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Sample records for abandoned uranium mines

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA and...

  2. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  4. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  5. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  6. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  7. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the...

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Regions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  9. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region Polygons, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  10. Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  11. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the Comprehensive Database and Atlas to determine which mines should be cleaned up first. US EPA continues to research and identify Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) under Superfund to contribute to the costs of cleanup efforts.This US EPA Region 9 web service contains the following map layers:Abandoned Uranium Mines, Priority Mines, Tronox Mines, Navajo Environmental Response Trust Mines, Mines with Enforcement Actions, Superfund AUM Regions, Navajo Nation Administrative Boundaries and Chapter Houses.Mine points have a maximum scale of 1:220,000, while Mine polygons have a minimum scale of 1:220,000. Chapter houses have a minimum scale of 1:200,000. BLM Land Status has a minimum scale of 1:150,000.Full FGDC metadata records for each layer can be found by clicking the layer name at the web service endpoint and viewing the layer description. Data used to create this web service are available for download at https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/data/data.page.Security Classification: Public. Access Constraints: None. Use Constraints: None. Please check sources, scale, accuracy, currentness and other available information. Please confirm that you are using the most recent copy of both data and metadata. Acknowledgement of the EPA would be appreciated.

  12. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in solid wastes and soils from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Michael; Millward, Geoffrey; Henderson, Samuel; Blake, William

    2017-07-01

    Bioaccessible U, Th, Pb and the 238U decay products 214Pb and 210Pb have been determined, using a modified Unified BARGE Method (UBM), in waste solids and soils from an abandoned uranium mine in South West England, UK. Maximum aqua regia extractable concentrations for U, Th and Pb were 16,200, 3.8 and 4750 μg g-1, respectively. 238U had highest activity concentrations near the mine shaft, where the decay products214Pb and 210Pb had values of 235 and 180 Bq g-1, respectively. UBM extractions gave mean gastro-intestinal bioaccessibility factors (BAFs) for U and Pb in the waste solids of 0.05 and 0.03, respectively, whereas those for the soils were significantly higher at 0.24 and 0.17. The mean BAFs for the transient radionuclides, 214Pb and 210Pb, were similar to those for stable Pb implying that the stable and radioactive Pb isotopes were attached to similar sites on the particles. The doses arising from the ingestion of particulate 210Pb due to soil pica behaviour were in the range 0.2-65 and 17 years), respectively. The results suggest that the health risk posed by abandoned uranium mines, with waste rock and tailings, throughout the world should take account of the dose due to both bioaccessible radionuclides, as well as their stable counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  14. Spatial distribution of environmental risk associated to a uranium abandoned mine (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I. M.; Ribeiro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar is located at Arcozelo da Serra, central Portugal. The mine was exploited in an open pit and produced about 12430Kg of uranium oxide (U3O8), between 1987 and 1988. The dominant geological unit is the porphyritic coarse-grained two-mica granite, with biotite>muscovite. The uranium deposit consists of two gaps crushing, parallel to the coarse-grained porphyritic granite, with average direction N30°E, silicified, sericitized and reddish jasperized, with a width of approximately 10 meters. These gaps are accompanied by two thin veins of white quartz, 70°-80° WNW, ferruginous and jasperized with chalcedony, red jasper and opal. These veins are about 6 meters away from each other. They contain secondary U-phosphates phases such as autunite and torbernite. Rejected materials (1000000ton) were deposited on two dumps and a lake was formed in the open pit. To assess the environmental risk of the abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar, were collected and analysed 70 samples on stream sediments, soils and mine tailings materials. The relation between samples composition were tested using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) (multivariate analysis) and spatial distribution using Kriging Indicator. The spatial distribution of stream sediments shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Th and U contents), decreases along SE-NW direction. This component is explained by the samples located inside mine influence. The probability of expression for principal component 2 (explaining Be, Na, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, Ba, Tl and Bi contents), increases to middle stream line. This component is explained by the samples located outside mine influence. The spatial distribution of soils, shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Mg, P, Ca, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr

  15. THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE ABANDONED URANIUM MINING EXPLOITATIONS ON ROCKS AND SOILS - ZIMBRU PERIMETER, ARAD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA M. BANU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mining exploration and exploitation, especially the activity of uranium mineralization exploration and exploitation has a negative impact on the environment by the alterations of the landscape and the degradation of the environmental factors' quality. The principal environmental factors that could be affected by mining operations resulting from uranium exploitation are: water, air, soil, population, fauna, and flora. The aim of this study is, first, to identify the sources of pollution (natural radionuclides - natural radioactive series of uranium, radium, thorium, potassium and heavy metals that are accompanying the mineralizations for two of the most important environmental factors: rocks and soils: and, second, to assess the pollution impact on those two environmental factors. In order to identify this pollutants and their impact assessment it was selected as a study case an abandoned uranium mining perimeter named the Zimbru perimeter located in Arad County, Romania.

  16. Residential proximity to abandoned uranium mines and serum inflammatory potential in chronically exposed Navajo communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Molly E; Lewis, Johnnye; Miller, Curtis; Hoover, Joseph; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Shuey, Chris; Cajero, Miranda; Lucas, Selita; Zychowski, Katherine; Pacheco, Bernadette; Erdei, Esther; Ramone, Sandy; Nez, Teddy; Gonzales, Melissa; Campen, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population. To investigate a potential link between exposures to AUM and serum inflammatory potential in affected communities, primary human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated for 4 h with serum provided by Navajo study participants (n=145). Endothelial transcriptional responses of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were measured. These transcriptional responses were then linked to AUM exposure metrics, including surface area-weighted AUM proximity and estimated oral intake of metals. AUM proximity strongly predicted endothelial transcriptional responses to serum including CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P<0.0001 for each), whereas annual water intakes of arsenic and uranium did not, even after controlling for all major effect modifiers. Inflammatory potential associated with proximity to AUMs, but not oral intake of specific metals, additionally suggests a role for inhalation exposure as a contributor to cardiovascular disease.

  17. Reactive Transport of U and V from Abandoned Uranium Mine Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, Sumant; Lichtner, Peter C; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Blake, Johanna M; Cerrato, José M

    2017-11-07

    The reactive transport of uranium (U) and vanadium(V) from abandoned mine wastes collected from the Blue Gap/Tachee Claim-28 mine site in Arizona was investigated by integrating flow-through column experiments with reactive transport modeling, and electron microscopy. The mine wastes were sequentially reacted in flow-through columns at pH 7.9 (10 mM HCO3-) and pH 3.4 (10 mM CH3COOH) to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant conditions encountered at Blue Gap/Tachee on the release of U and V. The reaction rate constants (km) for the dissolution of uranyl-vanadate (U-V) minerals predominant at Blue Gap/Tachee were obtained from simulations with the reactive transport software, PFLOTRAN. The estimated reaction rate constants were within 1 order of magnitude for pH 7.9 (km = 4.8 × 10-13 mol cm-2 s-1) and pH 3.4 (km = 3.2 × 10-13 mol cm-2 s-1). However, the estimated equilibrium constants (Keq) for U-V bearing minerals were more than 6 orders of magnitude different for reaction at circumneutral pH (Keq = 10-38.65) compared to acidic pH (Keq = 10-44.81). These results coupled with electron microscopy data suggest that the release of U and V is affected by water pH and the crystalline structure of U-V bearing minerals. The findings from this investigation have important implications for risk exposure assessment, remediation, and resource recovery of U and V in locations where U-V-bearing minerals are abundant.

  18. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  19. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mines with Enforcement Actions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 13 mines total that have enforcement actions and are classified as priority mines. USEPA and NNEPA prioritized 46 mines based on gamma radiation levels,...

  20. Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

    2010-05-01

    The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Trust Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mine areas included in the Navajo Environmental Response Trust. This mine category also includes Priority...

  2. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority and Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mines with Tronox enforcement actions as of March 2016 that are also classified as priority mines. USEPA...

  3. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba

  4. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — List of mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S. government (also known as the Tronox settlement)

  5. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S....

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  7. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  8. Aerial Radiological Survey of Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Map Service, Navajo Nation, 1994-1999, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains data from aerial radiological surveys of 41 potential uranium mining areas (1,144 square miles) within the Navajo Nation that were...

  9. SSH gene expression profile of Eisenia andrei exposed in situ to a naturally contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the exposure of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine, were assessed through gene expression profile evaluation by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Organisms were exposed in situ for 56 days, in containers placed both in a contaminated and in a non-contaminated site (reference). Organisms were sampled after 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results showed that the main physiological functions affected by the exposure to metals and radionuclides were: metabolism, oxireductase activity, redox homeostasis and response to chemical stimulus and stress. The relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and elongation factor 1 alpha was also affected, since the genes encoding these enzymes were significantly up and down-regulated, after 14 and 56 days of exposure, respectively. Also, an EST with homology for SET oncogene was found to be up-regulated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this gene was identified in earthworms and thus, further studies are required, to clarify its involvement in the toxicity of metals and radionuclides. Considering the results herein presented, gene expression profiling proved to be a very useful tool to detect earthworms underlying responses to metals and radionuclides exposure, pointing out for the detection and development of potential new biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium, mining and hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Hasche-Berger, Andrea (eds.) [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-07-01

    Subject of the book is Uranium and its migration in aquatic environments. The following subjects are emphasised: Uranium mining, Phosphate mining, mine closure and remediation, Uranium in groundwater and in bedrock, biogeochemistry of Uranium, environmental behavior, and modeling. Particular results from the leading edge of international research are presented. (orig.)

  11. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  12. Aerial Radiological Survey of Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Map Service, Navajo Nation, 1994-1999, US EPA Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This map service contains data from aerial radiological surveys of 41 potential uranium mining areas (1,144 square miles) within the Navajo Nation that were conducted during the period from October 1994 through October 1999. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 9 funded the surveys and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Las Vegas, Nevada conducted the aerial surveys. The aerial survey data were used to characterize the overall radioactivity and excess Bismuth 214 levels within the surveyed areas.This US EPA Region 9 web service contains the following map layers: Total Terrestrial Gamma Activity Polygons, Total Terrestrial Gamma Activity Contours, Excess Bismuth 214 Contours, Excess Bismuth 214 Polygons, Flight AreasFull FGDC metadata records for each layer can be found by clicking the layer name at the web service endpoint and viewing the layer description.Security Classification: Public. Access Constraints: None. Use Constraints: None. Please check sources, scale, accuracy, currentness and other available information. Please confirm that you are using the most recent copy of both data and metadata. Acknowledgement of the EPA would be appreciated.

  13. Characterization and treatment of water used for human consumption from six sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Kollar, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was the characterization and improvement of the quality of water used for human consumption of unregulated/regulated water sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area (NE Arizona, western edge of the Navajo Nation). Samples were collected at six water sources which included regulated sources: Wind Mill (Tank 3T-538), Badger Springs and Paddock Well as well as unregulated sources: Willy Spring, Water Wall and Water Hole. Samples taken from Wind Mill, Water Wall and Water Hole were characterized with high turbidity and color as well as high level of manganese, iron and nickel and elevated value of molybdenum. High level of iron was also found in Badger Spring, Willy Spring, and Paddock Well. These three water sources were also characterized with elevated values of fluoride and vanadium. Significant amounts of zinc were found in Water Wall and Water Hole samples. Water Wall sample was also characterized with high level of Cr(VI). Compared to primary or secondary Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency (NNEPA) water quality standard the highest enrichment was found for turbidity (50.000 times), color (up to 1.796 times) and manganese (71 times), Cr(VI) (17.5 times), iron (7.4 times) and arsenic (5.2 times). Activities of (226)Ra and (238)U in water samples were still in agreement with the maximum contaminant levels. In order to comply with NNEPA water quality standard water samples were subjected to electrochemical treatment. This method was selected due to its high removal efficiency for heavy metals and uranium, lower settlement time, production of smaller volume of waste mud and higher stability of waste mud compared to physico-chemical treatment. Following the treatment, concentrations of heavy metals and activities of radionuclides in all samples were significantly lower compared to NNEPA or WHO regulated values. The maximum removal efficiencies for color, turbidity, arsenic, manganese, molybdenum and

  14. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  15. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  16. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  17. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  18. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  19. Toxicity assessment of the water used for human consumption from the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area prior/after the combined electrochemical treatment/advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human lymphocytes using a battery of bioassays. On the bases of the tested parameters, it could be concluded that water used for drinking from the tested water sources must be strictly forbidden for human and/or animal consumption since it is extremely cytogenotoxic, with high oxidative stress potential. A combined electrochemical treatment and posttreatment with ozone and UV light decreased the level of all physicochemical and radiological parameters below the regulated values. Consequently, the purified sample was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic, indicating that the presented method could be used for the improvement of water quality from the sites highly contaminated with the mixture of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  20. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942 Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land... announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan under... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV...

  1. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942 Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land...; approval of amendment. SUMMARY: We are approving an amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV...

  2. Extremely high radon activity concentration in two adits of the abandoned uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary (Sudety Mts., Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of radon activity concentration were conducted for a period of 6 months, from April to September 2011, in the air of two adits constituting part of the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary. Adits no. 19 and 19a in Kowary had been chosen owing to the occurrence within them of the highest documented radon concentrations in Poland, With levels higher than a million Bq m-3. The main goal of this study was to characterize the level of 222Rn activity concentration registered in selected workings of this underground space, investigate 222Rn changes and their characteristics over selected periods of time (an hour, a day, a month, six months) and determine the effective doses, which provided the basis for estimating the risk of exposure to increased ionizing radiation for employees and visitors to the mine. The highest values of 222Rn activity concentration inside the adits occurred at the time when visitors, guides and other members of the staff were present there. The recorded values of radon activity concentration, regardless of the time and the month when the measurement was performed, remained at an average level of 350-400 kBq m-3. These values were far above the limit of 1.5 kBq·m-3 recommended by international guidelines. The maximum values ranged from 800 to more than 1000 kBq·m-3. Radon activity concentration changes occurred only in periods determined by 7-h cycles of connecting and disconnecting the mechanical ventilation. For about 7 h after activating the ventilation system, between 7 a. m. and 2 p. m., and after closing the adit, between 7 p. m. and 2 a. m., 222Rn activity concentrations decreased to levels even as low as 100 kBq·m-3. However, as early as 3-4 h after disconnecting the ventilation system, there was a sharp rise in the values of 222Rn activity concentration, to the level higher than 800 kBq·m-3. The risk of receiving a radiation dose higher than the national standard of 1 mSv/year by members of the public

  3. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  4. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  5. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  6. Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, R.J.; Vesela, D.; Vesely, D. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    Recent data from deep uranium mines in Czechoslovakia indicated that miners are exposed to other mutagenic factors in addition to radon daughter products. Mycotoxins were identified as a possible source of mutagens in these mines. Mycotoxins were examined in 38 samples from mines and in throat swabs taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. The following mycotoxins were identified from mines samples: aflatoxins B{sub 1} and G1, citrinin, citreoviridin, mycophenolic acid, and sterigmatocystin. Some mold strains isolated from mines and throat swabs were investigated for mutagenic activity by the SOS chromotest and Salmonella assay with strains TA100 and TA98. Mutagenicity was observed, especially with metabolic activation in citro. These data suggest that mycotoxins produced by molds in uranium mines are a new genotoxic factor im uranium miners. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

  8. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West, 122... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land...

  9. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine Land...

  10. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  11. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and Non-Mining areas in the Northern Parts of the Ashanti. Gold Belt, Ghana. C. Tay1* and F. W. Y. Momade2. 1 CSIR-Water Research ...... within the Ashanti gold belt is gold recovery using mercury amalgamation as practiced by small- scale miners. Evidence of ...

  12. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  13. 75 FR 60373 - Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines. On the basis of these criteria, the Secretary of the.../Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior... proposed amendment to the Louisiana regulatory program (Louisiana program) and the Louisiana abandoned mine...

  14. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... reclaiming abandoned mine lands and waters adversely impacted by inadequately reclaimed surface coal mining... CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, et al. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal... Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, 884, and 885 RIN 1029-AC66 Abandoned Mine Land...

  15. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... money collected is used to finance the reclamation of abandoned coal mines and for other authorized... Interior for approval, a program (often referred to as a plan) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines... Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...

  16. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... money collected is used to finance the reclamation of abandoned coal mines and for other authorized... Interior for approval, a program (often referred to as a plan) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines... Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...

  17. 30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval... § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as... available for review at the following locations: (a) Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation, P.O...

  18. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine Land... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  19. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 906.20 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Colorado Abandoned Mine Land... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  20. 30 CFR 756.18 - Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.18 Section 756.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.18 Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan...

  1. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Mine Lands and Reclamation, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304-2345, Telephone (304... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of State abandoned mine lands...

  2. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 935.20 Section 935.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  3. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water Street...

  4. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and as...

  5. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Moulding, T. [Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan (Canada); Alderman, G. [Saskatchewan Labour, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  6. Uranium mining and hydrogeology II. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, B.; Helling, C. [eds.] [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The 101 papers of the conference deal with the problems of the danger o f groundwater contamination by uranium mining activities, tailings anddumps. Further topics under discussion were the flooding of old mines, remediation strategies for tailings and dumps, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and hydrogeochemical problems and theirsolutions by several monitoring and analytical methods as well as model ling tools. As the first European conference of this kind regarding ura nium mining under hydrogeological aspects, this conference received a b road interest and positive feedback. Especially the cooperation between theoreticians and practicians is very necessary. This was another dist inctive feature of this conference.

  7. Uranium mining in Virginia: scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining and processing in Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia; Committee on Earth Resources; National Research Council

    2012-01-01

    .... Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Common...

  8. AREVA's uranium mining business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V., E-mail: vincent.martin@areva.ca [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    'Full text:' In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for start-up in 2013.In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for

  9. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program; organizational... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land...

  10. 30 CFR 913.20 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 913.20 Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 20, 1980, effective June 1, 1982. Copies of the..., Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Division, One Natural Resources Way, Springfield, Illinois 62701-1787. (b...

  11. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13, 1981... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land...

  12. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land...

  13. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 30, 1981, effective January 21, 1982. Copies of... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land...

  14. 30 CFR 916.20 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 916.20 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary conditionally approved the Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on October 1, 1981, effective February 1... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land...

  15. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land...

  16. 30 CFR 925.20 - Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 925.20 Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on September 11, 1981, effective January 29... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land...

  17. 30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PENNSYLVANIA § 938.20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted on November 3, 1980, is approved. Copies of the approved Plan... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land...

  18. 30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE KENTUCKY § 917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) The... Kentucky Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan amendment, submitted to OSM on April 29, 2002, is approved... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land...

  19. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and as... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land...

  20. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on April 24, 1980, and amended on May 30, 1980, June 2... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land...

  1. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a...), (I)(1)(d), (e). March 19, 1996 March 26, 1997 Revisions to the Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land...

  2. 30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 918.20 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on February 3, 1986, effective December 10... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land...

  3. 30 CFR 914.20 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 914.20 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 7, 1981, on July 26, 1982, effective July 29... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land...

  4. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  5. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Maas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

  6. Uranium mining in Portugal: a review of the environmental legacies of the largest mines and environmental and human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R; Barbosa, S; Carvalho, F P

    2014-04-01

    The history of uranium mining in Portugal during almost one century has followed international demand peaks of both radium and uranium, which in turn were driven by medical, military, and civil applications. Nowadays, following price drop in the 1980s, mining activities decreased and ceased in 2001. The current challenge is to deal with environmental legacies left by old uranium mines, mainly located in Viseu and Guarda districts. In 2001, based on several radiological surveys carried out, the Portuguese government assumed the remediation costs of abandoned mine areas for environmental safety and public health protection. Detailed environmental and public health risk assessments were performed under the scope of studies both requested by the government and by funded research projects. It was found that the existing risks, due to radiological and chemical exposures to metals and radionuclide's, were particularly high at the old milling facilities and mines where in situ and heap leaching of low-grade ore occurred. The different studies, involving both humans and non-human species from different trophic levels, demonstrated the existence of effects at different levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, tissues, individuals, and populations) and on ecosystem services. To mitigate the risks, the environmental rehabilitation works at the Urgeiriça mine complex are almost complete, while at Cunha Baixa mine, they are presently in progress. These works and environmental improvements achieved and expected are described herein.

  7. A Mine-Based Uranium Market Clearing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Auzans

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis and market simulation tools are used to evaluate uranium (U supply shocks, sale or purchase of uranium stockpiles, or market effects of new uranium mines or enrichment technologies. This work expands on an existing U market model that couples the market for primary U from uranium mines with those of secondary uranium, e.g., depleted uranium (DU upgrading or highly enriched uranium (HEU down blending, and enrichment services. This model accounts for the interdependence between the primary U supply on the U market price, the economic characteristics of each individual U mine, sources of secondary supply, and the U enrichment market. This work defines a procedure for developing an aggregate supply curve for primary uranium from marginal cost curves for individual firms (Uranium mines. Under this model, market conditions drive individual mines’ startup and short- and long-term shutdown decisions. It is applied to the uranium industry for the period 2010–2030 in order to illustrate the evolution of the front end markets under conditions of moderate growth in demand for nuclear fuel. The approach is applicable not only to uranium mines but also other facilities and reactors within the nuclear economy that may be modeled as independent, decision-making entities inside a nuclear fuel cycle simulator.

  8. Northern Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  9. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  10. Plans for uranium mining by COGEMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautin, F. [Cogema Australia Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hallenstein, C. [Afmeco Mining and Exploration Pty Ltd, Darwin, NT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The COGEMA group is currently evaluating three uranium deposits, Koongarra in the Northern Territory and Manyingee and Oobagooma in WA, with regard to their development potential. The Koongarra deposit, with some 14,000 tonnes of contained U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, is the most advanced, as detailed mining plans and an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) had been prepared by previous holders of the deposit. An agreement with the Aboriginal Land Owners of the area had also been negotiated with the Northern Land Council, but had not been ratified by the then Commonwealth Government. The sandstone-hosted deposits at Manyingee and Oobagooma contain resources of about 7000 tonne and 10,000 tonne of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} respectively. It is possible that the deposits are amenable to in situ leaching techniques, and this - together with a determination of possible additional field investigations - is being evaluated. COGEMA, through its subsidiary AFmeco Mining and EXploration Pty Ltd, is furthermore embarking upon a sizeable exploration program in West Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. The exploration interests include geological units which are considered to be prospective for world-class uranium deposits. 6 figs.

  11. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is... reclamation on all lands adversely impacted by past coal mining. August 24, 1997 January 30, 1997...

  12. 30 CFR 918.25 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE LOUISIANA § 918.25 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 918.25 Section 918.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  13. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  14. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 936.25 Section 936.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  15. 30 CFR 756.16 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land reclamation plan. 756.16 Section 756.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.16 Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Hopi Tribe's...

  16. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  17. 30 CFR 944.25 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE UTAH § 944.25 Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 944.25 Section 944.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  18. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  19. 30 CFR 938.25 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE PENNSYLVANIA § 938.25 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 938.25 Section 938.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 920.25 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MARYLAND § 920.25 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 920.25 Section 920.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments. 948.25 Section 948.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  2. 30 CFR 925.25 - Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MISSOURI § 925.25 Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 925.25 Section 925.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 948.26 - Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. 948.26 Section 948.26 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.26 Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. ...

  4. 30 CFR 914.25 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE INDIANA § 914.25 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 914.25 Section 914.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  5. 30 CFR 902.25 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ALASKA § 902.25 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 902.25 Section 902.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  6. Estimating limits for the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines: A simple methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  7. Current issues (and problems) in uranium mine and mill site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarch, H. [DSR GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany); Kuhlmann, J.; Zettwoog, P. [CERTAC, Auffargis (France)

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of the mining and milling of uranium ores is similar to that of traditional metal mining with the added factor of the characteristic radioactivity in uranium ores. Residues of these ores therefore generate specific potential hazards requiring special precautions on a site specific basis, as well as special regulatory procedures and controls to ensure protection of public health and safety in the long term. There are strong indications that on a global scale U-mining tailings management and remediation-activities are steadily becoming governed by the ultimate goal of sustainable stabilization and re-establishment of a healthy environment, rather than by immediate or short term needs. In Central Europe rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling districts has only started. Some problems are listed as follows: (1) Limitation, long term control and prediction of aquatic and atmospheric dispersal of contaminants from tailings impoundments, waste rock dumps and abandoned underground mines, (2) Dewatering of tailings (large volumes), (3) Design of cover systems and inhibition of microbian process, (4) Controlled flooding of extensive underground mine workings and related prognosis and control of containment dispersion, (5) Reduction of Rn-exhalation during the flooding process and after mine abandonment, in particular in areas close to densely populated regions, (6) Determination of long term radiological impacts on residents near sources of contamination and identification of natural background levels, (7) Identification of critical containment pathways that remain active, (8) Conception and implementation of a comprehensive monitoring system for all pathways which would operate on a long term basis, (9) Limitation of mine water drainage to be treated and decontaminated and of resulting sludges (in considerable quantities) to be disposed of and which would have to be classified as hazardous waste in the future due to their radionuclide content.

  8. LAND REBORN: TOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY/NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ABANDONED MINE LAND PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  9. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS ABANDONED MINE LAND REMEDIATION WORKSHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  10. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  11. Geoenvironmental Characterisation of Heap Leach Materials at Abandoned Mines: Croydon Au-Mines, QLD, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Parbhakar-Fox

    2016-01-01

    Heap leaching is a well-established metallurgical technology which allows metal recovery (e.g., Au, Cu, U) from low-grade ores. However, spent heap leach materials remaining at abandoned or historic mine sites may represent a potential source of contamination. At the Croydon Au-mines, heap leaching operations (1984–1985) were performed on mineralized rhyolites hosting sulphides including pyrite, galena, arsenopyrite and minor sphalerite. Characterization of spent heap leach materials (n = 14)...

  12. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Wyoming certification of completing all known coal-related impacts is accepted, effective May 25, 1984. (b) The...

  13. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... acquisition, management and disposal of property, and reclamation on private lands. April 25, 1990 August 31... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land...

  14. 30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE NORTH DAKOTA § 934.25 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments... Emergency response reclamation program; set-aside trust funds, eligible lands. September 20, 1995 October 8... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land...

  15. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine... PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's.... Copies of the approved Plan are available at the following locations: (a) Crow Tribal Council, Crow...

  16. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  18. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  19. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adamu, Haruna

    info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by ... Mining activities ceased long before statutory controls on mining waste were established and thus, Pb pollution load of the mine waste sites in Rhandirmwyn ...

  20. Rehabilitation prioritization of abandoned mines and its application to Nyala Magnesite Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, Sphiwe Emmanuel; Amponsah-Dacosta, Francis; Mphephu, Nndweleni Fredrick

    2013-12-01

    The issue of abandoned mine sites is a major environmental and social problem for the mining industry, communities and governments. Historical mine sites are characterized by significant environmental, health and safety problems. The aim of this study was to develop hazard maps that can assist in the prioritization of rehabilitation at Nyala Mine. The approach used involved site examination and characterization to establish the environmental conditions of the mine. Hazards at the mine were identified, scored, and rated using modified Historic Mine Site Scoring System. The scoring focused on source and exposure pathways. The developed hazard maps showed that the best approach of effectively reducing the physical and environmental hazards at Nyala Mine was to give priority to extremely and moderately hazardous pits; surface infrastructure and spoil dumps, and then to tailings dumps characterized with less physical hazards but extremely high environmental hazards. Pits and spoil materials which were found to be relatively less problematic in terms of physical hazards were to receive least attention. The use of this hazard-scoring and risk-ranking methodology coupled with the hazard maps would provide a more robust scientific basis for making sound decisions and prioritize actions that need to be taken to minimize or manage risks associated with various areas of the mine site.

  1. Terrafirma product : case study for the application of Terrafirma ground motion services to areas of abandoned mining : Northumberland, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Luke; Lawrence, David

    2012-01-01

    The UK Coal Authority are responsible for all areas of abandoned coal mining in the UK and are responsible for the settlement of subsidence claims raised by those living in areas of abandoned coal mining. The scope for radar based ground measurements to assist the Coal Authority with their understanding of ground motions which might relate to abandoned coal mines offers an interesting possibility.

  2. Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Naftz, David L.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research by the U.S. Geological Survey has characterized contaminant sources and identified important geochemical processes that influence transport of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling wastes. 1) Selective extraction studies indicated that alkaline earth sulfates and hydrous ferric oxides are important hosts of 226Ra in uranium mill tailings. The action of sulfate-reducing and ironreducing bacteria on these phases was shown to enhance release of radium, and this adverse result may temper decisions to dispose of uranium mill tailings in anaerobic environments. 2) Field studies have shown that although surface-applied sewage sludge/wood chip amendments aid in revegetating pyritic spoil, the nitrogen in sludge leachate can enhance pyrite oxidation, acidification of groundwater, and the consequent mobilization of metals and radionuclides. 3) In a U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyfunded study, three permeable reactive barriers consisting of phosphate-rich material, zero-valent iron, or amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide have been installed at an abandoned uranium upgrader facility near Fry Canyon, UT. Preliminary results indicate that each of the permeable reactive barriers is removing the majority of the uranium from the groundwater. 4) Studies on the geochemistry of rare earth elements as analogues for actinides such as uranium and thorium in acid mine drainage environments indicate high mobility under acid-weathering conditions but measurable attenuation associated with iron and aluminum colloid formation. Mass balances from field and laboratory studies are being used to quantify the amount of attenuation. 5) A field study in Colorado demonstrated the use of 234U/238U isotopic ratio measurements to evaluate contamination of shallow groundwater with uranium mill effluent.

  3. Uranium mining and hydrogeology II. Vol. 2 - Supplements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, B.; Helling, C. [eds.] [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Scientists and engineers discussed the problems of the danger of groundwater contamination by uranium mining activities, tailings and dumps. Topics were the flooding of old mines, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and hydrogeochemical problems and their solutions by several monitoring and analytical methods as well as modelling tools. The meeting focused on the remediation strategies for tailings and dumps as well on the flooding of mines with potential groundwater pollution in mind. Further aspects discussed are monitoring and analytics, geochemical interactions and modelling tools.

  4. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  5. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  6. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  7. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission (CNEN), Avenida Santana, 680, Centro, Caetite-Bahia, 46400-000 (Brazil); Zuddas, Pierpaolo [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP place Jussieu, Tour 56-55, case 116, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  8. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    .... From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2...

  9. Stakeholder cooperation: regulating a uranium mine with multiple statutory approvals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, M., E-mail: Michelle.Bush@environment.gov.au [Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Supervising Scientist Division, Darwin, NT (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine operates under an Authorisation issued by the Northern Territory Government. In addition, the site is regulated by a set of Environmental Requirements attached to the uranium export permit issued by the Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. A Heap Leach facility proposed for the site could result in a third approval being issued, in accordance with the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Finding the correct balance to regulate the mine in light of these approvals will be a challenge for the range of stakeholders involved in regulation and oversight of this operation. (author)

  10. Dose rate in a deactivated uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse G.A.C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Marques, José M.; Carmo, Alessander S. do; Dias, Ayandra O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopes@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit is a deactivated uranium mine and milling situated in Caldas, MG, BR. Although disabled, there are still areas considered controlled and supervised from the radiological point of view. In these areas, it is necessary to keep an occupational monitoring program to ensure the workers' safety and to prevent the dispersion of radioactive material. For area monitoring, the dose rate, in μSv∙h{sup -1}, was measured with Geiger Müller (GM) area monitors or personal electronic monitors type GM and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), in mSv∙month{sup -1}, along the years 2013 to 2016. For area monitoring, 577 samples were recorded; for personal dosimeters monitoring, 2,656; and for TLD monitoring type, 5,657. The area monitoring showed a mean dose rate of 6.42 μSv∙h{sup -1} associated to a standard deviation of 48 μSv∙h{sup -1} with a maximum recorded value of 685 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 96 % of the samples were below the derived limit per hour for workers (10 μSv∙h{sup -1}). For the personal electronic monitoring, the average of the data sampled was 15.86 μSv∙h{sup -1}, associated to a standard deviation of 61.74 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 80 % of the samples were below the derived limit and the maximum recorded was 1,220 μSv∙h{sup -1}. Finally, the TLD showed a mean of 0.01 mSv∙h{sup -1} (TLD detection limit is 0.2 mSv∙month{sup -1}), associated to a standard deviation of 0.08 mSv∙h{sup -1}. 98% of the registered values were below 0.2 mSv and less than 2 % of the measurements had values above the limit of detection. The samples show areas with low risk of external exposure, as can be seen by the TLD evaluation. Specific areas with greater risk of contamination have already been identified, as well as operations at higher risks. In these cases, the use of the individual electronic dosimeter is justified for a more effective monitoring. Radioprotection identified all risks and was able to extend individual electronic monitoring to all

  11. Uranium mobility and accumulation along the Rio Paguate, Jackpile Mine in Laguna Pueblo, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Johanna M; De Vore, Cherie L; Avasarala, Sumant; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Roldan, Claudia; Bowers, Fenton; Spilde, Michael N; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Kirk, Matthew F; Peterson, Eric; Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Cerrato, José M

    2017-04-19

    The mobility and accumulation of uranium (U) along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico was investigated using aqueous chemistry, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy analyses. Given that it is not common to identify elevated concentrations of U in surface water sources, the Rio Paguate is a unique site that concerns the Laguna Pueblo community. This study aims to better understand the solid chemistry of abandoned mine waste sediments from the Jackpile Mine and identify key hydrogeological and geochemical processes that affect the fate of U along the Rio Paguate. Solid analyses using X-ray fluorescence determined that sediments located in the Jackpile Mine contain ranges of 320 to 9200 mg kg(-1) U. The presence of coffinite, a U(iv)-bearing mineral, was identified by X-ray diffraction analyses in abandoned mine waste solids exposed to several decades of weathering and oxidation. The dissolution of these U-bearing minerals from abandoned mine wastes could contribute to U mobility during rain events. The U concentration in surface waters sampled closest to mine wastes are highest during the southwestern monsoon season. Samples collected from September 2014 to August 2016 showed higher U concentrations in surface water adjacent to the Jackpile Mine (35.3 to 772 μg L(-1)) compared with those at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine (5.77 to 110 μg L(-1)). Sediments co-located in the stream bed and bank along the reach between the mine and wetland had low U concentrations (range 1-5 mg kg(-1)) compared to concentrations in wetland sediments with higher organic matter (14-15%) and U concentrations (2-21 mg kg(-1)). Approximately 10% of the total U in wetland sediments was amenable to complexation with 1 mM sodium bicarbonate in batch experiments; a decrease of U concentration in solution was observed over time in these experiments likely due to re-association with sediments in the reactor. The

  12. Effect of uranium (VI) on two sulphate-reducing bacteria cultures from a uranium mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, DQF, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB-Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, DQF, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-05-15

    This work was conducted to assess the impact of uranium (VI) on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) communities obtained from environmental samples collected on the Portuguese uranium mining area of Urgeirica. Culture U was obtained from a sediment, while culture W was obtained from sludge from the wetland of that mine. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was used to monitor community changes under uranium stress conditions. TGGE profiles of dsrB gene fragment demonstrated that the initial cultures were composed of SRB species affiliated with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfomicrobium spp. (sample U), and by species related to D. desulfuricans (sample W). A drastic change in SRB communities was observed as a result of uranium (VI) exposure. Surprisingly, SRB were not detected in the uranium removal communities. Such findings emphasize the need of monitoring the dominant populations during bio-removal studies. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the uranium removal consortia are composed by strains affiliated to Clostridium genus, Caulobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae families. Therefore, these communities can be attractive candidates for environmental biotechnological applications associated to uranium removal.

  13. Summary of Environmental Data Analysis and Work Performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Support of the Navajo Nation Abandoned Mine Lands Project at Tse Tah, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Madrid, Victor M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report summarizes work performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Navajo Nation Services Contract CO9729 in support of the Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation Program (NAMLRP). Due to restrictions on access to uranium mine waste sites at Tse Tah, Arizona that developed during the term of the contract, not all of the work scope could be performed. LLNL was able to interpret environmental monitoring data provided by NAMLRP. Summaries of these data evaluation activities are provided in this report. Additionally, during the contract period, LLNL provided technical guidance, instructional meetings, and review of relevant work performed by NAMLRP and its contractors that was not contained in the contract work scope.

  14. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  15. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions. (DLC)

  16. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  17. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  18. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. 931.20 Section 931.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... Minerals Division, Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, 2040 South Pacheco Street, Santa Fe...

  19. Possibilities of mine gases outflow prediction during pressure drops considering abandoned shaft located in old coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrona, P. [Silesian University of Technology, Gleiwitz (Poland). Inst. of Geotechnology, Mining Geophysics and Ecology of Industrial Areas

    2005-09-01

    There are abandoned mine shafts, small shafts and drifts located in an old, shallow coal mining area at the slope of Zabrze Dome. Creation of voids and connections with abandoned excavations hasn't been avoided during liquidation of these constructions. Mine gas outflow can create a hazard for people's safety, so it may be helpful to be able to predict volume flow of out flowing gases. One of the abandoned shafts has been selected to conduct extensive measurements of volume flow of mine gases during pressure drops. One case has been selected to perform a comparison between measured and calculated results. Calculated results have been obtained with application of Torricelli's model of gas outflow phenomena from a tank. Pressure drops are considered as the external input functions (the extortions) with quantity of volume flow in the abandoned shaft as the response. The coal shaft must have sufficient volume of voids and a leaky lock. The case of the extortion which is built of pressure drop and pressure buildup is discussed, too. The loop characteristic as the result of the extortion may indicate the existence of volume flow in a hysteresis curve. Mine gases volume flow from abandoned mine shaft depends on time of pressure drop and pressure changes rate. Concentration of CO{sub 2} in mine gases out flowing from abandoned mine shafts located at the slope of Zabrze Dome exceeded 10%. Concentration of CO{sub 2} depends on time of pressure drop, too. The model could be a useful and very simple tool to perform predictions for gas hazard estimations. (orig.)

  20. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vasconcellos, Luisa M.H.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Clain, Almir F., E-mail: flamego@ird.gov.b, E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.b, E-mail: luisa@ird.gov.b, E-mail: h.monken-fernandes@iaea.or, E-mail: almir@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Liliane F., E-mail: ferrerl2004@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U{sub 3}O{sub 8} production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator....1721 Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

  2. Application of GRAM model for estimating groundwater rebound after mine closure: a case study at abandoned underground mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yosoon; Baek, Jieun; Kim, Dukmin

    2017-04-01

    Cessation of dewatering usually results in groundwater rebound after closing an underground mine because the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. The objective of this study was to develop a program for analyzing groundwater rebound in abandoned underground mines. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study reviewed the numerical models such as MODFLOW, GRAM and MINEDW, and compares their scopes of assessment at different spatial and time scales. In addition, a GRAM(Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mine workings) model-based program, named GRAM for Windows, was developed using Visual Studio.NET 2012. The program, GRAM for Windows, is comprised of the graphic user interface and the simulation engine modules. Input and output files of the program were designed by considering the characteristics of GRAM model. Some case studies were performed to analyze groundwater rebound at abandoned underground mines in Korea. The comparisons of simulated and observed groundwater levels at the shaft of underground mine showed that the developed program can be used effectively to analyze and estimate the groundwater rebound in the abandoned underground mine.

  3. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  4. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  5. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  6. Uranium;L'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poty, B. [CNRS, 54 - Gondreville (France); Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.

    2010-03-15

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  7. Prioritizing abandoned coal mine reclamation projects within the contiguous United States using geographic information system extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Yuri; Reid, Matthew; Mignone, Erica; Voros, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Coal mine reclamation projects are very expensive and require coordination of local and federal agencies to identify resources for the most economic way of reclaiming mined land. Location of resources for mine reclamation is a spatial problem. This article presents a methodology that allows the combination of spatial data on resources for the coal mine reclamation and uses GIS analysis to develop a priority list of potential mine reclamation sites within contiguous United States using the method of extrapolation. The extrapolation method in this study was based on the Bark Camp reclamation project. The mine reclamation project at Bark Camp, Pennsylvania, USA, provided an example of the beneficial use of fly ash and dredged material to reclaim 402,600 sq mi of a mine abandoned in the 1980s. Railroads provided transportation of dredged material and fly ash to the site. Therefore, four spatial elements contributed to the reclamation project at Bark Camp: dredged material, abandoned mines, fly ash sources, and railroads. Using spatial distribution of these data in the contiguous United States, it was possible to utilize GIS analysis to prioritize areas where reclamation projects similar to Bark Camp are feasible. GIS analysis identified unique occurrences of all four spatial elements used in the Bark Camp case for each 1 km of the United States territory within 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 km radii from abandoned mines. The results showed the number of abandoned mines for each state and identified their locations. The federal or state governments can use these results in mine reclamation planning.

  8. MS Excel File describing groundwater quality for historic in situ recovery (ISR) uranium mines in Texas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In situ recovery (ISR) uranium mining is a technique in which uranium is extracted by a series of injection and recovery wells developed in a permeable sandstone...

  9. Uranium decay daughters from isolated mines: Accumulation and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvier, A; Panza, F; Pourcelot, L; Foissard, B; Cagnat, X; Prunier, J; van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Le Roux, G

    2015-11-01

    This study combines in situ gamma spectrometry performed at different scales, in order to accurately locate the contamination pools, to identify the concerned radionuclides and to determine the distribution of the contaminants from soil to bearing phase scale. The potential mobility of several radionuclides is also evaluated using sequential extraction. Using this procedure, an accumulation area located downstream of a former French uranium mine and concentrating a significant fraction of radioactivity is highlighted. We report disequilibria in the U-decay chains, which are likely related to the processes implemented on the mining area. Coupling of mineralogical analyzes with sequential extraction allow us to highlight the presence of barium sulfate, which may be the carrier of the Ra-226 activities found in the residual phase (Ba(Ra)SO4). In contrast, uranium is essentially in the reducible fraction and potentially trapped in clay-iron coatings located on the surface of minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avifauna of Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amarnath Reddy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna of Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area in Kadapa and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh consists of 99 species belonging to 43 families as observed during the two-and-half year long study between 2009 and 2012.  The majority of them are residents (92% and a very few are local migrants (5% and winter migrants (2%, and inclusive of 47 species that are common, 13 occasional, 17 uncommon and 22 rare.

  11. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  12. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  13. Microbial reduction of uranium(VI) by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Ulrike; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    The former uranium mine Koenigstein (Germany) is currently in the process of controlled flooding by reason of remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches, which could be an great alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements were performed and revealed a complete reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) only by adding 10 mM glycerol.

  14. Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine under aerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiravi, Meisam; Mote, Shekhar R; Mohanty, Manoj K; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-05

    In this study, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was used to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in the cathode chamber under aerobic condition. Activated sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant was used in the anode chamber of the BES to supply electrons to the treatment. After 7days, the pH of the cathode solution enhanced from 2.5 to 7.3. More than 99% of Al, Fe and Pb were removed, and removal rates of 93%, 91%, 89% and 69% were achieved for Cd, Zn, Mn and Co respectively with biocathode. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) study revealed the deposition of the various types of metals on the cathode surface, and some metals were detected in the precipitates of the cathode chamber. The bacteria for AMD treatment was identified to be Serratia spp. using 16s rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Scanning electron microscopy showed attached growth of the bacteria on the cathode. The bioelectrochemical treatment of the AMD was also compared with the biological treatment in a continuously stirred batch reactor (CSBR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Geoenvironmental Characterisation of Heap Leach Materials at Abandoned Mines: Croydon Au-Mines, QLD, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Parbhakar-Fox

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heap leaching is a well-established metallurgical technology which allows metal recovery (e.g., Au, Cu, U from low-grade ores. However, spent heap leach materials remaining at abandoned or historic mine sites may represent a potential source of contamination. At the Croydon Au-mines, heap leaching operations (1984–1985 were performed on mineralized rhyolites hosting sulphides including pyrite, galena, arsenopyrite and minor sphalerite. Characterization of spent heap leach materials (n = 14 was performed using established geochemical and mineralogical techniques, supplemented by automated mineralogical evaluations. Whilst these materials contained low sulphide-sulphur (0.08 to 0.41 wt % and returned innocuous paste pH values (pH 5.1 to 8.6, they were classified uncertain by net acid producing potential/net acid generating criteria. This was likely due to the reaction of secondary mineral phases (i.e., beudantite, hidalgoite, kintoreite and Fe-As-Pb oxides during these tests. It is hypothesised that during heap leaching, gangue sulphides have differentially reacted with the cyanide lixiviant, pre-conditioning the formation of these complex secondary phases during surficial oxidation, after heap leaching termination. These materials are considered to represent a moderate geoenvironmental risk as dissolved Pb in basal leachates is in excess of the World Health Organization (WHO 2006 guideline values. Considering this, these materials should be included in ongoing rehabilitation works at the site.

  16. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's... RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Revisions to the following provisions of the Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as submitted...

  17. Concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals in vegetation at two abandoned mine tailings in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peichun; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-04-01

    Untreated abandoned mines may result in hazards to ecosystems due to dispersion of various toxic elements such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Phytoremediation is an alternative of remediation for large scale mine dumps. Plant species were sampled from two abandoned gold (Au) mines in South Korea. Plant samples were digested following the guidelines of US EPA Method 3050 (US-EPA, 1996) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations and bioaccumulation factors of plants are reported and out-performing species are summarized. Poplar trees (Populus davidiana) growing on the Myoungbong tailings were suggested to be a potential species for revegetation of large scale Au mine tailings. Arsenic accumulations of bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum) sampled from the Duckum tailings were far lower than those of the reported hyperaccumulators, but the possible chronic adverse effects on residents through daily diet are of concern.

  18. Reconnaissance of water availability and quality in abandoned coal mines near Roslyn, Kittitas County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The recoverable volume of ground water in abandoned coal mines near Roslyn, Wash., is estimated to be 20,000 acre-feet. During times of drought, pumping this water into the Cle Elum and Yakima Rivers for use in irrigation downstream should present few major water-quality problems. Wells at seven locations should be sufficient to withdraw the recoverable water from nine separate reservoirs within the mines. Under normal recharge (precipitation) conditions, these reservoirs would refill in about 6 years. (USGS)

  19. Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asmarhansyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate   appropriate   land   development measures and amelioration  strategies for  utilization of mined  areas  for crop  production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general  food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana  L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.

  20. Hydrogeologic modelling to simulate groundwater inflow after sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kim, G.; Kim, D.; Kim, E.; Kim, D. M.; Baek, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mine adit-plugging is one of the usual methods to control mine water at abandoned mines. An experimental program has been undertaken to provide a practical procedure for sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea. In this program, a three-dimensional hydrogeological modelling of the study area plays an important role to design and install a stable adit-plug system. Once the complete 3D model is constructed, the rate of mine water rebound after the installation of an adit-plug system can be estimated. The maximum water pressure acting behind the plug can also be estimated to evaluate the stability of the adit-plug system. Also, the long-term seepage problems should be considered. Several numerical models are routinely used to design dewatering systems at mines from an adequate simulation of the groundwater flow. MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate the groundwater flow related to mining. In this study, a 3-D groundwater flow model was constructed using MINEDW to simulate the groundwater conditions. Predictions of groundwater inflow require a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other properties of the rockmass, are also required. Two abandoned coal mines were selected, and complete geological and geophysical surveys were performed. Various hydraulic tests, such as pumping tests and packer tests, had also been conducted to assign K values to the hydrogeologic units in the model.

  1. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... eligible lands and water; Ranking and selection procedures; Coordination of reclamation work; Acquisition management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public...

  2. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's... RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, the Crow Tribe is required to submit to OSM by the date specified either a...

  3. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  4. 2010 Five-Year Plan: Assessment of Health and Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining and Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The five-year plan is intended to compile all activities contributing to the identification and cleanup of legacy uranium milling and mining activities in the Grants Mining District in the State of New Mexico.

  5. Environmental geochemistry of the abandoned Mamut Copper Mine (Sabah) Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Edraki, Mansour

    2016-11-15

    The Mamut Copper Mine (MCM) located in Sabah (Malaysia) on Borneo Island was the only Cu-Au mine that operated in the country. During its operation (1975-1999), the mine produced 2.47 Mt of concentrate containing approximately 600,000 t of Cu, 45 t of Au and 294 t of Ag, and generated about 250 Mt of overburden and waste rocks and over 150 Mt of tailings, which were deposited at the 397 ha Lohan tailings storage facility, 15.8 km from the mine and 980 m lower in altitude. The MCM site presents challenges for environmental rehabilitation due to the presence of large volumes of sulphidic minerals wastes, the very high rainfall and the large volume of polluted mine pit water. This indicates that rehabilitation and treatment is costly, as for example, exceedingly large quantities of lime are needed for neutralisation of the acidic mine pit discharge. The MCM site has several unusual geochemical features on account of the concomitant occurrence of acid-forming sulphide porphyry rocks and alkaline serpentinite minerals, and unique biological features because of the very high plant diversity in its immediate surroundings. The site hence provides a valuable opportunity for researching natural acid neutralisation processes and mine rehabilitation in tropical areas. Today, the MCM site is surrounded by protected nature reserves (Kinabalu Park, a World Heritage Site, and Bukit Hampuan, a Class I Forest Reserve), and the environmental legacy prevents de-gazetting and inclusion in these protected area in the foreseeable future. This article presents a preliminary geochemical investigation of waste rocks, sediments, secondary precipitates, surface water chemistry and foliar elemental uptake in ferns, and discusses these results in light of their environmental significance for rehabilitation.

  6. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida, E-mail: mgutierrez@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Mickus, Kevin, E-mail: kevinmickus@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Camacho, Lucy Mar, E-mail: lucy.camacho@tamuk.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas & M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  7. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  8. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mining practices for the extraction of uranium ore with examples from producing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janoschka, K. (Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.))

    1980-10-01

    In the introduction the author goes briefly into the historical development of the utilization of uranium, the personal strain on miners in the work place and the particulars of safety measures to protect the health of personnel engaged in the recovery of uranium. Several characteristic examples of uranium ore producing facilities are then presented. They were chosen for open pit mine operations as well as for underground mines. The extraction of uranium in the open pit mines of the Cluff Lake deposits of Amok Ltd. in Saskatchewan, the uranium surface mine Roessing in Namibia, recovery in the underground workings of the uranium mine of Dennison Mines Ltd. at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and the uranium ore mine La Fraisse in France are all described. In addition, the unconventional recovery of uranium from phosphates by in-situ leaching and the recovery of uranium as a by-product of the extraction of gold in South Africa are gone into in detail. The ore miner has learned to master all the given conditions of nature. The limits are his ability to make concentrations of mineral ores useful, constrained by the price consumers are ready to pay, which is to say the competitive situation of the world raw material market.

  10. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  11. Use of modflow drain package for simulating inter-basin transfer in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation of groundwater flow in abandoned mines is difficult, especially where flux to and from mines is unknown or poorly quantified, and inter-basin transfer of groundwater occurs. A 3-year study was conducted in the Elkhorn area, West Virginia to better understand groundwater-flow processes and inter-basin transfer in above drainage abandoned coal mines. The study area was specifically selected, as all mines are located above the elevation of tributary receiving streams, to allow accurate measurements of discharge from mine portals and tributaries for groundwater model calibration. Abandoned mine workings were simulated in several ways, initially as a layer of high hydraulic conductivity bounded by lower permeability rock in adjacent strata, and secondly as rows of higher hydraulic conductivity embedded within a lower hydraulic conductivity coal aquifer matrix. Regardless of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to mine workings, neither approach to simulate mine workings could accurately reproduce the inter-basin transfer of groundwater from adjacent watersheds. To resolve the problem, a third approach was developed. The MODFLOW DRAIN package was used to simulate seepage into and through mine workings discharging water under unconfined conditions to Elkhorn Creek, North Fork, and tributaries of the Bluestone River. Drain nodes were embedded in a matrix of uniform hydraulic conductivity cells that represented the coal mine aquifer. Drain heads were empirically defined from well observations, and elevations were based on structure contours for the Pocahontas No. 3 mine workings. Use of the DRAIN package to simulate mine workings as an internal boundary condition resolved the inter-basin transfer problem, and effectively simulated a shift from a topographic- dominated to a dip-dominated flow system, by dewatering overlying unmined strata and shifting the groundwater drainage divide up dip within the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam several kilometers into the adjacent

  12. Water management at abandoned flooded underground mines. Fundamentals, tracer tests, modelling, water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkersdorfer, Christian [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). AG Hydrogeologie und Umweltgeologie

    2008-07-01

    Switching off the pumps of a mine is one of the last steps in the lifetime of a surface or underground mine. As the water in the open space rises, the water might become contaminated with different pollutants and eventually start to flow in the open voids. This book addresses the processes related to mine abandonment from a hydrogeological perspective. After an introduction to the relevant hydrogeochemical processes the book gives detailed information about mine closure procedures. Based on in-situ measurements the hydrodynamic processes in a flooded mine are described and some of the mine closure flow models exemplified. As all investigations are based on precise data, the book gives some key issues of monitoring and sampling, especially flow monitoring. Then the book presents some new methodologies for conducting tracer tests in flooded mines and gives some hints to passive mine water treatment. At the end of the book thirteen well investigated case studies of flooded underground mine and mine water tracer tests are described and interpreted from a hydrodynamic point of view. (orig.)

  13. Technology of mine stone packing in abandoned workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neshitin, V.M.; Kurchenko, Eh.P.; Afanas' ev, V.V. (DonUGI (USSR))

    1990-03-01

    Describes technology of stone packing into abandoned workings using a scraper and a slinging machine of belt drum type. Three schemes are presented, one that uses the BS-4P scraper, the 1LP winch and a slinging machine, a second one that uses the UZM slinger with the stone delivered by a conveyor and a third scheme that uses the UZM slinger, 1PPN-5 loader and the OB or BOM tippler. The first and third schemes can be used in two-way workings with cross-section area not less than 9 m{sup 2} and the second scheme in workings with cross-section area not under 6 m{sup 2}. The rate of packing is 168, 236 and 248 m{sup 3}/d respectively. The cost of packing operations is 2.36, 2.82 and 2.46 rubles/t respectively which is 0.99-1.45 less than in the case of hauling and hoisting waste rock to the surface. Organization of packing operations is described.

  14. A WebGIS Decision Support System for Management of Abandoned Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Stanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a WebGIS application aimed at providing safe and reliable data needed for reclamation of abandoned mines in national parks and other protected areas in Vojvodina in compliance with existing legal regulations. The geodatabase model for this application has been developed using UML and the CASE tool Microsoft Visio featuring an interface with ArcGIS. The WebGIS application was developed using GeoServer, an open source tool in the Java programming language, with integrated PostgreSQL DB and the possibility of generating and publishing WMS, WFS and KML services. The WebGIS application is publicly available, based on an appropriate central database, which for the first time encompasses all available data on abandoned mines in Vojvodina, and as such may serve as a model for similar databases on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  15. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Surface water arid;ground water from an area underlain by coal- bearing rocks in the vicinity of St. Charles Michigan, were analyzed to determine the quality characteristics of these water resources and to assess the relation between the two. Data for 15 constituents, including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium and manganese, were in such high concentrations that they could be used to differentiate between water from wells drilled into coal-bearing beds and water from streams not directly associated with coal deposits. Ground water from abandoned mines and undisturbed coal-bearing beds is highly mineralized, and contains higher concentrations of trace metals than surface water. Water from the undistrubed coal- bearing beds and abandoned mines is not suitable for domestic, public supply, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality.

  16. An improved void-resistance model for abandoned coal mine gas reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, JQ; Rubio, RM; Durucan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the gas pressure behaviour of some abandoned coal mines may be described with the aid of a simple conceptual model, the so called void-resistance model. In this study, an improved void-resistance model has been developed and validated using previously collected data. Two model parameters, i.e. an apparent source/sink pressure and a time constant, which control the gas pressure behaviour during recharge and under certain gas production conditions, are defined. ...

  17. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuhao Du; Xiaoli Liu; Enzhi Wang; Sijing Wang

    2017-01-01

    CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and ...

  18. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  19. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TONWSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-02-01

    This report represents the tenth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, engineering continued during this reporting period toward development of the Construction Plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  1. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-12-01

    This report represents the thirteenth Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this semi annual reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, construction was completed during this reporting period and surface monitoring began. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  2. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoni Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  3. USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kate; Church, Stan

    2006-01-01

    The following talk was an invited presentation given at the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs meeting in Billings, Montana on Sept. 25, 2006. The objective of the talk was to outline the scope of the U.S. Geological Survey research, past, present and future, in the area of abandoned mine research. Two large Professional Papers have come out of our AML studies: Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 524 p., 2 plates, 1 DVD, URL: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1652 Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2006, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p., 6 plates, 1 DVD (in press). Additional publications and links can be found on the USGS AML website at URL: http://amli.usgs.gov/ or are accessible from the USGS Mineral Resource Program website at URL: http://minerals.usgs.gov/.

  4. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  6. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White

  7. The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

    2010-06-30

    This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperator's Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperator's Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.

  8. Human exposure and risk assessment of cadmium for residents of abandoned metal mine areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiyeon; Kim, Eung-Cheol; Shin, Dong-Chun; Jo, Seong-Joon; Lim, Young-Wook

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to find the Cd levels in agricultural crops compared to soil, to evaluate the relationship between daily intake dose through the multimedia/multi-pathway of human exposure and biomarker levels of the residents in mine vicinity area. We collected and cited the data of four out of ten health impact assessments for the residents of abandoned mine areas undertaken by the Korea Ministry of Environment in 2008. The Cd levels in soil were significantly decreased by the separation distance from the mines. The Cd levels in blood were significantly different between residents in mine areas and in comparative areas, but urinary Cd levels did not differ. The Cd levels in blood were related to the age; the separation distance from mine to residence; the daily intake dose via ingestion of drinking water, crops, and surface soil; and inhalation of ambient air of Cd, but urinary Cd levels were not relevant with various sociodemographic characteristics and exposure factors. The average hazard quotient (HQ) value of Cd in the mining site was below 1.0, but the maximum HQ was closed to 1.0. The results indicated that the ingestion of Cd-contaminated soil and agricultural crops by local inhabitants could pose potential adverse health effects to long-term residents consuming rice grown near to the mining areas.

  9. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  11. Relationship between plant biodiversity and heavy metal bioavailability in grasslands overlying an abandoned mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Pastor, J

    2008-04-01

    Abandoned metal mines in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid, Spain, are often located in areas of high ecological value. This is true of an abandoned barium mine situated in the heart of a bird sanctuary. Today the area sustains grasslands, interspersed with oakwood formations of Quercus ilex and heywood scrub (Retama sphaerocarpa L.), used by cattle, sheep and wild animals. Our study was designed to establish a relationship between the plant biodiversity of these grasslands and the bioavailability of heavy metals in the topsoil layer of this abandoned mine. We conducted soil chemical analyses and performed a greenhouse evaluation of the effects of different soil heavy metal concentrations on biodiversity. The greenhouse bioassays were run for 6 months using soil samples obtained from the mine polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and from a control pasture. Soil heavy metal and Na concentrations, along with the pH, had intense negative effects on plant biodiversity, as determined through changes in the Shannon index and species richness. Numbers of grasses, legumes, and composites were reduced, whilst other species (including ruderals) were affected to a lesser extent. Zinc had the greatest effect on biodiversity, followed by Cd and Cu. When we compared the sensitivity of the biodiversity indicators to the different metal content variables, pseudototal metal concentrations determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were the most sensitive, followed by available and soluble metal contents. Worse correlations between biodiversity variables and metal variables were shown by pseudototal contents obtained by plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results highlight the importance of using as many different indicators as possible to reliably assess the response shown by plants to heavy metal soil pollution.

  12. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 μm and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 μm as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  13. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  14. Statistical evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of abandoned underground coal mines around Cannelburg, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical analysis of daily water-level changes in an abandoned coal mine indicates that precipitation affects the potentiometric level of the mine, independent of associated atmospheric pressure changes and changes in the water level of an overlying aquifer. The independent statistical effect of precipitation (0.99 cm of water-level change per centimeter of rainfall) is interpreted to reflect either lateral percolation from the coalbed's subcrop (1.2 km from the mine) or rapid recharge through mine-associated pathways, such as poorly plugged shafts, boreholes, or subsidence fractures. The relationship between water-level changes in the mine's voids and changes in the overlying aquifer is also statistically significant, but the regression coefficient (0.04) is an order of magnitude smaller than that for precipitation, indicating that vertical percolation (which is represented by covariance of the two aquifers) through undisturbed overburden may be less effective than the recharge associated with precipitation that bypasses the overburden. An equivalent analysis of water-level changes in an underlying unmined coalbed indicated that precipitation had a weaker direct effect (regression coefficient of 0.34, compared with 0.99), although it was still the dominant independent variable. In contrast, the effect of water-level changes in an overlying aquifer (the flooded mine itself) was relatively stronger (regression coefficient of 0.15, compared with 0.04), indicating that vertical percolation through interburden is more important at depth. ?? 1993.

  15. Elkon - development of new world class uranium mining center (v.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boytsov, A., E-mail: boytsov@armz.ru [Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    'Full text:' The uranium deposits of Elkon district are located in the south of Republic of Sakha Yakutia. Deposits contain about 6% of the world known uranium resources: 342 409 tonnes of in situ or 288 768 tonnes of recoverable RAR + Inferred resources. Most significant uranium resources of Elkon district (261 768 tonnes) were identified within five deposits of Yuzhnaya zone. The uranium grade averages 0.15 %. Gold, silver and molybdenum are by-products. Principal resources are proposed to be mined by conventional underground method. Location, shape and dimensions of uranium orebodies are primarily controlled by NW-SE oriented and steeply SW dipping faults of Mesozoic age and surrounding pyrite-carbonate- potassium feldspar alteration zones. Country rocks are Archean gneisses. Deposits are of metasomatic geological type. Principal mineralization is represented by brannerite. The Yuzhnaya zone is about 20 km long. It was explored by underground workings and drill holes. Upper limit of orebodies is at a depth of between 200 m and 500 m. Depth persistence exceeds 2,000 m. Uranium mining enterprise Elkon was established in November 2007. It is a 100% Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) subsidiary. The planned producing capacity is up to 5000 Mt U/year. It will perform the entire works related to uranium mining, milling, ore sorting, processing and uranium dioxide production. Technology of ore processing assumes primary radiometric sorting, thickening, sulphide flotation for gold concentrate extraction, subsequent autoclave sulphuric-acid uranium leaching from flotation tails and uranium adsorption onto resin, roasting and heap leaching for uranium from low grade ores, cyanide leaching of gold. Due to a considerable abundance of brannerite, the ore is classified as refractory. Elkon development include 4 main stages: feasibility study and infrastructure development (2009-2011), mine and mill construction (2012- 2015), pilot production (2013-2015), mine development and

  16. Elkon - development of new world class uranium mining center (v.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boytsov, A., E-mail: boytsov@armz.ru [Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The uranium deposits of Elkon district are located in the south of Republic of Sakha Yakutia. Deposits contain about 6% of the world known uranium resources: 342,409 tonnes of in situ or 288,768 tonnes of recoverable RAR + Inferred resources. Most significant uranium resources of Elkon district (261,768 tonnes) were identified within five deposits of Yuzhnaya zone. The uranium grade averages 0.15 %. Gold, silver and molybdenum are by-products. Principal resources are proposed to be mined by conventional underground method. Location, shape and dimensions of uranium orebodies are primarily controlled by NW-SE oriented and steeply SW dipping faults of Mesozoic age and surrounding pyrite-carbonate- potassium feldspar alteration zones. Country rocks are Archean gneisses. Deposits are of metasomatic geological type. Principal mineralization is represented by brannerite. The Yuzhnaya zone is about 20 km long. It was explored by underground workings and drill holes. Upper limit of orebodies is at a depth of between 200 m and 500 m. Depth persistence exceeds 2,000 m. Uranium mining enterprise Elkon was established in November 2007. It is a 100% Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) subsidiary. The planned producing capacity is up to 5,000 Mt U/year. It will perform the entire works related to uranium mining, milling, ore sorting, processing and uranium dioxide production. Technology of ore processing assumes primary radiometric sorting, thickening, sulphide flotation for gold concentrate extraction, subsequent autoclave sulphuric-acid uranium leaching from flotation tails and uranium adsorption onto resin, roasting and heap leaching for uranium from low grade ores, cyanide leaching of gold. Due to a considerable abundance of brannerite, the ore is classified as refractory. Elkon development include 4 main stages: feasibility study and infrastructure development (2009-2011), mine and mill construction (2012- 2015), pilot production (2013-2015), mine development and achieving full capacity

  17. Environmental effect of radon from waste rock piles at closed uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakajima, Yuuji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-04-01

    The radon concentrations at working area had been measured during uranium exploration by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Although the uranium exploration was closed by 1987, the measurements of environmental radon and the confirmation of public dose under 1 mSv/year out of supervising area has been necessary by the regulation since 1989, the year of the change of Japanese mine safety law. However radon exists in natural environment, it`s quite difficult to distinguish the radon from closed uranium mine from natural`s. Therefore the effective doses were estimated by the calculations using the atmospheric dispersion models, and by the measurements of radon emanation from the waste rock area of closed uranium mines. The radon influence from the waste rock was also investigated by the tracer gas dispersion experiments. Consequently the effective doses from the mining facilities were confirmed under the public limits 1 mSv/year of the regulations by this study. (author)

  18. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  19. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  20. An overview of potential benefits and limitations of Compressed Air Energy Storage in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyński, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the methods that can solve the problems with intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy sources. The storage is charged by increasing air pressure with the use of electrically driven compressors, which convert the electric energy into potential energy. The pressurized air is stored in compressed air storage volumes (caverns, voids, porous structures etc.) of any kind and can then be released upon demand to generate electricity again by expansion of the air through an air turbine or gas turbine. Limited availability of salt caverns in Europe creates difficulties in the implementation of this concept on larger scale. This paper deals with underground storage part in CAES concept and lists benefits related to the storage of air in abandoned coal mines. Examples of natural gas storage in abandoned coal mines are given and compared with the compressed air storage. The study shows an example of coal mine volume calculation. The non-exhaustive list of problems and solutions associated with this idea is given in order to develop this concept at larger scale.

  1. Hydrogeological definition and applicability of abandoned coal mines as water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Jardón, S; Álvarez, R; Andrés, C; Pendás, F

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogeologically, the Central Coal Basin (Asturias, Spain) is characterized by predominantly low-permeability materials that make up a multilayer aquifer with very low porosity and permeability values, where the sandstones act as limited aquifers, and wackes, mudstones, shales and coal seams act as confining levels. Preferential groundwater flow paths are open fractures and zones of decompression associated with them, so the hydraulic behaviour of the system is more associated with fracturing than lithology. Thus, abandoned and flooded mines in the area acquire an important role in the management of water resources, setting up an artificial "pseudo-karst" aquifer. This paper evaluates the potential application of the abandoned mines as underground reservoirs, both for water supply and energetic use, mainly through heat pumps and small hydropower plants. In particular, the groundwater reservoir shaped by the connected shafts Barredo and Figaredo has been chosen, and a detailed and multifaceted study has been undertaken in the area. The exposed applications fit with an integrated management of water resources and contribute to improve economic and social conditions of a traditional mining area in gradual decline due to the cessation of such activity.

  2. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhao Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and permeability of coal mass, but also causes the basic physical and mechanical properties changing, such as elastic modulus and Poisson ratio. It eventually results in some reduction in pillar strength. Based on the fractional swelling as a function of time and different loading pressure steps, the relationship between volumetric stress and adsorption pressure increment is acquired. Eventually, this paper presents a theory model to analyze the pillar strength reduction after CO2 adsorption. The model provides a method to quantitatively describe the interrelation of volumetric strain, swelling stress, and mechanical strength reduction after gas adsorption under the condition of step-by-step pressure loading and the non-Langmuir isothermal model. The model might have a significantly important implication for predicting the swelling stress and mechanical behaviors of coal pillars during CO2 sequestration in abandoned coal mines.

  3. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended.

  4. Sources of Radon and its Measurement Techniques in Underground Uranium Mines – An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patitapaban Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The study portrays the important sources of radon and its measurement techniques in underground uranium mines based on an extensive literature review. The methods of measurement of radon exhalation from the ore body and backfill tailings in underground uranium mines, used by the authors of this paper, comparatively give more accurate results than previously used methods. Furthermore, the methods are more effective in terms of portability, cost and time for measuring the average radon exhalation across a large.

  5. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W

    2014-10-01

    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  8. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  9. Utility of ASTER and Landsat for quantifying hydrochemical concentrations in abandoned gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamichael, Solomon G; Ndlovu, Aros

    2017-10-21

    The effect of mining on water resources is severe and requires careful monitoring and management. Remote sensing has been used to characterize water quality indicators in efforts to fight mine-induced contamination. Much focus has however been placed on producing a qualitative classification of water qualities. Moreover, the number of variables considered in most studies is relatively small for a large number of hydrochemical constituents common in water bodies associated with gold mining activities. This study is aimed at quantifying a comprehensive list of field- and laboratory-measured chemical constituents of water samples from abandoned mines using remotely-sensed data. Akaike's Information Criterion was used to estimate each of the constituents using statistical values derived from individual bands of ASTER and Landsat data as predictors. Fairly good accuracies were obtained for constituents such as redox potential (Eh), major anions and cations. In contrast, trace elements correlated poorly with ASTER and Landsat bands, due mainly to a sampling anomaly. The performances of the two images in estimating the constituents were comparable. These findings suggest the potential of multispectral, moderate spatial resolution remote sensing for quantifying different hydrochemical properties of water bodies in mining environments. Further studies are however encouraged to enhance accuracies and reliability using a greater number of samples than was used in this study to capture the variability present in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural radionuclides in effluents release by a deactivated uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, José M.; Pinto, Carlos E.C.; Py Júnior, Delcy A.; Antunes, Marcos M., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: caerjbr@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.br, E-mail: Antunes@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopes@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a mine and deactivated uranium plant in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This facility possesses three points of release of liquid effluents containing radionuclides: point 014, 025 and 076. At these points, the values of activity concentrations (AC) of the radionuclides U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra were analyzed in 2012. The evaluation of point 014 by univariate statistics pointed four groups. [U{sub nat} > {sup 228}Ra > ({sup 226}Ra = {sup 210}Pb) >{sup 232}Th]. The multivariate statistics separated the radionuclides into two groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 232}Th) and ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb)]. At point 025, the univariate statistics described three groups: [Un{sub at} > ({sup 228}Ra = {sup 210}Pb) > ({sup 226}Ra = {sup 232}Th)] and the multivariate analysis also described three but different groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 228}Ra), ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) and {sup 232}Th]. In turn, point 076 showed another behavior. The univariate analysis showed only two groups: [(U{sub nat}) > ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th)]. Differently, the multivariate statistics defined three groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 232}Th), ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) and {sup 210}Pb].Thus, statistical analysis showed that each point has releases of effluents with different characteristics. Both the behaviors of releases, based on multivariate statistics, and of the AC magnitudes, based on the univariate statistics, are different between the points. The only common features were the greater magnitude of uranium and the smaller magnitude of thorium. (author)

  11. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  12. Heavy Metal Behavior in Lichen-Mine Waste Interactions at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lichen, Stereocaulon exutum Nylander, occurring in a contaminated abandoned mine site was investigated to clarify (1 the behavior of heavy metals and As during the slag weathering processes mediated by the lichen; and (2 the distribution of these elements in the lichen thallus on slag. The heavy metals and As in the slag are dissolved from their original phases during the weathering process by lichen substances (organic acids and hypha penetration, in addition to non-biological weathering. The dissolved elements are absorbed into the lichen thallus. Some of these dissolved elements are distributed in the cells of the hyphae. The others are distributed on the surface of the hyphae as formless particles and show lateral distribution inside the cortex of the thallus. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the thalli are positively correlated with the concentrations in the corresponding substrata and a positive intercept in the regression curve obtained using a linear function. These chemical characteristics make this lichen a good biomarker for Cu and Zn contamination of the substrata of the lichen. Therefore, the present study supposes that Stereocaulon exutum has a possible practical application in biomonitoring or risk assessment of heavy metal pollution at abandoned mine sites.

  13. Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisz, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

  14. Ohio's Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation Program: a Study of Data Collection and Evaluation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The planning process for a statewide reclamation plan of Ohio abandoned minelands in response to the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 included: (1) the development of a screening and ranking methodology; (2) the establishment of a statewide review of major watersheds affected by mining; (3) the development of an immediate action process; and (4) a prototypical study of a priority watershed demonstrating the data collection, analysis, display and evaluation to be used for the remaining state watersheds. Historical methods for satisfying map information analysis and evaluation, as well as current methodologies being used were discussed. Various computer mapping and analysis programs were examined for their usability in evaluating the priority reclamation sites. Hand methods were chosen over automated procedures; intuitive evaluation was the primary reason.

  15. Sustainability of uranium mining and milling: toward quantifying resources and eco-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Gavin M; Diesendorf, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The mining of uranium has long been a controversial public issue, and a renewed debate has emerged on the potential for nuclear power to help mitigate against climate change. The central thesis of pro-nuclear advocates is the lower carbon intensity of nuclear energy compared to fossil fuels, although there remains very little detailed analysis of the true carbon costs of nuclear energy. In this paper, we compile and analyze a range of data on uranium mining and milling, including uranium resources as well as sustainability metrics such as energy and water consumption and carbon emissions with respect to uranium production-arguably the first time for modern projects. The extent of economically recoverable uranium resources is clearly linked to exploration, technology, and economics but also inextricably to environmental costs such as energy/water/chemicals consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and social issues. Overall, the data clearly show the sensitivity of sustainability assessments to the ore grade of the uranium deposit being mined and that significant gaps remain in complete sustainability reporting and accounting. This paper is a case study of the energy, water, and carbon costs of uranium mining and milling within the context of the nuclear energy chain.

  16. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables.

  17. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  20. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  1. Acetogens and acetoclastic methanosarcinales govern methane formation in abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Sabrina; Lueders, Tillmann; Krüger, Martin; von Netzer, Frederick; Engelen, Bert; Cypionka, Heribert

    2011-06-01

    In abandoned coal mines, methanogenic archaea are responsible for the production of substantial amounts of methane. The present study aimed to directly unravel the active methanogens mediating methane release as well as active bacteria potentially involved in the trophic network. Therefore, the stable-isotope-labeled precursors of methane, [(13)C]acetate and H(2)-(13)CO(2), were fed to liquid cultures from hard coal and mine timber from a coal mine in Germany. Guided by methane production rates, samples for DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) with subsequent quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic (DGGE) analyses were taken over 6 months. Surprisingly, the formation of [(13)C]methane was linked to acetoclastic methanogenesis in both the [(13)C]acetate- and the H(2)-(13)CO(2)-amended cultures of coal and timber. H(2)-(13)CO(2) was used mainly by acetogens related to Pelobacter acetylenicus and Clostridium species. Active methanogens, closely affiliated with Methanosarcina barkeri, utilized the readily available acetate rather than the thermodynamically more favorable hydrogen. Thus, the methanogenic microbial community appears to be highly adapted to the low-H(2) conditions found in coal mines.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  3. Post-reclamation water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed of abandoned mine lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wei, Honghong; Viadero, Roger C

    2011-02-01

    Abandoned mine land (AML) is one of the legacies of historic mining activities, causing a wide range of environmental problems worldwide. A stream monitoring study was conducted for a period of 7 years to evaluate the water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed, which was heavily impacted by past coal mining and subsequently reclaimed by reforestation and revegetation. GIS tools and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to characterize land cover, to assess temporal trends of the stream conditions, and to examine the linkages between water quality and land cover. In the entire watershed, 15.8% of the land was designated as AML reclaimed by reforestation (4.9%) and revegetation (10.8%). Statistic analysis revealed sub-watersheds with similar land cover (i.e. percentage of reclaimed AML) had similar water quality and all tested water quality variables were significantly related to land cover. Based on the assessment of water quality, acid mine drainage was still the dominant factor leading to the overall poor water quality (low pH, high sulfate and metals) in the watershed after reclamation was completed more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement trends were observed for the mine drainage-related water quality variables (except pH) in the reclaimed AML watershed. The lack of pH improvement in the watershed might be related to metal precipitation and poor buffering capacity of the impacted streams. Furthermore, water quality improvement was more evident in the sub-watersheds which were heavily impacted by past mining activities and reclaimed by reforestation, indicating good reclamation practice had positive impact on water quality over time. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System

  5. Determination of radon flux rates in a uranium mine, Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan. Report No. INFO-0347

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, the Atomic Energy Control Board completed a project in which a computer model (VENTRAD) was developed to model underground mine ventilation systems. The accuracy of the radon/radon daughter concentration predictions by the computer model depend on the input parameters describing the radon source term. At present, there is a lack of reliable data on radon sources in general and in uranium mines in particular. This study determined the flux of radon emitted per unit surface area in selected locations of Amok Ltd.'s underground Cluff Lake uranium mine; measured parameters that can have an influence on radon flux; tested the VENTRAD computer program using the input parameters measured in the mine; and determined the total flux of radon per unit surface area from the total amount of radon exhausted from the mine and the total surface area of the mine openings.

  6. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic modelling to simulate groundwater inflow at an abandoned underground coal mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Daehoon; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Dukmin

    2017-04-01

    The safety and environmental concerns should be addressed for sustainable mining operations, and one of the key issues is the prediction of the groundwater flow into underground mine workings. Prediction of the groundwater inflow requires a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other properties of the rockmass, are also provided. Various numerical models have been applied to develop hydrogeologic models at mine sites, and the MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate the groundwater flow related to mining. Mine sealing is one of the usual methods to control mine water at abandoned mines. An experimental program has been undertaken to provide a practical procedure for sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea. Two abandoned coal mines were selected, and extensive geological and geophysical surveys were performed. Field hydraulic tests, such as pumping tests and packer tests, had also been conducted to measure the hydraulic conductivities of the rock mass. In this study, constructing three-dimensional hydrogeologic models of the study area are essential for design and installation of the stable adit-plug system. With the complete 3D model constructed, the rate of mine water rebound after the installation of the adit-plug system can be hypothesized. The maximum water pressure affecting the stability of the plug, and the long-term seepage problems, can also be estimated.

  7. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Sampaio, Carlos H; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-02-01

    Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  10. Acid leaching of uranium present in a residue from mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braulio, Walace S.; Ladeira, Ana C.Q. [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mineral Technology

    2011-07-01

    The acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental problems associated with mining of ores containing sulfides. The treatment of these acid effluents, which contains high concentrations of dissolved metals and anions, is generally by liming. The wastes generated in the liming process may present significant toxicity and their storage in inappropriate places waiting for treatment is a common issue that requires solution. Osamu Utsumi Mine located in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, has been facing this problem. The residue of this mine consists of an alkaline sludge generated from the neutralization of the pH of acid mine drainage and is rich in various metals, including uranium. The main concern is the long term stability of this residue, which is in permanent contact with the acid water in the open pit. The recovery of uranium by hydrometallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching, can be a viable alternative on the reuse of this material. This study aimed at establishing a specific leaching process for the recovery of uranium present in the sludge from Caldas uranium mine. Some parameters such as solid/liquid ratio (0.09 to 0.17), time of leaching (1 to 24 hours) and concentration of sulfuric acid (pH from 0 to 3.0) were assessed. The results showed that it is possible to extract 100% of uranium present in the sludge. The concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the residue was 0.25%, similar to the content of the vein ores which is around 0.20% to 1.0%. The best experimental leaching condition is solid/liquid ratio of 0.17, pH 1.0 and 2 hours of reaction at room temperature (25 deg C). The content of uranium in the liquor is around 440 mgL{sup -1}. The recovery of the uranium from the liquor is under investigation by ionic exchange. (author)

  11. Generation of Acid Mine Lakes Associated with Abandoned Coal Mines in Northwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, Deniz; Balci, Nurgul; Baba, Alper

    2016-05-01

    A total of five acid mine lakes (AMLs) located in northwest Turkey were investigated using combined isotope, molecular, and geochemical techniques to identify geochemical processes controlling and promoting acid formation. All of the investigated lakes showed typical characteristics of an AML with low pH (2.59-3.79) and high electrical conductivity values (1040-6430 μS/cm), in addition to high sulfate (594-5370 mg/l) and metal (aluminum [Al], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], nickel [Ni], and zinc [Zn]) concentrations. Geochemical and isotope results showed that the acid-generation mechanism and source of sulfate in the lakes can change and depends on the age of the lakes. In the relatively older lakes (AMLs 1 through 3), biogeochemical Fe cycles seem to be the dominant process controlling metal concentration and pH of the water unlike in the younger lakes (AMLs 4 and 5). Bacterial species determined in an older lake (AML 2) indicate that biological oxidation and reduction of Fe and S are the dominant processes in the lakes. Furthermore, O and S isotopes of sulfate indicate that sulfate in the older mine lakes may be a product of much more complex oxidation/dissolution reactions. However, the major source of sulfate in the younger mine lakes is in situ pyrite oxidation catalyzed by Fe(III) produced by way of oxidation of Fe(II). Consistent with this, insignificant fractionation between δ(34) [Formula: see text] and δ(34) [Formula: see text] values indicated that the oxidation of pyrite, along with dissolution and precipitation reactions of Fe(III) minerals, is the main reason for acid formation in the region. Overall, the results showed that acid generation during early stage formation of an AML associated with pyrite-rich mine waste is primarily controlled by the oxidation of pyrite with Fe cycles becoming the dominant processes regulating pH and metal cycles in the later stages of mine lake development.

  12. The potential of eleocharis acicularis for phytoremediation: case study at an abandoned mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Hori, Rie S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Iwate (Japan); Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi

    2009-03-15

    Phytoremediation, a plant-based and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of contaminated soil and water, is receiving increasing attention. In this study, the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis was examined for its ability to take up multiple heavy metals and its potential application for phytoremediation at an abandoned mining area in Hokkaido, Japan. Elemental concentrations were measured in samples of E. acicularis, water, and soil collected from areas of mine tailing and drainage. The results reveal that Pb,Fe,Cr,Cu,Ni, and Mn accumulation in the plants increased over the course of the experiment, exceeding their initial concentrations by factors of 930, 430, 60, 25, 10, and 6, respectively. The highest concentrations of Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Ni within the plants were 59500, 1120, 964, 388, 265, 235, and 47.4 mg/kg dry wt., respectively, for plants growing in mine drainage after 11 months of the experiment. These results indicate that E. acicularis is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. We also found high Si concentrations in E. acicularis (2.08%). It is likely that heavy metals exist in opal-A within cells of the plant. The bioconcentration factors (BCF: ratio of metal concentration in the plant shoots to that in the soil) obtained for Cr,Cu,Zn,Ni,Mn, and Pb were 3.27,1.65,1.29,1.26,1.11, and 0.82, respectively. The existence of heavy metals as sulphides is thought to have restricted the metal-uptake efficiency of E. acicularis at the mine site. The results of this study indicate that E. acicularis shows great potential in the phytoremediation of mine tailing and drainage rich in heavy metals. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  14. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Trace elements in native and transplanted Fontinalis antipyretica and Platyhypnidium riparioides from rivers polluted by uranium mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Steinnes, Eiliv; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Lierhagen, Syverin; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    The past uranium/polymetallic mining activities in the Sudety (SW Poland) left abandoned mines, pits, and dumps of waste rocks with trace elements and radionuclides which may erode or leach out and create a potential risk for the aquatic ecosystem, among others. In the present work four rivers affected by effluents from such mines were selected to evaluate the application of aquatic mosses for the bioindication of 56 elements. Naturally growing F. antipyretica and P. riparioides were compared with transplanted samples of the same species. The results demonstrate serious pollution of the examined rivers, especially with As, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, U and Zn, reaching extremely high concentrations in native moss samples. In the most polluted rivers native F. antipyretica and P. riparioides samples showed significantly higher concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Fe, La, Nd, Ni, Pb, U and Zn than corresponding transplanted samples, whereas at less polluted sites a reverse situation was sometimes observed. Transplanted moss moved from clean to extremely polluted rivers probably protects itself against the accumulation of toxic elements by reducing their uptake. Selection of native or transplanted F. antipyretica and P. riparioides depended on the pollution load. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. MINURAR - Uranium mines and their residues: health effects in a Portuguese Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Machado Leite, M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao, Lab. de S. Mamede de Infesta, Sao Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Alarcao, M. [Coimbra Univ., Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciencias da Educacao (Portugal); Cordeiro, E. [Centro Regional de Saude Publica do Centro, Hospital de S. Teotonio, Viseu (Portugal); Ribeiro, J

    2006-07-01

    The study was designed to test if a population of Central Portugal, living within a short distance of abandoned uranium mines and mill tailings has health effects associated with exposure to uranium residues. The 'freguesia' (county) of Canas de Senhorim, where the major uranium mine (Urgeiri ) and mill tailings are located, as well as seven other 'freguesias' for comparison purposes, were investigated for environmental radiation, for contamination with heavy metals, and for the health characteristics of their populations. Concentrations of radio nuclides and heavy metals were measured in environmental samples and compared between 'freguesias'. A random sample of 285 individuals living in Canas de Senhorim (GE: Exposed Group) was compared with a random sample of 312 individuals living in the comparison 'freguesias' (GN: non exposed group). Health data of the population were obtained from a structured questionnaire and blood and hair samples were collected for biological measurements. Analysis of data tested the means, medians or proportions, according to the type of variables. Multi-factorial analysis was used to eliminate confounding effects, i.e., multi-factorial ANOVA for means and unconditional logistic regression for proportions. Levels of radiation and metals were higher near the mining site than in most of the comparison 'freguesias'. In the study of individuals, it was found that concentrations of Pb and Zn in blood serum were significantly higher in GE than in GN. Cu was also higher, although not significantly. This suggests a relevant exposure of GE to heavy metals. Exposure to internal radiation, assessed by concentrations of {sup 210}Po in the hair, was also higher in GE. When compared to GN, and after adjustment for relevant variables, GE showed statistically significant lower levels for: 1. thyroid function (measured by thyroxine (T4) and thyro-stimulating hormone); 2. reproductive function in men

  17. Uranium and Associated Heavy Metals in Ovis aries in a Mining Impacted Area in Northwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Samuel-Nakamura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine uranium (U and other heavy metal (HM concentrations (As, Cd, Pb, Mo, and Se in tissue samples collected from sheep (Ovis aries, the primary meat staple on the Navajo reservation in northwestern New Mexico. The study setting was a prime target of U mining, where more than 1100 unreclaimed abandoned U mines and structures remain. The forage and water sources for the sheep in this study were located within 3.2 km of abandoned U mines and structures. Tissue samples from sheep (n = 3, their local forage grasses (n = 24, soil (n = 24, and drinking water (n = 14 sources were collected. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results: In general, HMs concentrated more in the roots of forage compared to the above ground parts. The sheep forage samples fell below the National Research Council maximum tolerable concentration (5 mg/kg. The bioaccumulation factor ratio was >1 in several forage samples, ranging from 1.12 to 16.86 for Mo, Cd, and Se. The study findings showed that the concentrations of HMs were greatest in the liver and kidneys. Of the calculated human intake, Se Reference Dietary Intake and Mo Recommended Dietary Allowance were exceeded, but the tolerable upper limits for both were not exceeded. Food intake recommendations informed by research are needed for individuals especially those that may be more sensitive to HMs. Further study with larger sample sizes is needed to explore other impacted communities across the reservation.

  18. Bioaugmentation-Assisted Phytostabilisation of Abandoned Mine Sites in South West Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, E; Sergi, S; Serreli, L; Bacchetta, G; Milia, S; Cappai, G; Carucci, A

    2017-03-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation implies the administration of selected plant growth promoting bacteria, which significantly improve plant growth and sequestration of heavy metals. In this work, 184 bacterial strains associated with roots of Pistacia lentiscus were isolated from plants spontaneously growing in the abandoned Sardinian mining areas (SW Sardinia, Italy) and phylogenetically characterised. Twenty-one bacterial isolates were assayed for properties relevant for plant growth promotion and metal tolerance. Five different strains, belonging to the genera Novosphingobium, Variovorax, Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudomonas, were selected based on their properties for the greenhouse phytoremediation tests. Among the tested inocula, the strain Variovorax sp. RA128A, able to produce ACC deaminase and siderophore, was able to significantly enhance germination and increase length and weight of shoots and roots. Irrespective of the applied treatment, mastic shrub was able to accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn especially in roots.

  19. 30 CFR 872.20 - What will OSM do with unappropriated AML funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will OSM do with unappropriated AML funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine Program ? 872.20 Section 872.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... MONEYS AVAILABLE TO ELIGIBLE STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES § 872.20 What will OSM do with unappropriated AML...

  20. Geostatistical conditional simulation for the assessment of contaminated land by abandoned heavy metal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Adem; Yunsel, Tayfun Yusuf; Atici, Umit

    2008-02-01

    Abandoned mine workings can undoubtedly cause varying degrees of contamination of soil with heavy metals such as lead and zinc has occurred on a global scale. Exposure to these elements may cause to harm human health and environment. In the study, a total of 269 soil samples were collected at 1, 5, and 10 m regular grid intervals of 100 x 100 m area of Carsington Pasture in the UK. Cell declustering technique was applied to the data set due to no statistical representativity. Directional experimental semivariograms of the elements for the transformed data showed that both geometric and zonal anisotropy exists in the data. The most evident spatial dependence structure of the continuity for the directional experimental semivariogram, characterized by spherical and exponential models of Pb and Zn were obtained. This study reports the spatial distribution and uncertainty of Pb and Zn concentrations in soil at the study site using a probabilistic approach. The approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), which is used to yield a series of conditional images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the heavy elements concentrations across the area. Postprocessing of many simulations allowed the mapping of contaminated and uncontaminated areas, and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of element concentrations. Maps of the simulated Pb and Zn concentrations revealed the extent and severity of contamination. SGS was validated by statistics, histogram, variogram reproduction, and simulation errors. The maps of the elements might be used in the remediation studies, help decision-makers and others involved in the abandoned heavy metal mining site in the world.

  1. Canadian uranium mines and mills evolution of regulatory expectations and requirements for effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, J.; Ashley, F. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The regulation of uranium mining in Canada has changed over time as our understanding and concern for impacts on both human and non-human biota has evolved. Since the mid-1970s and early 1980s, new uranium mine and mill developments have been the subject of environmental assessments to assess and determine the significance of environmental effects throughout the project life cycle including the post-decommissioning phase. Water treatment systems have subsequently been improved to limit potential effects by reducing the concentration of radiological and non-radiological contaminants in the effluent discharge and the total loadings to the environment. This paper examines current regulatory requirements and expectations and how these impact uranium mining/milling practices. It also reviews current water management and effluent treatment practices and performance. Finally, it examines the issues and challenges for existing effluent treatment systems and identifies factors to be considered in optimizing current facilities and future facility designs. (author)

  2. Tolerance and mining of Greenland’s uranium – a case study from Narsaq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    This paper discusses how the government of Greenland discursively went from no-tolerance to a position as the ones promoting tolerance towards uranium mining in Greenland. The Coalition Agreement of the new Government of Greenland from Marts 2013 states that: “The 0-tolerance policy for minerals...... containing uranium will be abolished, though the abolition will be contingent upon securing public health, nature and environment from risks.” With these words the new government of Greenland is ready to drop Greenland’s and Denmark's 25-year ban on uranium mining. This has raised an ongoing debate...... in Greenland as well as in the international press. With a multi-sited analytical focus on important communicative events, the paper will primarily incorporate knowledge and experiences from a continuing ethnographic case study in Narsaq - a community close to Greenland’s potentially biggest mine of REE...

  3. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mikoláš; Jiří Varady; Jaroslav Bažant; František Žoček

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB) and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the pas...

  4. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.

    2013-05-01

    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  5. Study on Spatial and Seasonal Behavior of Heavy Metals in the Abandoned Mine, Geopung Watershed, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, G.; HAN, K.; Kim, H.; Yeum, Y.; Hong, Y.; Kim, Y.; Yoon, J.

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned mine areas have increased the pollution problem through waste tailings, rock wastes, and acid mine drainage (AMD), all of which contain high amounts of heavy metals. They have various spatial and seasonal characteristics that can significantly affect water quality in the stream so it is important to assess these characteristics of AMD. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the spatial and seasonal behavior of heavy metals through the sediment and dissolved metal concentrations in the Geopung Mine Watershed, Korea. Seasonal variation of metal concentration in the stream sediment was found to be elevated during the summer than during any other seasons (at GP-5: 17.5 mg/kg for As, 7.5 mg/kg for Cd, 1,313 mg/kg for Zn). Similarly, heavy metal concentration in the water was also higher during the summer season (at GP-5: 0.283 mg/L for Cd, 2.554 mg/L for Cu, 12.354 mg/L for Zn). Moreover, the metal loadings were found to be increased during the summer season at the all of the point. The loading of Cd during this season was about 150 times higher than during the other seasons. This phenomenon is correlated with the pattern of the pH and TDS concentration at the upstream during summer. Low pH and High TDS concentrations significantly affect in-stream mechanisms which contribute to the fate and transport of metals. In addition, the concentration of spatial variation in sediment and water, most of the metal concentration decrease with distance from the tailing due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated water and sediment. These study revealed that heavy metals in the stream coming from AMD and contaminant soil loss from the mine area are affected by physical influences such as rainfall intensity and velocity, and chemical influences such as pH.

  6. Geochemical characteristics of Au in the water systemfrom abandoned gold mines area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kanghee; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Byungjoo; Park, Cheonyoung; Choi, Nagchoul

    2013-04-01

    The AMD (acid mine drainage) poses a threat not only to the aquatic life in mountain streams and rivers, but can also contaminate groundwater and downstream water bodies. Besides pyrite, sulfides of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic in the drainage tunnels and tailings piles also undergo similar geochemical reactions, releasing toxic metals and more H+ into the mine drainage. The fate of gold in the AMD system is reduced and precipitated with iron oxides by oxidation-reduction reaction between ferrous/ferric iron and Au3+/Au0. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the transport characteristic on the distance through distribution of heavy metals and gold on the interrelation between acid mine drainage and sediments in the abandoned Gwang-yang gold mine, Korea. We conducted to confirm the chemical (chemical analysis and sequential extraction) and mineralogical property (XRD, SEM-EDS and polarization microscope) from AMD, sediments and tailing samples. The result of chemical analysis showed that Fe contents in the AMD and sediments from the upstream to the downstream ranged of 10.99 to 18.60 mg/L and 478.74 to 542.98 mg/kg, respectively. Also the contents of Au and As in the sediment were respectively ranged from 14.06 to 22.85 g/t and 0.245 to 0.612 mg/kg. In XRD analysis of the sediments, x-ray diffracted d-value belong to quartz, geothite was observed. The results of SEM-EDS analysis revealed that iron hydroxide were observed in the sediment and tailing. The result of sequential extraction for Au from the sediment showed that Au predominated in 26 to 27% of Organic matter fraction(STEP 4), and 24 to 25% of Residual fraction(STEP 5).

  7. Groundwater assessment and environmental impact in the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, Julien; Picard-Lesteven, Tanguy; Zouhri, Lahcen; El Amari, Khalid; Hibti, Mohamed; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah

    2017-12-01

    Many questions about the soil pollution due to mining activities have been analyzed by numerous methods which help to evaluate the dispersion of the Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in the soil and stream sediments of the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). The transport of these MTE could have an important role in the degradation of groundwater and the health of people who are living in the vicinity. The present paper aims to evaluate the groundwater samples from 15 hydrogeological wells. This evaluation concerns the hydrogeological parameters, pH, Electrical conductivity, temperature and the groundwater level, and the geochemical assessment of Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb. Furthermore, the Metallic Trace Elements are transported in the saturated zone via the fractures network. The groundwater flow is from the north-east to south-west. The spatial distribution of As, Fe, Zn and Mn is very heterogeneous, with high values observed in the north, upstream, of the mine site. This distribution is maybe related to: i) the existence of hydrogeological structures (dividing and drainage axes); ii) the individualization of the fractures network that affects the shaly lithostratigraphical formation; iii) the transport of the contaminants from the soil towards groundwater; and iv) interaction water/rocks. Some MTE anomalies are linked to the lithology and the fracturation system of the area. Therefore, the groundwater contamination by Arsenic is detected in the hydrogeological wells (E1 and E2). This pollution which is higher than guideline standards of Moroccan drinking water could affect the public health. The hydrogeological and geochemical investigations favor the geological origin (mafic rocks) of this contamination rather than mining activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Hydrological and geophysical investigation of streamflow losses and restoration strategies in an abandoned mine lands setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles; Sherrod, Laura; Galeone, Daniel G.; Lehman, Wayne G.; Ackman, Terry E.; Kramer, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal discharge and water-quality campaigns (seepage runs) were combined with surface-geophysical surveys, hyporheic-temperature profiling, and watershed-scale hydrological monitoring to evaluate the locations, magnitude, and impact of streamwater losses from the West Creek subbasin of the West West Branch Schuylkill River into the underground Oak Hill Mine complex that extends beneath the watershed divide. Abandoned mine drainage (AMD), containing iron and other contaminants, from the Oak Hill Boreholes to the West Branch Schuylkill River was sustained during low-flow conditions and correlated to streamflow lost through the West Creek streambed. During high-flow conditions, streamflow was transmitted throughout West Creek; however, during low-flow conditions, all streamflow from the perennial headwaters was lost within the 300-to-600-m "upper reach" where an 1889 mine map indicated steeply dipping coalbeds underlie the channel. During low-flow conditions, the channel within the "intermediate reach" 700-to-1650-m downstream gained groundwater seepage with higher pH and specific conductance than upstream; however, all streamflow 1650-to-2050-m downstream was lost to underlying mines. Electrical resistivity and electromagnetic conductivity surveys indicated conductive zones beneath the upper reach, where flow loss occurred, and through the intermediate reach, where gains and losses occurred. Temperature probes at 0.06-to-0.10-m depth within the hyporheic zone of the intermediate reach indicated potential downward fluxes as high as 2.1x10-5 m/s. Cumulative streamflow lost from West Creek during seepage runs averaged 53.4 L/s, which equates to 19.3 percent of the daily average discharge of AMD from the Oak Hill Boreholes and a downward flux of 1.70x10-5 m/s across the 2.1-km-by-1.5-m West Creek stream-channel area.

  9. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  10. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p < 0.05). Toxicity identification results of the final effluent collected in January 2010 showed that Al and Zn were key toxicants in addition to acidic pH. Unlike the Samma effluent, both Hwangji and Hamtae effluent had pH values that were near neutrality and showed either no acute toxicity or toxicity values less than 1 TU. However, the feeding rates of D. magna and M. macrocopa were significantly reduced when compared to the control (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the Hamtae and Hwangji effluent likely have a sublethal effect on aquatic organisms in receiving water bodies.

  11. The effect of abandoned mining ponds on trace elements dynamics in the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, María; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    In semiarid climate regions lack of vegetation and dryer climate contribute to erosion of abandoned mining surface areas making them up important potential sources of metal pollution into the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of mine ponds in agriculture and forest soils, and identify the dynamic of metals in the soil-plant system for native plant species (Ballota hirsuta) and crop species (Hordeum vulgare) in two ancient mining districts: La Unión and Mazarrón. To achieve these objectives, wastes samples from mine ponds and soil samples (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils) from natural and agricultural lands were collected. In addition, six plants (Ballota hirsuta) from natural area and 3 plants (Hordeum vulgare) from crops were collected. Physicochemical properties and total, water soluble and bioavailable metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic were measured in waste/soil samples. The chemical speciation of metals in soil was estimated by a sequential extraction procedure. For plants analyses, each plant were divided in roots, stem and leaves and metal content measured by ICP-MS. Results indicated that mine, natural and agricultural soils were contaminated by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemical partitioning revealed higher mobility of metals in mine ponds than natural and agriculture soils while only Fe and As are completely bound to the soil matrix due to the mineralogical compositions of soils. The accumulation of metals in Ballota hirsuta in La Union decrease as Fe>As>Cr>Ni>Cu>Zn>Cd>Mn>Co>Pb while in Mazarrón did as As>Fe>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>Mn>Zn>Cd. Ballota hirsuta showed high ability to bio-accumulate Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and As, transferring a large amount to edible parts without exceeding the toxicity limits for animals. Results for barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) showed the ability to absorb and accumulate As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, although the transfer ability of As, Cd and Pb was lower. Although the

  12. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  13. Integrated assessmet of the impacts associated with uranium mining and milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Baes, C.F. III; Berry, L.G.

    1979-07-01

    The occupational health and safety impacts are assessed for domestic underground mining, open pit mining, and milling. Public health impacts are calculated for a population of 53,000 located within 88 km (55 miles) of a typical southwestern uranium mill. The collective annual dose would be 6.5 man-lung rem/year, 89% of which is from /sup 222/Rn emitted from mill tailings. The dose to the United States population is estimated to be 6 x 10/sup 4/ man-lung rem from combined mining and milling operations. This may be comparedd with 5.7 x 10/sup 5/ man-lung rem from domestic use of natural gas and 4.4 x 10/sup 7/ man-lung rem from building interiors. Unavoidable adverse environmental impacts appear to be severe in a 250 ha area surrounding a mill site but negligible in the entire potentially impacted area (500,000 ha). The contemporary uranium resource and supply industry and its institutional settings are described in relation to the socio-economic impacts likely to emerge from high levels of uranium mining and milling. Radon and radon daughter monitoring techniques associated with uranium mining and milling are discussed.

  14. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  15. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  16. Leach-SX-EW copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned copper mine Cerovo, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrometallurgical processes for copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned mine Cerovo in Eastern Serbia were studied. Paper contain results of percolation leaching tests, performed with acidic mine waters accumulated in the bottom of the former open pit, followed by solvent extraction (SX and electrowinning (EW processes on achieved copper pregnant leach solutions. Usage of accumulated waste waters was objected to minimizing the environmental hazard due to uncontrolled leaking of these waters in nearby creeks and rivers. Chemical composition of acidic mine waters used for leaching tests was: (g/dm3: Cu - 0.201; Fe - 0.095; Mn - 0.041; Zn - 0.026; Ni - 0.0004; pH value - 3.3. Copper content in overburden sample used for leaching tests was 0.21% from which 64% were oxide copper minerals. In scope of leaching tests were examined influence of leaching solution pH values and iron (III concentration on copper recovery. It was established that for 120 hours of leaching on pH=1.5 without oxidant agents, copper concentration in pregnant leach solutions enriched up to 1.08g/dm3 which was enough for copper extraction from solution with SX-EW treatment. As extraction reagent in SX circuit was used LIX-984N in a kerosene diluent. Cathode current density in electrowinning cell was 220Am-2 while electrolyte temperature was kept on 50±2oC. Produced cathode copper at the end of SX-EW process has purity of 99.95% Cu.

  17. Amphibian acoustic data from the Arizona 1, Pinenut, and Canyon breccia pipe uranium mines in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Hossack, Blake R.; Honeycutt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The data consists of a summary of amphibian acoustic recordings at Canyon, Arizona 1, and Pinenut mines near the Grand Canyon. USGS is currently conducting biological surveys associated with uranium mines on federal lands in Arizona. These surveys include determining the composition of the local amphibian community. Original raw acoustic recordings used to create this summary data table are archived at Columbia Environmental Research Center.

  18. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  19. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-01-01

    The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  20. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  1. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuvier, A., E-mail: alicia.cuvier@hotmail.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Probst, A. [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Prunier, J. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Université Paul Sabatier, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Le Roux, G., E-mail: gael.leroux@ensat.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000 Bq ∙ kg{sup −1}) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF ≫ 40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2 < EF < 5), except for Ba (5 < EF < 15), due to the precipitation of barium sulfate resulting from mining activities. Most of the trace elements are associated with the most mobile fractions of the sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. - Highlights: • Contamination of soils is evidenced by a multiproxy approach. • Enrichment factors highlight a low contamination except for U, S and Ba. • Pb isotope ratios point out inputs of radiogenic Pb from the mine. • Radiogenic Pb is mainly in the acid-soluble and the reducible fractions.

  2. Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

    1983-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

  3. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  4. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  5. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (<2mm) and uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  6. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  7. Influence of Blasted Uranium Ore Heap on Radon Concentration in Confined Workspaces of Shrinkage Mining Stope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y. J.; Liang, T.; Ding, D. X.; Lei, B.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. F.

    2017-07-01

    A calculation model for radon concentration in shrinkage mining stopes under various ventilation conditions was established in this study. The model accounts for the influence of permeability and area of the blasted ore heap, ventilation air quantity, and airflow direction on radon concentration in a confined workspace; these factors work together to allow the engineer to optimize the ventilation design. The feasibility and effectiveness of the model was verified by applying it to mines with elevated radon radiation exposure. The model was found to accurately changes in radon concentration according to the array of influence factors in underground uranium mines.

  8. A natural attenuation of arsenic in drainage from an abandoned arsenic mine dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Sasaki, Miwa; Sato, Tsutomu; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Amano, Hikaru; Ikeda, Hodaka

    2003-08-01

    At the abandoned As mine in Nishinomaki, Japan, discharged water from the mining and waste dump area is acidic and rich in As. However, the As concentration in the drainage has been decreased to below the maximum contaminant level (0.01 mg/l for drinking water, Japan) without any artificial treatments before mixing with a tributary to populated areas. This implies that the As concentration in water from the waste dump area has been naturally attenuated. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of the natural attenuation, analysis of water quality and characterization of the precipitates from the stream floor were performed by measuring pH, ORP and electric conductivity on-site, as well as X-ray diffraction, ICP-mass spectrometry and ion-chromatography. Selective extractions and mineral alteration experiments were also conducted to estimate the distribution of As in constituent phases of the precipitates and to understand the stability of As-bearing phases, respectively. The water contamination resulted from oxidation of sulfide minerals in the waste rocks, i.e., the oxidation of pyrite and realgar and subsequent release of Fe, SO{sub 4}, As(V) and proton. The released Fe(II) transformed to Fe(III) by bacterial oxidation; schwertmannite then formed immediately. While the As concentrations in the stream were lowered nearly to background level downstream, those in the ochreous precipitates were up to several tens of mg/g. The As(V) was effectively removed by the formed schwertmannite and had been naturally attenuated. Although schwertmannite is metastable with respect to goethite, the experiments show that the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite may be retarded by the presence of absorbed As(V) in the structure. Therefore, the attenuation of As in the drainage and the retention of As by schwertmannite are expected to be maintained for the long term.

  9. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  10. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  11. The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann Y; Curriero, Frank C; Glass, Thomas A; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

    2013-07-01

    Coal abandoned mine lands (AMLs), persistent and prevalent across Pennsylvania, offer an instructive evaluation of potential contextual influences of chronic environmental contamination (CEC) on individual health. We evaluated associations between the burden of AMLs, represented by 10 contextual metrics at the community level, and individual-level type 2 diabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a biomarker. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted with over 28,000 diabetic primary care patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Adjusted models revealed five AML burden measures were associated (p<0.05), and three additional were borderline associated (0.05≤p≤0.10), with higher and/or change in HbA1c levels. This study provides key empirical evidence of adverse impacts of CEC in communities on an important chronic disease, illustrating the contextual effects of living in long-term degraded landscapes and communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Joseph K; Corcoran, Jason D; Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Zhang, Kejian; Hosseini, Nekoo Seyed; Marsden, James; Laamanen, Corey A; Scott, John A; Ross, Gregory M

    2014-03-26

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production.

  13. Geochemical modelling of the evolution and fate of metal pollutants arising from an abandoned gold mine tailings facility in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden-Smith, B P C; Tutu, H

    2014-01-01

    Analytical techniques were combined with geochemical modelling to study the release mechanisms of pollutants from an abandoned gold mining tailings storage facility near Johannesburg. Inverse modelling of sampled tailings pond water and experimental single extractions using various solutions indicated which combination of naturally occurring leaching solutions were likely to give rise to the observed pond water quality. The potential fate of metals in the pond was predicted by modelling the formation of efflorescent crusts and adsorption onto hydrated iron oxide minerals.

  14. UMineAR: Mobile-Tablet-Based Abandoned Mine Hazard Site Investigation Support System Using Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mine site investigation has difficulties in fostering location awareness and understanding the subsurface environment; moreover, it produces a large amount of hardcopy data. To overcome these limitations, the UMineAR mobile tablet application was developed. It enables users to rapidly identify underground mine objects (drifts, entrances, boreholes, hazards and intuitively visualize them in 3D using a mobile augmented reality (AR technique. To design UMineAR, South Korean georeferenced standard-mine geographic information system (GIS databases were employed. A web database system was designed to access via a tablet groundwater-level data measured every hour by sensors installed in boreholes. UMineAR consists of search, AR, map, and database modules. The search module provides data retrieval and visualization options/functions. The AR module provides 3D interactive visualization of mine GIS data and camera imagery on the tablet screen. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map. The database module provides mine GIS database management functions. A case study showed that the proposed application is suitable for onsite visualization of high-volume mine GIS data based on geolocations; no specialized equipment or skills are required to understand the underground mine environment. UMineAR can be used to support abandoned-mine hazard site investigations.

  15. Factoring uncertainty into restoration modeling of in-situ leach uranium mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Postmining restoration is one of the greatest concerns for uranium in-situ leach (ISL) mining operations. The ISL-affected aquifer needs to be returned to conditions specified in the mining permit (either premining or other specified conditions). When uranium ISL operations are completed, postmining restoration is usually achieved by injecting reducing agents into the mined zone. The objective of this process is to restore the aquifer to premining conditions by reducing the solubility of uranium and other metals in the ground water. Reactive transport modeling is a potentially useful method for simulating the effectiveness of proposed restoration techniques. While reactive transport models can be useful, they are a simplification of reality that introduces uncertainty through the model conceptualization, parameterization, and calibration processes. For this reason, quantifying the uncertainty in simulated temporal and spatial hydrogeochemistry is important for postremedial risk evaluation of metal concentrations and mobility. Quantifying the range of uncertainty in key predictions (such as uranium concentrations at a specific location) can be achieved using forward Monte Carlo or other inverse modeling techniques (trial-and-error parameter sensitivity, calibration constrained Monte Carlo). These techniques provide simulated values of metal concentrations at specified locations that can be presented as nonlinear uncertainty limits or probability density functions. Decisionmakers can use these results to better evaluate environmental risk as future metal concentrations with a limited range of possibilities, based on a scientific evaluation of uncertainty.

  16. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  17. Utilisation of geothermal heat in abandoned mines. Examples from the Aachen coal district; Nutzung von Erdwaerme in aufgelassenen Bergwerken. Beispiel Aachener Steinkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet fuer Angewandte Geophysik; Geophysica Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Stolberg (Germany); Heitfeld, M.; Rosner, P. [Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sahl, H. [EBV Aktiengesellschaft, Herzogenrath (Germany). Bereich Bergbaufolgearbeiten - Umwelt; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie; Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    For the Aachen coal district, a feasibility study was carried out in order to clarify basic problems relating to geothermal heat utilisation in abandoned mines. Abandoned or flooded mines are highly suitable locations for geothermal heat supply from medium depths (100 - 1500 m) as the broken rock enables intensive heat exchange between rock and water and the available shafts and pipelines can be utilized. (orig.)

  18. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental contamination at an abandoned mining site using multivariate statistical techniques--the Rodalquilar (Southern Spain) mining district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, M G; Morales, S; López-Chicano, M

    2009-11-15

    Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to water samples recollected in Rodalquilar mining district (Southern Spain) in order to identify different sources of environmental pollution caused by the abandoned mining industry. The effect of the mining activity on waters was monitored determining the concentration of eleven elements (Mn, Ba, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Au and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Box-Cox transformation has been used to transform the data set in normal form in order to minimize the non-normal distribution of the geochemical data. The environmental impact is affected mainly by the mining activity developed in the zone, the acid drainage and finally by the chemical treatment used for the benefit of gold.

  1. Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Abiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T. Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area.

  2. Uranium mining in Germany: incidence of occupational diseases 1946-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christa; Friedrich, Klaus; Butz, Martin; Koppisch, Dorothea; Otten, Heinz

    2002-04-01

    In East Germany, uranium mining was performed on a large scale for approximately 45 years (1946-1990). In particular, the poor working conditions during the post-war years until 1955 led to a high level of occupational diseases. The present study gives an overview of the occurrence of occupational diseases during the mining period as well as after uranium mining was stopped in 1990. The number of occupational diseases which occurred during the mining period was calculated from the files of the former Wismut SDAG. Although exposure to uranium ceased after 1990, new cases of occupational diseases were recognized after that date. These were recorded by the German Federation Of Institutions For Statutory Accident Insurance And Prevention (HVBG). Today, more than 35,000 cases of occupational diseases are known, and many more are expected. About two-thirds of them are lung diseases: 16,376 cases of silicosis/silicotuberculosis and 7,695 cases of bronchial carcinomas. The increase in the number of recognized occupational diseases is shown and discussed against the background of changes in criteria for recognition and in working conditions as well as the duration of the latency period.

  3. Radiation hazard surveillance in spanish uranium mines; Control de los peligros de la radiactividad en las minas de uranio espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, E.; Liarte, J.

    1963-07-01

    The regulations applied in the uranium mines which belong to the Junta de Energia Nuclear to control the radioactive hazards, and to get the personal protection avoiding overexposures in the external radiation and inhalation of radioactive dust and gases are given. The Radon daughters concentration in the atmosphere of Avery one of the mines and the external radiation exposure and uranium excretion in urine of the miners during 1962 are specified. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Ground water contamination with (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb from past uranium mining: cove wash, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias da Cunha, Kenya Moore; Henderson, Helenes; Thomson, Bruce M; Hecht, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the study are to present a critical review of the (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb levels in water samples from the EPA studies (U.S. EPA in Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Red Valley chapter screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2004, Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Northern aum region screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2006, Health and environmental impacts of uranium contamination, 5-year plan. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Franciso, 2008) and the dose assessment for the population due to ingestion of water containing (238)U and (234)U. The water quality data were taken from Sect. "Data analysis" of the published report, titled Abandoned Uranium Mines Project Arizona, New Mexico, Utah-Navajo Lands 1994-2000, Project Atlas. Total uranium concentration was above the maximum concentration level for drinking water (7.410-1 Bq/L) in 19 % of the water samples, while (238)U and (234)U concentrations were above in 14 and 17 % of the water samples, respectively. (226)Ra and (210)Pb concentrations in water samples were in the range of 3.7 × 10(-1) to 5.55 × 102 Bq/L and 1.11 to 4.33 × 102 Bq/L, respectively. For only two samples, the (226)Ra concentrations exceeded the MCL for total Ra for drinking water (0.185 Bq/L). However, the (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios varied from 0.11 to 47.00, and ratios above 1.00 were observed in 71 % of the samples. Secular equilibrium of the natural uranium series was not observed in the data record for most of the water samples. Moreover, the (235)U/(total)U mass ratios ranged from 0.06 to 5.9 %, and the natural mass ratio of (235)U to (total)U (0.72 %) was observed in only 16 % of the water samples, ratios above or below the natural ratio could not be explained based on data reported by U.S. EPA. In addition, statistical evaluations showed no correlations among the distribution of the radionuclide concentrations

  5. Yeasts associated with an abandoned mining area in Pernek and their tolerance to different chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Lišková, Desana

    2016-05-01

    Four plants, Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel) and Phragmites australis (common reed), which grew in an abandoned Sb-mining area in Pernek (Malé Karpaty Mts., Slovakia), were investigated for the yeast species. Yeasts were isolated from both the leaves of the plants and the soil adjacent to the plants. In total, 65 yeast cultures, belonging to 11 ascomycetous and 5 basidiomycetous yeast species, were isolated. The species most frequently isolated from both the soil and leaf samples were Trichosporon porosum, Galactomyces candidus and Candida solani, whereas Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida tsuchiyae and Sporidiobolus metaroseus were isolated exclusively from the plant leaves. All the yeast species isolated were tested for their tolerance to two heavy metals (Cd, Zn) and three metalloids (As, Sb and Si). The yeasts isolated from both the leaves and soils exhibited a high tolerance level to both As and Sb, present in elevated concentrations at the locality. Among the yeast species tested, Cryptococcus musci, a close relative to Cryptococcus humicola, was the species most tolerant to all the chemical elements tested, with the exception of Si. It grew in the presence of 200 mmol/L Zn, 200 mmol/L Cd, 60 mmol/L As and 50 mmol/L Sb, and therefore, it can be considered as a multi-tolerant species. Some of the yeast species were tolerant to the individual chemical elements. The yeast-like species Trichosporon laibachii exhibited the highest tolerance to Si of all yeasts tested, and Cryptococcus flavescens and Lindnera saturnus showed the same tolerance as Cryptococcus musci to Zn and As, respectively. The majority of the yeasts showed a notably low tolerance to Cd (not exceeded 0.5 mmol/L), which was present in small amounts in the soil. However, Candida solani, isolated from the soil, exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd (20 mmol/L) than to As (2 mmol/L).

  6. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  7. Abandoned coal mine drainage and its remediation: impacts on stream ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; McTammany, Matthew E; Newbold, J Denis; Rier, Steven T; Sweeney, Bernard W; Battle, Juliann M

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streams and responses to remediation efforts were studied using three streams (AMD-impacted, remediated, reference) in both the anthracite and the bituminous coal mining regions of Pennsylvania (USA). Response variables included ecosystem function as well as water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community composition. The bituminous AMD stream was extremely acidic with high dissolved metals concentrations, a prolific mid-summer growth of the filamentous alga, Mougeotia, and > 10-fold more chlorophyll than the reference stream. The anthracite AMD stream had a higher pH, substrata coated with iron hydroxide(s), and negligible chlorophyll. Macroinvertebrate communities in the AMD streams were different from the reference streams, the remediated streams, and each other. Relative to the reference stream, the AMD stream(s) had (1) greater gross primary productivity (GPP) in the bituminous region and undetectable GPP in the anthracite region, (2) greater ecosystem respiration in both regions, (3) greatly reduced ammonium uptake and nitrification in both regions, (4) lower nitrate uptake in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, (5) more rapid phosphorus removal from the water column in both regions, (6) activities of phosphorus-acquiring, nitrogen-acquiring, and hydrolytic-carbon-acquiring enzymes that indicated extreme phosphorus limitation in both regions, and (7) slower oak and maple leaf decomposition in the bituminous region and slower oak decomposition in the anthracite region. Remediation brought chlorophyll concentrations and GPP nearer to values for respective reference streams, depressed ecosystem respiration, restored ammonium uptake, and partially restored nitrification in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, reduced nitrate uptake to an undetectable level, restored phosphorus uptake to near normal rates, and brought enzyme activities more in line with the reference stream in the bituminous

  8. Decommissioning costs and financial assurances for uranium mines and mills in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, R. [AREVA/COGEMA Resources Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    'Full text:' The Athabasca Basin region of northern Saskatchewan is now the location of all uranium production in Canada. About one-third of world primary production originates from the region with seven projects, as follows, currently licensed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and by Saskatchewan Environment (SE): Rabbit Lake - underground and (formerly) open pit mining, mill, tailings management facilities - operating. Cluff Lake - underground and open pit mining, mill, tailings management facility - decommissioning (operations ceased in 2002). Key Lake - (formerly) open pit mining, mill, tailings management facilities - operating (ore from McArthur River). McClean Lake - open pit mining, mill, tailings management facility - operating. McArthur River - underground mine (ore to Key Lake) - operating. Cigar lake - underground mine - construction - Midwest - future mine development - site preparation licence. Preliminary decommissioning plans, and financial guarantees for future decommissioning, are a requirement of each licence. The Elliot Lake area of Canada has also had extensive uranium mining and milling activities, with the last operating mine closing in 1996. Decommissioning has been completed by the licensees, however monitoring, care and maintenance of the sites is ongoing. This leads to a reduced, but ongoing, requirement for financial guarantees. Decommissioning objectives for a uranium mine and mill site must consider that the waste rock and tailings resulting from the operation, as well as the majority of the waste materials resulting from removing the physical facilities, will be managed on site for the long term. This is a fundamental difference from many other types of nuclear facilities, where all of the physical facilities, and the wastes which have been produced during operations, are removed and disposed elsewhere. Other factors which differ from many other nuclear facilities are the remote location, and the need for an

  9. Evaluation of the water quality related to the acid mine drainage of an abandoned mercury mine (Alaşehir, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Unsal

    2008-12-01

    Mobility of metals in water, mine wastes, and stream sediments around the abandoned Alaşehir mercury mine was investigated to evaluate the environmental effects around the area. Mine waters are dominantly acidic with pH values of 2.55 in arid season and 2.70 in wet season and are sulfate rich. Acidity is caused mainly by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Pyrite is the main acid-producing mineral in the Alaşehir area. Of the major ions, SO(4) shows a notable increase reaching 3981 mg/l, which exceeds the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) and TS (Sular-Içme ve kullanma sulari. Ankara: Türk Standartlari Enstitüsü, 1997) drinking water standard of 250 mg/L. Mine waters have As, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Al with concentrations higher than drinking water standards. Hg concentrations of adit water samples and surface waters draining the mine area are between 0.25 and 0.274 microg/L and are below the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) drinking water standard of 1.0 microg/L. However, the concentrations are above the 0.012 microg/L standard (EPA, Water quality standards. Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants, states' compliance, final rule. Fed. Reg., 40 CFR, Part 131, 57/246, 60847-60916, 1992) used to protect aquatic life. Stream sediment samples have abnormally high values of especially Hg, As, Ni, and Cr metals. Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) values are significantly high and denote heavy contamination in stream sediments. The stream sediments derived from the mining area with the surface waters are potentially hazardous to the environment adjacent to the abandoned Hg mine and are in need of remediation.

  10. Estimating doses from Aboriginal bush foods post-remediation of a uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Medley, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a calculator to facilitate assessments of ingestion doses from Aboriginal bush foods. The calculator combines information on traditional diet and land use with radionuclide concentration ratios and ingestion dose coefficients to estimate doses. The calculator was applied to the planned remediation of Ranger uranium mine to derive a set of scaling factors between radionuclide activity concentrations in environmental media and ingestion dose from bush foods. The scaling factors can be used to estimate doses from bush foods once the post-remediation radiological conditions of the mine and surrounding environment are known. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pollution of the stream waters and sediments associated with the Crucea uranium mine (East Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Bilal, E.; Iatan, E. L.

    2009-04-01

    Uranium and thorium are omnipresent in our environment. Various anthropogenic activities involving the processing or use of materials rich in uranium may modify the natural abundance of uranium in water. The study is related to uranium mineralization located within Crucea ore deposit, in the East Carpathians, Romania. The Crucea uranium ore deposit is located in the eastern part of the Bistrita Mountains (40 Km southeast of the town of Vatra Dornei) in the headwaters of Crucea, Lesu and Livezi valleys. At present, this is the largest uranium mine in the country. In the past, the mining area covered 18 km2, but was gradually overtaken by logging activities. The exploration and mining facilities include thirty-two galleries, situated between 780 and 1040 m above sea level. Radioactive waste resulted from mining are disposed next to the mining facilities. The waste rock was disposed in piles of variable size that are spread over an area of 364,000 m2. Older dumps (18) have been already naturally reclaimed by forest vegetation. The vegetation cover played an important role in stabilizing the waste dump cover and in slowing down the uranium migration processes. A number of 46 water samples were taken in order to evaluate the impact of ore deposit (including its exploitation process) on the chemical composition of waters down to the exploitation galleries. The sediment samples were collected at 16 sampling points from the bottom of the studied stream waters. ICP-OES, XRF and IC methods was used to evaluate the impact of uranium mine dumps on the surface waters from Crucea region. According to the analytical data the stream waters showed a Ca - carbonate character. In relation to salinity, the pH and the anion NO3-, CO32-and SO42- contents display generally non-linear relationships with chloride. Uranium is the most significant trace element in the river waters nearby the waste rock dumps, sometimes reaching levels up to 1-mgṡL-1, well in excess of the Romanian

  12. Biota dose assessment of small mammals sampled near uranium mines in northern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Minter, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-09

    In 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 50 small mammal carcasses from Northern Arizona uranium mines and other background locations. Based on the highest gross alpha results, 11 small mammal samples were selected for radioisotopic analyses. None of the background samples had significant gross alpha results. The 11 small mammals were identified relative to the three ‘indicator’ mines located south of Fredonia, AZ on the Kanab Plateau (Kanab North Mine, Pinenut Mine, and Arizona 1 Mine) (Figure 1-1) and are operated by Energy Fuels Resources Inc. (EFRI). EFRI annually reports soil analysis for uranium and radium-226 using Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ)-approved Standard Operating Procedures for Soil Sampling (EFRI 2016a, 2016b, 2017). In combination with the USGS small mammal radioiosotopic tissue analyses, a biota dose assessment was completed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the RESidual RADioactivity-BIOTA (RESRAD-BIOTA, V. 1.8) dose assessment tool provided by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL 2017).

  13. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  14. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  15. Assessment of environmental radioactivity at uranium mining, processing and tailings management facility at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R M; Sahoo, S K; Jha, V N; Khan, A H; Puranik, V D

    2008-11-01

    The uranium mines at Jaduguda and nearby areas of the Singhbhum thrust belt of Jharkhand State are the only operating mines in India, which supply fuel to nuclear power plants. The gamma radiation dose rates observed at different locations 1m above the tailings surface vary from 0.8 to 3.3 microGy h(-1). The geometric mean activity concentration of (222)Rn in air over the tailings ponds I and II were found to be 30 and 23 Bq m(-3), respectively, but reduces to the local background level at the boundaries of the tailings ponds. The uranium and (226)Ra levels in the ground water sources in the vicinity of the tailings pond are very similar to the regional average of 3.6 microg L(-1) and 23 mBq L(-1), respectively, indicating that there is no ground water migration of radioactive material from the tailings pond. This paper gives a brief account of the environmental radioactivity monitoring during uranium mining, ore processing and waste management operations.

  16. Molybdenum and selenium speciation in uranium mine tailings using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essilfie-Dughan, J.; Hendry, M.J.; Pickering, I.; George, G., E-mail: joe377@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kotzer, T. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Mined uranium (U) ore often contains relatively high concentrations of elements (other than uranium) that may be deleterious to the environment. These include molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se), which are liberated from uranium oxides and associated sulphide minerals during milling processing. A critical environmental concern in the U mining industry is the possibility of long-term mobilization of elements such as Mo and Se from tailings deposited in in-pit tailings facilities to regional groundwater systems. In this study, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to study the molecular speciation of these elements of concern (EOC) in samples from the Deilmann Tailings Management Facility (DTMF) at Key Lake in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. An understanding of Mo and Se speciation will help to characterize their long-term stability and evolution in the mine tailings. Results indicate Mo exists mainly as molybdate (+6 oxidation state) and Se exists mainly as selenite (+4 oxidation state). Linear combination fitting (LCF) analysis of the Mo K-edge XANES spectra on tailings samples using standard reference compounds suggests various proportions of NiMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} complexes as well as molybdate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in waters and soil near the Lagoa Real uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Susana Oliveira de; Freire, Fabinara Dantas, E-mail: sosouza@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Kozlowska, Beata; Walencik-Lata, Agata, E-mail: beata.kozlowska@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Dias, Dario M., E-mail: engenheirodario@gmail.com [Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente e Turismo, Andarai, BA (Brazil); Veiga, Artur Jose Pires, E-mail: tk1@ibest.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2015-07-01

    Uranium mining generates fuel for the nuclear power plants and it is the main source of income for the region of Caetite-BA. However, Non-Governmental Organizations claim that mining pollutes the environment and jeopardizes human health and safety. Besides uranium, the ground contains significant concentrations of thorium and of all radionuclides of its family, such as radium isotopes. In this framework, we carried out an independent study analyzing the concentration of the radionuclides activities {sup 226,} {sup 228}Ra and {sup 234,238}U in water samples and radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in soil samples using different techniques of nuclear spectrometry. The selection criteria for the collection points were their proximity to the uranium processing plant and to affluent rivers. The soil samples presented very low concentration of activity for radionuclides investigated, compared to the limits established of the exclusion, exemption and impartiality for radiation protection requirement given by the Regulator Position established by CNEN. The amount of radioisotopes appears consistent with a natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a significant way. (author)

  18. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining activity has been associated with environmental pollution problem all through ages. Rhandirmwyn Pb mine was one of the most important mine site areas in South Wales. At present, the mine waste an adits in the area are regarded as main sources of Pb pollution in the area. Therefore, scanning electron microscopy ...

  19. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg-1, respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg-1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg-1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg-1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges in waste management and environmental restoration in the uranium mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Two components dominate the waste management efforts at conventional Canadian uranium mining and milling operations. These are the waste rock generated in the mining of ore as well as the mill tailings -- which are the residue solids remaining after uranium extraction. Much has changed in the management of these wastes over the years. Visually, current sites are generally more compact than those developed earlier, due to higher grade ores and less land disturbance. However, the more significant strides being made to better manage uranium mining wastes deal more with improved chemical and physical controls rather than those changes which are visible. Segregation of waste rock to separate out potentially problematic material within the more weakly mineralized halo surrounding the ore is now a core strategy. This segregation is based on both the waste rock's chemical and radiological characteristics. Better controls have also been introduced on tailings physical properties to minimize their permeability, along with better chemical controls to minimize tailings contaminant solubility. Efforts to engineer tailings properties are coupled with contrasting hydraulic conductivity between the consolidated tailings mass and surrounding geologic materials. This creates the necessary long-term containment controls built into modern tailings management facilities. Current challenges include selecting the correct decommissioning assumptions such as future land use and required environmental acceptance criteria, along with decisions as to when to carry out reclamation work in the life cycle of the mine and mill. Public discussion of restoration plans throughout the life of the facility is essential to build acceptable solutions. Along with challenges come successes. Most recently, improvements have been made in reducing treated water molybdenum and selenium levels. Other successes include the application of reverse osmosis technology on a large scale, recycling of uranium

  1. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-06-18

    To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z -score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z -scores: high content with a high z -score (HH), high content with a low z -score (HL), low content with a high z -score (LH), and low content with a low z -score (LL). The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1-4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  2. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  3. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  4. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-04-05

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 {mu}Sv/h compared to 0.15 {mu}Sv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  5. Occurrence and fluctuations of Acidithiobacillus ssp. in uranium mine effluents, Caldas, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michelle Burato de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelle_borato@hotmail.com; cvroque@cnen.gov.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Sulphide ores that are present in mining areas can cause serious environmental problems because of the action of chemolithotrophic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genera, mainly A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans. These microorganisms are capable of oxidizing sulphide minerals, elemental sulphur and ferrous ion, possibly mobilizing radionuclides such as uranium into the environment. In this context, the present study was undertaken in order to determine the occurrence and fluctuations of populations of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans in effluents from an uranium mine, part of the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG - Brazil, analyzing samples from 9 sampling points (CM, BS, D3, 25, 27, 32, 41, 75, and 76). The results showed that the population of A. thiooxidans occurs more often (44.4%) than the population of A. ferroxidans (31.5%). In the sample points within the UTM-environment interface, points 25 and 76 were considered the most susceptible to acid mine drainage and activity of bacteria involved in metal bioleaching. The seasonal behavior of some of the variables observed at points CM, D3, and BS, when evaluated simultaneously, such as high Eh values, low pH values, the detection of greater percentages of incidence and higher counts of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans, showed that these points are the main locations for the occurrence of acid mine drainage and bacterial bioleaching in the UTM and should be considered as critical points for a possible decommissioning action. (author)

  6. The effect of remediation on water from a former Portuguese uranium mine area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Ana; Carvalho, Paula; Antunes, Isabel; Santos, António; Cabral-Pinto, Marina

    2016-04-01

    The old Senhora das Fontes uranium mine consists of quartz veins containing autunite down to a depth of 40 m. But below, uraninite, Fe-saleeite and black uranium oxides occur in small veinlets or forming elongated nodules. The mine was exploited underground and was closed down in 1971. However, the ores from this mine and two others were treated by the heap-leach process in this area until 1982. Seven dumps containing 33,800 m3 of material were left in the area. The remediation process was carried out from May 2010 to January 2011. During this process, the relocation of the material deposited in dumps took place and was covered with erosion resisting covers. Groundwater and surface water were collected just before the remediation at November of 2009 and February 2010, in the wet season, at the beginning of the remediation, at May and June of 2010, and also after the remediation, at May and June of 2011, in the dry season. Ten wells, four springs and seven streams were chosen to collect water samples. However, some points were occasionally dry and a total of 113 water samples were obtained. The pH of groundwater and surface water was acid-to-alkaline, before, at the beginning and after the remediation, but decreased with the remediation, whereas Eh increased. In general, the uranium concentration was up to 116 μg/L in groundwater and up to 83 μg/L in surface water, before the remediation, in the wet season. The uranium water concentration increased up to 272 μg/L and 183 μg/L in the former and the latter, respectively, at the beginning of the remediation, in the dry season of 2010, due to remobilization of mine dumps and pyrite and chalcopyrite exposures, which caused the pH decrease. However, the uranium concentration decreased in groundwater and surface water at the north part of the mine area, after the remediation, in the dry season of 2011, but increased in both, particularly in groundwater up to 774 μg/L in the south and southwest parts of the area, due

  7. Recommendation ''geotechnical and mine surveying based investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines''; Empfehlung ''Geotechnisch-mark-scheiderische Untersuchung und Bewertung von Altbergbau''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, G. [DGGT e.V. (Germany); DMV e.V. (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Under the roof of the working group 4.6 of the specialized section 'Engineering Geology' of the German Geotechnical Society (DGGT), specialists from educational and research institutions, authorities, engineering companies as well as mining industry and restoration companies gathered their various experiences in the field of the investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines in Germany. It was the objective of the working group to compile a recommendation which describes the present, the state of the art appropriate procedure concerning the investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines. The recommendation presented in this paper is to support above all engineering consultants and specialized companies, but also authorities, when planning, accomplishing and documenting geotechnical and mine surveying based investigations and evaluations of abandoned mines. (orig.)

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizas contribute to phyto stabilization of uranium in uranium mining tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Bao-Dong; Roos, Per; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2008-01-01

    extensively colonized by G. intraradices whereas ryegrass were more sparsely colonized. Plant growth was not improved by mycorrhizas, which, however, improved P nutrition of medic plants. Medic plants contained higher U concentrations and showed higher specific U uptake efficiency compared to ryegrass....... In the presence of U tailing, most U had been retained in plant roots, and this distribution pattern was further enhanced by mycorrhizal colonization. The results suggest a role for AM fungi in phytostabilization of U tailings. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Uranium (U) tailings pose environmental risks and call for proper remediation. In this paper medic and ryegrass plants were used as host plants to examine whether inoculation with an AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, would help phytostabilization of U tailings. The need of amending...

  9. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Déjeant, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.dejeant@normalesup.org [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Paris Diderot — Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75013 Paris (France); Galoisy, Laurence [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Roy, Régis [AREVA Mines — Geoscience Department, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France); Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines — R& D Department, BAL 0414C-2, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France)

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam — Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. - Highlights: • The evolution of U distribution and speciation in mill tailings is investigated. • High resolution satellite images provide useful information on tailings evolution. • U and many other elements are enriched in a sulfate-rich duricrust. • Formation of

  10. Hydrology of the abandoned coal mines in the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Jerrald R.

    1974-01-01

    Mine-water discharge, into the Susquehanna River degrades the river's quality during periods of low flow to a point critical for subsistence of aquatic life. To determine what measures are required to provide a better quality mine-water discharge in the Wyoming Valley, mine hydrology and mine-water quality are related to mine-pool management. The addition of mine-pool outlets at several locations would increase the rate of discharge and reduce interpool flow, which would reduce the total mineral load discharged to the river. Additional outlets would act as relief overflows to reduce the maximum fluctuation of mine-pool levels, decrease related mine-surface instability, and eliminate surface flooding.

  11. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  12. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  13. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  14. Structure, Variation, and Co-occurrence of Soil Microbial Communities in Abandoned Sites of a Rare Earth Elements Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Liu, Wenshen; Chen, Yanmei; Chen, Wenhui; Zhao, Lihua; Ding, Qiaobei; Wang, Shizhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Mining activity for rare earth elements (REEs) has caused serious environmental pollution, particularly for soil ecosystems. However, the effects of REEs on soil microbiota are still poorly understood. In this study, soils were collected from abandoned sites of a REEs mine, and the structure, diversity, and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbiota were evaluated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes. Although microbiota developed significantly along with the natural restoration, the microbial structure on the site abandoned for 10 years still significantly differed from that on the unmined site. Potential plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were identified by comparing 16S sequences against a self-constructed PGPB database via BLAST, and it was found that siderophore-producing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were more abundant in the studied soils than in reference soils. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species richness of plant community was the prime factor affecting microbial structure, followed by limiting nutrients (total carbon and total nitrogen) and REEs content. Further co-occurring network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of microbiota in the studied soils. These results increase our understanding of microbial variation and assembly pattern during natural restoration in REE contaminated soils.

  15. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  16. Application of Multivariate Analysis in Understanding Anions in Soils Close to an Abandoned Manganese Oxide Ore Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    Multivariate Analysis (MVA) was used in elucidating on the relationships and environmental implications of anions (particularly chloride, sulphate and carbonate which generally affect bioavailability of soil nutrients) in soils within the proximity of an abandoned Mn oxide ore mine in Southeastern Botswana. Four hundred soil samples were obtained from a 4 km2 area close to the abandoned mine and analysed for their anionic contents and pH. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for data processing. Anion concentrations in the soil samples were: chloride = 0.2 to 11.9 mg kg-1, with a mean of 7.63 mg kg-1, sulphate = 2.1 to 47.5 mg kg-1, with a mean of 19.36 mg kg-1 and carbonate = 5.1 g kg-1 to 59.1 g kg-1, with a mean of 40.98 g kg-1. Correlation coefficients depicted strong positive associations. Two clusters were produced: cluster one had the three anions with SO42¯ being the most important; and cluster two equally had all three anions but with negative t-statistic values. The anions have been continuously displaced as result of their very high mobility as reflected in lower concentrations than those from the control site.

  17. Characterization of microorganisms in the acidic mine water of the former uranium mine Koenigstein; Charakterisierung der Mikroorganismen im sauren Grubenwasser des ehemaligen Uranbergwerks Koenigstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, Isabel

    2015-06-29

    The thesis on the characterization of microorganisms in the acidic mine water of the former uranium mine Koenigstein covers the following issues: Introduction: (1) Environmental rehabilitation of the uranium mine by the Wismut GmbH, microorganisms in the acidic mine waters, influence of microorganisms on the mobility of metals and radionuclides, biofilms and their influence on the mobility of metals and radionuclides, biodiversity of the mine Koenigstein before flooding; (2) Scope of the work. (3) Materials and methods: Site characterization, biofilm systems, sampling of water and biofilms, sample transport and storage, chemical analysis, speciation diagrams, catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in-situ hybridization, quantitative microbiological methods, classical microbiological cultivation methods, molecular biological methods, bioinformatics - sequence analysis, statistics, optical microscopy, biofilms. (4) Results and discussion: chemo-physical parameters before and after flooding, quantification of microorganisms, characterization of prokaryotes, characterization of eukaryotes, biofilms.

  18. Groundwater-quality data associated with abandoned underground coal mine aquifers in West Virginia, 1973-2016: Compilation of existing data from multiple sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Mitchell A.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2017-11-14

    This report describes a compilation of existing water-quality data associated with groundwater resources originating from abandoned underground coal mines in West Virginia. Data were compiled from multiple sources for the purpose of understanding the suitability of groundwater from abandoned underground coal mines for public supply, industrial, agricultural, and other uses. This compilation includes data collected for multiple individual studies conducted from July 13, 1973 through September 7, 2016. Analytical methods varied by the time period of data collection and requirements of the independent studies.This project identified 770 water-quality samples from 294 sites that could be attributed to abandoned underground coal mine aquifers originating from multiple coal seams in West Virginia.

  19. Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Milia, N; Vallascas, E; Cortimiglia, V; De Giudici, G; Dongarrà, G; Sanna, E; Monna, F; Losno, R

    2014-10-01

    The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant׳Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (pcoal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining tailings, enriched soils, waters and food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizas contribute to phytostabilization of uranium in uranium mining tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Biosystems Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Roos, Per [Radiation Research Department, Technical University of Denmark, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Jakobsen, Iver [Biosystems Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: iver.jakobsen@risoe.dk

    2008-05-15

    Uranium (U) tailings pose environmental risks and call for proper remediation. In this paper medic and ryegrass plants were used as host plants to examine whether inoculation with an AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, would help phytostabilization of U tailings. The need of amending with uncontaminated soil for supporting plant survival was also examined by mixing soil with U tailing at different mixing ratios. Soil amendment increased plant growth and P uptake. Ryegrass produced a more extensive root system and a greater biomass than medic plants at all mixing ratios. Medic roots were extensively colonized by G. intraradices whereas ryegrass were more sparsely colonized. Plant growth was not improved by mycorrhizas, which, however, improved P nutrition of medic plants. Medic plants contained higher U concentrations and showed higher specific U uptake efficiency compared to ryegrass. In the presence of U tailing, most U had been retained in plant roots, and this distribution pattern was further enhanced by mycorrhizal colonization. The results suggest a role for AM fungi in phytostabilization of U tailings.

  1. The building of a pluralist expertise group about uranium mines in Limousin (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    Uranium mining and milling industry once played a major strategic and economic role in France. After the definitive cessation of mining and milling activity in 2001, more than 200 sites are currently under closure and post-closure phases. Decisions required in this frame raise particular difficulties because of the sensitivity of some technical issues and the strong scrutiny and requirements of local and national NGOs. This is particular true in Limousin, the region that stands for the cradle and the heart of the national uranium history. In order to deal with this complex and disputed topic, the ministries of environment, health and industry recently decided to set up a pluralist expertise group with the aim to come to analyze and give a critical point of view on the various technical documents prepared by AREVA NC about the surveillance and control of its mining sites in the department of Haute-Vienne in the Limousin region and than provide recommendations to public authorities to improve current situation. (author)

  2. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindós Poncela, L; Fernández Navarro, P; Sainz Fernández, C; Gómez Arozamena, J; Bordonoba Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996).

  3. Use of steel slag to neutralize acid mine drainage (AMD in sulfidic material from a uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marcon de Carvalho Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid Mine Drainage (AMD is one of the main environmental impacts caused by mining. Thus, innovative mitigation strategies should be exploited, to neutralize acidity and prevent mobilization of trace elements in AMD. The use of industrial byproducts has been considered an economically and environmentally effective alternative to remediate acid mine drainage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of steel slag to mitigate acid mine drainage in a sulfidic material from a uranium mine, as an alternative to the use of limestone. Thus, increasing doses of two neutralizing agents were applied to a sulfidic material from the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi in Caldas, Minas Gerais State. A steel slag from the company ArcelorMittal Tubarão and a commercial limestone were used as neutralizing agents. The experiment was conducted in leaching columns, arranged in a completely randomized, [(2 x 3 + 1] factorial design, consisting of two neutralizing agents, three doses and one control, in three replications, totaling 21 experimental units. Electrical conductivity (EC, pH and the concentrations of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, Se, and Zn were evaluated in the leached solutions. The trace element concentration was evaluated by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the CO2 emission was measured at the top of the leaching columns by capturing in NaOH solution and titration with HCl, in the presence of BaCl2. An increase in the pH of the leachate was observed for both neutralizing agents, with slightly higher values for steel slag. The EC was lower at the higher lime dose at an early stage of the experiment, and CO2 emission was greater with the use of limestone compared to steel slag. A decrease in trace element mobilization in the presence of both neutralizing agents was also observed. Therefore, the results showed that the use of steel slag is a suitable alternative to mitigate AMD, with the advantage of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere

  4. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Joseph; Gonzales, Melissa; Shuey, Chris; Barney, Yolanda; Lewis, Johnnye

    2016-01-01

    Regional water pollution and use of unregulated water sources can be an important mixed metals exposure pathway for rural populations located in areas with limited water infrastructure and an extensive mining history.?Using censored data analysis and mapping techniques we analyzed the joint geospatial distribution of arsenic and uranium in unregulated water sources throughout the Navajo Nation, where over 500 abandoned uranium mine sites are located in the rural southwestern United States. Re...

  5. Determination of contaminant levels and remediation efficacy in groundwater at a former in situ recovery uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Thomas; Roche, Nicholas; Johnson, Thomas E

    2012-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in uranium mining in the United States via in situ recovery techniques. One of the main environmental concerns with in situ uranium mining is the potential for spreading groundwater contamination. There is a dearth of detailed analysis and information regarding the outcome of in situ uranium mine remediation to ascertain the environmental impacts. Regulatory measurements performed at a Wyoming in situ uranium mine were collected and analysed to ascertain the efficacy of remediation and potential long term environmental impact. Based on the measurements, groundwater sweeping followed by reverse osmosis (RO) treatment proved to be a highly efficient method of remediation. However, injection of a reductant in the form of H(2)S after groundwater sweeping and RO did not further reduce the aqueous concentration of U, Mn, or Fe. Low concentrations of target species at monitoring wells outside the mined area appear to indicate that in the long term, natural attenuation is likely to play a major role at reductively immobilizing residual (after remediation) concentrations of U(VI) thus preventing it from moving outside the mined area. Our analysis indicates the need for additional monitoring wells and sampling in conjunction with long term monitoring to better understand the impacts of the different remediation techniques.

  6. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP ' Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese

  7. The future of Yellowcake: a global assessment of uranium resources and mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Gavin M

    2014-02-15

    Uranium (U) mining remains controversial in many parts of the world, especially in a post-Fukushima context, and often in areas with significant U resources. Although nuclear proponents point to the relatively low carbon intensity of nuclear power compared to fossil fuels, opponents argue that this will be eroded in the future as ore grades decline and energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs) intensity increases as a result. Invariably both sides fail to make use of the increasingly available data reported by some U mines through sustainability reporting - allowing a comprehensive assessment of recent trends in the energy and GGE intensity of U production, as well as combining this with reported mineral resources to allow more comprehensive modelling of future energy and GGEs intensity. In this study, detailed data sets are compiled on reported U resources by deposit type, as well as mine production, energy and GGE intensity. Some important aspects included are the relationship between ore grade, deposit type and recovery, which are crucial in future projections of U mining. Overall, the paper demonstrates that there are extensive U resources known to meet potential short to medium term demand, although the future of U mining remains uncertain due to the doubt about the future of nuclear power as well as a range of complex social, environmental, economic and some site-specific technical issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic diversity of archaea and the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase gene in uranium mining-impacted locations in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Flemming, Katrin; Popov, Ivan; Vassilev, Dimitar; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity.

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Radeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA. Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity.

  10. Closure of mines uranium Haba (Badajoz) and Saelices El Chico (Salamanca); Clausura de las minas de uranio de la Haba (Badajoz) y Saelices El chico (Salamanca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, F.; Ruiz Sanchez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The closure of the uranium mines of La Haba and Saelices el chico (Badajoz y Salamca provinces, respectively) are two examples of environmental restoration of mining uranium and dismantling of uranium concentrates plants. Activities carried out are described with the aim of ensuring that, once completed, environmental and radiological conditions are as similar as possible to the existing pre-exploitation, as well as the current situation in both sites with actions current and/or planned. (Author)

  11. Evolution of vegetation and soil nutrients after uranium mining in Los Ratones mine (Cáceres, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Vera-Tomé, Feliciano; Blanco-Rodríguez, María P; Lozano, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of vegetation structure following mine rehabilitation is rather scarce in the literature. The concentration of long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series might have harmful effects on living organisms. We studied soil properties and the natural vegetation occurring along a gradient in Los Ratones, an area rehabilitated after uranium mining located in Cáceres, Spain. Soil and vegetation were sampled seasonally and physical and chemical properties of soil were analysed, including natural isotopes of (238)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb. Species richness, diversity, evenness and plant cover were estimated and correlated in relation to soil physical and chemical variables. The location of the sampling sites along a gradient had a strong explanatory effect on the herbaceous species, as well as the presence of shrubs and trees. Seasonal effects of the four natural isotopes were observed in species richness, species diversity and plant cover; these effects were directly related to the pH values in the soil, this being the soil property that most influences the plant distribution. Vegetation in the studied area resembles that of the surroundings, thus proving that the rehabilitation carried out in Los Ratones mine was successful in terms of understorey cover recovery.

  12. Costs of abandoned coal mine reclamation and associated recreation benefits in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti K; Hitzhusen, Frederick J; Sohngen, Brent L; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-15

    Two hundred years of coal mining in Ohio have degraded land and water resources, imposing social costs on its citizens. An interdisciplinary approach employing hydrology, geographic information systems, and a recreation visitation function model, is used to estimate the damages from upstream coal mining to lakes in Ohio. The estimated recreational damages to five of the coal-mining-impacted lakes, using dissolved sulfate as coal-mining-impact indicator, amount to $21 Million per year. Post-reclamation recreational benefits from reducing sulfate concentrations by 6.5% and 15% in the five impacted lakes were estimated to range from $1.89 to $4.92 Million per year, with a net present value ranging from $14.56 Million to $37.79 Million. A benefit costs analysis (BCA) of recreational benefits and coal mine reclamation costs provides some evidence for potential Pareto improvement by investing limited resources in reclamation projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Source and Fate of Inorganic Soil Contamination Around the Abandoned Phillips Sulfide Mine Hudson Highlands New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Gilchrist; A Gates; E Elzinga; M Gorring; z Szabo

    2011-12-31

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r = 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and {mu}-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant, {mu}-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  14. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  15. Long-term changes in quality of discharge water from abandoned underground coal mines in Uniontown Syncline, Fayette County, PA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Douglas C; McDonough, Kathleen M; Dzombak, David A

    2004-01-01

    Changes in water quality over 25 years have been documented for discharges from an extensive network of abandoned underground coal mines in the Uniontown Syncline, Fayette County, PA, USA. A baseline study of 136 mine discharges in the syncline was conducted in 1974-1975. In 1998-2000, follow-up water flow and quality monitoring was conducted at 21 selected discharges for 2 years to assess the degree of mine water-quality improvement since 1974-1975. The data from the two periods of time were compared, with consideration of differences in measurement methods. The degree and rate of water-quality improvement was found to be highly dependent on the amount and duration of flooding in the mine voids. Water quality of discharges from the substantially flooded mine voids improved significantly, going from acidic water with high sulfate and iron concentrations in 1974-1975 to alkaline water with substantially lower sulfate and iron concentrations in 1998-2000. In contrast, the water quality in the unflooded mines showed less improvement over the 25 years between studies. The water discharging from the unflooded mines in 1974-1975 was acidic with high sulfate concentrations and in 1998-2000 was still acidic but showed somewhat lower sulfate and iron concentrations, reflecting depletion of readily available pyrite. The data obtained provide insight into the potential and rate of natural amelioration of mine water quality in different abandoned underground coal mine systems.

  16. Evaluating top soil trace element pollution in the vicinity of a cement plant and a former open-cast uranium mine in central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A.; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (AR). Inst. Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV); Moreno, Monica; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Pla, Rita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares

    2010-10-15

    0.5-M HCl-extracted heavy metals are potentially significant for characterizing the element bioavailability, the anthropogenic contamination, and the anomaly assessment. According to soil quality guidelines for environmental health, the human and wildlife populations in Cordoba Province might be experiencing toxic As, Ba, Co, Cr, Ta, U, and Zn effects. Therefore, mitigation strategies should be performed on an abandoned mine (Schlagintweit Uranium Mine), Yocsina, Despenaderos, and Oliva. (orig.)

  17. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  18. Regulatory Oversight of the Legacy Gunner Uranium Mine and Mill Site in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada - 13434

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenson, Ron; Howard, Don [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, P.O. Box 1046, Station B, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa ON K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As Canada's nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is responsible for licensing all aspects of uranium mining, including remediation activities at legacy sites. Since these sites already existed when the current legislation came into force in 2000, and the previous legislation did not apply, they present a special case. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), was written with cradle-to- grave oversight in mind. Applying the NSCA at the end of a 'facilities' life-cycle poses some challenges to both the regulator and the proponent. When the proponent is the public sector, even more challenges can present themselves. Although the licensing process for legacy sites is no different than for any other CNSC license, assuring regulatory compliance can be more complicated. To demonstrate how the CNSC has approached the oversight of legacy sites the history of the Commission's involvement with the Gunnar uranium mine and mill site provides a good case study. The lessons learned from the CNSC's experience regulating the Gunnar site will benefit those in the future who will need to regulate legacy sites under existing or new legislation. (authors)

  19. Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Horst M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and University of Central Florida (United States)]. E-mail: monkenhorst@yahoo.com.br; Lamego Simoes Filho, F. Fernando [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perez, Valeska [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil); Franklin, Mariza Ramalho [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz Alberto [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The work presents the radioecological characterization of the new Brazilian uranium mining and milling site located in a semi-arid region of the country. The process characterization demonstrated that in heap leach plants most of the {sup 226}Ra remains in the leached ore. Despite the potential higher availability of radium isotopes in the soils of the studied region the lack of precipitation in that area reduces the leaching/mobilization of the radionuclides. High {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were found in manioc while {sup 21}Pb was significant in pasture. It was suggested that a range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -1} may conveniently encompass most of the transfer factors (TF) values for soil/plant systems (i.e. involving different cultures, different soils and natural radionuclides). Impacts due to aerial transportation of aerosols and radon generated in the mining were proved to be minimal and restricted to an area not greater than 15 km{sup 2}. Finally, uranium complexation by carbonates was shown to be the main mechanism responding for the elevated radionuclide concentration in groundwater.

  20. Microcomputer-based monitoring and control system with uranium mining application. Information circular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeran, C.T.; Franklin, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines investigated a microprocessor-based real-time control and monitoring system for uranium mining applications. The system is capable of controlling and monitoring up to 768 stations within 3 km of the central processor on a common four-wire cable. It can be used in conjunction with detectors to continuously monitor and display radiation working levels at points throughout the mine. Surface alarms are sounded for critical situations such as rapid radiation buildup, loss of power to monitors or fans, and changes in air door position. Permanent records of all changes are automatically printed out with their time of occurrence. Printouts can also be obtained for shift reports or trend logs. The system can be used to remotely control fan startup and shutdown, and also can alert miners of underground conditions by blowing horns or turning on lights. Battery backup keeps the system operative for up to 4 h in case of a mine power outage. A special software feature permits automatic, time-delayed, sequential restart of fans.

  1. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O. [Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Campos, Simara S.S. [State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. of Basic and Instrumental Studies; Gennari, Roseli F., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics. Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-07-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  2. Spatial Distribution of Iron in Soils and Vegetation Cover Close to an Abandoned Manganese Oxide Ore Mine, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekosse, Georges Ivo E.

    This study aimed at establishing the spatial distribution of iron (Fe) in soils and vegetation cover within the periphery of the Kgwakgwe Manganese (Mn) oxides ore abandoned mine in Botswana. Four hundred soil samples and two hundred vegetation samples were obtained from a 4 km2 area close to the mine. Determination of Fe concentrations after acid digestion of samples was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a deuterium background correction. Tests for soil pH and soil colour were complementary to soil chemical analysis. Results were processed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques with integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS), Geosoft Oasis Montaj, ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software packages. Concentrations of Fe in soils was from 1116.59 to 870766.00 μg g-1 with a mean of 17593.52 μg g-1 and for leaves, levels were from 101.2 to 3758.09 μg g-1 with a mean of 637.07 μg g-1. Soil pH values ranged from 2.92 to 7.26 and soil colour shades ranged from yellowish red to very dark grey. Gridded soils and vegetation maps show Fe anomalies in different parts of the study area. Values were low in areas located at the mine workings and in the Northwestern part of the study area and high in the north and southern part. Where concentrations of Fe were high in soils, correspondingly high figures were obtained for vegetation cover. Similar trends were obtained for soil pH distribution in the study area. Bedrock geology, topography, Mn mineralization, soil acidity and prevailing oxidizing conditions were governing factors that influenced the concentration and spatial distribution of Fe in the soils and vegetation. The findings further confirm that Fe distribution and its chemistry in the soils and environment around the Kgwakgwe abandoned Mn oxides ore mine have affected the vegetation cover.

  3. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  4. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  5. Mobilization of Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Manganese Mine in the Arid Metropolitan Las Vegas (NV, USA Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Active and abandoned mines may present health risks, especially to children, from environmental exposure to airborne chemical elements, such as Pb, As, and Mn. X-ray fluorescence analysis of tailings at the Three Kids Mine show they contain high levels of: Pb (15,300 mg/kg, As (3690 mg/kg, and Mn (153,000 mg/kg. Soil was sampled along eight transects, radiating from the dried tailings ponds. Concentrations of Mn and Pb to the NE are at background concentrations at 4.8 km, and, As and Sr at 3.2 km from the mine. Going SW to the City of Henderson, all elements are at background at 1.6 cm, with the closest houses at 1.8 km. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn at 0.8 km on all transects except one. The RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn on the NE transects at 1.6 km. Future home sites are on a NE transect between 0.4 km and 2.3 km downwind from the tailings ponds, in an area highly impacted by tailings which exceed the USEPA RSLs. This research demonstrates that there has been the farthest transport of tailings offsite by the prevailing winds to the NE; the closest currently-built homes have not received measurable tailings dust because they are upwind; and that precautions must be taken during the proposed remediation of the mine to restrict dust-transport of Pb, As, and Mn to avoid human exposure and ecological damage.

  6. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Earth Sciences, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto de Geologia e Petróleo de Timor Leste, Timor-Leste (Country Unknown); Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [University of Calcutta, Department of Marine Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700019, West Bengal (India); Venkatachalam, Perumal [Periyar University, Department of Biotechnology, Salem 636 011, TN (India)

    2016-10-15

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production

  7. Mine Surveying Support for the Investigation and Assessment of the Abandoned Mine-Site Friedrichshall (Southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Fugmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1895 the salt mine Friedrichshall (Southwestern Germany was shut down after a catastrophic water inrush. The following leaching and relocating processes led to a considerable subsidence, whose influences are still significant. In the run-up to the preparation of the building land, the mining authority in 2004 demanded further investigations to assess remaining risks at the surface.A lot of problems - which had to be solved first - were caused by discrepancies between the existing mine maps, particularly with regard to the orientation marks. By the use of digital terrain models, based both on current airborne-laserscans and historical maps, it was possible to describe the course of subsidence.Comparing the former volume of the underground mine workings as well as the volume of the surface depression, a remaining potential of the subsidence could be estimated.Starting from these results a geomechanical modelling led to a differentiated risk assessment for the designated building sites and other areas of influence.

  8. Mineralogical characterization of arsenic, iron, and nickel in uranium mine tailings using XAS and EMPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essilfie-Dughan, J.; Hendry, M.J., E-mail: joe377@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Warner, J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kotzer, T. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In northern Saskatchewan, Canada, high-grade uranium ores and the resulting tailings can contain high levels of arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and nickel (Ni). An environmental concern in the uranium mining industry is the long-term stabilization of these elements of concern (EOCs) within tailings management facilities thereby mitigating their transfer to the surrounding groundwater. Characterization of these As-, Fe- and Ni-bearing minerals and complexes must be carried out to evaluate their solubility and long-term stability within the tailings mass. Synchrotron-based bulk x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to study the speciation of these EOCs in mine tailing samples obtained from the Deilmann Tailings Management Facility (DTMF) at Key Lake, Saskatchewan. Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and synchrotron-based micro-focussing x-ray fluorescence mapping and absorption spectroscopy (μXRF; μXAS ) have also been employed to study spatial distribution and speciation at the micron scale. Comparisons of K-edge absorption spectra of tailings samples and reference compounds indicate the dominant oxidation states of As, Fe, and Ni in the mine tailings samples are +5, +3, and +2, respectively, largely reflecting their deposition in an oxidized environment and complexation within stable oxic phases. Backscattered electron (BSE) images of the tailings from the electron microprobe indicate the presence of gypsum/lime nodules surrounded by metallic rims mainly consisting of As, Fe, and Ni. μXRF elemental mapping confirms these EPMA results. μXAS collected within the metal-bearing rims indicates As and Fe is present mainly in the +5 and +3 oxidation state, respectively. (author)

  9. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing

  10. Electrical tomography and magnetic imaging of Zeida's abandoned mine tailings (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, A.; Dekayir, A.; Benyassine, E. M.; Rouai, M.; Parisot, J. C.; Mathé, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Zeida (Pb-Zn) mine was closed since 1985 and contains huge dams of mine waste deposited without adjustment or remediation. These tailings contain large amount of Pb (3000 ppm) and Zn (140 ppm) expressed mainly as galena, wulfenite and barite. The subsurface of the studied area is constituted mainly by weathered granite coved in some places by Triassic red formations. A geophysical survey was conducted by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) combined with Magnetic Imagery to explore the subsurface area and understand how the mine waste is interacting with the groundwater. Two-Dimensional ERT revealed the occurrence of rounded structures with high resistivity values corresponding to spherical boulders of weathered granite. Resistivity values within the boulders decrease gradually from the center toward the outer layers. This granite was found to be covered by highly conductive materials from the tailings of the mine reaching a depth extending up to 60 m. Magnetic maps revealed local magnetic anomalies reaching 400 nT due to old buried pipes at the mine site of Zeida. These anomalies correspond to the presence of faults used as pathways to recharge the groundwater reservoir

  11. Uranium mining and hydrogeology in the north Bohemian Cretaceous area; Exploitation d'uranium et hydrogeologie du bassin cretace de Boheme du Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, J. [Diamo s.p., Ralskem (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    The north Bohemian Cretaceous area is the location of the most recent uranium ore production in the Czech Republic. It is also the area where the exploration, production and processing of uranium ores has had the greatest impact on the environment, predominantly due to extensive changes in the groundwater flow regime and quality caused by an incompatible combination of in situ leaching (ISL) technology and classical deep mining. The ISL technology involved using sulphuric acid as the prime leaching agent as well as other chemical agents in the leaching process. This in turn has led to the presence of huge amounts of contaminated groundwater in the sedimentary aquifers of the north Bohemian Cretaceous, forming a potential menace to the high-quality drinking water resources of the area. The paper describes the pollution mechanisms resulting from the mining methods and details the different approaches used for remedying the groundwater and for protecting those parts of the aquifers that are not yet polluted. It also gives information about the regulations and legal aspects concerning the closure and dismantling of the uranium mines. (authors)

  12. Natural radioactivity in commercial granites extracted near old uranium mines: scientific, economic and social impact of disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Pereira, Alcides; Neves, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The study of radioactivity in natural stones is a subject of great interest from different points of view: scientific, social and economic. Several previous studies have demonstrated that the radioactivity is dependent, not only on the uranium content, but also on the structures, textures, minerals containing the uranium and degree of weathering of the natural stone. Villavieja granite is extracted in a village where uranium mining was an important activity during the 20th century. Today the mine is closed but the granite is still extracted. Incorrect information about natural radioactivity given to natural stone users, policy makers, construction managers and the general public has caused turmoil in the media for many years. This paper considers problems associated with the communication of reliable information, as well as uncertainties, on natural radioactivity to these audiences.

  13. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations...... of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  14. Energies and media nr 34. Disaster in Japan. How uranium mines are also useful to Niger; Energies et medias no. 34. Catastrophe au Japon. Comment les mines d'uranium servent aussi le Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    After a brief article on the disaster which occurred in Japan (tsunami, nuclear accident in Fukushima, problems faced in Fukushima), this issue addresses the developments induced by the exploitation of uranium mines in Niger: local personnel employment and training, creation of new towns for the personnel, construction of hospitals and roads. The article also addresses the revenues of Niger related to these mines, and the health issue related to mine exploitations (training of authorities in Niger, personnel in charge of radiation protection, personnel and population radioprotection, process residues, water contamination, health monitoring)

  15. Chemical quality of water in abandoned zinc mines in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playton, Stephen J.; Davis, Robert Ellis; McClaflin, Roger G.

    1978-01-01

    Onsite measurements of pH, specific conductance, and water temperature show that water temperatures in seven mine shafts in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas is stratified. With increasing sampling depth, specific conductance and water temperature tend to increase, and pH tends to decrease. Concentrations of dissolved solids and chemical constituents in mine-shaft water, such as total, and dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate also increase with depth. The apparently unstable condition created by cooler, denser water overlying warmer, less-dense water is offset by the greater density of the lower water strata due to higher dissolved solids content.Correlation analysis showed that several chemical constituents and properties of mine-shaft water, including dissolved solids, total hardness, and dissolved sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and lithium, are linearly related to specific conductance. None of the constituents or properties of mine-shaft water tested had a significant linear relationship to pH. However, when values of dissolved aluminum, zinc, and nickel were transformed to natural or Napierian logarithms, significant linear correlation to pH resulted. During the course of the study - September 1975 to June 1977 - the water level in a well penetrating the mine workings rose at an average rate of 1.2 feet per month.  Usually, the rate of water-level rise was greater than average after periods of relatively high rainfall, and lower than average during periods of relatively low rainfall.Water in the mine shafts is unsuited for most uses without treatment.  The inability of current domestic water treatment practices to remove high concentrations of toxic metals, such as cadmium and lead, precludes use of the water for a public supply.

  16. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2001-06-01

    The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

  17. Concentration of heavy metal As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe and radon gas in bottom sediment from abandoned tin mines in the Phuket Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suteerasak, T.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at analyzing the heavy metals: As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and radon gas emission in bottom sediment from six abandoned tin mines in Phuket Province. Fe, Mn, and Sn were found in higher concentrations (but non-polluting than Cr and Ni. As, Pb, and Zn were polluting at lower levels. The concentration ranges for As, Pb, and Zn were 75.3-169, 98.6-547.5, and 120.4-323.3 mg/kg respectively. The activity of radon gas emission from bottom sediment from an abandoned tin mine in Amphur Muang was in the range of 162-212 Bq/kg., in the Amphur Katoo mine the range was 122-266 Bq/kg. and in the Amphur Talang mine the range was 180-263 Bq/kg. All these sites have higher concentrations of radon gas emissions than other similar sites. The heavy metals and radon gas come from geochemical materials such as soil and granite rock, found around the abandoned tin mines.

  18. Evolution of Microbial “Streamer” Growths in an Acidic, Metal-Contaminated Stream Draining an Abandoned Underground Copper Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Kay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A nine year study was carried out on the evolution of macroscopic “acid streamer” growths in acidic, metal-rich mine water from the point of construction of a new channel to drain an abandoned underground copper mine. The new channel became rapidly colonized by acidophilic bacteria: two species of autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and “Ferrovum myxofaciens” and a heterotrophic iron-oxidizer (a novel genus/species with the proposed name “Acidithrix ferrooxidans”. The same bacteria dominated the acid streamer communities for the entire nine year period, with the autotrophic species accounting for ~80% of the micro-organisms in the streamer growths (as determined by terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. Biodiversity of the acid streamers became somewhat greater in time, and included species of heterotrophic acidophiles that reduce ferric iron (Acidiphilium, Acidobacterium, Acidocella and gammaproteobacterium WJ2 and other autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. The diversity of archaea in the acid streamers was far more limited; relatively few clones were obtained, all of which were very distantly related to known species of euryarchaeotes. Some differences were apparent between the acid streamer community and planktonic-phase bacteria. This study has provided unique insights into the evolution of an extremophilic microbial community, and identified several novel species of acidophilic prokaryotes.

  19. Evaluation of metal uptake factors of native trees colonizing an abandoned copper mine – a quest for phytostabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Nirola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation and enrichment of heavy metals in the above ground parts of Australian native Acacia pycnantha (Ap and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec growing in an abandoned copper mine located in Kapunda, South Australia have been studied. Cu and other metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cd and Pb in plants and corresponding soils were analysed to evaluate plant interaction with soils containing heavy metals. As per the total metal analysis of leaf and corresponding soil samples, Ap accumulated 93.6 mg kg−1 of Cu in leaf while the corresponding soil concentration was 1632 mg kg−1. The Ec accumulated 5341 mg kg−1 of Cu in leaf while the concentration of this heavy metal in soil was 65 mg kg−1 in soil. The ESEM spectral analysis also showed a high leaf concentration of Cu in Ec (7% as against only 0.12% in Ap. The average bioconcentration factor for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Ec was much higher than that of Ap. Similarly, enrichment factor was more in Ec for Cu, Zn and Pb than in Ap. In contrast, translocation factor for only Zn and Cd was high in Ap. This study points out that Ec and Ap have different stabilising potential in remediating heavy metals like Cu in mined soils.

  20. Evolution of Microbial “Streamer” Growths in an Acidic, Metal-Contaminated Stream Draining an Abandoned Underground Copper Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Catherine M.; Rowe, Owen F.; Rocchetti, Laura; Coupland, Kris; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2013-01-01

    A nine year study was carried out on the evolution of macroscopic “acid streamer” growths in acidic, metal-rich mine water from the point of construction of a new channel to drain an abandoned underground copper mine. The new channel became rapidly colonized by acidophilic bacteria: two species of autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and “Ferrovum myxofaciens”) and a heterotrophic iron-oxidizer (a novel genus/species with the proposed name “Acidithrix ferrooxidans”). The same bacteria dominated the acid streamer communities for the entire nine year period, with the autotrophic species accounting for ~80% of the micro-organisms in the streamer growths (as determined by terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis). Biodiversity of the acid streamers became somewhat greater in time, and included species of heterotrophic acidophiles that reduce ferric iron (Acidiphilium, Acidobacterium, Acidocella and gammaproteobacterium WJ2) and other autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans). The diversity of archaea in the acid streamers was far more limited; relatively few clones were obtained, all of which were very distantly related to known species of euryarchaeotes. Some differences were apparent between the acid streamer community and planktonic-phase bacteria. This study has provided unique insights into the evolution of an extremophilic microbial community, and identified several novel species of acidophilic prokaryotes. PMID:25371339

  1. 30 CFR 946.25 - Approval of Virginia abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following is a list of the dates amendments were submitted to OSM, the dates when the Director's decision... date of final publication in the Federal Register. Original amendment submission date Date of final... Division of Mined Land Reclamation, P.O. Drawer 900, Big Stone Gap, Virginia 24219, or (2) Office of...

  2. Decommissioning and reclamation of the Beaverlodge uranium mine/mill operation: ecosystem in recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himbeault, K.; Phillips, R.L.J. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Vanriel, P.; Wells, K. [Canada North Environmental Services, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Halbert, B.E. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Beaverlodge uranium mining and milling facility, located near Uranium City in northern Saskatchewan, operated for a period of thirty-two years between 1950 and 1982, making it one of the longest operating facilities of its type in Canada. Ore was extracted from the ma in underground mine and from smaller underground and open pit satellite deposits in a ratio of 94% and 6% respectively. Decommissioning activities consisted of four phases, shutdown, salvage and reclamation which occurred from 1982-1985, and the current transition monitoring phase from 1985 to present. Following transition monitoring to prove that the system is behaving as expected, licence revocation and hence completion of decommissioning is expected to occur. The plan to achieve delicensing from the federal Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and surface lease revocation from the provincial government is currently captured in a 10-year plan, 2003-2013. The main remaining objective of the decommissioning plan is to document the aquatic ecosystem recovery of the former tailings management facility (TMF), which consisted of two natural lakes, and of the two former underground satellite areas, Hab and Dubyna. Extensive environmental monitoring has been carried out in the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, the former Dubyna mine area and the TMF. Recovery of the aquatic ecosystems is occurring within an environment containing above-background levels of natural radionuclides. This makes Beaverlodge, with its relatively clean ore and long history of natural recovery, one of the better places to study low-level radioactive environmental biological effects. The Dubyna area has above background uranium concentrations in the water, sediment and fish, and a benthic invertebrate community similar to reference. In the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, metal concentrations are highest with the deeper sediment. This trend fits well with the increased impacts of 32-years of operation followed by

  3. Post-mining water treatment. Nanofiltration of uranium-contaminated drainage. Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Nanofiltration of real uranium-contaminated mine drainage was successfully discussed in experiments and modeling. For the simulation a renowned model was adapted that is capable of describing multi-component solutions. Although the description of synthetic multi-component solutions with a limited number of components was performed before ([Garcia-Aleman2004], [Geraldes2006], [Bandini2003]) the results of this work show that the adapted model is capable of describing the very complex solution. The model developed here is based on: The Donnan-Steric Partitioning Pore Model incorporating Dielectric Exclusion - DSPM and DE ref. [Bowen1997], [Bandini2003], [Bowen2002], [Vezzani2002]. The steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion model - SEDE ref. [Szymczyk2005]. The developed modeling approach is capable of describing multi-component transport, and is based on the pore radius, membrane thickness, and volumetric membrane charge density as physically relevant membrane parameters instead of mere fitting parameters which allows conclusions concerning membrane modification or process design. The experiments involve typical commercially available membranes in combination with a water sample of industrial relevance in the mining sector. Furthermore, it has been shown experimentally that uranium speciation influences its retention. Hence, all experiments consider the speciation of uranium when assessing its charge and size. In the simulation 10 different ionic components have been taken into account. By freely fitting 4 parameters in parallel (pore radius, membrane thickness, membrane charge, relative permittivity of the oriented water layer at the pore wall) an excellent agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained. Moreover, the determined membrane thickness and pore radius is in close agreement with the values obtained by independent membrane characterization using pure water permeability and glucose retention. On the other hand, the fitted and the literature

  4. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of runoff water and vegetation from abandoned mining of Pb-Zn ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A.F.; Queralt, I.; Carvalho, M.L. E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt; Bordalo, M

    2003-12-15

    The present work reports on the heavy metal content: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in running waters and vegetation around abandoned mining areas. Two species of mosses (Dicranum sp. and Pleurocarpus sp.) and three different species of wild grass (Bromus sp., Rumex sp. and Pseudoavena sp.) growing on the surrounding areas of old lead-zinc mines (Aran Valley, Pyrenees, NE Spain) have been analyzed. Both water and vegetation were collected in two different sampling places: (a) near the mine gallery water outlets and (b) on the landfill close to the abandoned mineral concentration factories. For the heavy metal content determination, two different techniques were used: total reflection X-ray fluorescence for water analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for vegetation study. Surface waters around mine outlets exhibit anomalous content of Co, Ni, Zn, Cd. Stream waters running on mining landfills exhibit higher Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than those of the waters at the mine gallery outlets. The results allow us to assess the extent of the environmental impact of the mining activities on the water quality. The intake of these elements by vegetation was related with the sampling place, reflecting the metal water content and the substrate chemistry. Accumulation of metals in mosses is higher than those exhibited in wild grasses. Furthermore, different levels of accumulation were found in different wild grass. Rumex sp. presented the lowest metal concentrations, while Pseudoavena sp. reported the highest metal content.

  5. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  6. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuhanics, Balazs; Jordan, G.; Foldessy, J.; Szakall, S.

    2010-05-01

    The accurate survey of the home mineral raw material resources in Hungary has been an emphasised research achievement since the early 1950's. In the early 1960's, the ore deposit explorations have begun in the Mátra Mountains which area had a long history of ore mining and the scientific attendance focused on this area such as the polimetallic veins of Parádsasvár. During the field works and in situ surveys , explorers used trenches and exploration adits to heading through the supposed ore veins. The problem is that the exploration areas' land reclamation has not befallen yet. This plight can characterize as mining-related environmental contamination which is a global problem. The associated mining waste is known to be among the largest waste streams in, for example, the European Union, where it is estimated to be 400 Mt, which amounts to about 29% of total waste generated in the European Union (EU) (Jordan, 2004a). Mine site (including exploration areas, as well) remediation have become the major activities of the mining industry according to EU standards by improving environmental and waste legislation (Charbonnier, 2001; Jordan, 2004; Jordan and D'Alessandro, 2004), which gave actuality of this thesis. The disarrayed metallic tailings were deposed onsite without proper pretreatment. These tailings mean not only the anthropogenic effect on natural environment to this day but also a particular environmental danger because they are characterized by a lack of control and a lack of data and information. The objective of this thesis is to define the heavy metal anomalies of the exploration area (Tulk and Tucker, 1998), characterize the connection between the background geochemical values with the tailings' values, evaluate the correlations and give solution to mitigate the undesirable effects. By the recent explorations it can be noticeable that the tailings from the last century's surveys have direct toxic affects on the ecosystems adding to naturally high

  7. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

  9. Effects of historical coal mining and drainage from abandoned mines on streamflow and water quality in Bear Creek, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania-March 1999-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 years of anthracite coal mining has changed surface- and ground-water hydrology and contaminated streams draining the Southern Anthracite Coal Field in east-central Pennsylvania. Bear Creek drains the western prong of the Southern Anthracite Coal Field and is affected by metals in drainage from abandoned mines and streamwater losses. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) developed for dissolved iron of about 5 lb/d (pounds per day) commonly are exceeded in the reach downstream of mine discharges. Restoration of Bear Creek using aerobic ponds to passively remove iron in abandoned mine drainage is under consideration (2004) by the Dauphin County Conservation District. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Dauphin County Conservation District, evaluates chemical and hydrologic data collected in Bear Creek and its receiving waters prior to implementation of mine-drainage treatment. The data collected represent the type of baseline information needed for documentation of water-quality changes following passive treatment of mine drainage in Pennsylvania and in other similar hydrogeologic settings. Seven surface-water sites on Bear Creek and two mine discharges were monitored for nearly three years to characterize the chemistry and hydrology of the following: (1) Bear Creek upstream of the mine discharges (BC-UMD), (2) water draining from the Lykens-Williamstown Mine Pool at the Lykens Water-Level Tunnel (LWLT) and Lykens Drift (LD) discharges, (3) Bear Creek after mixing with the mine discharges (BC-DMD), and (4) Bear Creek prior to mixing with Wiconisco Creek (BCM). Two sites on Wiconisco Creek, upstream and downstream of Bear Creek (WC-UBC and WC-DBC, respectively), were selected to evaluate changes in streamflow and water quality upon mixing with Bear Creek. During periods of below-normal precipitation, streamwater loss was commonly 100 percent upstream of site BC-UMD (streamflow range = 0 to 9.7 ft3/s (cubic feet per second)) but no loss was detected

  10. Spatial Variation and Assessment of Heavy Metal and Radioactive Risk in Farmland around a Retired Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Shi, Chen-hao; Zeng, Guang-ming; Zhong, Min-zhou; Yuan, Yu-jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, heavy metal contamination in the environment has been attracted worldwide attention due to their toxicity, persistence,extensive sources and non-biodegradable properties. We herein investigate variation trend and risk of heavy metal and radiation distribution in the former mine stope, former mineral ore stockyard, and mine road with surface soils of a retired uranium mine in the mid-south of China. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Pb,Cd,Cu,Zn,As,Hg,Cr,Mn,Ni,U, and 232Th were analyzed according to the corresponding background values in Hunan, China. The Geo-accumulation index (Igeo ) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals and the radioactive elements of U and 232Th. Then, Pollution load index (PLI) and GIS techniquewere integrated to assess spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination and radioactive contamination. Results confirmed that three areas in the retired uranium mine was a primary source of pollution, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from agricultural runoff, hydrometallurgy from chemical industries, radioactive tailings, and electroplating industriesfinally drained into Zishui River and Xiangjiang River. Based on the actual situation, some suggestions were put forward for the treatment of the retired uranium mine in conclusion.

  11. Complex formation of U(VI) with Bacillus-isolates from a uranium mining waste pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J.; Nitsche, H. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Center; Raff, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie

    2000-07-01

    Accumulation studies with vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus isolates (JG-A 30, JG-A 12, JG-A 22, classified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megaterium) from a uranium mining waste pile (Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony) and their corresponding reference strains have shown that Bacilli accumulate high amounts of U(VI) in the concentration range examined (11-214 mg/L). Information on the binding strength and the reversibility were obtained from extraction studies with different extractants. With 0.01 M EDTA solution the uranium bound to the biomass was released almost quantitatively. The characterization of the bacterial-UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-complexes by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) showed the formation of inner-sphere complexes with phosphate groups of the biomass. The results lead to the conclusion that the cell wall components with phosphate residues e.g., polysaccharides, teichoic and teichuroic acids or phospholipide layers of the membranes are responsible for the uranium binding. The spectroscopic studies of the U(VI)-complexes with isolated bacterial cell walls and isolated surface-layer proteins of the strain Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 after cell fractionation have shown that the complexation of U(VI) with intact cells (vegetative cells or spores) is different from the coordination with isolated cell wall components, especially with the S-layer proteins. For all Bacillus strains studied in this work, a significant contribution of the S-layer proteins to the binding of uranyl to living cells can be excluded. (orig.)

  12. Abandoned mines, mountain sports, and climate variability: Implications for the Colorado tourism economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew; McKnight, Diane; Wyatt, Lane

    Until recently, the allure of the mountains in the American West was primarily extractive, for commodities like timber, water, and precious metals [Baron et. al., 2000]. Now, the effective marketing and management of the regions “white gold” by the ski industry has stimulated significant recreation-related growth and development in the last several decades. Under an uncertain climatic future, however, these burgeoning industries, and the communities that have grown up in relation to them, are facing water quality constraints inherited from historical mining practices, causing mountain water to become a limited resource more valuable than the precious metals of the past. Further, the current lack of proven, in-situ approaches for addressing distributed, mining waste pollution of fresh water complicates potential remediation efforts.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: geophysical interpretation of airborne magnetic data, Midnite-Sherwood Mines, NE Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The study area is primarily confined to the northeast portion of the Ritzville Quadrangle in northeastern Washington, although very small portions of the Sandpoint and Spokane Quadrangles are included in the aeromagnetic interpretation. This region is most noted for the Midnite uranium mine, the largest known deposit of its type located in North America. Following the description of the quadrangles in the introduction, this report contains the following information: general geology; general structure; magnetic lineations; detailed structure with eight (1:24,000) interpretation maps and six (1:62,500) composite interpretation maps; bibliography; Appendix I - description of microanalysis; Appendix II - magnetic maps 1:62,500 scale; Appendix III - structural interpretation overlays. (ATT)

  14. Authenticated tracking and monitoring system (ATMS) tracking shipments from an Australian uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeneman, J.L.

    1998-08-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) answers the need for global monitoring of the status and location of sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items and environmental conditions. A receiver and processing unit collect a variety of sensor event data. The collected data are transmitted to the INMARSAT satellite communication system, which then sends the data to appropriate ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements. Following discussions between the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in early 1995, the parties mutually agreed to conduct and evaluate a field trial prototype ATMS to track and monitor shipments of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) from an operating uranium mine in Australia to a final destination in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with numerous stops along the way. During the months of February and March 1998, the trial was conducted on a worldwide basis, with tracking and monitoring stations located at sites in both Australia and the US. This paper describes ATMS and the trial.

  15. Decommissioning of a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, D.; Pollock, R.; Bennett, P.; Drake, N. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cluff Lake Project is a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Over 60 million pounds of uranium concentrate were produced in just over twenty years of operation, ending in 2002. The Project is owned and operated by AREVA Resources Canada Inc., part of the AREVA Group, the world leader in nuclear energy development, and increasingly, a provider of other forms of electricity generation systems with low CO{sub 2} emissions. During operation, the facilities at the Cluff Lake Project included open-pit and underground mines, a mill, a tailings management area (TMA) with a two-stage liquid effluent treatment system, a residential camp area and various other support and site infrastructure facilities. Decommissioning when operations have concluded is both an AREVA Group corporate commitment and a regulatory requirement. The purpose is to conduct all necessary activities including the removal or stabilization of all constructed structures and the reclamation of disturbed areas to meet the following objectives: Environment is safe for non-human biota and human use; Long-term adverse effects are minimized; Reclaimed landscape is self-sustaining; and, Restrictions on future land use are minimized. In addition, any restrictions on land use should not prevent traditional land use including casual access for trapping, hunting, and fishing as the primary site activities. The Cluff Lake decommissioning project has four major stages which include planning, physical decommissioning activities, post-decommissioning and follow-up monitoring, and transfer of the site to the Provincial Institutional Control Program (ICP). (author)

  16. Atmospheric dust deposition on soils around an abandoned fluorite mine (Hammam Zriba, NE Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Chaima; Chaabani, Fredj; Font, Oriol; Queralt, Ignasi; Querol, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the eolian dispersion and dust deposition, of major and trace elements in soils in a semi-arid climate, around an old fluorite (CaF 2 ) and barite (BaSO 4 ) mine, located in Hammam Zriba in Northern Tunisia. Ore deposits from this site contain a high amount of metal sulphides constituting heavy metal pollution in the surrounding environment. Samples of waste from the surface of mine tailings and agricultural topsoil samples in the vicinity of the mine were collected. The soil samples and a control sample from unpolluted area, were taken in the direction of prevailing northwest and west winds. Chemical analysis of these solids was performed using both X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. To determine the transfer from mine wastes to the soils, soluble fraction was performed by inductively coupled plasma and ionic chromatography. The fine grained size fraction of the un-restored tailings, still contained significant levels of barium, strontium, sulphur, fluorine, zinc and lead with mean percentages (wt%) of 30 (calculated as BaO), 13 (as SrO), 10 (as SO 3 ), 4 (F), 2 (Zn) and 1.2 (Pb). Also, high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were found with an averages of 36, 24 and 1.2mgkg -1 , respectively. As a result of the eolian erosion of the tailings and their subsequent wind transport, the concentrations of Ba, Sr, S, F, Zn and Pb were extremely high in the soils near to the tailings dumps, with 5%, 4%, 7%, 1%, 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Concentration of major pollutants decreases with distance, but they were high even in the farthest samples. Same spatial distribution was observed for Cd, As and Hg. While, the other elements follow different spatial patterns. The leaching test revealed that most elements in the mining wastes, except for the anions, had a low solubility despite their high bulk concentrations. According the 2003/33/CE Decision Threshold, some of these tailings samples were considered as

  17. Development of Technosols in abandoned mine lands to reduce hazards to ecosystems and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, Jose A.; Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Gómez-Garrido, Melisa; Gabarrón, Maria; Gómez-López, Maria Dolores; Faz, Ángel

    2017-04-01

    Mine tailings and residues dumped into the environment owing to mine ore processing activities have numerous restrictions affecting their development into natural soils, such as strong acidity, high concentrations and mobility of metals and metalloids, high salinity and extremely low organic matter content, which hinders the development of vegetation. This leads to the presence of bare surfaces which act as sources of water pollution and metal containing dusts, affecting natural ecosystems and populated areas in the surroundings. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to reduce the impact of tailings and mine residues spread on mine landscapes to reduce environmental and public health hazards and guarantee true land reclamation. One effective remediation option is the creation of Technosols by use of different materials, wastes and amendments derived from anthropogenic activities. For this purpose, the proper selection of materials is critical to convert metals to forms less soluble, mobile and toxic, so microorganisms, vegetation and animals can grow, and erosion rates are minimized so that metals do not reach populated areas. This goal can be achieved by applying materials with metal stabilization potential, to transform bioavailable metal species into geochemically stable forms. For this purpose, we have created Technosols in different mine tailings ponds located in SE Spain by use of different materials such as pig manure, pig slurry and marble waste. After 6 months of Technosol creation in field, seedlings from different native plant species were manually introduced for afforestation of the area. To monitor the evolution of soil quality and vegetation cover, four plots (10 m x 10 m) were established in each tailings pond, which were monitored every 6 months for 3 years. Results indicated that the created Technosol was efficient at significantly decreasing metal mobility by 90-99% depending on the metal. In addition, soil quality, fertility and

  18. Effects of Historical Coal Mining and Drainage from Abandoned Mines on Streamflow and Water Quality in Newport and Nanticoke Creeks, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Weitzel, Jeffrey B.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    This report characterizes the effects of historical mining and abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streamflow and water quality and evaluates potential strategies for AMD abatement in the 14-square-mile Newport Creek Basin and 7.6-square-mile Nanticoke Creek Basin. Both basins are mostly within the Northern Anthracite Coal Field and drain to the Susquehanna River in central Luzerne County, Pa. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Earth Conservancy, conducted an assessment from April 1999 to September 2000 that included (1) continuous stage measurement at 7 sites; (2) synoptic water-quality and flow sampling at 21 sites on June 2-4, 1999, and at 24 sites on October 7-8, 1999; and (3) periodic measurement of flow and water quality at 26 additional sites not included in the synoptic sampling effort. Stream water and surface runoff from the unmined uplands drain northward to the valley, where most of the water is intercepted and diverted into abandoned underground mines. Water that infiltrates into the mine workings becomes loaded with acidity, metals, and sulfate and later discharges as AMD at topographically low points along lower reaches of Newport Creek, Nanticoke Creek, and their tributaries. Differences among streamflows in unmined and mined areas of the watersheds indicated that (1) intermediate stream reaches within the mined area but upgradient of AMD sites generally were either dry or losing reaches, (2) ground water flowing to AMD sites could cross beneath surface-drainage divides, and (3) AMD discharging to the lower stream reaches restored volumes lost in the upstream reaches. The synoptic data for June and October 1999, along with continuous stage data during the study period, indicated flows during synoptic surveys were comparable to average values. The headwaters upstream of the mined area generally were oxygenated (dissolved oxygen range was 4.7 to 11.0 mg/L [milligrams per liter]), near-neutral (pH range was 5.8 to 7.6), and net

  19. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  20. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme

    Full Text Available Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site observed for As (3.5x102, Co (2.8x102 and Ni (1.1x102. Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103 and Co (1.4x103, whereas Mn (0.6 presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ, Chronic Hazard Index (CHI and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10-4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7, Cr (14.8, Ni (2.2, Zn (2.64 and Mn (1.67. Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10-2 and 4×10-2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10-3 and 4×10-3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by high

  1. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10−4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10−2 and 4×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already

  2. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10-4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10-2 and 4×10-2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10-3 and 4×10-3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by

  3. Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G; Linder, Greg; Lankton, Julia

    2017-02-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine. Gross alpha levels were below the reporting limit (4 pCi/g) in all samples, and gross beta levels were indicative of background in vegetation (mine were likely the result of aeolian transport. Chemical concentrations in rodents and terrestrial invertebrates indicate that surface disturbance during mine construction has not resulted in statistically significant spatial differences in fauna concentrations adjacent to the mine. Chemical concentrations in egg contents and nestlings of non-aquatic birds were less than method quantification limits or did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Bioaccumulation of As, Pb, Se, Tl, and U was evident in Western spadefoot (Spea multiplicata) tadpoles from the mine containment pond; concentrations of As (28.9-31.4 μg/g) and Se (5.81-7.20 μg/g) exceeded toxicity values and were significantly greater than in tadpoles from a nearby water source. Continued evaluation of As and Se in biota inhabiting and forging in the mine containment pond is warranted as mining progresses.

  4. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  5. Soil and vegetation influence in plants natural radionuclides uptake at a uranium mining site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charro, E.; Moyano, A.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the uptake of several radionuclides by the vegetation characteristic of a dehesa ecosystem in uranium mining-impacted soils in Central-West of Spain. The activity concentration for 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 224Ra was measured in soil and vegetation samples using a Canberra n-type HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Transfer factors of natural radionuclides in different tissues (leaves, branches, twigs, and others) of native plants were evaluated. From these data, the influence of the mine, the physicochemical parameters of the soils and the type of vegetation were analyzed in order to explain the accumulation of radionuclides in the vegetation. A preferential uptake of 210Pb and 226Ra by plants, particularly by trees of the Quercus species (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus ilex rotundifolia), has been observed, being the transfer factors for 226Ra and 210Pb in these tree species higher than those for other plants (like Pinus pinaster, Rubur ulmifolius and Populus sp.). The analysis of radionuclide contents and transfer factors in the vegetation showed no evidence of influence of the radionuclide concentration in soils, although it could be explained in terms of the type of plants and, in particular, of the tree's species, with special attention to the tree's rate of growth, being higher in slow growing species.

  6. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  7. Field scale remediation of mine wastes at an abandoned gold mine, Australia II: Effects on plant growth and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Greg; Lin, Chuxia; McConchie, David

    2009-05-01

    This second paper reports the results of plant growth, plant mortality, plant leaf tissue metal and salt concentrations and leachate quality monitoring from lysimeters in four large field trial treatments established on sulfidic waste rock/soil that was used for haul road construction at a closed gold mine in Australia. The TerraB™, lime and clay treatments allowed good tree growth of four Eucalypt species, compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in tree growth between the TerraB™, lime or clay treatments over the 2 years of monitoring in this paper. However, the growth of one tree species was poor in the TerraB™ treatment. Leaf tissue metal and major ion data are also presented. Leachate pH in the control became increasingly acidic (pH 4.57-3.95). The addition of Ca(OH)2 and biosolids led to an initial increase in leachate pH, compared to the control; however, this has decreased over the duration of the study (pH 5.37-4.89) and may affect the sustainable growth of plants in the future. In the TerraB™ and biosolids treatment leachate pH increased to 6.92 after the first rainfall event and continued to increase over the duration of the study to pH 7.4 after 24 months. After 24 months average heavy metal leachate concentrations (mg/L) in the lysimeters for Al, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn were, control: 32.55, 5.67, 12.71, 39.29, 121.80, TerraB™: 0.07, 0.02, 0.07, 0.57, 0.23, and lime: 2.19, 1.19, 2.33, 3.6, 28.4. No leachate was available for collection from the clay treatment indicating that this technique was functioning in terms of minimizing the infiltration of water into the mine soil.

  8. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  9. Arsenic distribution in soils and rye plants of a cropland located in an abandoned mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Ayuso, Esther, E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Abad-Valle, Patricia [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Murciego, Ascensión [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caídos s/n, Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Villar-Alonso, Pedro [Saloro SLU, Avda. Italia 8, 37006 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A mining impacted cropland was studied in order to assess its As pollution level and the derived environmental and health risks. Profile soil samples (0–50 cm) and rye plant samples were collected at different distances (0–150 m) from the near mine dump and analyzed for their As content and distribution. These cropland soils were sandy, acidic and poor in organic matter and Fe/Al oxides. The soil total As concentrations (38–177 mg kg{sup −1}) and, especially, the soil soluble As concentrations (0.48–4.1 mg kg{sup −1}) importantly exceeded their safe limits for agricultural use of soils. Moreover, the soil As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25–69% of total As levels as determined using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O as sequential extractants. Arsenic in rye plants was primarily distributed in roots (3.4–18.8 mg kg{sup −1}), with restricted translocation to shoots (TF = 0.05–0.26) and grains (TF = < 0.02–0.14). The mechanism for this excluder behavior should be likely related to arsenate reduction to arsenite in roots, followed by its complexation with thiols, as suggested by the high arsenite level in rye roots (up to 95% of the total As content) and the negative correlation between thiol concentrations in rye roots and As concentrations in rye shoots (| R | = 0.770; p < 0.01). Accordingly, in spite of the high mobile and mobilizable As contents in soils, As concentrations in rye above-ground tissues comply with the European regulation on undesirable substances in animal feed. Likewise, rye grain As concentrations were below its maximum tolerable concentration in cereals established by international legislation. - Highlights: • Environmental assessment of a rye cultivated area impacted by past mining activities. • Soil As contents exceeded the recommended safe limits for agricultural use of soils. • Soil soluble As concentrations attained high

  10. Environmental geochemistry of an abandoned mercury mine in Yanwuping, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangle; Feng, Xinbin; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Chunhao; Du, Buyun; Lin, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in paddy soil and rice grain (polished), and Hg in surface waters and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) in atmosphere at the Yanwuping Hg mining district (YMM), Guizhou Province, China was investigated. Results exhibited high total Hg (Hg(T)) and MeHg concentrations in soil at sites adjacent to calcine pile and tailings, and ranged from 5.6 to 240mgkg(-1) and 0.66 to 7.3μgkg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Hg(T) in rice ranged from 10 to 45μgkg(-1), and high MeHg concentrations were also observed ranging from 3.2 to 39μgkg(-1). The elevated Hg(T) and MeHg concentrations in soil in the vicinity of calcine pile and tailings reflected in high MeHg concentrations in rice. Those data were significantly correlated with MeHg concentration in soil confirming that soil is the major source of MeHg in rice. The highest Hg concentrations in water, otherwise rather low, ranging from 3.8 to 51ngl(-1) for Hg(T) and of 0.14 to 2.7ngl(-1) for MeHg(T), were found at the proximity of calcine pile suggesting that untreated mine wastes are the principal source of Hg in the nearby area. Huge emissions of GEM were also detected from calcines affecting the whole area, ranging from 12 to 180ngm(-3) with an average of 46±35ngm(-3). The distribution patterns of Hg and MeHg observed in the environmental compartments suggest an elevated contamination of Hg in the region. Elevated high MeHg concentrations in rice might pose a potential health risk to local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Particle size and mineralogical composition of inorganic colloids in waters draining the adit of an abandoned mine, Goesdorf, Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filella, Montserrat [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); SCHEMA, Rue Principale 92, L-6990 Rameldange (Luxembourg)], E-mail: montserrat.filella@unige.ch; Chanudet, Vincent [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institut F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 route de Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Philippo, Simon [Musee National d' Histoire Naturelle, 25 rue Muenster, L-2160 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Quentel, Francois [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, UMR-CNRS 6521, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue V. Le Gorgeu, F-29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-01-15

    Particle size distributions and the mineralogy of inorganic colloids in waters draining the adit of an abandoned mine (Goesdorf, Luxembourg) were quantified by single particle counting based on light scattering (100 nm-2 {mu}m) combined with transmission electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction. This water system was chosen as a surrogate for groundwaters. The dependence of the colloid number concentration on colloid diameters can be described by a power-law distribution in all cases. Power-law slopes ranged from -3.30 to -4.44, depending on water ionic strength and flow conditions. The same main mineral types were found in the different samples: 2:1 phyllosilicates (illite and mica), chlorite, feldspars (albite and orthoclase), calcite and quartz; with a variable number of Fe oxide particles. The colloid mineralogical composition closely resembles the composition of the parent rock. Spatial variations in the structure and composition of the rock in contact with the waters, i.e. fissured rock versus shear joints, are reflected in the colloid composition. The properties of the study colloids, as well as the processes influencing them, can be considered as representative of the colloids present in groundwaters.

  12. Localized field effects of drainage water from abandoned coal mines on intertidal rocky shore seaweeds at St Monans, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, S.; Wilkinson, M. [Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2007-06-15

    This is the first account of the effects of drainage water from an abandoned coal mine on the seaweed community of the intertidal rocky shore in the British Isles. At St Monans, Scotland, along a 250 m transect, the brown climax species Fucus spirals showed a low abundance in sampling quadrats (17.5%) and small plant size (3.5 cm), close to the outfall, compared to stations at increasing distance from the drainage source. Immediately below the outfall the fucoid community was replaced by a mixture of 12 species of freshwater, brackish and marine Chlorophyta, which did not occur, or only scarcely occurred, at any other transect station. At high tide, ferrous iron concentrations in the water were highest near the source (15.5 mg/l), while salinity was at its lowest (1.1 psu). Accordingly, iron tissue concentrations of apical segments of F spiralis were also at their highest (12 mg Fe/g dry weight). Reproductive development of E spiralis may have been inhibited close to the source.

  13. Preliminary findings on the antimony levels of Quiroga river water in the vicinity of a long-abandoned stibnite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alvarez, M E; Aboal-Somoza, M; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2012-02-01

    A UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was developed as a preliminary approach to the determination of antimony in water samples from a river that flows very close to an abandoned mining site. The analyte is complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and absorbance of the complex is measured at 291.06 nm. The standard additions method is mandatory in view of the matrix effect observed, and the response is linear at least up to 9.3 microg/mL of antimony. The sensitivity of the method is 2.609 x 10(-2) mL/microg, whereas the limits of detection and quantification are, respectively, 0.2 and 0.6 microg/mL. The repeatability, expressed as mean relative standard deviation of the measurements within the calibration range, is 2.0%, whereas the repeatability of the entire procedure is 0.3%. The mean analytical recovery within the calibration range was 102.6%. The method was successfully applied to river water samples.

  14. Assessment of factors related to heavy metals distribution in abandoned mining soils in Madrid, central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana M.; Hernández, Zulimar; Lorena, Recio-Vázquez; Marques, Maria J.; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    Exploitation of metallic mineral deposits and its subsequent abandonment in last decades has lead to significant environmental hazard for natural systems. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals and trace elements mainly As, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn and V, in sulphide-rich soils. The site studied (Sierra de Guadarrama, Garganta de los Montes, Madrid) is at 1200 m asl. Soils are Humic and Dystric Cambisols (WRB) developed on gneisses; the main minerals consist of sulphides and include chalcopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, galena and arsenopyrite. Concentration data of the different species of heavy metals as dependent variables in addition to a series of independent variables mainly soil organic matter were subjected to multivariate chemometric treatments including multidimensional scaling (MDS), principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) for a preliminary survey on the possible role of soil organic matter in the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in soils. The soil heavy metals speciation was determined using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference, European Commission) sequential extraction procedure and analysed by ICP-MS. The total contents of these elements were calculated as the sum of the four BCR fractions. The results showed element concentrations decreasing with the distance from the source of pollution. The highest amounts of As and Mn, and Cu, Cd, Co and V were found at 10 and 100 m respectively. These values exceed the allowed limits of the environmental regulation. The percentages of extractable elements (step one of BCR) in relation to total elements show that Cu and Cd were significantly more easily extractable than the other elements. Metal availability in soils was generally controlled by total metal concentration. Data processing techniques coincided in pointing out the association of high levels of organic matter with the concentrations of elements extracted just in the most available forms: i

  15. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-??m pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn. The ochre samples collected at a subset of 10 sites in 2003 were dominantly goethite with minor ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite. None of the samples for this subset contained schwertmannite or was Al rich, but most contained minor aluminosilicate detritus. Compared to concentrations in global average shale, the ochres were rich in Fe, Ag, As and Au, but were poor in most other metals and rare earths. The ochres were not enriched compared to commercial ore deposits mined for Au or other valuable metals. Although similar to commercial Fe ores in composition, the ochres are dispersed and

  16. Lead distribution and its potential risk to the environment: lesson learned from environmental monitoring of abandon mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuntou, Wanida; Parkpian, Preeda; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Noomhorm, Athapol; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2010-11-01

    There are many abandon and existing mines (tin, lead and zinc) in the mountainous areas of Thailand. Toxic elements including heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) have been released and transported from the mining sites to the adjacent landscape. In Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand Pb contamination in the vicinity of the mine has occurred which could lead to potential health problems in downstream communities. To better understand current status of Pb contamination and accumulation in the surrounding environment and potential health impact, surface sediment, soil and plant samples were collected seasonally from representative monitoring sites along the aquatic track or flow regime. Potential health risk was determined using hazard quotient (HQ) as an index for local inhabitants who consume rice. Environmental monitoring illustrated that Pb concentrations in the surface sediment was as high as 869.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight and varied differently among stations sampled. Lead content in agricultural soil ranged between 137.8 to 613.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight and was inversely proportion to the distance from the point source. Moreover Pb was transported from the point source to down hill areas. At the highly polluted monitoring stations (S1, S2, and S3), concentrations of Pb exceeded the maximum allowable concentration for Pb in agricultural soil (300 mg kg(-1)) by 1.7-2 times. The Pb in soil was primarily associated with Fe/Mn oxides bound fraction (46-56%) followed by the organic bound fraction (25-30%). Lead uptake by plant varied and was species dependent. However root and tuber crops like cassava (19.92 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) and curcumin (3.25 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) could have removed Pb from the soil which suggest growing root crops in Pb contaminated soils should be avoided. However Cd, a co-contaminant at one of monitored stations (S4) yielded rice grain with Cd exceeding the maximum allowable concentration

  17. Assessment of metals contamination and ecological risk in ait Ammar abandoned iron mine soil, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of phosphorus and metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe using various indices like geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution and ecological risk index. In all, 20 surface soil samples were collected from the Ait Ammar iron mine of Oued Zem city, province of Khouribga, in central Morocco. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were used to assess their potential ecological risks. According to the results of potential ecological risk index (RI, pollution index (PI, geo-accumulation index (Igeo, enrichment factor (EF, potential contamination index (Cp, contaminant factor (Cf and degree of contamination (Cd, based on the averages, considerable pollution of metals in soils of study area was observed. The consequence of the correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and P mainly originated from natural sources and Cd and Pb are mostly derived from anthropogenic sources. The results showed that these metals in soil were ranked by severity of ecological risk as Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Zn, based on their single-element indexes. In view of the potential ecological risk (RI, soils from all soil samples showed a potential ecological risk. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention in Ait Ammar.

  18. Abandoned mine slags analysis by EPMA WDS X-ray mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, F [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (LNEG), Rua da Amieira, PT-4466-956 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Rosado, L; Morais, C; Candeias, A E [Evora Chemistry Centre and University of Evora, Chemistry Department, Evora (Portugal); Pinto, A P [University of Evora, Mediterranean and Agricultural Sciences Institute, Evora (Portugal); Mirao, J, E-mail: fernanda.guimaraes@ineti.pt [Evora Geophysics Centre and University of Evora, Geosciences Department, Evora (Portugal)

    2010-02-15

    Mining activity on the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Portugal and Spain) started before Phoenician times, became particularly intense during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula (for gold), and after the industrial revolution (for gold, copper, zinc, lead and sulphur). The commonest ore of this region is a massive polymetalic sulphide accumulation, where pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is the main mineral, with variable concentrations of chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS), arsenopyrite (FeAsS{sub 2}), other sulphides and sulfosalts which include minor elements like Mn, Co, Ni, Se, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg and Bi. Some of the main and minor elements of these ores are hazardous and the drainage basins of pollutant source areas often induce health concerns in the resident population. Electron probe microanalysis study followed previous optical and XRD analysis of the slags. The study focused on the identification of phases how sulphide and metallic phases are distributed within the material and infer about leachable elements during weathering. Electron probe X-ray maps show evidences of different behaviour between the elements: Ca and Zn are completely leached; iron is retained in oxyhydroxides, lead and arsenic precipitate as sulphates. Electron probe microanalysis studies are essential to understand complex materials as earth materials. Nevertheless, care is required to a correct interpretation of data and most quantitative compositional data are not trustworthy.

  19. Abandoned mine slags analysis by EPMA WDS X-ray mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F.; Rosado, L.; Morais, C.; Candeias, A. E.; Pinto, A. P.; Mirão, J.

    2010-02-01

    Mining activity on the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Portugal and Spain) started before Phoenician times, became particularly intense during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula (for gold), and after the industrial revolution (for gold, copper, zinc, lead and sulphur). The commonest ore of this region is a massive polymetalic sulphide accumulation, where pyrite (FeS2) is the main mineral, with variable concentrations of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS), arsenopyrite (FeAsS2), other sulphides and sulfosalts which include minor elements like Mn, Co, Ni, Se, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg and Bi. Some of the main and minor elements of these ores are hazardous and the drainage basins of pollutant source areas often induce health concerns in the resident population. Electron probe microanalysis study followed previous optical and XRD analysis of the slags. The study focused on the identification of phases how sulphide and metallic phases are distributed within the material and infer about leachable elements during weathering. Electron probe X-ray maps show evidences of different behaviour between the elements: Ca and Zn are completely leached; iron is retained in oxyhydroxides, lead and arsenic precipitate as sulphates. Electron probe microanalysis studies are essential to understand complex materials as earth materials. Nevertheless, care is required to a correct interpretation of data and most quantitative compositional data are not trustworthy.

  20. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  1. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  2. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  3. Traceless disappeared. Villages in Thuringia - sacrifices of uranium mining. 2. ed.; Spurlos verschwunden. Doerfer in Thueringen - Opfer des Uranabbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Annerose

    2017-08-01

    The uranium mine WISMUT in the former German Democratic Republic is in the process of remediation and re-cultivation since the 1990ies. The remediation measures are supposed to last until 20145 with costs of about 8 Billion Euros. The challenges and the responsibility for the contaminated area will probably last for generations. The book includes contributions from inhabitants that lost their native country, their villages, their homes, keeping the remembrance of their childhood.

  4. A methodology for the assessment of rehabilitation success of post mining landscapes--sediment and radionuclide transport at the former Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G R; Grabham, M K; Martin, P; Evans, K G; Bollhöfer, A

    2006-02-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is an important issue, especially where runoff and erosion can lead to undesirable material leaving post-mining landscapes and contaminating surrounding land and watercourses. Methods for assessment of the environmental impact and long-term behaviour of post-mining landforms based on scientific methodology are needed especially where field data are absent or poor. An appraisal of the former Nabarlek uranium mine was conducted to assess the site from a soil erosion perspective as part of an independent evaluation of overall rehabilitation success. Determination of the gross erosion occurring, sediment discharge to Cooper Creek and the resultant sediment associated radionuclide load in Cooper Creek were the primary objectives of the study. These objectives were achieved through the application of several models using parameter values collected from the site. The study found that the area containing the mill tailings repository is extremely stable and meets the guidelines established for long-term storage of uranium mill tailings. Most other areas on the site are stable; however there are some areas with a high sediment loss. Sediment concentration in Cooper Creek, which drains the site, was found to be within the Australian water quality guidelines for fresh water, however sediment concentrations in tributaries were found to exceed recommended levels. Radionuclide determinations on soil samples showed that the highest specific activities (Bq kg-1) were present on a small (0.44 ha) area with a relatively high erosion rate. This small area contributed the majority of the estimated flux to Cooper Creek of uranium-series radionuclides sorbed or structurally incorporated to eroded soil particles sourced from the mine site. This study provides a methodology for assessment of the erosional stability of such a landscape and consequent impact on water quality, using extensive field data and readily available and well known models and

  5. An overview of a uranium acidic mining lake (Caldas, Brazil): composition of the zooplankton community and limno-chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Roque, C.V.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Laboratory (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This research represents an attempt to fill a gap in the information on the zooplankton composition and limno-chemical aspects of the uranium pit lake (Osamu Utsumi Pit, Brazil), affected by acid mine drainage. In the present study water samples were collected three-monthly, for a period of one year (2008-2009). The water samples from the uranium pit lake showed moderately acidic pH values (3.6 to 4.1), high values of the electrical conductivity, sulfate, uranium, fluoride, zinc, manganese and aluminum concentrations. The Rotifera cephalodella sp., Keratella americana, K. cochlearis, Bdelloidea order and the Cladocera Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., were registered in the samples from the uranium pit lake with ADM. Of the species registered the Bdelloidea order was the most important in terms of density (17,500 - 77,778 ind m{sup -3}), since it occurred throughout the whole sampling period. In this study, probably the combined effect of moderately acid pH values and other potentially co-stressors factors, for example the high concentrations of stable and radioactive chemical species, could have influenced this richness and also the composition of the zooplankton species in the water samples from the uranium pit lake. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Use of project management approach for planning of decommissioning activities of a uranium mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Saulo F.Q.; Lage, Ricardo F.; Gomes, Danielle E.; Ogawa, Iukio, E-mail: quintao.saulo@gmail.com, E-mail: rflage@gmail.com, E-mail: danielle@inb.gov.br, E-mail: iukio@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the fuel cycle is an extremely important factor for the continuity of nuclear program in any country, especially in that countries such as Brazil, where there are some facilities are in process of being dismantled or must be decommissioned in the medium and long term. Since the decommissioning is a process quite complex and expensive and for this reason, it must be handle with modern management practices for so that the chances of success are increased. This work aims to describe the management plan and the strategy adopted for the execution of the decommissioning and environmental remediation (D and ER) activities for the first uranium mine in Brazil, located in the Minas Gerais State and known as Unidade de Tratamento de Minério (UTM). This facility was operated between 1982 and 1995. All the economically recoverable uranium was extracted and nowadays there is no mining activity is underway and there are only research and laboratory activities are running in the site. The conceptual plans for decommissioning and remediation for this unit have been prepared and emergency activities were recommended. These activities are related to studies about drainage acid, ensure safety of dams, adequacy of CAKE II storage conditions and request for operating licenses for the decommissioning from IBAMA and the authorization from CNEN. The majority of the critical factors for decommissioning had their origin due the characteristics of the project have been implemented and has remained due to uncertainties in the decision-making process over time. This project has a set of variables that need to be analyzed considering different aspects as licensing and regulatory framework, radiological, technical and engineering issues, beyond costs, schedule, risks and human resources. In this sense, it was decided to adopt the good practices of project management, published by the Project Management Institute - PMI and to give a differentiated

  7. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  8. Microbial iron reduction related to metal speciation in mine waste at the former uranium mine in Ranstad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, F.T. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1998-02-01

    Mining activities in Ranstad uranium mine started in 1965 and ended in 1969. In 1988 the final restoration was discussed, and it was proposed to water-fill the open pit and cover the waste disposal area using the `dry method`. Today the open pit has become a lake. Also some alum shale was placed on the land surface where it has been weathered by oxygen and water during 30 years. In 1994 it was observed that the color of the lake turned over to brown-red. Further studies showed increasing iron concentration in the lake and around the tailings area. For estimation of microbial iron reduction in the lake, three iron reducing bacteria were isolated from the water-filled open pit. For the enrichment process, water samples were inoculated in an anoxic enrichment medium. The isolates were able to reduce Fe(III) oxyhydroxide by oxidation of lactate as energy source. Growth of these strains was determined by production of a black precipitation of iron sulfide and was confirmed by estimation of total number of cells. Fe(III) reduction was monitored by measuring the accumulation of Fe(II) over time. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Tran-l, Tran-2, and Tran-3 with the EMBL data base showed 98.6% identity with Shewanella putrefaciens, 98.7% identity with Shewanella alga and 98.2% identity with Aeromonas salmonicida, respectively. S. putrefaciens strains have been isolated from many different environments, many of which are suboxic or anoxic. In addition to growing aerobically, S. putrefaciens can use Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. To distinguish if the Fe(III) and/or organic compounds presence in weathered alum shale can be utilized by iron reducing bacteria isolated from the lake, reduction of Fe(III) coupled to the oxidation of organic compounds in sterile and non-sterile weathered alum shale was studied. The reduction of Fe(III) coupled to growth of bacteria on sterile and non-sterile shale was observed. Furthermore

  9. Evaluation of the effects of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the zooplankton community in uranium mining lakes with acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nulcear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Institute (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Several mining lakes are characterized by the inorganic pollution of its waters, known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The current study was developed in order to evaluate the effect of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the richness and density of the zoo-planktonic community species. A seasonal study was conducted in a uranium mining lake affected by AMD. In environmental conditions of extremely high hardness water values (960.3 to 1284,9 mg/l), zoo-planktonic species have indicated resistance to the combined effect of elevated average concentrations of chemical pollutants such as Al (81.9 mg/l), Zn (15.5 mg/l), Mn (102.8 mg/l), U (2.9 mg/l) and low pH values (average = 3.8). Thus, in environments of extreme chemical conditions, such as a uranium mining lake affected by AMD, the hardness showed to be the best predictor of the zoo-planktonic community richness, indicating a protective effect of ions Ca{sup +2} over in special to Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., Keratella americana and K. cochlearis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Gillian A; Johansen, Mathew P; Carpenter, Julia G; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife concentration ratios for 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate. When compared, the Australian and non-Australian CRs are significantly different for some wildlife categories (e.g. grasses, mammals) but not others (e.g. shrubs). Where differences exist, the Australian values were higher, suggesting that site-, or region-specific CRswo-media should be used in detailed Australian assessments. However, in screening studies, use of the international mean values in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD) appears to be appropriate, as long as the values used encompass the Australian 95th percentile values. Gaps in the Australian datasets include a lack of marine parameters, and no CR data are available for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, insect larvae or amphibians; for terrestrial environments, there are no data for amphibians, annelids, ferns, fungi or lichens & bryophytes. The new Australian specific parameters will aide in evaluating remediation plans and ongoing operations at mining and waste sites within Australia. They have also substantially bolstered the body of U- and Th-series CRwo-media data for use internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, V. P. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear; Sobrinho, G.A.N.; Freitas, L.D.; Franklin, M.R., E-mail: mariza@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ({sup 2}H) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ{sup 18}O values, an indicative of evaporation process. {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  12. Effects of direct revegetation on the hydrology, erosion and sediment yield of an abandoned deposit of coal-mine refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyphant, Greg A.; Harper, Denver

    1995-03-01

    As part of the feasibility studies at a large abandoned coal-mining complex, an elevated deposit of weathered pyritic refuse was monitored before and after treatment by a method referred to as direct revegetation. The monitoring was concentrated in three small watersheds that were instrumented to quantify the effects of the reclamation method on storm runoff, yield of coarse-and fine-grained sediment, chemistry of soil water and surface runoff, and morphologic evolution of gullies. Prior to treatment, about 30 percent of the warm-season rainfall was shed as storm runoff (overland flow) ; interfluve surfaces were lowering about 0.4 cm yr -1 and gullies were backwearing about 2.5 cm yr -1 The annual sediment yield was about 10.4 kg m -2, more than half of which was coarse grained and highly acidic. The surface incorporation, by discing, of amendments (principally limestone) and placement of small rip-rap checkdams and water bars promoted the establishment of vegetation and resulted in increased rainfall infiltration (warm-season runoff declined to about 13 percent of rainfall). The yield of coarse-grained sediment was virtually eliminated, and the annual yield of fine-grained sediment was reduced from about 4.5 to 0.3 kg m -2. The chemistry of storm runoff changed from acidic (acidities sometimes exceeded 700 mg 1 -1 prior to treatment) to alkaline (75 mg 1 -1, on average). Gully sidewalls continued to retreat, but the colluvial sediment accumulated on the gully floor (rather than being flushed away by storm runoff) and the gully cross-sections developed a more subdued and stable form.

  13. Revegetation of a uranium mine dump by using fertilizer treated sessile oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian A; Böcker, Lutz; Katzur, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of contaminated sites and the establishment of suitable trees for revegetation purposes is often problematic due to the mostly suboptimal nutrient supply and the poor humus reservoir. For these reasons hydrogels (Stockosorb) and novel humus substitutes (NOVIHUM), serving as long lasting fertilizer (LLF), were recently tested successfully. At the beginning of this multiyear study, those LLFs were administered to the root zone of young sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.), growing in test trials on a uranium mine dump in Schlema (Germany). To quantify the effect of LLFs on plant vitality, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and JIP test analyses were used. The results revealed up to 49% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) of the LLF treated plants compared to controls. Particularly in the first test year, the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport was strongly increased. This stimulation of photosynthetic activity was supported by direct measurements showing up to 129% increased diameter growth of the treated plants after a four year experimental period. Furthermore an increase of the maximum water holding capacity of the dump soil was attained by using LLFs. Overall, the findings reported here represent a feasible, ecologically justifiable reforestation method with a low environmental hazard potential.

  14. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D; Khating, D T

    2009-06-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100km(2). Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  15. Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G.; Linder, Greg; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine. Gross alpha levels were below the reporting limit (4 pCi/g) in all samples, and gross beta levels were indicative of background in vegetation (<10–17 pCi/g) and rodents (<10–43.5 pCi/g). Concentrations of U, Tl, Pb, Ni, Cu, and As in vegetation downwind from the mine were likely the result of aeolian transport. Chemical concentrations in rodents and terrestrial invertebrates indicate that surface disturbance during mine construction has not resulted in statistically significant spatial differences in fauna concentrations adjacent to the mine. Chemical concentrations in egg contents and nestlings of non-aquatic birds were less than method quantification limits or did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Bioaccumulation of As, Pb, Se, Tl, and U was evident in Western spadefoot (Spea multiplicata) tadpoles from the mine containment pond; concentrations of As (28.9–31.4 μg/g) and Se (5.81–7.20 μg/g) exceeded toxicity values and were significantly greater than in tadpoles from a nearby water source. Continued evaluation of As and Se in biota inhabiting and forging in the mine containment pond is warranted as mining progresses.

  16. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

  17. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 2: Geochemical controls on constituent concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania reveal complex relations among the pH and dissolved solute concentrations that can be explained with geochemical equilibrium models. Observed values of pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 in the coal-mine discharges (CMD). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH CMD samples; pH typically increased with flow rate. Although the frequency distribution of pH was similar for the anthracite and bituminous discharges, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates; greater concentrations of SO4, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Sr; comparable concentrations of Mn, Cd, Zn and Se; and smaller concentrations of Ba and Pb than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by near-neutral or alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba and Sr by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous SO4-complexation and surface-complexation (adsorption) reactions. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO42 + complexes adds to the total dissolved Al concentration at equilibrium with Al(OH)3 and/or Al hydroxysulfate phases and can account for 10-20 times greater concentrations of dissolved Al in SO4-laden bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at pH of 5. Sulfate complexation can also account for 10-30 times greater concentrations of dissolved FeIII concentrations at equilibrium with Fe(OH)3 and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3-5. In contrast, lower Ba concentrations in bituminous discharges indicate that elevated SO4 concentrations in these CMD sources could limit Ba concentrations by the precipitation of barite (BaSO4). Coprecipitation of Sr with barite could limit concentrations of this element. However, concentrations of dissolved Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn

  18. Uptake of radionuclides by a common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) grown in the vicinity of the former uranium mine at Zirovski vrh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerne, Marko, E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smodis, Borut, E-mail: borut.smodis@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strok, Marko, E-mail: marko.strok@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-04-15

    From uranium mining areas, in particular, the radionuclides are usually discharged to the environment during the mining and milling process. At the former uranium mine Zirovski vrh, Slovenia, mine waste and mill tailings were deposited at the Jazbec site and the Borst site, respectively. Plants grown in soils contaminated with the seepage waters from tailings may represent radiological concern if radionuclides from the uranium decay chain are transferred into the food chain. Uranium is usually accumulated in the roots and translocated to the shoots in limited amounts. Uranium plant accumulators are usually plants from Brassicaceae and Poaceae families. A common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.), a tall perennial grass, growing in a wetland habitats, accumulates metals in the above-ground parts. It may be used for phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils, because of high biomass production and high metal-accumulation potential. Preliminary results of radionuclide contents measured in such plants, growing on the deposit tailings are presented. A common reed, that was grown on the Borst tailings pile accumulated 8.6 {+-} 8 mBq/g dry weight (d.w.) and 2.4 {+-} 2 mBq/g dry weight (d.w.) of {sup 238}U in leaves and stems, respectively. In the paper, activity concentrations of other nuclides, i.e. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K are also shown and discussed.

  19. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  20. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram, E-mail: sadasivams@cardiff.ac.uk; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-15

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  1. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Joseph; Gonzales, Melissa; Shuey, Chris; Barney, Yolanda; Lewis, Johnnye

    2017-01-01

    Regional water pollution and use of unregulated water sources can be an important mixed metals exposure pathway for rural populations located in areas with limited water infrastructure and an extensive mining history. Using censored data analysis and mapping techniques we analyzed the joint geospatial distribution of arsenic and uranium in unregulated water sources throughout the Navajo Nation, where over 500 abandoned uranium mine sites are located in the rural southwestern United States. Results indicated that arsenic and uranium concentrations exceeded national drinking water standards in 15.1 % (arsenic) and 12.8 % (uranium) of tested water sources. Unregulated sources in close proximity (i.e., within 6 km) to abandoned uranium mines yielded significantly higher concentrations of arsenic or uranium than more distant sources. The demonstrated regional trends for potential co-exposure to these chemicals have implications for public policy and future research. Specifically, to generate solutions that reduce human exposure to water pollution from unregulated sources in rural areas, the potential for co-exposure to arsenic and uranium requires expanded documentation and examination. Recommendations for prioritizing policy and research decisions related to the documentation of existing health exposures and risk reduction strategies are also provided.

  2. Transcriptional effects of metal-rich acid drainage water from the abandoned Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Ulvund, John B; Teien, Hans C; Urke, Henning A; Lie, Kai K; Kristensen, Torstein

    2016-01-01

    Runoff of metals represents one of the major environmental challenges related to historic and ongoing mining activity. In this study, transcriptomics (direct RNA sequencing [RNA-seq] and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]) was used to predict toxicity of metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) water collected in the abandoned copper (Cu) mine called Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon liver and kidney, the main target organs of Cu-induced toxicity in fish. Smolts were exposed to control and diluted AMD water, which contains a mixture of metals but is especially enriched with Cu, at 4 concentrations in freshwater (FW) for 96 h, and then were transferred to and kept in seawater (SW) for another 24 h. Significant accumulation of Cu was observed in the gills, but not liver and kidney tissues, after 96 h of exposure. Short-term exposure to metal-rich ADM (high exposure group) significantly upregulated 3201 transcripts and downregulated 3782 transcripts in liver. The strongest effect attributed to exposure was observed on the KEGG pathway "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," followed by "steroid biosynthesis." Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that exposure predominantly affected "protein folding," possibly by disrupting disulfide bonds as a result of endoplasmic-reticulum-generated stress, and "sterol biosynthetic processes." Transfer to uncontaminated SW for 24 h amended the transcription of several genes, suggesting a transient effect of treatment on some mechanisms. In conclusion, the data show that trace metals in AMD from abandoned pyrite mines might disturb molecular mechanisms linked to protein folding in Atlantic salmon smolt endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongyu Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable. Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data.

  4. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-03-30

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data.

  5. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  6. Phytoremedial assessment of flora tolerant to heavy metals in the contaminated soils of an abandoned Pb mine in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; D'Souza, Rohan; Varun, Mayank; Paul, Manoj S

    2013-02-01

    Significant accumulation of heavy metals in soils and flora exists around the abandoned Barbadalhos Pb mine in Central Portugal. Soil and plant samples [49 species] were collected from two line transects, LT 1 and LT 2, in the mineralized and non-mineralized area, respectively to gain a comprehensive picture of heavy metals in soils and flora to assess its potential for phytoremediation. Phytosociological inventories of the vegetation were made using the Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale. Metal concentrations in soil ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 98-9330 [Pb], 110-517 [Zn], 7.1-50 [Co], 69-123 [Cr], 31-193 [Cu], 33400-98500 [Fe], 7.7-51 [Ni], 0.95-13 [Ag], 2.8-208 [As], and 71-2220 [Mn] along LT 1; and 24-93 [Pb], 30-162 [Zn], 3.7-34 [Co], 61-196 [Cr], 21-46 [Cu], 24100-59400 [Fe], 17-87 [Ni], 0.71-1.9 [Ag], 4.3-12 [As], and 44-1800 [Mn] along LT 2. Plant metal content ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 1.11-548 [Pb], 7.06-1020 [Zn], 0.08-2.09 [Co], 0.09-2.03 [Cr], 2.63-38.5 [Cu], 10.4-4450 [Fe], 0.38-8.9 [Ni], and 0.03-1.9 [Ag] along LT 1; and 0.94-11.58 [Pb], 2.83-96.5 [Zn], 0.12-1.44 [Co], 0.21-1.49 [Cr], 1.61-22.7 [Cu], 4.6-2050 [Fe], 0.51-4.81 [Ni], and 0.02-0.31 [Ag] along LT 2. Plants with highest uptake of metals were: Cistus salvifolius (548 mg Pb kg(-1)), Digitalis purpurea (1017 mg Zn kg(-1) and 4450 mg Fe kg(-1)). Mentha suavolens and Ruscus ulmifolius were seen to hyperaccumulate Ag (1.9 and 1 mg Ag kg(-1), respectively). More metals and higher concentrations were traced in plants from LT 1, especially for Pb and Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  8. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Tommy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust

  10. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de, E-mail: pge_13@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (ProAmb/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental; Filho, Carlos A.C.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Ramos, Maria E.A.F.; Dutra, Pedro H.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  11. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Ashley, Paul M

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs: assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.

  13. Characterizing the transport of natural uranium and its decay product {sup 226}Ra, downstream from former mines in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Boissezon, Helene de; Nos, Jeremy; Koko, Marie-Benedicte; Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines - Business Group Mines, DEXP/DR et D, Tour AREVA,1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Leermakers, Martine [Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Departement Analytische en Milieuchemie ANCH, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Surface waters downstream from former uranium mines have been studied in order to characterize U and {sup 226}Ra transport and to assess their bioavailability. Filtrations and ultra-filtrations (UF) have been performed (0.45 μm / 0.2 μm / 500 kDa / 100 kDa / 10 kDa) and compared to the in situ technique, diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). One of the study sites, a stream passing through a peat bog located in the vicinity of a former U mine, shows an increase in total U and a slight increase in {sup 226}Ra concentrations. While {sup 226}Ra is completely dissolved, U is mainly present as particles and colloids, the dissolved fraction reaching only about 5-20%. (authors)

  14. Water Quality and Geochemical Modeling of Water at an Abandoned Coal Mine Reclaimed With Coal Combustion By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    An abandoned coal mine in eastern Ohio was reclaimed with 125 tons per acre of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) by-product. Water quality at the site (known as the Fleming site) was monitored for 7 years after reclamation; samples included water from soil-suction lysimeters (interstitial water), wells, and spring sites established downgradient of the application area. This report presents a summary of data collected at the Fleming site during the period September 1994 through June 2001. Additionally, results of geochemical modeling are included in this report to evaluate the potential fate of elements derived from the PFBC by-product. Chemical analyses of samples of interstitial waters within the PFBC by-product application area indicated elevated levels of pH and specific conductance and elevated concentrations of boron, calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, strontium, and sulfate compared to water samples collected in a control area where traditional reclamation methods were used. Magnesium-to-calcium (Mg:Ca) mole ratios and sulfur-isotope ratios were used to trace the PFBC by-product leachate and showed that little, if any, leachate reached ground water. Concentrations of most constituents in interstitial waters in the application-area decreased during the seven sampling rounds and approached background concentrations observed in the control area; however, median pH in the application area remained above 6, indicating that some acid-neutralizing capacity was still present. Although notable changes in water quality were observed in interstitial waters during the study period, quality of ground water and spring water remained poor. Water from the Fleming site was not potable, given exceedances of primary and secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for inorganic constituents in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Only fluoride and sulfate, which were found in higher concentrations in application

  15. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  16. Occupational diseases in the uranium ore mining. Development since 1991; Berufskrankheiten im Uranerzbergbau. Entwicklung seit 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft Rohstoffe und chemische Industrie (BG RCI), Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Rehabilitation und Leistungen

    2015-07-01

    The Wismut Company in the former DDR was the worldwide third largest producer of uranium in the past century and employed about half a million people. The consequences of radiation and dust exposure are lasting until today.

  17. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    (Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian reserves. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them.

  18. Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

    2013-10-01

    The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Issues Related to Uranium Mining and Tailings Management in Continuous Permafrost Zones in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Booshehrian, A.; Wan, R.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the potential environmental effects of a uranium mining and tailings management project in northern Canada, numerical simulations have been conducted on the Kiggavik project to investigate the issues of permafrost degradation, mine pit floor heave and slope deformation, and potential inflow into the mine pits during mining and tailings disposition. The project includes the development of three open pit mines, the Main Zone, the Centre Zone, and the East Zone at the Kiggavik site, and an open pit mine and an underground mine at the Sissons site. The mined ore will be milled at the Kiggavik site and the mill tailings will be disposed back into the three open pits at Kiggavik. The mining and milling operation of the project will last about 15 to 20 years. Permafrost at the Kiggavik site extends between 220 m to 240 m below ground surface, while permafrost at the Sissons site ranges from 260 m to 280 m below ground surface. The centre zone and the east zone will be excavated within permafrost, while the main zone and the open pit at Sissons will penetrate the permafrost layer. A high artesian pressure due to the permafrost constraint was measured at both Kiggavik and Sissons sites, and was found to be higher than the ground surface. The results of numerical simulations on the behavior of the continuous permafrost layer indicate that permafrost degradation around the pits or tailings management facilities is not significant during mine operation. No open talik would form below the excavated area as a result of depositing warm tailings in both East Zone and Centre Zone pits. A thin thawed zone of 3 to 5 m on the side of Centre Zone pit is developed, while the thawed area at the bottom of the pit extends to a depth of 10 to 15 m. For the Main Zone, where the excavation breaks through the permafrost, an open talik would remain following the operation period. The warm tailings would cause a 20 m thick thawed zone along the lower sides of the pit. With

  20. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2003-05-15

    A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met

  1. Impact of abandoned mine waste on atmospheric respirable particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; González-Castanedo, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    This work documents for the first time the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Spain) to estimate the contribution and impact of resuspended particles from hazardous mine waste on air quality. The resuspended mine waste dust contributes notably (32%) to the total concentrations of toxic trace metals (Bi, As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Sb) into the atmosphere, with the consequent impact on public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  3. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  4. The Legacy of Uranium Development on or Near Indian Reservations and Health Implications Rekindling Public Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Moore-Nall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uranium occurrence and development has left a legacy of long-lived health effects for many Native Americans and Alaska Natives in the United States. Some Native American communities have been impacted by processing and development while others are living with naturally occurring sources of uranium. The uranium production peak spanned from approximately 1948 to the 1980s. Thousands of mines, mainly on the Colorado Plateau, were developed in the western U.S. during the uranium boom. Many of these mines were abandoned and have not been reclaimed. Native Americans in the Colorado Plateau area including the Navajo, Southern Ute, Ute Mountain, Hopi, Zuni, Laguna, Acoma, and several other Pueblo nations, with their intimate knowledge of the land, often led miners to uranium resources during this exploration boom. As a result of the mining activity many Indian Nations residing near areas of mining or milling have had and continue to have their health compromised. This short review aims to rekindle the public awareness of the plight of Native American communities living with the legacy of uranium procurement, including mining, milling, down winders, nuclear weapon development and long term nuclear waste storage.

  5. Torbernite from Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiji, Michio (Kadoma High School, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-02-01

    Upon visiting Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture, in August, 1980, the author collected the green-colored mineral in square plate form adhering on the surfaces of waste ore. It was discovered that this was torbernite, the first uranium-containing mineral discovered in the area. Its deposit classified as hydatogenetic deposit, since the Kakinoki Mine being an abandoned copper mine. Torbernite exists only in blackish pelite (waste ore), and adheres on the surface and the cleavage, either as small platy crystals or their aggregate. In the blackish pelite, numerous quartz veins were observed, where torbernite occasionally appeared. The torbernite adhering on the surface and cleavage was grass-green and translucent, and the one in the quartz veins was emerald-green and transparent or translucent. The detection of torbernite in the waste ore suggests the potentiality of finding uranium in the Kakinoki Mine.

  6. Radiological evaluation near three old mines of uranium extraction in the department of Creuse - year 2007; Evaluation radiologique aux abords de trois anciennes mines d'extraction d'uranium du departement de la Creuse - annee 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The observations made for three sites of 'Chaumaillat, Ribiere and Grands Champs', demonstrate the existence of an atypical radiological situation which seems marked by the past activities of the mining. If the geochemical context can sometimes be at the origin of abnormalities in sediments and muds, the regional industrial context, conjugated to the strong measured values of uranium, incites us to privilege a human origin to explain these abnormalities. The presence of almost pure uraniums is the result supposed by the past activities of ore treatment on site (lixiviation) to extract the raw material from it (yellow cake) used for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. However, this observation on the site of 'Grands Champs' is surprising considering the absence of treatment activity in situ declared by the operator and the absence of residues storage.Given the accessibility of these sites to the public and considering the stop of any device of surveillance, a follow-up study seems necessary to estimate the importance of the radiological abnormalities and their persistent impact on the environment. (N.C.)

  7. Establishing a pre-mining geochemical baseline at a uranium mine near Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, approximately 404,000 ha of Federal Land in northern Arizona was withdrawn from consideration of mineral extraction for a 20-year period to protect the Grand Canyon watershed from potentially adverse effects of U mineral exploration and development. The development, operation, and reclamation of the Canyon Mine during the withdrawal period provide an excellent field site to understand and document off-site migration of radionuclides within the withdrawal area. As part of the Department of Interior's (DOI's) study plan for the exclusion area, the objective of our study is to utilize pre-defined decision units (DUs) in areas within and surrounding the Canyon Mine to demonstrate how newly established incremental sampling methodologies (ISM) combined with multivariate statistical methods can be used to document a repeatable and statistically defensible measure of pre-mining baseline conditions in surface soils and stream sediment samples prior to ore extraction. During the survey in June 2013, the highest pre-mining 95% upper confidence level (UCL) concentrations with respect to As, Mo, U, and V were found in the triplicate samples collected from surface soils in the mine site DU designated as M1. Gamma activities were slightly elevated in soils within the M1 DU (up to 28 μR/h); however, off-site gamma activities in soil and stream-sediment samples were lower (Grand Canyon watershed and the associated national park.

  8. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD at or near the sites of the three largest mine springs is geochemically feasible based on alkalinity addition rates and increased pH determined by cubitainer experiments and geochemical mixing experiments using the computer model PHREEQCI. Alkalinity values for seven cubitainer experiments conducted to simulate anoxic treatment options exceeded the targeted value for alkalinity [90 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3)] specified in Missouri's Total Maximum Daily Load program by 18 percent or more, but maximum pH values were

  9. Uptake and speciation of uranium in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O): Applications to radioactive mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinru; Sun, Wei; Desmarais, Jacques; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Zhang, Patrick; Li, Dien; Lieu, Arthur; Tse, John S; Pan, Yuanming

    2018-01-01

    Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes. Therefore, management and remediation of radioactive mine tailings as well as future beneficiation of uranium from phosphogysum all require detailed knowledge about the nature and behavior of uranium in gypsum. However, little is known about the uptake mechanism or speciation of uranium in gypsum. In this study, synthesis experiments suggest an apparent pH control on the uptake of uranium in gypsum at ambient conditions: increase in U from 16 μg/g at pH = 6.5 to 339 μg/g at pH = 9.5. Uranium L3-edge synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of synthetic gypsum show that uranyl (UO2)2+ at the Ca site is the dominant species. The EXAFS fitting results also indicate that uranyl in synthetic gypsum occurs most likely as carbonate complexes and yields an average U-O distance ∼0.25 Å shorter than the average Ca-O distance, signifying a marked local structural distortion. Applications to phosphogypsum from the New Wales phosphoric acid plant (Florida, USA) and uranium mine tailings from the Key Lake mill (Saskatchewan, Canada) show that gypsum is an important carrier of uranium over a wide range of pH and controls the fate of this radionuclide in mine tailings. Also, development of new technologies for recovering U from phosphogypsum in the future must consider lattice-bound uranyl in gypsum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial communities and geochemical dynamics in an extremely acidic, metal-rich stream at an abandoned sulfide mine (Huelva, Spain) underpinned by two functional primary production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Owen F; Sánchez-España, Javier; Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2007-07-01

    An extremely acidic (pH 2.5-2.75) metal-rich stream draining an abandoned mine in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Spain, was ramified with stratified macroscopic gelatinous microbial growths ('acid streamers' or 'mats'). Microbial communities of streamer/mat growths sampled at different depths, as well as those present in the stream water itself, were analysed using a combined biomolecular and cultivation-based approach. The oxygen-depleted mine water was dominated by the chemolithotrophic facultative anaerobe Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, while the streamer communities were found to be highly heterogeneous and very different to superficially similar growths reported in other extremely acidic environments. Microalgae accounted for a significant proportion of surface streamer biomass, while subsurface layers were dominated by heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria (Acidobacteriacae and Acidiphilium spp.). Sulfidogenic bacteria were isolated from the lowest depth streamer growths, where there was also evidence for selective biomineralization of copper sulfide. Archaeal clones (exclusively Euryarchaeota) were recovered from streamer samples, as well as the mine stream water. Both sunlight and reduced inorganic chemicals (predominantly ferrous iron) served as energy sources for primary producers in this ecosystem, promoting complex microbial interactions involving transfer of electron donors and acceptors and of organic carbon, between microorganisms in the stream water and the gelatinous streamer growths. Microbial transformations were shown to impact the biogeochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in the acidic stream, severely restricting the net oxidation of ferrous iron even when the initially anoxic waters were oxygenated by indigenous acidophilic algae. A model accounting for the biogeochemistry of iron and sulfur in the mine waters is described, and the significance of the acidophilic communities in regulating the geochemistry of acidic, metal-rich waters is described.

  11. Openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Loukacheva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    before the Second World War to 2016-17 where the current Greenlandic authorities prepared a license for a project of extraction of rare earth elements and uranium in Kvanefjeld. It is shown that the issue of openness, transparency and public participation in Greenland is a long-standing issue...

  12. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in grass in the vicinity of a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štrok, Marko, E-mail: Marko.Strok@ijs.si; Smodiš, Borut, E-mail: Borut.Smodis@ijs.si

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Soil and grass samples were collected from sites at the uranium mill tailings pile. • {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations were determined. • Soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined and are comparable with literature. • Potential use of grass as a monitor of radionuclide migration was evaluated. • Grass has potential in predicting {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra migration. -- Abstract: The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined in soil and grass samples collected from sites at the uranium mill tailings waste pile, which lies near the former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh in Slovenia. Soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined and the potential use of grass as a monitor of radionuclide migration from the waste pile was evaluated. It was found that grass was not suitable for monitoring {sup 230}Th and {sup 210}Pb migration (no linear correlation between soil and grass activity concentrations) but has potential in predicting {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra migration (linear correlation between soil and grass activity concentrations). Soil-to-plant transfer factors for grass were in the range from 0.0014 to 0.015 kg/kg DM for {sup 238}U, 0.0039 to 0.012 kg/kg DM for {sup 230}Th, 0.035 to 0.46 kg/kg DM for {sup 226}Ra and 0.098 to 1.5 kg/kg DM for {sup 210}Pb.

  13. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  14. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10-4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  15. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com; Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pissarra, H. [Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica, Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, U.T.L., Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos (CICECO), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-01-31

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised.

  16. Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines. Preparatory project. Vol. 2. Annex; Schachtverschluesse fuer untertaegige Deponien in Salzbergwerken. Vorprojekt. Bd. 2. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Fruth, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Stockmann, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Birthler, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Boese, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Sitz, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Krausse, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Eulenberger, K.H. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Schleinig, J.P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Duddeck, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Ahrens, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Menzel, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Salzer, K. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Minkley, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Busche, H. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Lindloff, U. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Gierenz, S. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This preparatory study, ``Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines``, was to demonstrate the current scientific and technological know-how based on a comprehensive analysis of the barrier design concepts or established structures intended to serve as barriers in abandoned shafts of potash or rock salt mines. Taking as a basis the current regulatory regime and the available know-how on barrier systems in underground waste repositories taken into account so far in plan approval and licensing procedures, as well as the state of the art, concepts are developed as technical guides and models of barrier systems for mine shafts. The required research work for the various components of a shaft barrier is shown, particularly relating to aspects such as materials suitability and technical realisation. Immediate demand for research activities is shown with regard to the available potentials of mathematic and numeric geotechnical and hydrogeologic calculation models required in order to give proof of the long-term workability of shaft barriers. The authors are of the opinion that the following activities are required in order to meet the research demand quantified: (1) Laboratory and bench-scale experiments for determination of the efficiency of various sealing materials and backfilling materials, and (2) an in-situ, large-scale experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of low-consolidation shotter columns, or constructional technologies. The laboratory work can be done in the facilities of the GSF research mine of Asse, the Freiburg Mining Academy, and the Institut fuer Gebirgsmechanik in Leipzig, and the benchmark experiments also at the Asse site in the research mine. The Kali und Salz Beteiligungs AG is prepared to offer its mine Salzdetfurth II as a site for the large-scale experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Vorstudie ``Schachtverschluesse fuer Untertagedeponien in Salzbergwerken`` wird ausgehend von einer umfangreichen

  17. Review and interpretation of previous work and new data on the hydrogeology of the Schwartzwalder Uranium Mine and vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Wild, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder deposit is the largest known vein type uranium deposit in the United States. Located about eight miles northwest of Golden, Colorado it occurs in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow, mineralization, and deformation during the Laramide Orogeny. A complex brittle fault zone hosts the deposit comprising locally brecciated carbonate, oxide, and sulfide minerals. Mining of pitchblende, the primary ore mineral, began in 1953 and an extensive network of underground workings was developed. Mine dewatering, treatment of the effluent and its discharge into the adjacent Ralston Creek was done under State permit from about 1990 through about 2008. Mining and dewatering ceased in 2000 and natural groundwater rebound has filled the mine workings to a current elevation that is above Ralston Creek but that is still below the lowest ground level adit. Water in the 'mine pool' has concentrations of dissolved uranium in excess of 1,000 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 30 milligrams per liter. Other dissolved constituents such as molybdenum, radium, and sulfate are also present in anomalously high concentrations. Ralston Creek flows in a narrow valley containing Quaternary alluvium predominantly derived from weathering of crystalline bedrock including local mineralized rock. Just upstream of the mine site, two capped and unsaturated waste rock piles with high radioactivity sit on an alluvial terrace. As Ralston Creek flows past the mine site, a host of dissolved metal concentrations increase. Ralston Creek eventually discharges into Ralston Reservoir about 2.5 miles downstream. Because of highly elevated uranium concentrations, the State of Colorado issued an enforcement action against the mine permit holder requiring renewed collection and treatment of alluvial groundwater. As part of planned mine reclamation, abundant data were collected and compiled into a report by Wyman and Effner

  18. Chemistry, radiation and histopathology data in support of manuscript "Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Cleveland, Danielle; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining to the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This data was collected to characterize the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathologies in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine.

  19. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  20. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  1. Top-down/bottom-up approach for developing sustainable development indicators for mining: Application to the Arlit uranium mines (Niger)

    OpenAIRE

    Chamaret, Aurélie; O'Connor, Martin; Récoché, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Minerals extraction is related to complex sustainable-development issues that are subject to international and local controversies. Debates and decisions need to be based on objective and comparative elements. Defining strong indicators for assessing impacts and performances of mining sites thus appears necessary to inform and support the decision-making process for stakeholders. In recent years, many indicator sets have been developed on an international level based on top-down approaches. B...

  2. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.

  3. Transfer of sediment-associated metals downstream of abandoned and active mining sites in the Quesnel River catchment, British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, M. van der; Lipzig, M.L.H.M. van; Karimlou, G.; Owens, P.N.; Petticrew, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Metal mining may have considerable impact on downstream water and sediment composition. The rate and extent that metals move downstream determine the magnitude and time scale of downstream sediment contamination. Conversely, the downstream metal content of sediments provide important clues of

  4. Identification of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from a low-pH contaminated former uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Bohu, Tsing; Beyer, Andrea; Schäffner, Franziska; Händel, Matthias; Johnson, Carol A.; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Biological Mn oxidation is responsible for producing highly reactive and abundant Mn oxide phases in the environment that can mitigate metal contamination. However, little is known about Mn oxidation in low-pH environments, where metal contamination often is a problem as the result of mining activities. We isolated two Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) at pH 5.5 (Duganella isolate AB_14 and Albidiferax isolate TB-2) and nine strains at pH 7 from a former uranium mining site. Isolate TB-2 may contribute to Mn oxidation in the acidic Mn-rich subsoil, as a closely related clone represented 16% of the total community. All isolates oxidized Mn over a small pH range, and isolates from low-pH samples only oxidized Mn below pH 6. Two strains with different pH optima differed in their Fe requirements for Mn oxidation, suggesting that Mn oxidation by the strain found at neutral pH was linked to Fe oxidation. Isolates tolerated Ni, Cu, and Cd and produced Mn oxides with similarities to todorokite and birnessite, with the latter being present in subsurface layers where metal enrichment was associated with Mn oxides. This demonstrates that MOB can be involved in the formation of biogenic Mn oxides in both moderately acidic and neutral pH environments.

  5. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  6. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  7. Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Lanzén, Anders; Blanco, Fernando; Urich, Tim; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of metals released from mine tailings may cause severe damage to ecosystems. A diversity of microorganisms, however, have successfully adapted to such sites. In this study, our objective was to advance the understanding of the indigenous microbial communities of mining-impacted soils. To this end, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to study a heavily metal-contaminated site along a metal concentration gradient (up to 3220 000 and 97 000 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively) resulting from previous mining. Metal concentration, soil pH and amount of clay were the most important factors determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Interestingly, evenness of the microbial communities, but not its richness, increased with contamination level. Taxa with high metabolic plasticity like Ktedonobacteria and Chl