico with South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conine, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    In-situ uranium-leaching or solution-mining operations are currently underway in both south Texas and Wyoming. Mobil Oil Corporation is in the process of applying solution-mining technology, such as that developed at the O'Hern facility in south Texas, to uranium orebodies located near Crownpoint, New Mexico. The O'Hern facility uses an alkaline-leach process to bring the uranium to the surface, where it is removed from solution using ion-exchange resin and chemical precipitation. Line-drive and five-spot well field patterns are used to inject and recover the leach solutions. Although details of ore occurrence in New Mexico differ from those in south Texas, laboratory, engineering-design, and field-hydrology tests indicate that solution mining of uranium should be feasible in New Mexico. To determine the commercial feasibility, Mobil is proceeding with the construction of pilot-plant facilities for a 75-gallon-perminute (gpm) test at an orebody near Crownpoint. The pilot test will use five-spot patterns at various spacings for production of uranium-bearing leachate. Initial surface processing will be the same as that used in south Texas

  18. Report on the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Since 1981 the Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has administered a semi-annual course on radiation safety in uranium mines under contract to and in consultation with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The course is intended primarily for representatives from mining companies, regulatory agencies, unions, and mine and mill workers. By the terms of its contract with the AECB, CAIRS is required to submit a report on each course it conducts. This is the report on the June 1987 course. It lists the course objectives and the timetable, outlines for each lecture, the lecturers' resumes, and the participants. The students' evaluations of the course are included

  19. Uranium Mining and Nuclear Facilities (Prohibitions) Act 1986 No. 194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of New South Wales and its environment. Accordingly it prohibits prospecting or mining for uranium and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  20. Realization of economic evaluation expert system for uranium mine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng

    1993-01-01

    By studying the EVALUATOR, economic evaluation expert system of uranium mine project, the theoretical fundamentals of expert system, principle of inference mechanism, implementation of knowledge base, realization of explanation mechanism, acquisition of domain knowledge and representation of knowledge were described, especially the subjective Bayes approach for inexact reasoning problem used in EVALUATOR was discussed in detail

  1. Procedure of uranium mine and mill facilities decommissioning work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    1995-01-01

    The procedure of decommissioning work of uranium mine and mill facilities includes three stages: preparation, on-the-spot construction and acceptance after being completed. The first stage, preparation, is discussed in detail, and it is presented to take the measures of strengthening leadership and improving leading body to conduct the decommissioning work best

  2. The regulation of uranium mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedd, M.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory framework developed for uranium mining operations in the Northern Territory is reviewed. The respective roles of the Commonwealth Government, State Government and other regulatory authority are described. Whilst complex, expensive and cumbersome the regulatory process has so far ensured input from diverse interest groups and it allowed for environmental protection control in the Alligator River Region

  3. Composition and method for solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.; Watts, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that, in the solution mining of uranium ores using ammonium carbonate solutions containing hydrogen peroxide or ozone as an oxidant, the tendency of the formation being treated to become less permeable during the leaching process can be overcome by including in the leaching solution a very small concentration of sodium silicate

  4. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  5. Uranium mining on Indian lands: blessing or curse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium development has provided higher income and employment levels for the Laguna Indians. However, related health and social problems and environmental degradation have increased as well, and are still being felt even after the mining operation was recently shut down because of falling demand. Problems discussed include lung disease, radiation hazards, water pollution and reclamation

  6. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  7. Recovery of uranium from uranium mine waters and copper ore leaching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D R; Ross, J R [Salt Lake City Metallurgy Research Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1967-06-15

    Waters pumped from uranium mines in New Mexico are processed by ion exchange to recover uranium. Production is approximately 200 lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/d from waters containing 5 to 15 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Recoveries range from 80 to 90%. Processing plants are described. Uranium has been found in the solutions resulting from the leaching of copper-bearing waste rock at most of the major copper mines in western United States. These solutions, which are processed on a very large scale for recovery of copper, contain 2 to 12 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Currently, uranium is not being recovered, but a potential production of up to 6000 lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/d is indicated. Ion exchange and solvent extraction research studies are described. (author)

  8. A study on the recovery of valuable resources from abandoned gold mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Young-Bae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea); Jeong, Soo-Bok; Yoon, Pyoung-Ran [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    1999-08-31

    This study was carried out to, recover gold and silica from abandoned gold mine tailings with about 4.5 g/ton Au and 84.88 wt.% SiO{sub 2}. The beneficiation processes including crushing, screening, magnetic and gravity (humprey spiral, shaking table) separation were employed. Results were feasible to recover the gold concentrates (307.7 g/ton Au:0.60 wt.%, 97.7 g/ton Au:0.27 wt.%, 15.3 g/ton Au:5.23 wt.%, 27.2 g/ton Au:2.42 wt.%) and silica (96.40 wt.% SiO{sub 2}, yield 60.65 wt.%). (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Proceedings of the meeting on uranium exploration, mining and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Meeting on uranium exploration, mining, and extraction is aimed to expedite information exchange among researchers from the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN), their international colleagues, the higher education institutions,and other interested scientific communities on the latest development on Kalan uranium minerals exploration, mining, and extraction. Nuclear Minerals Development Centre (PPBGN) roles in nuclear energy provision, the theme of the meeting, reflect current advancements of the Centre in fulfilling its major tasks and responsibilities. In order to assist PPBGN better to assume its roles and responsibilities, the meeting is expected to bring forth essential solutions for problems and difficulties relevant to PPBGN's activities. Hence, the scope of the meeting will be limited to discussion on the status of nuclear minerals exploration, mining, and extraction technologies in Indonesia as well as the related environmental and workplace safeties in uranium mining and milling. Ten technical papers were presented in meeting, including four topics on exploration status and technology, three subject matter on mining, two presentations on milling, and one paper on environmental and workplace safeties

  10. Treatment of the acid mine drainage residue for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.M.; Horta, D.G.; Fukuma, H.T.; Villegas, R.A.S.; Carvalho, C.H.T. de; Silva, A.C. da

    2017-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a process that occurs in many mining that have sulfide ores. With water and oxygen, several metals are oxidized, one example being uranium. At the mine pit of the Osamu Utsumi Mine located at INB - Caldas and in two other boot-wastes (mining waste pile), AMD is present and currently, without a technological solution. The acidic water present in the pit is treated with hydrated lime, generating water for disposal and an alkaline residue called calcium diuranate - DUCA. The DUCA has a concentration of approximately 0.32% U 3 O 8 , which makes interesting the development of a process for extracting that metal. One of the processes that can be used is leaching. For this study, it was decided to evaluate the alkaline leaching to extract the uranium present in the residue. It is necessary to optimize operational parameters for the process: percentage of solids, concentration of leaching agent in solution, temperature and reaction time. With these parameters, it is possible to improve the leaching so that the largest amount of uranium is extracted from the sample, to help solve the environmental impact caused by the wastewater from the treatment of acid waters and, in addition, to give an economical destination for this metal that is contained in the deposited DUCA

  11. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the Australian government policy and the attitude of political party factions towards the mining and exporting of the uranium resources in Australia. Australia has a third of the Western World's low-cost uranium resources

  12. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts.

  13. Potential toxic elements in stream sediments, soils and waters in an abandoned radium mine (central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Neiva, A M R; Albuquerque, M T D; Carvalho, P C S; Santos, A C T; Cunha, Pedro P

    2018-02-01

    The Alto da Várzea radium mine (AV) exploited ore and U-bearing minerals, such as autunite and torbernite. The mine was exploited underground from 1911 to 1922, closed in 1946 without restoration, and actually a commercial area is deployed. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected between 2008 and 2009. Stream sediments are mainly contaminated in As, Th, U and W, which is related to the AV radium mine. The PTEs, As, Co, Cr, Sr, Th, U, W, Zn, and electrical conductivity reached the highest values in soils collected inside the mine influence. Soils are contaminated with As and U and must not be used for any purpose. Most waters have pH values ranging from 4.3 to 6.8 and are poorly mineralized (EC = 41-186 µS/cm; TDS = 33-172 mg/L). Groundwater contains the highest Cu, Cr and Pb contents. Arsenic occurs predominantly as H 2 (AsO 4 ) - and H(AsO 4 ) 2- . Waters are saturated in goethite, haematite and some of them also in lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite, which adsorbs As (V). Lead is divalent in waters collected during the warm season, being mobile in these waters. Thorium occurs mainly as Th(OH) 3 (CO 3 ) - , Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) and Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- , which increase water Th contents. Uranium occurs predominantly as UO 2 CO 3 , but CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- and CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 also occur, decreasing its mobility in water. The waters are contaminated in NO 2 - , Mn, Cu, As, Pb and U and must not be used for human consumption and in agricultural activities. The water contamination is mainly associated with the old radium mine and human activities. A restoration of the mining area with PTE monitoring is necessary to avoid a public hazard.

  14. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vasconcellos, Luisa M.H.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Clain, Almir F.; Silva, Liliane F.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U 3 O 8 . The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U 3 O 8 production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  15. Geology of Mt. Taylor uranium mine, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alief, M.H.; Kern, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor uranium mine is located 25 mi due northeast of Grants, New Mexico. Gulf Mineral Resources attained interest in the property in 1971. Surface drilling outlined several orebodies extending for 7 mi and containing over 120 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ). Gulf sank two shafts and developed the orebody in Sec. 24, T13N, R8W. Due to depressed markets, the mine was shut down in 1982. Chevron reopened the mine in 1985 following the 1984 Gulf-Chevron merger. The uranium ore occurs in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. The Westwater Canyon member was deposited as part of a braided-stream channel system. Mineralization was emplaced following the deposition and possibly prior to consolidation of the host. Uranium is intimately associated with carbonaceous matter that may have been deposited as humates prior to and/or contemporaneous with the uranium mineralization. Mineralization coats sand grains and fills intergranular voids. Since 1985, Chevron has produced more than 5 million lb of U 3 O 8 , most of it from Sec. 24 and Sec. 19 (T13N, R7W). Plans are to complete extraction in these sections and to continue southeasterly into Sec. 25 (T13N, R8W) and Sec. 30 (T13N, R7W). More than 40 million lb of U 3 O 8 may be mined from the present facilities. At the current mining rate of 1.5 million lb/year, supplies should take them well beyond the year 2000

  16. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sares, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  17. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 2. Exploration, reserve estimation, mining, milling, conversion, and properties of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    In this module geological and geochemical data pertinent to locating, mining, and milling of uranium are examined. Chapters are devoted to: uranium source characteristics; uranium ore exploration methods; uranium reserve estimation for sandstone deposits; mining; milling; conversion processes for uranium; and properties of uranium, thorium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides

  18. The environmental impact assessment of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvell, G.

    2002-01-01

    Federal environmental impact assessment legislation has existed in Australia since 1974. A number of uranium mines have been developed in this time, utilizing a range of mining techniques, including opencut, underground and in-situ leach. Projects have also been undertaken in a variety of geographical areas requiring consideration of diverse biodiversity, cultural heritage and social impact issues. Assessment of uranium mining proposals in Australia is also conducted in a climate of political opposition from a cross section of the Australian community. This paper outlines some of the key issues that arose during recent assessments and which provide a lead to the role of environmental impact assessment in environmental policy development. Issues are also relevant to recent assessments on a replacement nuclear reactor, shipments of waste for reprocessing and proposed assessments on proposals for low and intermediate level nuclear waste facilities. (author)

  19. Environmental radiological impact of some Portuguese uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, J.P.; Bettencourt, A.O.; Teixeira, M.M.G.R.; Elias, M.D.T.

    1988-01-01

    An environmental radiological surveillance programme has been in progress around the most significant Portuguese uranium mines, from 1976 to 1983. A short description is given of the mines of Urgeirica (including uranium milling), Freixiosa, Pinhal de Souto and Bica. The results of the surveillance programme developed in the vicinity of these facilities are presented and the identified critical pathways are discussed. One of these pathways is the consumption of cabbage, which is an important component in the diet of the Portuguese population. The exposure of the critical groups, due to the intake of 226 Ra through the diet, calculated from the results of this monitoring programme, range from 0.02 to 1.5 mSv.y -1 for the different mines under study. (author)

  20. Mining-metallurgical projects for the production of uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overall view of a complete project for a mining-metallurgical complex for the production of uranium concentrates. Relevant aspects of each important topic are discussed as parts of an integrated methodology. The principal project activities are analyzed and the relationships among the various factors affecting the design are indicated. A list of 96 principal activities is proposed as an example. These activities are distributed in eight groups: initial evaluations preliminary feasibility studies, project engineering, construction, industrial operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning activities. The environmental impact and the radiological risks due to the construction and operation of the mining metallurgical complex are analyzed. The principles of radiological protection and the regulations, standards and recommendations for radiological protection in uranium mines and mills are discussed. This report is also a guide to the specialized literature: a bibliography with 765 references is included. (author)

  1. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of 222 Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226 Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  2. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry: 1986 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the fourth annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1982. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions, as well as projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports. 13 refs., 26 figs., 37 tabs

  3. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry. 1984 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the second annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to requirements set forth in Section 23(b) of Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act, which was enacted on January 4, 1983. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions and projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports

  4. Groundwater assessment and environmental impact in the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, Julien; Picard-Lesteven, Tanguy; Zouhri, Lahcen; El Amari, Khalid; Hibti, Mohamed; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah

    2017-12-01

    Many questions about the soil pollution due to mining activities have been analyzed by numerous methods which help to evaluate the dispersion of the Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in the soil and stream sediments of the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). The transport of these MTE could have an important role in the degradation of groundwater and the health of people who are living in the vicinity. The present paper aims to evaluate the groundwater samples from 15 hydrogeological wells. This evaluation concerns the hydrogeological parameters, pH, Electrical conductivity, temperature and the groundwater level, and the geochemical assessment of Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb. Furthermore, the Metallic Trace Elements are transported in the saturated zone via the fractures network. The groundwater flow is from the north-east to south-west. The spatial distribution of As, Fe, Zn and Mn is very heterogeneous, with high values observed in the north, upstream, of the mine site. This distribution is maybe related to: i) the existence of hydrogeological structures (dividing and drainage axes); ii) the individualization of the fractures network that affects the shaly lithostratigraphical formation; iii) the transport of the contaminants from the soil towards groundwater; and iv) interaction water/rocks. Some MTE anomalies are linked to the lithology and the fracturation system of the area. Therefore, the groundwater contamination by Arsenic is detected in the hydrogeological wells (E1 and E2). This pollution which is higher than guideline standards of Moroccan drinking water could affect the public health. The hydrogeological and geochemical investigations favor the geological origin (mafic rocks) of this contamination rather than mining activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  6. Hydrological and geophysical investigation of streamflow losses and restoration strategies in an abandoned mine lands setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Sherrod, Laura; Galeone, Daniel G.; Lehman, Wayne G.; Ackman, Terry E.; Kramer, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal discharge and water-quality campaigns (seepage runs) were combined with surface-geophysical surveys, hyporheic-temperature profiling, and watershed-scale hydrological monitoring to evaluate the locations, magnitude, and impact of streamwater losses from the West Creek subbasin of the West West Branch Schuylkill River into the underground Oak Hill Mine complex that extends beneath the watershed divide. Abandoned mine drainage (AMD), containing iron and other contaminants, from the Oak Hill Boreholes to the West Branch Schuylkill River was sustained during low-flow conditions and correlated to streamflow lost through the West Creek streambed. During high-flow conditions, streamflow was transmitted throughout West Creek; however, during low-flow conditions, all streamflow from the perennial headwaters was lost within the 300-to-600-m "upper reach" where an 1889 mine map indicated steeply dipping coalbeds underlie the channel. During low-flow conditions, the channel within the "intermediate reach" 700-to-1650-m downstream gained groundwater seepage with higher pH and specific conductance than upstream; however, all streamflow 1650-to-2050-m downstream was lost to underlying mines. Electrical resistivity and electromagnetic conductivity surveys indicated conductive zones beneath the upper reach, where flow loss occurred, and through the intermediate reach, where gains and losses occurred. Temperature probes at 0.06-to-0.10-m depth within the hyporheic zone of the intermediate reach indicated potential downward fluxes as high as 2.1x10-5 m/s. Cumulative streamflow lost from West Creek during seepage runs averaged 53.4 L/s, which equates to 19.3 percent of the daily average discharge of AMD from the Oak Hill Boreholes and a downward flux of 1.70x10-5 m/s across the 2.1-km-by-1.5-m West Creek stream-channel area.

  7. Geochemical characteristics of Au in the water systemfrom abandoned gold mines area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kanghee; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Byungjoo; Park, Cheonyoung; Choi, Nagchoul

    2013-04-01

    The AMD (acid mine drainage) poses a threat not only to the aquatic life in mountain streams and rivers, but can also contaminate groundwater and downstream water bodies. Besides pyrite, sulfides of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic in the drainage tunnels and tailings piles also undergo similar geochemical reactions, releasing toxic metals and more H+ into the mine drainage. The fate of gold in the AMD system is reduced and precipitated with iron oxides by oxidation-reduction reaction between ferrous/ferric iron and Au3+/Au0. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the transport characteristic on the distance through distribution of heavy metals and gold on the interrelation between acid mine drainage and sediments in the abandoned Gwang-yang gold mine, Korea. We conducted to confirm the chemical (chemical analysis and sequential extraction) and mineralogical property (XRD, SEM-EDS and polarization microscope) from AMD, sediments and tailing samples. The result of chemical analysis showed that Fe contents in the AMD and sediments from the upstream to the downstream ranged of 10.99 to 18.60 mg/L and 478.74 to 542.98 mg/kg, respectively. Also the contents of Au and As in the sediment were respectively ranged from 14.06 to 22.85 g/t and 0.245 to 0.612 mg/kg. In XRD analysis of the sediments, x-ray diffracted d-value belong to quartz, geothite was observed. The results of SEM-EDS analysis revealed that iron hydroxide were observed in the sediment and tailing. The result of sequential extraction for Au from the sediment showed that Au predominated in 26 to 27% of Organic matter fraction(STEP 4), and 24 to 25% of Residual fraction(STEP 5).

  8. Uranium market cools: how to make a profit on uranium without mining it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, John.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the uranium world market is given. It is shown that the uranium spot price is now around $9.80/lb., while the Australian 'floor price' is almost three times that on the world markets. This situation has forced the Australian Government to move to individually negotiated floor prices, decided on a contract-by-contract basis. Anti-nuclear groups are opposing to dropping the floor price and suggest that Australian producers will find it more profitable to shut down their operations and act purely as a uranium trading company rather than continuing mining

  9. Production of uranium in Navoi Mining and Metallurgy Combinat, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchersky, N.; Tolstov, E.A.; Mazurkevich, A.P.; Inozemzev, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Under the conditions of constantly increasing level of development of the nuclear power, it is inevitable that the uranium stockpiles accumulated to 1985 will soon be depleted. This consideration underlies the development concept of uranium production in the Navoi Mining and Metallurgy Combinat, Uzbekistan. Because this product has become a source of hard currency revenues for the Republic, there will be a significant increase in the processed ore and output of uranium oxide within the next few years. Uranium production in the Navoi Mining and Metallurgy Combinat represents a full-cycle operations ranging from geological survey through hydrometallurgical processing resulting in the output of uranium concentrate in the form of uranium protoxide-oxide (U 3 O 8 ). The NMMC uranium operations include the Hydrometallurgical Plant and three facilities accomplishing ISL mining facilities. A successful start on the development of the Uchkuduk deposit by ISL method in the 1960s gave rise to scientific and production approach for development of other uranium deposits of the infiltration bedded (sandstone) type. Uranium recovery by ISL has become a separate mining branch within the 30-year period of its history and the contribution of this branch in uranium production has steadily grown. Since 1995 all uranium produced by Navoi Mining and Metallurgy Combinat is attributed to ISL. During this evolution period of the ISL method, a whole range of systematic scientific research and practical works were carried out covering improvement of process flowsheets, equipment, operational methods and techniques for particular mining conditions at those specific sites. In co-operation with design and scientific research institutions, a significant number of scientific researches, test works, design and engineering projects were achieved in order to create optimal conditions for ISL mining and further processing of pregnant solutions by sorption as well as to appropriately equip

  10. Effect of uranium (VI) on two sulphate-reducing bacteria cultures from a uranium mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the impact of uranium (VI) on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) communities obtained from environmental samples collected on the Portuguese uranium mining area of Urgeirica. Culture U was obtained from a sediment, while culture W was obtained from sludge from the wetland of that mine. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was used to monitor community changes under uranium stress conditions. TGGE profiles of dsrB gene fragment demonstrated that the initial cultures were composed of SRB species affiliated with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfomicrobium spp. (sample U), and by species related to D. desulfuricans (sample W). A drastic change in SRB communities was observed as a result of uranium (VI) exposure. Surprisingly, SRB were not detected in the uranium removal communities. Such findings emphasize the need of monitoring the dominant populations during bio-removal studies. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the uranium removal consortia are composed by strains affiliated to Clostridium genus, Caulobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae families. Therefore, these communities can be attractive candidates for environmental biotechnological applications associated to uranium removal.

  11. Field Testing of Downgradient Uranium Mobility at an In-Situ Recovery Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, P. W.; Clay, J. T.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Chamberlain, K.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ recovery (ISR) mining of uranium involves the injection of O2 and CO2 (or NaHCO3) into saturated roll-front deposits to oxidize and solubilize the uranium, which is then removed by ion exchange at the surface and processed into U3O8. While ISR is economical and environmentally-friendly relative to conventional mining, one of the challenges of extracting uranium by this process is that it leaves behind a geochemically-altered aquifer that is exceedingly difficult to restore to pre-mining geochemical conditions, a regulatory objective. In this research, we evaluated the ability of the aquifer downgradient of an ISR mining area to attenuate the transport of uranium and other problem constituents that are mobilized by the mining process. Such an evaluation can help inform both regulators and the mining industry as to how much restoration of the mined ore zone is necessary to achieve regulatory compliance at various distances downgradient of the mining zone even if complete restoration of the ore zone proves to be difficult or impossible. Three single-well push-pull tests and one cross-well test were conducted in which water from an unrestored, previously-mined ore zone was injected into an unmined ore zone that served as a geochemical proxy for the downgradient aquifer. In all tests, non-reactive tracers were injected with the previously-mined ore zone water to allow the transport of uranium and other constituents to be compared to that of the nonreactive species. In the single-well tests, it was shown that the recovery of uranium relative to the nonreactive tracers ranged from 12-25%, suggesting significant attenuation capacity of the aquifer. In the cross-well test, selenate, molybdate and metavanadate were injected with the unrestored water to provide information on the transport of these potentially-problematic anionic constituents. In addition to the species-specific transport information, this test provided valuable constraints on redox conditions within

  12. Environmental compliance requirements for uranium mines in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggit, P.; Zapantis, A.; Triggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    The current phase of uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia began in the late 70's and is governed by a large number of legislative and administrative requirements. The primary responsibility for environmental regulation rests with the Northern Territory Government but the legislative framework is complex and involves agencies of the Commonwealth Government as well as the Aboriginal traditional owners. Two of the current uranium mining projects, Ranger and Jabiluka, are surrounded by the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. Thirteen former mines are located within the Park and one former mine, Nabarlek, is in the same catchment as part of the Park, in West Arnhem Land. For these reasons, environmental management at the operating mines has to be of the highest standard and environmental requirements are attached to all laws and agreements controlling the operating facilities. The paper describes the spirit and rationale behind the regulations as well as the operating details and methodology of the regulatory system in place for the operating mines. An integral part of the overall environmental protection regime is a bi-annual program of Environmental Audits and Environmental Performance Reviews and regular reporting to a stakeholder committee. Other elements include internal and external environmental auditing at the minesites as well as programs of routine monitoring, check monitoring and reporting on a scale and frequency rarely seen elsewhere. Public concern and perception is considered to be a valid issue requiring attention

  13. The effect of abandoned mining ponds on trace elements dynamics in the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, María; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    In semiarid climate regions lack of vegetation and dryer climate contribute to erosion of abandoned mining surface areas making them up important potential sources of metal pollution into the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of mine ponds in agriculture and forest soils, and identify the dynamic of metals in the soil-plant system for native plant species (Ballota hirsuta) and crop species (Hordeum vulgare) in two ancient mining districts: La Unión and Mazarrón. To achieve these objectives, wastes samples from mine ponds and soil samples (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils) from natural and agricultural lands were collected. In addition, six plants (Ballota hirsuta) from natural area and 3 plants (Hordeum vulgare) from crops were collected. Physicochemical properties and total, water soluble and bioavailable metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic were measured in waste/soil samples. The chemical speciation of metals in soil was estimated by a sequential extraction procedure. For plants analyses, each plant were divided in roots, stem and leaves and metal content measured by ICP-MS. Results indicated that mine, natural and agricultural soils were contaminated by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemical partitioning revealed higher mobility of metals in mine ponds than natural and agriculture soils while only Fe and As are completely bound to the soil matrix due to the mineralogical compositions of soils. The accumulation of metals in Ballota hirsuta in La Union decrease as Fe>As>Cr>Ni>Cu>Zn>Cd>Mn>Co>Pb while in Mazarrón did as As>Fe>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>Mn>Zn>Cd. Ballota hirsuta showed high ability to bio-accumulate Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and As, transferring a large amount to edible parts without exceeding the toxicity limits for animals. Results for barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) showed the ability to absorb and accumulate As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, although the transfer ability of As, Cd and Pb was lower. Although the

  14. Radiation protection in uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposures due to Australian uranium operations have been well controlled through detailed monitoring programmes carried out by the operators and close supervision by the regulatory authorities. It is considered essential that these activities are continued throughout the life of the operations

  15. Birth effects in areas of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the reproductive history of families of 26 former uranium miners and 30 controls in San Juan County, New Mexico is presented. Studies of the secondary sex ratios, cytogenetic study of human sperm, and studies of rates of congenital anomalies are reported

  16. Detection and control of fires and heatings in shallow, abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.

    1991-01-01

    Heatings and fires in shallow, abandoned coal mines create an environmentally undesirable hazard in the Witbank area in South Africa, as well as locations in Europe and North America. A research program was set up in South Africa to detect and control the occurrence and extent of subsurface heatings and fires. Prior to any remedial action being taken to control or extinguish a heating or fire, it is essential to evaluate underground conditions in order to determine the most effective control method. Normally, such workings cannot physically be entered due to poor ground conditions and the presence of heat and toxic gases. Two novel detection methods have been developed by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization (COMRO) for the purpose of identifying the nature and extent of such heatings remotely, via surface boreholes. Temperature monitoring allows for the detection of heating intensity and location. To determine areas of uncontrolled air infiltration into the workings, tracer gas technology is used. In addition, a method for controlling a fire which has been successfully used in South Africa is described

  17. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  18. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murciego, A.; Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Pellitero, E.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F.; Rubin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As 2 O 5 ). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  19. Program plan for the National Uranium Mine Tailings Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The National Uranium Mine Tailings Program was formed to conduct research into the long-term environmental behaviour of uranium mine tailings. This research is necessary to provide a data base upon which close-cut criteria for uranium mines can be based. The research program to be carried out under the auspices of the National Tailings Program Office has, as its goal, the development of this data base, and the formulation of a series of reports based on that data base. These documents are to be designed to allow the uranium mining industry to produce site-specific close-out plans which will be acceptable to the regulatory authorities. This report addresses the program to be undertaken to meet the above broad objective. It focusses on defining in more specific and explicit terms what the program objectives need to be to meet the close-out requirements currently perceived by the regulatory agencies involved. These program objectives have been refined and summarized as follows: On close-out, the tailings site shall: 1. Meet currently accepted individual exposure criteria, and meet air and water quality regulations. 2. Ensure a predictable decline in release rates of contaminants to the environment. Ideally, this decline would be monotonic in nature. 3. Meet the ALARA principle both at present and into the long-term future. 4. Ensure that the management strategy or technologies employed in close-out shall be of a passive nature and not require ongoing institutional intervention. On the basis of these program objectives, this report identifies specific program product in terms of manuals of practice, guidelines, etc. that are to be produced as a result of program activity. These documents will effectively provide guidance on acceptable close-out technology to the uranium industry and regulatory agencies

  20. PERSPECTIVES OF PHYTOSTABILIZATION BY JATROPHA CURCAS OF MINING RESIDUES FROM ABANDONED ZAIDA MINE (HIGH MOULOUYA, MOROCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El himer, S.; Bouabdli, A.; Baghdad, B.; Saidi, N; Zouahri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Mine of Zaida (High Moulouya, Morocco) has been object of multiple research works (Saidi et al. 2002, Saidi 2004, Bouabdli et al. 2004, Bouabdli et al. 2005, El Hachimi 2005, El Hachimi 2006, Baghdad et al. 2006, Baghdad 2008, 2011, Berrah El Kheir et al. 2008, Berrah El Kheir et al. 2010, El Himer et al. 2012) which demonstrated the impact of a large volume of materials issued of the mining activities on the different compartments of the ecosystem. In fact, these materials are a potential source of trace metals, which induces a major risk for living beings because of their mobility and bioavailability. Among the techniques that minimize this problem the phytostabilization can be cited ; this method appears to be safe, alternative and usable regardless the level of pollution. It consists in revegetation of soils polluted by species tolerant to trace elements. In this context, the use of shrubs is particularly interesting because their root systems are well developed and dense, limiting the runoff and leaching of trace metals to different compartments of ecosystem. In our study we were interested in the culture of Jatropha curcas ; it is a perennial shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, this plant has been the subject of several research projects on the one hand due to its economic interest and low operating cost (biofuel, fertilizer, traditional medicine, fight against erosion, insecticides, soap production, ...), on the other hand due to its low requirements (easy to cultivate, rapid growth, drought resistance) and tolerance to marginal lands. This travel proposes to study the growth and ability of Jatropha curcas to extract trace metals in various substrates from Zaida mine (High Moulouya, Morocco) in order to evaluate its potential of phytostabilization. The results indicate that Jatropha curcas shows proper installation despite the high levels of trace metals in experimental substrates. This plant is characterized by the ability to adapt and

  1. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  2. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished

  3. Radionuclides incorporated by inhabitants of surrounding Brazilian uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Viviane S.; Brasil, Icaro M.; Attie, Marcia R.P.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Campos, Simara S. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Estudos Basico e Instrumental; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Brazil has the 6th largest global geological reserve of uranium, with the main reserve in Santa Quiteria - CE still not under exploration. Currently, uranium mining and processing in Brazil only occur near to the city of Caetite - BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is polluting and may jeopardize the human health and safety and the environment. However, those in charge of the complex extraction and production of 'yellow cake' for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. U-238 may be deposited in the skeleton by replacing the calcium, thus it is possible to estimate its incorporation by determining its concentration in the teeth. This study aimed to identify potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetite, analyzing U-238 contained in samples of teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons from Caetite residents. The concentration of thorium and potassium incorporated were also determined by ICP-MS, as well the cumulative dose of radiation received by this population was estimated. For comparison sake, the same analysis was performed in samples from Santa Quiteria and Aracaju - SE (used as a control area). The doses estimated were compared to doses obtained with EPR spectra of the same samples. The accumulated amount of radioisotopes in the teeth of the population of Caetite is probably due to natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way. (author)

  4. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  5. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  6. Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy and recovery of useful resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Chen Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy in China and recovery of useful resources are summarized from the aspects such as recovery of uranium from mine water, reusing of waste water, decontaminating and recycling of radioactivity contaminated metal, backfill of gangues and tailings, and comprehensive recovery and utilization of associated uranium deposits. (authors)

  7. Why jurisdiction and uranium deposit type are essential considerations for exploration and mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is a relatively abundant element, being 25 times more common than silver, and having the same crustal abundance as tin. Economically minable uranium grades vary greatly, from a low of 0.01% U to over 20% U. What are the factors that allow mining of these very low grade ores that are only 50 times background concentrations? Why don’t the high grade deposits of the world exclusively supply all of the worlds newly mined uranium needs? There are two main reasons that the high grade deposits of the world do not exclusively supply all of the worlds newly mined uranium needs: 1) jurisdictional issues, the favorability or lack thereof of governmental policies where the deposit is located and the delays caused by an ineffective or corrupt policy and 2) the deposit type, which has a great influence on the recovery cost of the uranium. The quality of a deposit can override more difficult political jurisdictions if recovery of the investment occurs quickly and in an environmentally friendly way.

  8. Leach-SX-EW copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned copper mine Cerovo, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrometallurgical processes for copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned mine Cerovo in Eastern Serbia were studied. Paper contain results of percolation leaching tests, performed with acidic mine waters accumulated in the bottom of the former open pit, followed by solvent extraction (SX and electrowinning (EW processes on achieved copper pregnant leach solutions. Usage of accumulated waste waters was objected to minimizing the environmental hazard due to uncontrolled leaking of these waters in nearby creeks and rivers. Chemical composition of acidic mine waters used for leaching tests was: (g/dm3: Cu - 0.201; Fe - 0.095; Mn - 0.041; Zn - 0.026; Ni - 0.0004; pH value - 3.3. Copper content in overburden sample used for leaching tests was 0.21% from which 64% were oxide copper minerals. In scope of leaching tests were examined influence of leaching solution pH values and iron (III concentration on copper recovery. It was established that for 120 hours of leaching on pH=1.5 without oxidant agents, copper concentration in pregnant leach solutions enriched up to 1.08g/dm3 which was enough for copper extraction from solution with SX-EW treatment. As extraction reagent in SX circuit was used LIX-984N in a kerosene diluent. Cathode current density in electrowinning cell was 220Am-2 while electrolyte temperature was kept on 50±2oC. Produced cathode copper at the end of SX-EW process has purity of 99.95% Cu.

  9. Rehabilitation of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.A.; Flannagan, J.C.; Hubery, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Mary Kathleen uranium mine and treatment plant ceased operation in late 1982 and a plan for the closure and rehabilitation of the area was developed. The object of the plan is to make all areas safe, remove all non-permanent structures and encourage natural revegetation. The plan has been accepted by the Queensland Mines Department. The mine pit will be left stable, inaccessible to vehicles, and containing about 50 metres of water. Mine waste and borrow areas will be contoured, ripped and seeded to encourage revegetation. The treatment plant area will be cleared of all equipment and light structures, decontaminated and revegetated. The evaporation ponds will be dried out, precipitate and contaminated soil will be removed to the tailings dam, and the area will be contoured and revegetated. The tailings will be covered with one metre of waste rock and boreholes will be used to recover groundwater containing salts for storage in the pit

  10. Fate of antimony and arsenic in contaminated waters at the abandoned Su Suergiu mine (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Dore, Elisabetta; Biddau, Riccardo; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the fate of Sb and As downstream of the abandoned Su Suergiu mine (Sardinia, Italy) and surrounding areas. The mined area is a priority in the Sardinian remediation plan for contaminated sites due to the high concentrations of Sb and As in the mining-related wastes, which may impact the Flumendosa River that supplies water for agriculture and domestic uses. Hydrogeochemical surveys conducted from 2005 to 2015 produced time-series data and downstream profiles of water chemistry at 46 sites. Water was sampled at: springs and streams unaffected by mining; adits and streams in the mine area; drainage from the slag heaps; stream water downstream of the slag drainages; and the Flumendosa River downstream from the confluence of the contaminated waters. At specific sites, water sampling was repeated under different flow conditions, resulting in a total of 99 samples. The water samples were neutral to slightly alkaline. Elevated Sb (up to 30 mg L−1) and As (up to 16 mg L−1) concentrations were observed in water flowing from the slag materials from where the Sb ore was processed. These slag materials were the main Sb and As source at Su Suergiu. A strong base, Na-carbonate, from the foundry wastes, had a major influence on mobilizing Sb and As. Downstream contamination can be explained by considering that: (1) the predominant aqueous species, Sb(OH)6 − and HAsO4 −2, are not favored in sorption processes at the observed pH conditions; (2) precipitation of Sb- and As-bearing solid phases was not observed, which is consistent with modeling results indicating undersaturation; and (3) the main decrease in dissolved Sb and As concentrations was by dilution. Dissolved As concentrations in the Flumendosa River did not generally exceed the EU limit of 10 µg L−1, whereas dissolved Sb in the river downstream of the contamination source always exceeded the EU limit of 5 µg L−1. Recent actions aimed at retaining runoff from the slag heaps are apparently

  11. Uranium mining wastes, garden exhibition and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter; Hinz, Wilko

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: For more than 40 years the Soviet-German stockholding company SDAG WISMUT mined and milled Uranium in the East of Germany and became up to 1990 the world's third largest Uranium producer. After reunification of Germany, the new found state own company Wismut GmbH was faced with the task of decommissioning and rehabilitation of the mining and milling sites. One of the largest mining areas in the world, that had to be cleaned up, was located close to the municipality of Ronneburg near the City of Gera in Thuringia. After closing the operations of the Ronneburg underground mine and at the 160 m deep open pit mine with a free volume of 84 Mio.m 3 , the open pit and 7 large piles of mine waste, together 112 Mio.m 3 of material, had to be cleaned up. As a result of an optimisation procedure it was chosen to relocate the waste rock piles back into the open pit. After taking this decision and approval of the plan the disposal operation was started. Even though the transport task was done by large trucks, this took 16 years. The work will be finished in 2007, a cover consisting of 40 cm of uncontaminated material will be placed on top of the material, and the re-vegetation of the former open pit area will be established. When in 2002 the City of Gera applied to host the largest garden exhibition in Germany, Bundesgartenschau (BUGA), in 2007, Wismut GmbH supported this plan by offering parts of the territory of the former mining site as an exhibition ground. Finally, it was decided by the BUGA organizers to arrange its 2007 exhibition on grounds in Gera and in the valley adjacent to the former open pit mine, with parts of the remediated area within the fence of the exhibition. (authors)

  12. Modeling of geochemical processes related to uranium mobilization in the groundwater of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P.; Garralon, A.; Buil, B.; Turrero, Ma.J.; Sanchez, L.; Cruz, B. de la

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the processes leading to uranium distribution in the groundwater of five boreholes near a restored uranium mine (dug in granite), and the environmental impact of restoration work in the discharge area. The groundwater uranium content varied from < 1 μg/L in reduced water far from the area of influence of the uranium ore-containing dyke, to 104 μg/L in a borehole hydraulically connected to the mine. These values, however, fail to reflect a chemical equilibrium between the water and the pure mineral phases. A model for the mobilization of uranium in this groundwater is therefore proposed. This involves the percolation of oxidized waters through the fractured granite, leading to the oxidation of pyrite and arsenopyrite and the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. This in turn leads to the dissolution of the primary pitchblende and, subsequently, the release of U(VI) species to the groundwater. These U(VI) species are retained by iron hydroxides. Secondary uranium species are eventually formed as reducing conditions are re-established due to water-rock interactions

  13. Analysis for the radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium decay chains with special reference to uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.; Short, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed review is made of the experimental techniques that are available, or are in the process of development, for the determination of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U, 231 Pa, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 223 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb. These products of the uranium and thorium decay chains are found in uranium mine tailings. Reference is also made to a procedure for the selective phase extraction of mineral phases from uranium mine tailings

  14. Nitrification and in-situ uranium solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Humenick, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the potential for conversion of ammonia to nitrate as a result of uranium solution mining operations. The work included literature evaluation and laboratory experimentation in both batch and continuous systems. Results indicate that a potential for nitrification could exist for some portions of the solution mining operating cycle. However, inhibition of nitrification was observed due to high ammonia and peroxide concentrations. Nitrification of ammonia also was observed to occur due to chemical oxidation by peroxide. 28 refs

  15. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  16. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R.; Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R.

    2005-01-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  17. Highland Uranium Solution Mining Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Exxon Minerals Co. proposes to conduct production-scale solution mining (in situ leaching) of uranium within the existing Highland Operation area in Converse County, Wyoming. The project would result in the temporary removal of 200 acres from grazing and the actual disturbance of 50 acres. About 4500 acre-ft of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer over the 10-year life of the project. There will be no discharge of liquid effluents from the project; atmospheric effluents will be within acceptable limits. Radiation doses at the nearest ranch resulting from solution mining activities were estimated. The project proposes the production and utilization of 1 to 3 million lb of uranium resources. It will not produce any significant socioeconomic impact on the local area. Alternatives to the project were considered, and conditions for issuing the source material license are listed

  18. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale ampersand Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Symposium 'geology, mining and extractive processing of uranium, with special reference to Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    This review of the symposium 'Geology, mining and extractive processing of uranium' gives a survey from the point of view of ore processing rather than exploration. A reason for the uranium consumption assumed is given, and uranium deposits and availability, methods of exploration, and interesting facts on uranium extraction from ores are gone into. (HK) [de

  20. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  1. Taxation of uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the nature of the taxation schemes facing uranium mine operators in Australia's Northern Territory and in Canada's Province of Saskatchewan. The findings demonstrate that, although the Canadian system appropriates up to 85% of incremental sales revenue, it is extremely sensitive to industry profitability. Its Australian counterpart is, in contrast, a regressive scheme which, at the current selling price of yellowcake, captures a significantly larger proportion of available economic rent. (author)

  2. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  3. Expansion of the uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report forms the response of the government of Ontario to an earlier report issued by an Envrionmental Assessment Board. Specifically, the report deals with the rapid growth of the town of Elliot Lake due to expansion of several uranium mine-mill operations. Rapid growth of small communities presents considerable problems in providing housing, essential services, and educational facilities. Several specific actions taken by the government to help the town cope with rapid growth are presented. (O.T.)

  4. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  5. Retrospection. Uranium mining Wismut und the legal casualty insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Although the Wismut uranium mining company in the former DDR had 600.000 employees, the company was not mentioned in the contract on the German reunification. The expenses for the health consequences imposed manifold challenges to the legal casualty insurance. The question of responsibility, the conservation, digitalization and evaluation of data concerning the personnel and health information, partially handwritten is a tremendous amount of work.

  6. French uranium mines and miners from 1945 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes an historical review of the French uranium mining activity, and more particularly of its actors from 1945 to 1975 with the creation of the CEA and of its different departments, and their successive managers. CEA teams explored several countries but also exploit uranium ores in France (275 tons in 1956). After a continuous development until 1962, an important discovery in Niger, the activity in France faced great difficulties between 1970 and 1973, just before knowing great time due to the French electronuclear program (1974-1980), and to the strong increase of the uranium market. The first oil crisis was still a benefit, but the third oil crisis (1980) caused a reduction of power plant commissioning

  7. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements and simulations for uranium mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchais, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Allinei, P.-G.; Chaussonnet, P.; Ma, J.-L.; Toubon, H.

    2018-01-01

    AREVA Mines and the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache are collaborating to improve the sensitivity and precision of uranium concentration evaluation by means of gamma measurements. This paper reports gamma-ray spectra, recorded with a high-purity coaxial germanium detector, on standard cement blocks with increasing uranium content, and the corresponding MCNP simulations. The detailed MCNP model of the detector and experimental setup has been validated by calculation vs. experiment comparisons. An optimization of the detector MCNP model is presented in this paper, as well as a comparison of different nuclear data libraries to explain missing or exceeding peaks in the simulation. Energy shifts observed between the fluorescence X-rays produced by MCNP and atomic data are also investigated. The qualified numerical model will be used in further studies to develop new gamma spectroscopy approaches aiming at reducing acquisition times, especially for ore samples with low uranium content.

  8. Remediation of former uranium mining and milling activities in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remediation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the 'cold war' era. (authors)

  9. Elliot Lake uranium mine reclamation, the first ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, Rio Algom Limited finalized its plans for the closure and subsequent decommissioning of two of its then three operating mines in Elliot Lake as a result of market conditions. These two mines closed in August 1990. These mine closures had significant impacts. The principal mining operations of Rio Algom at that time were still in Elliot Lake and had been the very foundation of the company for about 40 years. The business impact on the Corporation was regarded as possibly severe. The resultant layoff of over 1,500 long-term, highly qualified, skilled and well-paid employees, a devastating blow to the affected employees and their families, would have a significant financial impact on the municipal economy, particularly as this announcement was seen as the first step in the early closure of all four operating mines in the region. At that time there was little precedence for such a high profile mine closure program and consequently the many unknowns relating to the mine decommissioning process, legislative requirements and society's expectations resulted in a perception of a significant yet ill-defined liability. In this atmosphere of understandable company, stakeholder and public concern, Rio Algom Limited embarked on what has turned out to be a long, rigorous, challenging yet ultimately reasonable and rewarding process of progressive reclamation of all its Elliot Lake mines, some ten in total (nine uranium, one copper). Over the past ten years, reclamation of all ten mines has been successfully completed, some $70 m plus has been expended in direct site reclamation works and the workforce has been reduced from over 2,500 to just 4. After ten years, the focus of attention is now on the long-term care, maintenance, monitoring and reporting required for the decommissioned mine sites, and the accomplishment of this in the best interests of all the stakeholders. (author)

  10. Radionuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Lopes, Irene; Batista, Aleluia

    2007-01-01

    During several decades and until a few years ago, uranium mines were exploited in the Centre of Portugal and wastewaters from uranium ore milling facilities were discharged into river basins. To investigate enhancement of radioactivity in freshwater ecosystems, radionuclides of uranium and thorium series were measured in water, sediments, suspended matter, and fish samples from the rivers Vouga, Dão, Távora and Mondego. The results show that these rivers carry sediments with relatively high naturally occurring radioactivity, and display relatively high concentrations of radon dissolved in water, which is typical of a uranium rich region. Riverbed sediments show enhanced concentrations of radionuclides in the mid-section of the Mondego River, a sign of past wastewater discharges from mining and milling works at Urgeiriça confirmed by the enhanced values of (238)U/(232)Th radionuclide ratios in sediments. Radionuclide concentrations in water, suspended matter and freshwater fish from that section of Mondego are also enhanced in comparison with concentrations measured in other rivers. Based on current radionuclide concentrations in fish, regular consumption of freshwater species by local populations would add 0.032 mSv a(-1) of dose equivalent (1%) to the average background radiation dose. Therefore, it is concluded that current levels of enhanced radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk either to aquatic fauna or to freshwater fish consumers.

  11. Antibiotic cytotoxic effects of microorganisms isolated from Jachymov uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuska, J.; Fuskova, A. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta); Jilek, R. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from old relinquished uranium mines in Jachymov; they had been growing for several decades in darkness in temperatures of 5 to 12 degC and relative humidity from 80 to 100%. The concentration of uranium salts in mine waters varied from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -5/ g.l/sup -1/, that of Rn in the atmosphere was from 0.04 to 40 Bq.l/sup -1/. Of 324 cultures, 18.8% inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Candida pseudotropicalis and 16.6% that of HeLa cells. The frequency of microorganisms inhibiting the growth of HeLa or Ehrlich ascites cells was markedly higher in this set of cultures than among microorganisms kept in culture collections or isolated from other natural habitats. About 10% of the isolated cultures were mycelia sterilia. The following antibiotics were isolated from microorganisms obtained from uranium mines: frequentin, vermiculin, vermicillin, vermistatin, cytostipin and duclauxin.

  12. Verification Survey of Uranium Mine Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, Stager

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) contracted an independent verification of an intensive gamma radiation survey conducted by a mining company to demonstrate that remediation of disturbed areas was complete. This site was the first of the recent mines being decommissioned in Canada and experience gained here may be applied to other mines being decommissioned in the future. The review included examination of the site-specific basis for clean-up criteria and ALARA as required by CNSC guidance. A paper review of the company report was conducted to determine if protocols were followed and that the summarized results could be independently reproduced. An independent verification survey was conducted on parts of the site and comparisons were made between gamma radiation measurements from the verification survey and the original company survey. Some aspects of data collection using rate meters linked to GPS data loggers are discussed as are aspects for data management and analyses methods required for the large amount of data collected during these surveys. Recommendations were made for implementation of future surveys and reporting the data from those surveys in order to ensure that remediation was complete. (authors)

  13. Atomic Energy Control Board and its role in the regulation of uranium and thorium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgola, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    This brief, presented to the Northwest Territories legislative hearings into uranium exploration, provides an overview of the jurisdictional role and regulatory philosophy of the Atomic Energy Control Board in uranium mining in Canada

  14. Report on recommendations for the management of ancient uranium mining sites in France by the pluralistic expertise Group on the Limousin uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This brief report presents some characteristics and data on the old uranium mines located on the French territory, the legal framework for these mines, the actors involved in the survey and control of the old uranium mining sites, the different official actions undertaken on these sites, the composition and the missions of the expertise group, the progress of the actions defined in a circular of 2009, the follow-up of the expertise group report, and a brief synthesis of this report

  15. Commercial experimental on bacteria heap leaching of uranium ore from Caotaobei mining area in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Baotuan; Meng Yunsheng; Liu Jian; Xiao Jinfeng; Chen Sencai; Cao Jianbo; Wu Yichang; Liu Chengwu

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the result of commercial experiment on bacteria heap leaching of uranium ore from Caotaobei mining area in Ganzhou Uranium Mine and summarizes the heap situation, installation of spraying and sprinkling devices, and operation management of continuous oxidizing tank of bio-membrane. The leaching rate is 92.95% and 91.88% respectively by liquid and residue measurement during 85 d bacterial leaching experiment. The acid consumption is 2.1% and the total liquid-solid ratio is 2.9 m 3 /t. Compared with conventional heap leaching, the time of bacteria heap leaching shorted about 75 d, the acid consumption reduced by 0.35% and the leaching rate improved by 2%. It is an optimize plan to reform the heap leaching technology for Caotaobei ore

  16. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  17. Study of the economic valuation of uranium deposits and mine-projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnajim, N.

    1980-01-01

    A basis is provided for the decisions to be made in connection with the exploration, development mining, processing and marketing of the uranium. Details are given about the kinds and forms of the mines, about the exploration-, extraction- and processing technologies as well as the economicly best extractive processing of uranium. The profitability of uranium mining projects is evaluated according to the economy calculation method. (DG) [de

  18. Seismicity induced by mining operations in the surrounding of the uranium ore mine Schlema-Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Olaf; Hiller, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The uranium mine Schlema-Alberoda of the Wismut GmbH (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) is situated in the Westerzgebirge between the villages Aue, Schneeberg and Hartenstein. This 22 km 2 large area contains the villages Bad Schlema with the districts Oberschlema, Niederschlema and Wildbach as well as the district Alberode of the village Aue. The most important waters are the Zwickauer Mulde flowing through this territory from the south to the north. This territory can be designated as a densely populated low mountain range landscape being characterized by mining operations for centuries. Subsequently to the year 1945, the former Soviet 'Saxonian mining administration' started the first explorations on uranium ores inter alia in the area around Schneeberg and Schlema. In the year 1946, the intensive exploration and exploitation began in the health resort Oberschlema well-known by the existence of water containing radium. Up to the year 1959, the part deposit Oberschlema was dismantled. The dismantling ranged till to a depth of 750 m. With the expansion of the explorations in north-western direction, in 1948 the first uranium containing corridors of the part deposit Niederschlema-Alberoda was verified. The mining activities began in the year 1949 and culminated in the midst of the 1960ies with an annual production of more than 4,000 tons of uranium. The 1,800 m floor level as the deepest floor level was reached in the year 1986. A total of 49.5 million cubic meters of rocks was dissolved, and a total of 80,500 tons of uranium ores was mined. These were nearly 35% of the total production of the former Soviet-German public limited company Wismut (SDAG Wismut).

  19. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  20. Evaluation of wetland creation and waterfowl use in conjunction with abandoned mine lands in northeast Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKistry, M C; Anderson, S H [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During 1991 and 1992, we studied 92 wetlands, including open water (ponds) and emergent communities, created as a result of Wyoming Abandoned Mine Lands` (AML) reclamation efforts in northeast Wyoming. Through these activities, over 300 wetlands were filled, reclaimed, created, or otherwise modified. For mitigation purposes wetlands to be filled or modified were first evaluated using a Wetland Habitat Value (WHV) Model. Using the model, wetland losses were mitigated by increasing the WHV of some wetlands or by creating new wetlands elsewhere. We evaluated model performance in offsetting wetland loss and how well the model predicted waterfowl use. We also compared post-reclamation wetland sizes to those predicted by engineering plans and submitted for Section 404 permit approval. In our study, predicted WHVs were overestimated at 100% of the wetlands for which pre-reclamation WHVs were available (n8). The most commonly overestimated variables were size, fraction of emergent cover, adjacent upland cover, and the number of bays and peninsulas. We obtained preconstruction size estimates for 64 of the original 80 wetlands. Fifty five of 64 wetlands were smaller than pre-reclamation engineering goals. The WHV Model accurately predicted use of wetlands by migrating and breeding canada geese (Branta canadensis), migrating dabbling ducks, and migrating diving ducks.