WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoned semiarid lead-zinc

  1. Characterization of a bacterial community in an abandoned semiarid lead-zinc mine tailing site.

    Mendez, Monica O; Neilson, Julia W; Maier, Raina M

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc mine tailing samples from a semiarid environment with those from a vegetated off-site (OS) control sample (pH 8). Phylotype richness in these communities decreased from 42 in the OS control to 24 in the moderately acidic samples and 8 in the extremely acidic tailing samples. The clones in the extremely acidic tailing sample were most closely related to acidophiles, none of which were detected in the OS control sample. The comparison generated by this study between the bacteria present in extremely acidic tailing and that in moderately acidic tailing communities with those in an OS control soil provides a reference point from which to evaluate the successful restoration of mine tailing disposal sites by phytostabilization.

  2. Effects of irrigation and plastic mulch on soil properties on semi-arid abandoned fields

    van der Meulen, E.S.; Nol, L.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Guadalentín Basin in Spain is one of the driest areas of Europe and has problems with high evaporation rates, and high risks of desertification exist including soil quality loss and soil erosion. Farmers in this semi-arid region use polyethylene covers on their irrigated croplands to reduce evap

  3. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  4. Jiangxi Copper Marching into Lead-zinc Industry

    2008-01-01

    <正>On November 13,Jiangxi Copper officially signed transfer agreement on the share rights of lead-zinc mines with Jiangxi Provincial Geol- ogy & Mineral Resources Bureau,marking the beginning of full-strategic cooperation between the two parties for the common exploitation of lead-zinc industry in the province. The Jiangxi Province is rich in lead-zinc re- sources,but most of them are in scattered lay-

  5. Da Xinganling Lead Zinc Smelting Base Commencing the Construction

    2008-01-01

    <正>The construction of the first phase of 150,000- ton lead zinc smelting base project,the largest lead zinc smelting project in Heilongjiang Province,of Da Xinganling Yunye Mining Ltd. officially started on May 24 in Jiagedaqi Indus- trial Park in Da Xinganling Region.

  6. Shade shelters increase survival and photosynthetic performance of oak transplants at abandoned fields in semi-arid climates

    Claudia González-Salvatierra; Ernesto Iván Badano; Joel Flores; Juan Pablo Rodas

    2013-01-01

    Forest restorations conducted in semiarid,seasonally dry climates must deal with the intense drought stress that affects tree seedlings during the dry season.Although this water deficit is the most commonly invoked source of mortality for seedlings,several other environmental factors may also preclude survival of transplants.For instance,it has been widely reported that excessive light reduces the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus,hence decreasing plant survival,but most seedling transplants in deforested areas are conducted under these light conditions.This study is focused in determining whether excessive light affects the photosynthetic performance and survival of Quercus coccolobifolia,a Mexican oak species,when their seedlings are transplanted in semiarid deforested areas.Further,this study tests the possibility of using artificial shade shelters to improve the ecophysiological performance and survival of seedlings.Oak seedlings were transplanted under full sunlight conditions and beneath artificial shade shelters of two different colors:white and black.To reduce water stress,and hence isolate the effects of light treatments,a drip irrigation system was implemented at each experimental plot.Seedling survival was monitored weekly for 128 days and photosynthetic performance was assessed by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence at three opportunities during the experiment.Sun-exposed seedlings showed lower photosynthetic performance and survival rates than those beneath shelters of both colors.These results suggest that sunlight damage can reduce seedling survival when they are transplanted in exposed sites,and that shade shelters can improve the success of forest restoration programs in semiarid climates.

  7. Re-writing the historical perceptions of semi-arid agriculture at the abandoned site of Engaruka, NE Tanzania

    Lang, Carol; Stump, Daryl

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations and surveys recognised as early as the 1960s that the extensive area of archaeological remains at Engaruka in northeast Tanzania were the remnants of former settlements overlooking c. 2000ha of agricultural fields and terraces served by a complex network of irrigation canals. Given that the area is now semi-arid and receives c. 400mm of rain per year, it was naturally assumed that this irrigation was necessary in order to undertake arable cultivation. However, recent and ongoing geoarchaeological research - including stratigraphy, micromorphology and geochemistry, complemented by archaeobotany and modelling of hydrology and sediment transport - demonstrates that the site was formerly much wetter. So much wetter, in fact, that farmers built fields containing soils with paddy-like characteristics, and constructed sediment traps that accumulated vast quantities of alluvium entrained within watercourses, resulting in deposits up to 60cm deep over an area of c. 900ha, and up to 2m deep (totally some 16,000 m3) within just one large terrace covering c. 0.6ha. This paper presents the stratigraphy, micromorphology and geochemistry of the site, discusses the importance of relating this wet phase (or phases) to broader palaeoclimatic signatures covering the period of the site's occupation between the 14th and mid- to late 18th century AD, and questions if and how data of this sort can inform assessments of systemic sustainability or resilience. Acknowledgements: European Research Council Starter Grand Scheme (FP/200702013/) ERC Grant Agreement No. ERC-StG-2012-337128-AAREA

  8. West Mining Expanding Into Lead Zinc Smelting Industry

    2008-01-01

    <正>West Mining,China’s 2nd largest lead zinc miner(only next to Yunnan Jinding Zinc with an annual lead and zinc output of approx. 180,000 tons in metal content),has been put- ting efforts on the control of resources for years.Additionally,it has recently increased its investment on smelting business by holding shares of Bayanzhuoer Zijin for more zinc smelting asset.West Mining has just com- pleted the construction of its 60,000-ton zinc

  9. Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposit Model

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc (Pb+Zn) deposits are found throughout the world, and these deposits are characteristically distributed over hundreds of square kilometers that define individual ore districts. The median size of individual MVT deposits is 7.0 million tonnes with grades of about 7.9 percent Pb+Zn metal. However, MVT deposits usually occur in extensive districts consisting of several to as many as 400 deposits. Nearly one-quarter of the world's sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted Pb+Zn resources are found in these deposits, with by-product commodities including silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and indium (In) for some deposits. Environmentally, MVT deposits are less of a concern than other types of mineral deposits since the carbonate-host rocks mitigate many environmental concerns.

  10. Lead Zinc Project of Xingwang Mining Commencing Construction in Pingnan County of Guangxi Province

    2008-01-01

    <正>Lead zinc project of Xingwang Mining Ltd.in Pingnan County formally started its construc- tion.The project is mainly engaged in the min- ing of lead zinc mine in Guancheng Town.The construction will be carried out in 3 phases for the construction of one mine with annual capacity of 200,000 tons of ore,one lead-zinc

  11. Risk assessment of heavy metal contaminated soil in the vicinity of a lead/zinc mine

    LI Jing; XIE Zheng-miao; ZHU Yong-guan; Ravi Naidu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils through anthropogenic activities is a widespread and serious problem confronting scientists and regulators throughout the world. In this study we investigated the distribution, chemical species and availability of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in nine surface(0 to 20 cm) soils from near an abandoned lead/zinc mine tailings located in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Total heavy metal contents ranged from 5271 to 16369 mg/kg for Pb, 387 to 1221 mg/kg for Zn, 3.0 to 9.3 mg/kg for Cd and 65 to 206 mg/kg for Cu. In general, all heavy metals exceeded China National Standards for Soil Environmental Quality of Heavy Metals by a factor of 3-65times. Comparison of the heavy metal concentrations( Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) with clay content revealed a strongly significant relationship while significant relationship( P organically complexed-Fe-Mn oxides occluded >carbonate bound > exchangeable > water soluble. In the organic matter fraction, the ratio of Pb(29.1% ) to its total concentration in the soils was higher than those of Zn(4.70% ), Cd(3.16%) and Cu(9.50% ). The percentages of the water soluble and the exchangeable fractions of Pb(1.80% ) and Cd(2.74% ) were markedly greater than those of Zn(0.10% ) and Cu(0.15 % ), suggesting that Pb and Cd are relatively more mobile and hence more toxic in the contaminated soils. Strongly significant relationships between H2O-Pb, H2O-Zn and H2O-Cu, strong positive correlations between H2 O-Pb, H2O-Zn, H2 O-Cu and organic matter in soil were found. The content of H2 O-Pb,H2O-Zn, H2O-Cu was negatively correlated with pH values. The similar negative relationships between pH values and exchangeable heavy metals were also recorded. It is suggested that increasing soil pH or liming the soil could decrease bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil.

  12. Concentration of China’s Lead & Zinc Industry Drops,Rather Than Rises

    2007-01-01

    <正>This year has seen China’s lead & zinc industry go up dramatically in sales revenue and fixed investment and its proportion in national GDP grow as well.In contrast to the global giants, however,China’s lead & zinc industry is still restrained by such problems as resource bottle- neck,less(ratber than more)industrial concen-

  13. The Development and Prospect of China’s Lead Zinc Mining Industry

    2007-01-01

    <正>30 provinces in China almost have lead zinc resources,relatively concentrated in 5 mining areas of Lanping and Qingling in the west of Yunnan,Qilian,Nanling,Chuandian as well as 5 major mining areas in Langshan,which are areas rich in lead zinc resources in China.Lead resources are mainly in Yunnan,Guangdong,

  14. Reclamation of lead/zinc processing wastes at Kabwe, Zambia: A phytogeochemical approach

    Leteinturier, B.; Laroche, J.; Matera, J; Malaisse, François

    2001-01-01

    The lead/zinc mining industry of Kabwe (Central Province of Zambia), in operation from 1906 to 1994, generated metalliferous slag heaps covering an area of over 75 ha. The slag heaps are responsible for aerosol emissions with a high heavy metal content over the mine townships of Kasanda and Chowa, resulting in health risks for the local population. In this phytogeochemical investigation, soil samples showed very high lead, zinc and copper concentrations in topsoil. Plant surveys identified 39...

  15. Effects of legume species introduction on vegetation and soil nutrient development on abandoned croplands in a semi-arid environment on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Yuan, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Epstein, Howard; Fang, Chao; Li, Jun-Ting; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Xue-Wei; Gao, Wen-Juan; Li, Feng-Min

    2016-01-15

    Revegetation facilitated by legume species introduction has been used for soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau, China. However, it is still unclear how vegetation and soil resources develop during this restoration process, especially over the longer term. In this study, we investigated the changes of plant aboveground biomass, vegetation cover, species richness and density of all individuals, and soil total nitrogen, mineral nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus over 11 years from 2003 to 2013 in three treatments (natural revegetation, Medicago sativa L. introduction and Melilotus suaveolens L. introduction) on the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Medicago significantly increased aboveground biomass and vegetation cover, and soil total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen contents. The Medicago treatment had lower species richness and density of all individuals, lower soil moisture in the deep soil (i.e., 1.4-5m), and lower soil available phosphorus. Melilotus introduction significantly increased aboveground biomass in only the first two years, and it was not an effective approach to improve vegetation biomass and cover, and soil nutrients, especially in later stages of revegetation. Overall, our study suggests that M. sativa can be the preferred plant species for revegetation of degraded ecosystems on the Loess Plateau, although phosphorus fertilizer should be applied for the sustainability of the revegetation.

  16. Hebei Caijiaying Lead Zinc Mine to Expand for 750,000-ton Dressing Capacity in 2008

    2008-01-01

    <正>Caijiaying lead zinc mine in Hebei has just completed the expansion of capacity from 300,000 tons to 500,000 tons for 2007.Now its 2nd phase of expansion has started with capac- ity expected to growth to 750,000 tons from 500,000 tons by year end.

  17. Lead & zinc output of Yuguang Gold & Lead in 2015 may reach 1.20 million tonnes

    2013-01-01

    <正>Henan Yuguang Gold & Lead Group Co., Ltd said on December 6 that it would strive to increase lead & zinc output to 1.20 million tonnes in 2015.As the world’s largest lead smelting enterprise,Yuguang Gold & Lead is the largest silver

  18. Exhalative Lead-Zinc Deposits in Shallow Sea, Southern Xicheng Belt, Gansu Province

    ZHU Xinyou; WANG Dongbo; WEI Zhiguo; QIU Xiaoping; WANG Ruiting

    2008-01-01

    SEDEX-type lead-zinc deposits in the southern belt of the Xicheng Devonian basin, GansuProvince has been already identified. However, the sedimentary environment of the limestone andphilite of the Xihanshui Group within which the lead-zinc deposits occur is littoral and shallow sea.This is different from those in the northern belt such as the Changba-Lijiagou lead-zinc deposits, whichwere formed in deep sea. The reef and bioclastic limestone are widespread in the southern belt.Particularly they are associated with lead-zinc ores and there are no striae and banding but massive ordisseminated structures. It is discovered that the black chimney consists of sphalerite, ankerite, pyriteand galena, in which black, coarse and radial sphalerite occurs as irregularly veins or cylindricafitywith a width of 10-40 cm in the center, and it is surround by fine ankerite and minor celestite withribbon structure. The immediate wall rock of the chimney, reef limestone, was unaltered and theoutside reef and bioclastic limestone were intensively silicified. Those silicified reef and bioclasticlimestone host disseminated lead-zinc ores of the Lnoba and Bijiashan type. It is concluded that theexhalative system occurred in a shallow sea in the Givetian of the middle Devonian. Brine is boiled dueto low pressure, and a great deal of lead and zinc was dispersed in the interface between the limestoneand phyllite and formed a source bed. In the Triassic period, meta-hydrothermai fluids leached andextracted metals from the source bed, and then moved and mineralized in open space such as archesand inverse limbs of anticlines, and formed massive and vein ores such as the Jianyagou andDengjiashan type deposits.

  19. Five Major State-Level Copper,Lead, Zinc Resource Succession Bases in Tibet Have Initially Taken Shape

    2015-01-01

    According to the Chengdu Center of China Geological Survey,five major state-level copper-lead-zinc resource succession bases in Tibet have initially taken shape,featuring tremendous resource potentials.It has been learned that these five major resource succession bases are respectively copper-lead-zinc molybdenum iron prospecting development base in Central Tibet,chromite

  20. Thermochemical sulphate reduction and Huayuan lead-zinc ore deposit in Hunan, China

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, some arguments with regard to the organicmineralization of MVT lead-zinc ore deposit are focused on the thermochemical sulphate reduction in the presence of organic matter. Based on the research into the organic geochemistry and C, O, S isotopes of mineralized host rocks, mineral gas fluid inclusion and solid bitumen from Huayuan (W. Hunan, China) lead-zinc ore deposit formed in the algal limestones of Qingxudong formation, Lower Cambrian, the authors consider that a lot of organic matter occurred and participated in mineralization. The organic matter from different sources participated in the mineralization with two main forms: thermochemical sul-phate reduction and thermal degradation which supplied abundant H2S for the precipitation.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Sastry, S. Sreehari, E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Department of Physics, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada 52007 (India)

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu{sup 2+} doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR – X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu{sup 2+} state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu{sup 2+} is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P–O–P bonds and creating more number of new P–O–Cu bonds.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Sastry, S. Sreehari; Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu2+ doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR - X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu2+ state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu2+ is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P-O-P bonds and creating more number of new P-O-Cu bonds.

  3. Jiangxi Copper Lead Zinc Smelting Project with an Investment of Nearly 5 billion yuan Started Construction in Hukou

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,Jiangxi Copper Group Lead Zinc Smelting Project,a key construction project of Jiangxi Province’s "Ten,Hundred,Thousand Project" (referring to the plan to have a number of leading enterprises with annual sales topping

  4. Formation of the Devonian Fengtai Hydrothermal Brine Basin and the Metallogeny of Gold and Lead-Zinc Mineralizations in Shaanxi

    2000-01-01

    The study of the relationships between the hydrothermal sedimentary formations and the gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in the Devonian Fengtai basin in Shaanxi shows that there was a hydrothermal brine sedimentary event which was inserted into the normal sedimentary background from the late Middle Devonian to the early Late Devonian. This event is closely related to gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in this area.

  5. Copper electrodeposition from cuprous chloride solutions containing lead, zinc or iron ions

    M. Tchoumou; M. Roynette Ehics

    2005-01-01

    Cuprous chloride hydrochloric acid solutions were electrolysed in a two compartments cell without agitation for copper extraction. It is found that the current density affects the colour and the size of copper deposits. During electrodeposition of copper from cuprous solution in the presence of various concentrations of lead, zinc or iron ions at different current densities, it is observed that lead is codeposited with copper by increasing current density.In all experiments, the current efficiency for the copper deposition reaction fluctuates between 88.50% and 95.50%.

  6. Wetting agent investigation for controlling dust of lead-zinc ores

    WU Chao; PENG Xiao-lan; WU Guo-min

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to control the pollution of dust, which occurred in a typical lead-zinc mine. Two kinds of surfactants and water glass were chosen as the wetting agents to study the behaviours of suppressing the dust. The performances of the wetting agents of various sizes and water content of dust and their compositions among different weting agents were investigated. Firstly, the chemical compounds, dispersity, water content, bulk density and other relevant physico-chemical properties of the choiced dust of lead-zinc ore were mensurated. A great number of down-ward penetrating tests were conducted to different partical sizes of dust and to analyze the dust wetting behaviour respectively. The optimal compositions of wetting agents were obtained in accordance with different water contents and partical sizes of the dust after analyzing and statisting the achieved experimental data. The data show that the efficiency of chemical dust suppression of weting agents is much better than that of water. The results of the research work prove that the partical size and the water content of the dust are very important factors to the dust suppression. The results are also proved validly by the dropping experiment, which takes the penetrating diameter and penetrating time as the major factors. The superfine dust is much more difficult to be wetted. Since increasing the water content of dust is the best approach to control it, the choice of wetting agents for improving dispensation is significant.

  7. Abandoned vehicles

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Mine Cost Can Hardly Be Lowered Due To High Percentage Of Inflexible Costs For Lead & Zinc Mine Enterprises

    2016-01-01

    At the 2016(11th)Shanghai Lead&Zinc Summit,Lian Chuanshuang from Tibet Huayu Mining explained the current operation condition of domestic mine enterprises.At the Summit,he pointed out that currently mine cost could hardly be reduced,the main reason is too high percentage of inflexible cost.

  9. An ecological risk assessment for heavy metals of the lead-zinc ore tailings

    Peng Huibing; Liu Yunguo; Li Jun; Liu Meiying

    2007-01-01

    The structure of Pb,Zn,Cu and Cd in lead zinc ore tailing soils in Yongzhou,Hunan is analyzed by the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure.The content and proportion of heavy metals of the mine are measured.Meanwhile,the ecological risks are evaluated with the Lars Hakanson's potential ecological risk exponential method.The analysis shows that the content of heavy metals is very high,reaching the level of serious pollution.The order of metal pollution degrees are Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn.On the other hand,it is very possible that the heavy metals may combine together as compounds or cling to the crystal form of clay.Since the form of soluble acid and free metals are very little,it is not an easy job for metal elating or restoration of plants.Yet it is possible to take out those heavy metals adopting the chemical extraction technology.DTPA and EDTA,indicated by a research,both have iterative value and strong conformity effect.So they are effective elutriants to restore the polluted soil.A chemical extraction method is put forward in this paper.

  10. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits.

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-04-28

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ(114/110)Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ(114/110)Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    S Sreehari Sastry; B Rupa Venkateswara Rao

    2015-04-01

    Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses doped with Mn(II) are characterized by spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman. Optical absorption spectrum exhibits four bands which are characteristic of Mn(II) in distorted octahedral site symmetry. The crystal field parameter Dq and Racah interelectronic-repulsion parameters and have been evaluated. All investigated samples exhibit EPR signals which are characteristic to the Mn2+ ions. The shapes of spectra are also changed with varying alkaline earth ions content. FTIR spectra show specific vibrations of phosphate units. The characteristic Raman bands of these glasses due to stretching and bending vibrations were identified and analysed by varying alkaline earth content. The intensity and frequency variations for the characteristic phosphate group vibrations have been correlated with the changes of the structural units present in these glasses. Depolymerization of the phosphate chains in all the glasses is observed with replacement of alkaline earth content by spectroscopic studies. This leads to a strong decrease of the average chain length and a small decrease of the average P–O–P bridging angle with replacement of alkaline earth content.

  12. Organic Geochemistry Characteristics in Ores and Host Rocks from Qixiashan Lead-Zinc Deposit, Nanjing, China

    Xie Shucheng; Wang Hongmei; Guo Jianqiu; Liang Bin; Zhou Xiugao

    2003-01-01

    Organic matter, associated with ores, host rocks, ore source rocks and present in fluid inclusions in the Qixiashan lead-zinc polymetallic deposit hosted in Upper Carboniferous dolomites and limestones in East China, was systematically analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), GC/mass spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. The biomarker ratios of nC-21-/nC+22-alkanes, C23-tricyclic/C30-hopane and the tricyclic terpane parameters including C21/C23, C19-20/C21-29 and C19-25/C26-29 can effectively discriminate ores from host rocks. Extractable organic matter present in fluid inclusions displays similarities to those enclosed in the ore source rocks in the biomarker ratios, suggesting that a proportion of organic matter was introduced into the deposit from the ore source strata. The presence of copper and zinc in stage Ⅱ pyrobitumen indicates that some metals may have been transported by an organic fluid or removed from an aqueous fluid by organic matter.

  13. Water-Induced Degradation in Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Zirconate Titanate Soft Piezoelectric Ceramics

    JIANG Xiang-Ping; CHEN Wan-Ping; PENG Zhi; ZENG Min; CHANWANG Li-Hua; YIN Qing-Rui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Water-induced degradation of lead zinc niobate-lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3) soft piezoelectric ceramics is studied using electrochemical hydrogen charging, in which the silver electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramics constitute a cathode in 0.01-M NaOH solution to evolve hydrogen by electrolysis of water.It is found that with the increasing hydrogen charging time, the resonance impedance increases, the difference between the resonance frequency and the anti-resonance frequency decreases, the spontaneous polarization, the remanent polarization and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 decrease. The degradation behaviour of the soft piezoelectric ceramics can be explained to hydrogen incorporating into the lattice and forming hydroxy (OH-)bonds in the perovskite structure, which prevents the Ti ions from switching and increases the coercive field Ec.The degradation characteristics of the soft piezoelectric ceramics are quite different from that of lead zirconate titanate hard piezoelectric ceramics.

  14. Concentration Mechanism of Ore-Forming Fluid in Huize Lead-Zinc Deposits, Yunnan Province

    Zhang Zhenliang; Huang Zhilong; Rao Bing; Guan Tao; Yan Zaifei

    2005-01-01

    The Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan Province, located in the south-central part of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou (SYG) Pb-Zn multimetal mineralization district (MMD), are strictly controlled by fault zones. The sources of ore-forming fluid in the deposits have been debated for a long time. Calcite, a gangue mineral, has uniform C and O isotopes. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values vary respectively from -2.1×10-3 to -3.5×10-3 (mean -2.8×10-3) and 16.7×10-3-18.6×10-3 (mean 17.7×10-3). No obvious difference can be found in C and O isotopes among occurrences and elevations and even ore-bodies. Types of inclusions include those of pure liquid (L), liquid-rich gas-liquid (L+V), and three-phase ones containing a daughter mineral (S+L+V) and immiscible CO2 with three-phases (VCO2+LCO2+LH2O). Their homogenization temperatures vary from 110 to 400 ℃, and two peaks are shown. (87Sr/86Sr)0 ratios of calcite in the deposits are higher than those in the mantle and Emeishan basalts, and slightly higher than those in the Baizuo Formation, which the Huize lead-zinc deposits are found in. All of the (87Sr/86Sr)0 are low relative to those in the basement rocks. Fractionation of Sr isotope did not occur in the ore-forming fluid during the precipitation of minerals. The results indicate that the ore-forming fluid is homogeneous and derived from the mixing of different fluids. Gas-liquid inclusions can be separated into two groups in 300-400 ℃ with a salinity of 5 %-6 % and 12 %-16 % NaCl respectively. However, the salinities of inclusions vary from 7 % to 23 % NaCl in 100-300 ℃, especially in 150-250 ℃. The formation pressures of faulted zones are (50-320)×105 Pa. The estimated pressures of the overlying rocks on the ore bodies are 574×105-640×105 Pa. The pressures of ore-forming processes would be 145×105 to 754×105 Pa. Therefore, pressure sharply reduced and boiling occurred when the ore-forming fluid flew into the fault zones. As a result, the ore-forming fluid was

  15. Absorption and emission properties of Ho{sup 3+} doped lead-zinc-borate glasses

    Sooraj Hussain, N. [DEMM, Faculty of Eng. University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal) and INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: sooraj@fe.up.pt; Ali, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dias, A.G. [DEMM, Faculty of Eng. University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal); Lopes, M.A. [DEMM, Faculty of Eng. University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal); Santos, J.D. [DEMM, Faculty of Eng. University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal); Buddhudu, S. [Department of Physics, S.V. University, Tirupati, 517502-AP (India)

    2006-09-25

    This paper reports on the affect of lead content on the absorption and emission spectra of the Ho{sup 3+} ion doped lead-zinc-borate glasses in the composition (mol%) of (20 - x)PbO-20ZnO-(59 + x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-1.0Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x 0, 5,10,15 of PbO content with {lambda} {sub exc} = 405 nm. The experimental absorption band energies have satisfactorily been correlated with the theoretical results with an r.m.s deviation of zero with the following correction factors obtained by a least square fit analysis: {delta}E {sup 1} 348.495936 cm{sup -1}, {delta}E {sup 2} = 1.436043 cm{sup -1}, {delta}E {sup 3} = 46.481575 cm{sup -1}, {delta}{xi} {sub 4f} = - 28.512979 cm{sup -1}, {delta}{alpha} = 55.508936 cm{sup -1}, {delta}{beta} = - 1394.339908 cm{sup -1} and {delta}{gamma} 1208.424336 cm{sup -1}. By applying the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter {omega} {sub 2} has been found to be linearly decreasing with the PbO content from 5 to 10 mol% and then increasing. And also radiative (A, A {sub T}, {beta}, {tau} {sub r}) characteristic factors of the luminescent transitions ({sup 5}I{sub 8} <- {sup 5}F{sub 3,4,5} and {sup 5}S{sub 2}) of the glasses have been evaluated. Stimulated emission cross-sections ({sigma} {sub p} {sup E}) of the measured emission transitions of holmium glasses have also been computed.

  16. Application of granulated lead-zinc slag in concrete as an opportunity to save natural resources

    Alwaeli, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The last decades marked a period of growth and prosperity in construction industry which involves the use of natural resources. This growth is jeopardized by the lack of natural resources that are available. On the other hand there has been rapid increase in the industrial waste production. Most of the waste do not find any effective use and cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to health and environmental problems. Recycling of industrial waste as aggregate is thus a logical option to manage this problem. The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of concretes containing granulated slag of lead and zinc industry as sand replacement mixed in different proportions. Granulated slag is substituted for raw sand, partly or totally. Ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight of sand are used. The effects of granulated lead-zinc slag (GLZS) as sand replacement material on the compressive strength and gamma radiation attenuation properties of concrete are investigated and analyzed. Then, these properties are compared with those of ordinary concrete. The results showed that replacement material have some effects on the compressive strength and gamma radiation properties of the concrete. The experimental results indicate that, the concrete mixed with GLZS as a sand replacement have better strength. Concerning the absorption properties for gamma radiation the data show that the addition of GLZS resulted in an increase of the attenuation of gamma radiation. Consequently, these concretes could be used for construction of shields protecting personnel who work in laboratories where radiation is used. Additionally, the thickness of the concrete with GLZS was calculated and compared with ordinary concrete.

  17. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of mesquite grown in acidic lead/zinc mine tailings.

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2011-02-15

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p<0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  18. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  20. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. The geology, mineralogy and paragenesis of the Castrovirreyna lead-zinc-silver deposits, Peru

    Lewis, Richard Wheatley

    1964-01-01

    The Castrovirreyna mining district lies in the Andean Cordillera of South Central Peru, and has been worked sporadically since its discovery in 1591. Supergene silver ores were first mined. Currently the district produces about 20,000 tons of lead-zinc ore and 5000 tons of silver ore annually. The district is underlain by Tertiary andesitic rocks interbedded with basalts and intruded by small bodies of quartz latite porphyry. The terrane reflects recent glaciation and is largely covered by glacial debris. The ore deposits are steeply dipping veins that strike N. 60? E. to S. 50? E., and average 60 centimeters wide and 300 meters long. The principal veins are grouped around three centers, lying 5 kilometers apart along a line striking N. 55? E. They are, from east to west: San Genaro, Caudalosa, and La Virreyna. A less important set of veins, similarly aligned, lies 2 kilometers to the north. Most of the veins were worked to depths of about 30 meters, the limit of supergene enrichment; but in the larger veins hypogene ores have been worked to depths of over 150 meters. Galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite are common to all veins, but are most abundant in the westernmost veins at La Virreyna. In the center of the district, around Caudalosa, land sulfantimonides are the commonest ore minerals, and at the eastern end, around San Genaro and Astohuaraca, silver sulfosalts predominate. Supergene enrichment of silver is found at shallow depths in all deposits. Silver at San Genaro, however, was concentrated towards the surface by migration along hypogene physico-chemical gradients in time and space, as vein material was reworked by mineralizing fluids. The pattern of wallrock alteration throughout the district grades from silicification and scricitization adjacent to the veins, through argillization and propylitization, to widespread chloritization farther away. Mineralization can be divided into three stages: 1) Preparatory stage, characterized by

  2. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  3. Investigation on the deactivation cause of lead-zinc double oxide for the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate by transesterification

    Zhihui Li; Yanji Wang; Xiaoshu Ding; Xinqiang Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The deactivation cause of lead-zinc double oxide for synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) by transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with phenol has been investigated.X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),infrared spectroscopy (IR),thermogravimetry analysis (TG),atomic absorption spectroscopy and elementary analysis are employed for the catalyst characterizaton.The results show that,the formation of Pb40(OC6H5)6 through the reaction of phenol and lead species in the catalyst leads to the crystal phase change of active component and serious leaching of lead,which is the cause of the catalyst deactivation.In addition,the composition of the leached lead is ascertained to be a mixture of Pb40(OC6H5)6 and PbO with the weight percentage of 62.7% and 37.3%,respectively.

  4. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters

    WANG Changyou; WANG Xiulin; WANG Baodong; ZHANG Chuansong; SHI Xiaoyong; ZHU Chenjian

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters.Results from a systematic survey in April 2002 to March 2003 indicate that the ranges of the concentrations of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the study waters are 1.01~6.86,0.10~0.39,3.17~9.12 and 0.011~0.049 μg/dm3,respectively.Similar to zinc,the behavior of dissolved copper Was essentially conservative,but high seatter has been observed for high salinity samples,which can be attribu-ted to the decomposition or mineralization of organic matter by bacteria.Dissolved lead may have active behavior with an addition at high salinity.Overall concentrations of dissolved cadmium increase with salinity.The mean values of these dissolved metals cal-culated for the surface waters were highcr than those for the middle and bottom ones.External inputs of dissolved heavy metals to the surface waters were the likely explanation for these higher values.The maximum seasonal average values of dissolved copper and zinc were flound in summer,reflecting higher amounts of riverine input in this season.In contrast,the maximum seasonal av-erage values of dissolved lead and copper were found in winter and the lowest ones in summer,respectively,which might be asso-ciated with a combination of low concentration with heterogeneous scavenging.Concentrations of these dissolved metals found for the Changjiang Estuary fall in the range observed for the other estuaries but are noticeably higher than those from uncontaminated rivers,except for cadmium.Compared with observations for the Changjiang Estuary in the last two deeades.it is clear that the Changjiang estuarine waters has been contaminated with copper,lead,zinc and cadmium during China's industuialization,but concentrations of them have decreased in the last few years.

  5. Having views, abandoning views

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  6. Abandoning wells working group

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  7. Structural and optical characteristics of Eu3+ ions in sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass system

    Rajagukguk, J.; Kaewkhao, J.; Djamal, M.; Hidayat, R.; Suprijadi; Ruangtaweep, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glasses (65-x)B2O3sbnd 15Na2Osbnd 10PbOsbnd 5ZnOsbnd 5Li2Osbnd xEu2O3 (where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0) have been measured and analyzed by varying the Eu3+ ion concentrations. The physical parameters such as polaron radius, field strength and inter nuclear distance have been determined from measurements of densities and refractive indices. The structural properties of the prepared borate glasses were analyzed based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR instruments. The diffraction spectra show no characteristic peaks in these glasses, which indicates the amorphous nature of the glasses. The infrared spectrum of the Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass systems show three disparate regions for active absorption band around 830-860 cm-1, 1020-1040 cm-1 and 1170-1180 cm-1. The electronic transitions in the UV-vis and NIR regions are assigned to the 7F0 → 5D4, 7F0 → 5G2, 7F0 → 5L6, 7F0 → 5D3, 7F0 → 5D2, 7F0 → 5D1, 7F0 → 5D07F1 → 5D07F0 → 7F6 and 7F1 → 7F6 levels centered at 362 nm, 380 nm, 395 nm, 414 nm, 465 nm, 533 nm, 583 nm, 590 nm 2092 nm and 2202 nm respectively. Five transition bands of luminescence spectra have been observed by using an excited wavelength of 395 nm. The luminescence intensity ratio (R) of 5D0 → 7F2 (electric dipole) transition to 5D0 → 7F1 (magnetic dipole) transition has been determined to obtain the strength of the covalent/ionic bond between the Eu3+ ions and the surrounding ligands. Radiative life time and emission color of the glasses were estimated and compared with other literature data by varying Eu3+ concentrations. The experimental lifetime of the 5D0 level was found to increase with increasing Eu3+ ion content, suggesting higher non-radiative energy transfer among Eu3+ ions in the glasses.

  8. Draft genome sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, a nitrogen-fixing symbiont with copper tolerance capability isolated from lead-zinc mine tailings.

    Li, Zhefei; Ma, Zhanqiang; Hao, Xiuli; Wei, Gehong

    2012-03-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 was isolated from Medicago lupulina plants growing in lead-zinc mine tailings, which can establish a symbiotic relationship with Medicago species. Also, the genome of this bacterium contains a number of protein-coding sequences related to metal tolerance. We anticipate that the genomic sequence provides valuable information to explore environmental bioremediation.

  9. Re-Os Dating of Galena and Sphalerite from Lead-Zinc Sulfide Deposits in Yunnan Province, SW China

    Yingying Liu; Liang Qi; Jianfeng Gao; Lin Ye; Zhilong Huang; Jiaxi Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Dating of lead-zinc deposits is of critical importance for better understanding of ore ge-nesis, but has long been a big challenge due to the lack of suitable minerals that can be unequivocally linked to the ore genesis and that can be used for tradition radiometric methods. This kind of deposits have simple mineralogy dominated by galena and sphalerite commonly associated with calcite and oth-er gangue minerals. Both galena and sphalerite have low and high variable Re concentrations and thus Re-Os dating of these minerals have been less promising. In addition, the recovery of Re is extremely low for galena when conventional method was applied, lending additional difficulty in precisely dating galena. In this study, we investigate the recovery of Re using different media for anion exchange sepa-ration and reporte a revised preparation method for Re-Os dating of galena and sphalerite. By using the new protocol, two reliable Re-Os isochron ages of galena and sphalerite from the Fule (20.4±3.2 Ma) and Laochang (308±25 Ma) Pb-Zn deposits in Yunnan Province, SW China, are achieved.

  10. Theoretical Studies of the Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Distortions for Cu2+ in Alkaline Earth Lead Zinc Phosphate Glasses

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He

    2016-08-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Bacontaining copper dopants.

  11. Bioleaching combined brine leaching of heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings: Transformations during the leaching process.

    Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Sun, Shuiyu; Han, Dajian; Xiao, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Huang, Shaosong; Chen, Yun; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-02-01

    During the process of bioleaching, lead (Pb) recovery is low. This low recovery is caused by a problem with the bioleaching technique. This research investigated the bioleaching combination of bioleaching with brine leaching to remove heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. The impact of different parameters were studied, including the effects of initial pH (1.5-3.0) and solid concentration (5-20%) for bioleaching, and the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (10-200 g/L) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) for brine leaching. Complementary characterization experiments (Sequential extraction, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM)) were also conducted to explore the transformation of tailings during the leaching process. The results showed that bioleaching efficiency was significantly influenced by initial pH and solid concentration. Approximately 85.45% of iron (Fe), 4.12% of Pb, and 97.85% of zinc (Zn) were recovered through bioleaching in optimum conditions. Increasing the brine concentration and temperature promoted lead recovery. Lead was recovered from the bioleaching residues at a rate of 94.70% at 25 °C and at a rate of 99.46% at 50 °C when the NaCl concentration was 150 g/L. The study showed that bioleaching significantly changed the speciation of heavy metals and the formation and surface morphology of tailings. The metals were mainly bound in stable fractions after bioleaching.

  12. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  13. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms.

    Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Kemble, Nile E; May, Thomas W; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D; Roberts, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms-amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)-in sediments from 2 lead-zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  14. Transformation on Abandonment

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    were undertaken contemporaneously after the earthquake in the Belice Valley in 1968. In short, previous studies on consequences of depopulation mainly focused on creating economic development in rural areas; this study seeks to explore, identify, and subsequently activate embedded values in abandoned...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  18. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  2. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Triassic fluid mobilization and epigenetic lead-zinc sulphide mineralization in the Transdanubian Shear Zone (Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Benkó Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined fluid inclusion, fluid inclusion plane, lead isotope and K/Ar radiometric age dating work has been carried out on two lead-zinc mineralizations situated along the Periadriatic-Balaton Lineament in the central part of the Pannonian Basin, in order to reveal their age and genetics as well as temporal-spatial relationships to other lead-zincfluorite mineralization in the Alp-Carpathian region. According to fluid inclusion studies, the formation of the quartzfluorite- galena-sphalerite veins in the Velence Mts is the result of mixing of low (0-12 NaCl equiv. wt. % and high salinity (10-26 CaCl2 equiv. wt. % brines. Well-crystallized (R3-type illite associated with the mineralized hydrothermal veins indicates that the maximum temperature of the hydrothermal fluids could have been around 250 °C. K/Ar radiometric ages of illite, separated from the hydrothermal veins provided ages of 209-232 Ma, supporting the Mid- to Late-Triassic age of the hydrothermal fluid flow. Fluid inclusion plane studies have revealed that hydrothermal circulation was regional in the granite, but more intensive around the mineralized zones. Lead isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins in the Velence Mts (206Pb/204Pb = 18.278-18.363, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.622-15.690 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.439-38.587 and in Szabadbattyán (206Pb/204Pb = 18.286-18.348, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.667-15.736 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.552-38.781 form a tight cluster indicating similar, upper crustal source of the lead in the two mineralizations. The nature of mineralizing fluids, age of the fluid flow, as well as lead isotopic signatures of ore minerals point towards a genetic link between epigenetic carbonate-hosted stratiform-stratabound Alpine-type lead-zinc-fluorite deposits in the Southern and Eastern Alps and the studied deposits in the Velence Mts and at Szabadbattyán. In spite of the differences in host rocks and the depth of the ore precipitation, it is suggested that the studied deposits along the

  6. Study of structural and spectroscopic behavior of Sm3+ ions in lead-zinc borate glasses containing alkali metal ions

    Sasi Kumar, M. V.; Babu, S.; Rajeswara Reddy, B.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-02-01

    High luminescence behavior of rare earth inorganic glasses have a variety of uses in the industry. In the past few decades, rare earth ions with characteristic photonics applications are being hosted by heavy metal oxide glasses. Among the rare earth ions Sm3+ ion has features which make it apt for high density optical storage. The authors of the paper have experimented to synthesize Sm3+ doped glasses. In this regard a new series of borate glasses doped with 1 mol% Sm3+ ion are developed by using melt-quenching technique. XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, luminescence techniques are used to study the various characteristics of Sm3+ ion in the present glass matrices. The XRD spectra confirms the amorphous nature of glasses. Further, the researchers have used differential thermal analysis to study the glass transition temperature. The structural groups in the prepared glasses are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra. From the measurement of its optical absorption, three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been computed. Based on these Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative properties such as radiative probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative life time (τR) are calculated. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ doped lithium heavy metal borate glass matrix is recorded under the emission wavelength of 600 nm. The emission spectra are recorded under 404 nm excitation wavelength. From various emission transitions, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 bands could be of interest for various applications. The decay profiles of 4G5/2 level exhibit single exponential nature in all the prepared glass matrices. The potassium glass matrix exhibits higher quantum efficiency than the other glass matrices. Finally, by going through these several spectroscopic characterizations, it is concluded that the prepared Sm3+ doped lead-zinc borate glasses might be useful for visible light applications.

  7. A Preliminary Study on Fluid Inclusions and Mineralization of Xitieshan Sedimentary-Exhalative (SEDEX) Lead-Zinc Deposit

    WANG Lijuan; ZHU Xinyou; WANG Jingbin; DENG Jiniu; WANG Yuwang; ZHU Heping

    2008-01-01

    The Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit is located at the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin,Qinghai Province, China, and had developed a complete marine sedimentary-exhalative system. Ourpreliminary study of ore-forming fluids shows that fluid inclusions in quartz from altered stockworkrocks that represent the pipe facies have a wide range of temperature and salinity. The intense fluidactivities are characteristics of the pipe facies of the exhalative system. Fluid inclusions in carbonatesnear the unstratified ore bodies hosted in the thick-bedded marble which represents vent-proximalfacies are large in size and have moderate to high temperatures. They represent unerupted sub-seafloorfluid activity. Fluids in altered stockwork rocks and carbonates have similar H2O-NaCl-CO2 system,both belonging to the sedimentary-exhalative system. The fluids migrate from the pipe facies to theunstratified ore bodies. Boiling of the fluids causes the separation of CO2 vapor and liquid H2O. Whenthe fluids migrate into the unconsolidated thick-bedded marble, the escape of CO2, decreasingtemperature and pressure as well as some involvement of seawater into the fluids result in the unmixingof fluids with high and low salinity and deposition of ore-forming materials. The two unmixed fluids were trapped in unconsolidated carbonates and the ore-forming materials were deposited in theunconsolidated carbonates to form the sedimentary-exhalative type unstratified ore bodies. The ore-forming temperature of unstratified ore bodies is up to high temperature indicating that there is a hugeore-forming potential in its deep.

  8. Spatial clustering of toxic trace elements in adolescents around the Torreón, Mexico lead-zinc smelter.

    Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Weaver, Virginia; Zamoiski, Rachel; Resnick, Carol; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acién, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-11-01

    High blood lead (BPb) levels in children and elevated soil and dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead were previously found in Torreón, northern Mexico, host to the world's fourth largest lead-zinc metal smelter. The objectives of this study were to determine spatial distributions of adolescents with higher BPb and creatinine-corrected urine total arsenic, cadmium, molybdenum, thallium, and uranium around the smelter. Cross-sectional study of 512 male and female subjects 12-15 years of age was conducted. We measured BPb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and urine trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, with dynamic reaction cell mode for arsenic. We constructed multiple regression models including sociodemographic variables and adjusted for subject residence spatial correlation with spatial lag or error terms. We applied local indicators of spatial association statistics to model residuals to identify hot spots of significant spatial clusters of subjects with higher trace elements. We found spatial clusters of subjects with elevated BPb (range 3.6-14.7 μg/dl) and urine cadmium (0.18-1.14 μg/g creatinine) adjacent to and downwind of the smelter and elevated urine thallium (0.28-0.93 μg/g creatinine) and uranium (0.07-0.13 μg/g creatinine) near ore transport routes, former waste, and industrial discharge sites. The conclusion derived from this study was that spatial clustering of adolescents with high BPb and urine cadmium adjacent to and downwind of the smelter and residual waste pile, areas identified over a decade ago with high lead and cadmium in soil and dust, suggests that past and/or present plant operations continue to present health risks to children in those neighborhoods.

  9. Hydrogeological evaluation of a prototype in-situ leach cell in unsaturated lead-zinc mine and mill wastes

    Williams, Roy E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.

    1992-12-01

    An abandoned waste impoundment located within a portion of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site constitutes a field research area for studying the feasibility of recovering heavy metals in-situ from unsaturated mine and mill wastes. A prototype in-situ leaching cell has been evaluated using liquid-phase tracer tests and other hydrogeologic tests prior to introducing a lixiviant. The results of the tests suggest that: 1) the cell can be operated excursion-free with a low-density lixiviant at an injection/withdrawal rate of approximately 0.32 Vs; and (2) each hydrogeologic unit is highly heterogeneous at the different scales studied.

  10. Pb isotope geochemistry of lead, zinc, gold and silver deposit clustered region, Liaodong rift zone,northeastern China

    CHEN; Jiangfeng; YU; Gang; XUE; Chunji; QIAN; Hui; HE; Jian

    2005-01-01

    33 Pb isotopic analyses were reported for sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals and marble of the Xiquegou lead-zinc, the Zhenzigou zinc-lead and the Gaojiapuzi silver deposits from the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou zinc-lead deposit in the west, Proterozoic Liaodong rift zone. Pb isotopic ratios of the marble from the Qingchengzi ore field range from 18.24 to 30.63 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.59 to 17.05 for 207Pb/204Pb and 37.43 to 38.63 for 208Pb/204Pb. The marble gives a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1822±92 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of the metamorphism of the marble. Ore Pb, including Pb of sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals, from the Qingchengzi ore field shows limited variation with 206Pb/204Pb=17.66-17.96, 207Pb/204Pb=15.60-15.74 and 208Pb/204Pb=37.94-38.60. In contrast, ore Pb from the Beiwagou deposit gives different Pb isotopic ratios with 206Pb/204Pb=15.68-15.81, 207Pb/204Pb= 15.34-15.45 and 208Pb/204Pb=35.30-35.68. Pb of all deposits from the Liaodong rift zone is derived from the upper crust. Ore Pb of the Qingchengzi deposits is derived from a young upper crust. The model Th/U ratios of 4.40 to 4.74 for ore Pb are significantly different from that of 1.7 to 4.4 given by the marble of the Qingchengzi ore field, suggesting that marble is not the source of the ore Pb. Ore Pb of the Beiwagou deposit is extracted from its source and the deposit is formed at the Paleoproterozoic era. Different Pb isotopic ratios of the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou deposit are due to different ages of the deposits and suggest that the two types of deposits are derived from different sources and are possibly formed by different ore-forming processes.

  11. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  12. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. 某铅锌矿优先浮选工艺改造实践%Reform and Practice of Optimizing Flotation Process in a Lead & Zinc Mine

    徐世杰; 常军林; 窦鹏

    2014-01-01

    T he mineral character of Pb and Zn sulphide ore in a mine has been studied .the result of plant practice pointed out that the grade and recovery of concentrates of Pb and Zn by applying the optimizing flotation process is much better and higher than before by using NA collector and Na 2 CO3 -ZnSO4 combined depressant and can im-prove the utilization of metal in lead -zinc concentrate recovery rate and the rate of lead - zinc resources .%通过对内蒙某铅锌矿性质的研究,提出在不改变优先浮选工艺的情况下,采用丁铵黑药代替乙硫氮作为铅得捕收剂,胶体碳酸锌代替硫酸锌-亚硫酸钠作为锌的抑制剂,进行铅锌的生产,可获得质量更高的铅精矿和锌精矿,并可提高铅锌精矿中主金属的回收率和铅锌资源的利用率。

  16. Constraints of Lead-Zinc Source Bed to Lead-Zinc Deposits in Western Hubei to Northwestern Hunan%鄂西-湘西北地区铅锌矿矿源层对铅锌矿床产出定位的制约

    雷义均; 戴平云; 段其发; 刘阿睢; 陶明

    2013-01-01

    From western Hubei to northwestern Hunan,the product position of lead-zinc ore increases from north to south.It is found that the source bed position controls the product position of lead-zinc deposit,as it is argillaceous carbonaceous clastic rock in lower Sinian System Doushantuo Formation in the north of western Hubei.In the south of western Hunan,the source bed could be argillaceous carbonaceous clastic rock in lower Cambrain System Niutitang Formation.When the stratigraphic unconformity interface and filling system of basin are the ore forming units,the occurrence and location of lead-zinc ore in carbonatite stratum upside are limited by the source bed of lead-zinc ore in clastic rock stratum underpart.The deposit position is the result of coupling and critical transformation by hydrotherm,source bed,report mine construction,storage space and shielding layer.The lead-zinc deposit is classified as the basin-derived hydrothermal deposit.%自鄂西至湘西北一线,自北至南铅锌矿的产出层位逐渐抬高.通过对该区矿源层的分析研究发现,矿源层层位控制了铅锌矿的产出层位,北部鄂西地区矿源层为震旦系下统陡山沱组含泥碳质碎屑岩,南部湘西地区矿源层为寒武系下统牛蹄塘组含泥碳质碎屑岩.以地层不整合界面和盆地演化的充填系列为成矿单元,下部碎屑岩地层中的铅锌矿源层制约了上部碳酸岩地层中的铅锌矿的产出定位,矿床就位是热液、矿源层、导矿构造、储矿空间、屏蔽层等多因藕合、临界转换的结果,其成因为盆源热液矿床.

  17. [Interannual variation patterns of heavy metals concentrations in tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China].

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jin-Yan

    2013-06-01

    By using dendro-environmental methods, this paper measured and analyzed the variations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn) concentrations in the tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China. Among the test heavy metals, the Mn concentration in the tree rings was the highest, while the Cd concentration was the lowest. The Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in the tree rings near the ground (0.3 m high from the ground, D0.3) were significantly higher than those at breast height (1.3 m high from the ground, D1.3), while the Pb and Mn concentrations at the two heights had less difference. In 1987-2010, the Pb concentration in the tree rings had a slight increase, but the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations presented a decreasing trend. The Cd concentration decreased most obviously, while the Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations decreased after an initial increase. With the increase of tree ring width, the Pb concentration decreased, while the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations were in adverse. The relationships between the Pb and other four heavy metals concentrations in the tree rings near the ground and at breast height had definite differences. Near the ground, the Pb concentration showed a significant positive correlation with the other four heavy metals concentrations, but at breast height, less correlation was observed, and even, the Cd concentration decreased significantly with increasing Pb concentration. The variations of the heavy metals concentrations in the L. gmelinii tree rings could be affected by the production and mining activities of Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, an thus, it would be possible to use the Pb concentration in the tree rings to reconstruct the mining his tory of the study area. At present, the Pb concentration in the tailing wastes has polluted the surrounding environments near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine. Therefore, countermeasures should be adopted to manage the heavy metals in tailing wastes if the Mine would be

  18. Progress on Phytoremediation in Lead-zinc Mine Areas%铅锌矿区的植物修复研究进展

    刘庆; 吴晓芙; 陈永华; 郭丹丹

    2012-01-01

    Lead-zinc mine brings wealth,but also serious pollutions to environment and harms to people's health.Starting from current problems of lead-zinc mine areas,this paper summarizes the former studies on toxicant mechanisms of lead-zinc against plants,filtrations for hyperaccumlators of heavy metal in contaminated soil and application progresses,discovering that there is no unified repository of hyperaccumulators and accumulators.It is easy to cause waste of resources by doing repeat experiments.Most researches are limited to pot and hydroponic experiments and large-scale testing of Pb-Zn mine and engineering applications are less.Fails to apply the test results in real practice slow down the phytoremediation process of Pb-Zn mines.This paper proposes to combine plant,soil and animal so as to repair the Pb-Zn mine areas.%铅锌矿在给人们带来财富的同时,也给环境带来了严重的污染,对人们的健康造成危害,本文从铅锌矿区存在的问题着手,综述了前人对植物毒害机理、富集植物筛选及工程应用的进展,发现中外没有统一的重金属超富集植物和富集植物的资源库,容易进行重复试验,浪费资源,且植物修复的研究大多数局限于盆栽和水培试验,大规模的铅锌矿区试验和工程应用较少,未将试验成果及时运用于实践,使得铅锌矿区修复进程缓慢,建议将植物-土壤-动物进行组合修复铅锌矿区。

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  20. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1977-01-13

    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  1. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  2. Effects of historical lead-zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA.

    Allert, A L; DiStefano, R J; Fairchild, J F; Schmitt, C J; McKee, M J; Girondo, J A; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2013-04-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  3. The Space-Time Relationship of Gold to Lead-Zinc Mineralization and Its Application%金与铅锌矿化的时空关系及应用

    汪东波; 邵世才; 刘国平; 徐勇

    2001-01-01

    近10年来,在秦岭铅锌矿带和青城子铅锌矿田等地相继发现了一批大、中型金矿床。铅锌矿和金矿床共同产出在同一构造背景下,金矿床通常位于铅锌矿之上,金矿的成矿时代明显晚于铅锌矿。初步的地质-地球化学研究表明:铅锌矿床形成于具高水岩比、高卤化物和高盐度特征的海底沉积喷流系统;此时,大多数的金迁移至低温热液柱中并在沉积物中初始富集。在后期(岩浆-)变质-构造作用过程中,金被转移至中高温、低水岩比和低卤化物活度的变质流体中,在有利的构造部位发生沉淀,在同一构造单元内成矿流体的成分和循环方式的差异引起金与铅锌矿床共存和分离。金与铅锌矿床的这一时空分布关系可被视为重要的勘查标志。根据金与铅锌矿化的时空关系,笔者提出应加强对我国元古宙裂谷、晚古生代拗陷内重要铅锌矿田的金、铅锌矿的勘查工作。%In 1990s,some medium-large-size gold deposits were sucessively discovered in such lead-zinc metallogenic belts of China as the Qinling lead-zinc metallogenic belt in Shaanxi Province and Gansu Province,and the Qingchengzi lead-zinc orefield in Liaoning province.Gold deposits and lead-zinc deposits spatially coexist in the same tectonic unit,whereas lead-zinc orebodies commonly occur beneath gold orebodies,with gold mineralization being obviously younger than lead-zinc mineralization.   According to the preliminary geological-geochemical study,lead-zinc precipitated from the marine sedimentary-exhalative system characterized by high water/rock ratio,high salinity and abundant chlorides; at the same time,most of gold was transported into epithermal plume and primarily accumulated in sediments.At late (magmatism) metamorphism-tectonism stage,gold migrated into the medium-high temperature metamorphic fluids characterized by low water/rock ratio and low activity of chlorides

  4. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  5. Features and Remediation technologies of Pollution in Lead - Zinc Mining Areas of China%我国铅锌矿污染特点及修复技术

    梁桂莲; 钱建平; 张力

    2011-01-01

    我国铅锌矿污染的一般特点是:多元素复合污染;污染元素赋存形式复杂;常叠加化学药剂的污染;重金属污染具有隐蔽性、累积性及不可逆性;部分矿山伴生放射性污染等。针对铅锌矿区的不同污染特点,目前常用的污染修复方法有:电动修复法、合磷物质修复法和植物修复法等。电动修复法适宜于低渗透性污染土壤的修复,具有修复时间短、修复彻底、不会引入环境有害物质等优点。含磷物质是一种廉价有效的重金属污染土壤修复剂,可针对土壤重金属污染的实际状况施以不同类型的含磷化合物以降低有效态重金属的含量。超富集植物修复则具有操作技术简单、成本低%The pollution of the lead- zinc mining areas in China is characterized by combined multi - element pollution, complex existing forms of contaminating elements, generally combined with the chemical agents pollution, the concealment, accumulation and irreversibility of heavy metal pollution, accompanying radioactive contamination in some mines, and so on. The com- mon methods of pollution remediation include electrokinetic re mediation; contaminated soil remediation using phosphorus - containing substances and phytoremediation in lead - zinc miningareas. Electrokinetic remediation is suitable for low permeability polluted soil, and has many advantages such as short repairing time, complete effect, without introduction of harmful substances into the environment. Phosphorus - containing substances are cheap and effective agent for the remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil. Different types of phosphorus compounds can be reduced the content of available heavy metals in soil according to contaminated situation. The remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil by hyper accumulator plants, is a promising technology, which has the advantages of simple,low cost, less environmental disturbance and being suitable

  6. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  7. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  13. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Biomass and the Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure of Mesquite Grown in Acidic Lead/Zinc Mine Tailings

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A.; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2011-01-01

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse exp...

  14. [Unification of methods for determining the trace quantities of lead, zinc, sodium and potassium ions in the assessment of drinking water adn transfusion fluid quality].

    Popkov, V A; Golovina, N V; Evgrafov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results of long-term studies made by the Department of General Chemistry, I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, that deals with unification of methods for determining some ions of metals (lead, zinc, sodium, and potassium) in the assessment of the quality of drinking water and transfusion fluids are summarized. A procedure was developed to determine the trace impurities of zinc, lead, and silver by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) by using sorption concentration. C-80-2-aminothiazole, a new sorbent synthesized at the Research Institute of Polymers, was used to detect these ions in the drinking water. With regards to the chosen optimal conditions, drinking water samples were analyzed via their direct spraying in the air-acetylene flame. The prior sorption concentration determined drinking water zinc and lead ions in the concentrations equal to or less than their permissible dose concentrations. The studies indicated that the used methods to determine the trace quantities of metals in the drinking water and aqueous solutions show a high sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity of sample preparation.

  15. Biomineralization of Pb(II) into Pb-hydroxyapatite induced by Bacillus cereus 12-2 isolated from Lead-Zinc mine tailings.

    Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Hui; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2016-01-15

    The remediation of Pb(II) through biomineralization is rergarded as a promising technique as well as an interesting phenomenon for transforming heavy metals from mobile species into very stable minerals in the environment. Studies are well needed for in-depth understanding the mechanism of Pb(II) immobilized by bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the uptake and biomineralization of Pb(II) using Bacillus cereus 12-2 isolated from lead-zinc mine tailings. The maximum Pb(II) uptake capacity of B. cereus 12-2 was 340 mg/g at pH 3.0. Zeta potential analyses and selective passivation experiments demonstrated that electrostatic attraction was the main force driving the uptake of Pb(II), while the carboxyl, amide and phosphate functional groups of the bacteria provided the binding sites for immobilizing Pb(II). XRD and TEM investigation revealed that the Pb(II) loaded on bacteria could be stepwise transformed into rod-shaped Ca2.5Pb7.5(OH)2(PO4)6 nanocrystal. Combined with protein denaturalization experiments, we proposed that the biomineralization of Pb(II) possibly consisted of two steps: (1) Rapid biosorption of Pb(II) on B. cereus 12-2 through the synergy of electrostatic attraction, ionic exchange and chelating activity of functional groups; (2) enzyme-mediated mineral transformation from amorphous precipitate to rod-shaped crystalline minerals happening gradually inside the bacteria.

  16. Application of Wastewater Treatment Process in a Lead-Zinc Smelter%某铅锌冶炼企业废水处理工艺及应用

    郭磊

    2016-01-01

    根据铅锌冶炼企业废水产生特点,采用生物制剂去除重金属与双膜法脱盐相结合的处理工艺,并实现出水回用;与传统的石灰法等工艺相比,生物制剂处理后废水中铅、砷、镉等重金属离子去除率明显提高,且含重金属污泥量大大减少。%Based on the characteristics of wastewater generated from a lead-zinc smleter,the paper presented the treatment process adopting biological agent in combination with desalination through ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis to recycle wastewater;the paper pointed out that the wastewater quality was improved after the treatment with biological agent in removing heavy metals such as lead,arsenic,cadmium,etc.and in decreasing the sludge containing heavy metals compared to conventional lime based process.

  17. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent with previous studies. Enzyme activity was inhibited by more than 50% relative to reference sites in channel catfish from several TSMD sites. Collectively, our results indicate that Pb is both bioavailable and active biochemically in the Spring-Neosho River system. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  18. The Beneficiation Technical Study on Heiiang Lead Zinc Ore in Vietnam%越南河江铅锌矿选矿工艺研究

    蒋彦; 乔吉波; 王少东; 简胜

    2012-01-01

    The selective flotation process Dow shall be adopted for Hejiang lead zinc ore in Vietnam, so that the lead nilfide concentrate can be got, which lead content is 59. 07% , zinc content is 6. 57% ; the recovery of lead I? 91.48% , zinc recovery is 12. 94% ; zinc sulfide concentrate can be got too, the zinc content is 46. 32% , lead content is 1. 22% ; the recovery of zinc is 80. 49% . Of lead in 1. 67% ; so the effective recovery of the valuable elements can be achieved.%针对越南河江铅锌矿石,采用优先浮选工艺流程,可以得到硫化铅精矿品位含铅59.07%、锌6.57%.回收率铅91.48%、锌12.94%;硫化锌精矿品位含锌46.32%、铅1.22%,回收率锌80.49%、铅1.67%:有价元素得到了有效回收.

  19. 四川某铅锌矿选矿试验研究%Researching Experiments on Lead-Zinc Deposit in Sichuan

    顾小玲; 廖雪珍; 高彦萍

    2014-01-01

    One lead-zinc ore in Sichuan, galena had a relatively close relationship with pyrite and sphalerite .Adopting the process of preferential flotation for the ore recovery, by adding the composite depressor, effective separation of lead and zinc mineral was made, and concentrate of lead and zinc was obtained.The ultimate closed test, lead to concentrate grade of 62. 35%, lead recovery rate 86.29%, the zinc concentrate grade of 55.68%, recovery of zinc 95%.%四川某铅锌矿石,由于方铅矿与黄铁矿、闪锌矿等嵌布关系较密切。确定采用优先浮选的工艺流程对该矿石进行回收利用,通过添加组合抑制剂使铅锌矿物有效分离,获得合格铅、锌精矿。最终闭路试验获得,铅精矿品位62.35%、铅回收率86.29%,锌精矿品位55.68%、锌回收率95.00%。

  20. Theoretical studies of the spin Hamiltonian parameters and local distortions for Cu{sup 2+} in alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China). School of Yingcai Honors; Wu, Shao-Yi; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2016-11-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu{sup 2+}-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d{sup 9} cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ ∼ 3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu{sup 2+}-O{sup 2-} electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Ba

  1. Tolerance to Lead-zinc Stress and 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP of Rhizobia Isolated from Nodules of Leguminous Plants in Huize Lead-zinc Mining Tailings%会泽铅锌尾矿区豆科植物根瘤菌的耐铅锌及16S rDNA PCR-RFLP研究

    缪福俊; 熊智; 李彪; 龚秀会; 孙浩

    2011-01-01

    对21株分离自会泽铅锌尾矿区豆科植物根瘤菌进行耐复合铅锌双盐抗逆性及16S rDNA PCR-RFLP研究,结果表明,该区的豆科植物根瘤菌对铅锌双盐具有良好的耐性能力,筛选出HSY6和HZH2两株抗性能力强的菌株,分别与三叶草、紫花苜蓿共生.21株供试菌株的16S rDNA PCR-RFLP在73%的相似水平上分为5个遗传群,分别为慢生根瘤菌属(2株)、中慢生根瘤菌属(5株)、中华根瘤菌属(1株)、土壤杆菌属(3株)、根瘤菌属(10株).供试根瘤菌类群对重金属铅锌的耐性为慢生根瘤菌属>中慢生根瘤菌属>中华根瘤菌属>土壤杆菌属>根瘤菌属.%The double lead-zinc tolerance of 21 rhizobia strains -were studied for the sake of using Leg-ume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve ecological environment in Huize lead-zinc mining tailings. The results showed that The results showed that the capability to tolerate double lead and zinc was strong. 2 stains of HSY6 isolated from nodules of Trifolium repens ,HZH2 isolated from nodules of Lespedza formosa showed the highest tolenrance to lead-zinc. The dendrogram of 21 rhizobia strains 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP fingerprinting were revealed that there are five genetic groups at 73% similarity level. Group 1 is Bradyhizobium (2 strains). Group 2 is Mesorhizobium (5 strains). Group 3 is Sinorhizobi-um (1 strain). Group 4 is Agrobacterium (3 strains). Group 5 Rhizobium (10 strains). The sequence of genetic groups to tolerate double lead and zinc salt is that:Bradyhizobium>Mesorhizobium>Sino-rhizobium> Agrobacterium> Rhizobium.

  2. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  3. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in wild Arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting a former lead-zinc mine in the Canadian high Arctic: A preliminary study.

    Amuno, S; Niyogi, S; Amuno, M; Attitaq, J

    2016-06-15

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine post-mining baseline accumulation of selected trace metals, and histopathological alterations in free-living arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting the vicinity of a former lead-zinc mine located on North Baffin Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Trace metal analysis included measurement of As, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn in tissues, and histopathological assessment comprised of evaluation and scoring the severity of metal-induced hepatic and renal lesions. Metal contents in hepatic and renal tissues from hares from the mine area compared with the reference locations did not differ significantly suggesting that the animals are not uniformly exposed to background levels of metals in the environment. However, relatively higher accumulation pattern of Pb and Cd were noted in liver tissues of hare from the mine area compared to the background area, but did not induce increased lesions. Surface soils near the mine area contained relatively higher levels of trace metals (Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd>As) compared to reference soils, and with soil levels of Cd showing strong correlation with Cd accumulation in kidney tissues. Generally, both case and reference animals showed similar but varying severities of hepatic and renal lesions at the sublethal level, notably vascular congestion, occasional large hepatocyte nuclei, binucleate hepatocytes, yellow-brown pigmentation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and clustering of lymphocytes. Only hares with relatively higher accumulation of Pb from the mine area showed evidence of renal edema and hemorrhage of the capsular surface. This study constitutes the first assessment of metal induced histopathological alterations in arctic hares exposed to a historical mining area in the high arctic.

  4. [Spectral characteristics and implications of quartz from Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district in the south of Qinzhou-Hangzhou joint belt].

    Lü, Wen-Chao; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Zhou, Yong-Zhang; Li, Hong-Zhong; Zeng, Xiang-Qing; Chen, Qing; Liang, Jin; Zeng, Chang-Yu

    2013-05-01

    The XRD, FTIR and Raman spectrum were employed to study the characters of quartz from three types of rock samples, which are mineralized rock sample, near ore body rock sample and far away from ore body rock sample in Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district. The research shows that the quartz in the mineralized rock and far away from ore body rock is pure, while the quartz in near ore body rock contains a small amount of impurities. But such small amounts of impurities did not cause apparent change in the quartz lattice parameters. From far away from ore body rock-->near ore body rock-->mineralized rock, the crystallinity and order degree of quartz are higher and higher. And the quartz in the mineralized rock has a trend to change into low symmetry quartz. It's a unique to mineralized rock that the quartz's absorption peak at 1 050 cm(-1) was split into two strongest ones. It can be used as the signs of whether exists mineralization. The cause for the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the activities of late mineralized hydrothermal fluids. Late hydrothermal influence was very weak to the quartz far away from ore body rock. And through the impact of the multi-stage hydrothermal effect, the quartz in mineralized rock may be purified by recrystallization and structural adjustment. However the quartz in near ore body rock didn't have enough hydrothermal influence, so it's not pure. Genealogy research technology is a useful technique for in-depth exploration of study area mineralization process and metallogenic regularity.

  5. Amino and thiol modified magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous removal of lead, zinc, and phenol from aqueous solutions

    Jiang, Lili; Li, Shujun; Yu, Haitao; Zou, Zongshu; Hou, Xingang; Shen, Fengman; Li, Chuantong; Yao, Xiayan

    2016-04-01

    The novel functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by reacting trimethoxysilylpropanethiol (MPTs), hydrazine, ammonium ferrous sulfate, and ammonium ferric sulfate in sequence as efficient ways to introduce Fe3O4, amino and thiol groups onto the nanotubes sidewalls. The magnetic MWCNTs composite material (N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and magnetization curve. The results revealed that MPTs and hydrazine were coated on the surface of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs. A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the experimental conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial concentrations and temperatures, which affected the adsorption process. The adsorption experiment results showed that the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs for lead, zinc and phenol was 195.81 mg/g, 169.89 mg/g and 38.97 mg/g at pH 6, respectively. The adsorption isotherm was better fitted by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo-second order kinetics model. Furthermore, thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. These results indicated that N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs may be promising surface modified materials for removing heavy metal ions and phenol from aqueous solutions.

  6. The role of dense brines in the formation of vent-distal sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits: field and laboratory evidence

    Sangster, Donald F.

    2002-03-01

    A majority of the world's sediment-hosted exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits are vent-distal. They are not underlain by a discordant alteration zone or stockwork vent complex that would indicate the path by which ore fluids reached the seafloor. The absence of a vent complex, together with sulfide mineral replacement of host rock mineral assemblages has led several investigators to suggest that, in spite of the well-layered nature of these deposits, mineralization was formed by sub-seafloor lateral migration of ore fluids along permeable strata. Field observations, supported by simple laboratory experiments, however, suggest an alternative process for characterizing the genesis of vent-distal SEDEX deposits. Cool, saline brines (e.g., ~120 °C and >15 wt% NaCl equiv.) are denser than seawater and, upon discharging into the sea, would flow away from the discharge vent as bottom-hugging fluids, similar to the behavior of turbidity currents. Their high densities and velocities prevent them from mixing with overlying seawater, thereby precluding significant cooling and dilution of the ore fluid. Upon coming to rest in a seafloor depression, the addition of H2S and/or dilution of the ore fluids to lower salinities result in the eventual precipitation of a vent-distal SEDEX deposit. Furthermore, the dense ore-forming fluid can sink into permeable sediments beneath the brine pool by displacing less dense pore water. The ore fluids are thus capable of effectively overprinting and/or replacing pre-existing minerals in the consolidating sediment pile.

  7. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.

    2012-03-01

    The St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, near Moyie, southeastern British Columbia, is a Mesoproterozoic vein deposit hosted by metaturbidites of the 1.5-1.4 Ga Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The regional metamorphic grade of the rocks is biotite zone, with the age of metamorphism being Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.35 Ga). The vein system is enveloped by a metamorphosed alteration zone of increasing intensity as the vein is approached. Thin argillaceous tops of turbidite beds away from the vein are garnet-free, whereas those in the inner alteration zone are garnet-bearing. Compared to rocks away from the vein, those near the vein are enriched in Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, with proportional reduction in other compositional parameters. Thermodynamic modeling of three rocks across the alteration gradient predicts increasing stabilization of garnet with increasing degree of alteration. Predicted and observed modes of garnet in the samples are in close agreement. In the most altered rock, the garnet-in line is displaced down-temperature by ~ 100 °C relative to the least altered rock. Approximately 2/3 of the garnet stabilization is accounted for by increase in Mn content and the rest by increase in Fe/(Fe + Mg). Kinetic factors played a role in the development of the mineral assemblages, including metastable persistence of zoisite, and disequilibrium (overstepped) initial growth of garnet. Estimates of peak pressure-temperature conditions from mineral assemblage constraints and from compositional isopleths are complicated by the kinetic effects but yield similar results: 490-510 °C and 3.6-4.0 kbar. The pressure-temperature estimates imply an average linear geothermal gradient of ~ 35 °C/km, broadly consistent with burial metamorphism in the Belt-Purcell extensional basin. However, the estimated pressure, equivalent to a depth of 13-15 km, is greater than the estimated ~ 8 km (~ 2.2 kbar) of stratigraphic overburden at the time of metamorphism. The results of this study support the idea that

  8. 某含砷铅锌矿石浮选试验%Experimental Study on Flotation of the Arsenic-bearing Lead-zinc Ore

    唐平宇; 庞玉荣; 郭秀平; 罗治定; 田江涛

    2011-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of fine disseminated refractory arsenic - bearing lead-zinc ore in Hebei, benefici-ation tests on selective flotation of lead and zinc under high-alkaline conditions were carried out through a lot of exploration. In the rough separation test of lead, the resultant inhibitor of sodium sulfite + zinc sulfate + JSY01 was adopted to inhibit the zinc-sulfur-arsenic minerals, and in the rough concentration of zinc, the copper sulfate was used to activate the zinc minerals. In the final separation of lead and zinc, the potassium permanganate and the lime + potassium permanganate were a-dopted separately to inhibit arsenopyrite. By this way, lead concentrate with grade of 75. 62% , recovery of 87. 63% , and arsenic content of 0. 28% and zinc concentrate with grade of 45. 73% , recovery of 83. 51% and arsenic content of 0. 44% were achieved, thus providing a basis for the design of the dressing plant.%针对河北某含砷中细粒嵌布难选铅锌矿石的特点,通过大量探索,采用高碱条件下的铅锌依次优先浮选工艺对该矿石进行了选矿试验.试验在铅粗选时以亚硫酸钠+硫酸锌+ JSY01组合药剂抑制锌硫砷矿物,在锌粗选时以硫酸铜活化锌矿物,在铅、锌精选时分别以高锰酸钾和石灰+高锰酸钾抑制毒砂,取得了铅精矿品位75.62%、回收率87.63%、含砷0.28%,锌精矿品位45.73%、回收率83.51%、含砷0.44%的良好指标,为选矿厂设计提供了依据.

  9. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim

    2016-12-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  10. Amino and thiol modified magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous removal of lead, zinc, and phenol from aqueous solutions

    Jiang, Lili, E-mail: jianglili2002@163.com [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, No. 3-11, Wenhua Road, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province (China); School of Material Science and Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu Province (China); Li, Shujun, E-mail: LSJ002@163.com [School of Material Science and Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu Province (China); Yu, Haitao, E-mail: yuhaitao7707@163.com [Department of Medical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, No. 1, Donggang Road, Chengguan District, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province (China); Zou, Zongshu, E-mail: zouzs@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, No. 3-11, Wenhua Road, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province (China); Hou, Xingang, E-mail: houxg1958@163.com [School of Material Science and Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu Province (China); Shen, Fengman, E-mail: shenfm@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, No. 3-11, Wenhua Road, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province (China); Li, Chuantong, E-mail: L272395355@163.com [School of Material Science and Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu Province (China); Yao, Xiayan, E-mail: 18215142756@163.com [School of Material Science and Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu Province (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The synthetic method of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs was explored. • Amino and thiol groups were grafted on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs. • The maximum adsorption capacity of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs for lead was 199.6 mg/g. • The adsorption kinetics can be best described by pseudo-second order kinetics. - Abstract: The novel functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by reacting trimethoxysilylpropanethiol (MPTs), hydrazine, ammonium ferrous sulfate, and ammonium ferric sulfate in sequence as efficient ways to introduce Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, amino and thiol groups onto the nanotubes sidewalls. The magnetic MWCNTs composite material (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and magnetization curve. The results revealed that MPTs and hydrazine were coated on the surface of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs. A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the experimental conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial concentrations and temperatures, which affected the adsorption process. The adsorption experiment results showed that the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs for lead, zinc and phenol was 195.81 mg/g, 169.89 mg/g and 38.97 mg/g at pH 6, respectively. The adsorption isotherm was better fitted by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo-second order kinetics model. Furthermore, thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. These results indicated that N{sub 2}H{sub 4}–SH–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/o-MWCNTs may be promising surface

  11. Research on Mineral Processing Process for Copper-Lead-Zinc Mine%某铜铅锌矿选矿工艺研究

    熊锋

    2015-01-01

    青海某铜铅锌矿的矿石类型为原生硫化矿,针对原矿的物相分析及工艺矿物学研究,研究了一种比较适合该矿矿石的选矿工艺流程,最终可获得含锌54.10%、含铜0.39%、含铅0.24%的锌精矿,其锌回收率为90.90%,锌精矿含银36.1 g/t,回收率4.26%;得到含铜25.27%,含铅5.88%,含锌5.91%的铜精矿,铜的最终回收率80.48%,铜精矿中含银842 g/t;得到含铅37.78%,含铜1.60%,含锌8.35%的铅精矿,铅的最终回收率53.55%,铅精矿中含银3 880 g/t.%Ore type of a Qinghai copper-lead-zinc mine is primary sulfide ore, according to phase analysis of ROM ore and process mineralogy research, mineral processing process flow suitable for the type of ore is researched, zinc concentrate (including 54.10% zinc, 0.39% copper and 0.24% lead) will be obtained, in which zinc recovery of 90.90%, 36.1 g/t silver content in zinc concentrate, recovery of 4.26%;copper concentrate (including 25.27%copper, 5.88%lead and 5.91%zinc) will be obtained, in which copper recovery of 80.48%, 842 g/t silver content in copper concentrate; lead concentrate (including 37.78% lead, 1.60% copper, 8.35%zinc) will be obtained, in which lead recovery of 53.55%, 3 880 g/t silver in lead concentrate.

  12. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States District of northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Whyte, Jeff J; Brumbaugh, William G; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Icralurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent with previous studies. Enzyme activity was inhibited by more than 50% relative to reference sites in channel catfish from several TSMD sites. Collectively, our results indicate that Pb is both bioavailable and active biochemically in the Spring

  13. Leguminous species sequester more carbon than gramineous species in cultivated grasslands of a semi-arid area

    Liu, Yu; Tian, Fuping; Jia, Pengyan; Zhang, Jingge; Hou, Fujiang; Wu, Gaolin

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of grasslands on abandoned cropland has been proposed as an effective method to mitigate climate change. In this study, five cultivated grasslands (three leguminous species and two gramineous species), one abandoned cropland, and one natural grassland were studied to examine how soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rate and sequestration efficiency change in a semi-arid area in China. Our results showed that leguminous grasslands had greater total biomass (above- and belowground biomass), SOC storage, SOC sequestration rate, and efficiency than gramineous grasslands, abandoned cropland, and natural grassland during the experimental period. The largest soil carbon (C) accumulation in leguminous grassland was mainly attributed to the capacity to incorporate C and the higher biomass production. Leguminous grasslands accumulated more SOC than gramineous grasslands by 0.64 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The average SOC sequestration efficiency in leguminous grassland (1.00) was about 2 times greater than gramineous grassland (0.34). The results indicate that cultivated leguminous grassland sequestered more SOC with higher SOC sequestration efficiency than cultivated gramineous grassland in arid and semi-arid areas. Our results provide a reference for ecological management in arid and semi-arid areas.

  14. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  15. 兰坪铅锌尾矿区土壤与自然发生的5种植物的研究%Study on lead-zinc tailings soil and five plants occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings in Lanping

    缪福俊; 孙浩; 陈玲; 王金华; 熊智

    2011-01-01

    By investigation and analysis of the soil and the vegetation occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings of Lanping, it is found that the soil of lead-zinc mining tailings is seriously polluted by cadmium,which is 350 times of the background level of soil in Yunnan Province, and then followed by Pb, Zn. The contents of heavy metals have been decreasing with the time of piling up, and there is obviously higher content in center of mining tailing than in the edge. There are many plant populations occuring naturally in mining tailings,among them, five populations are dominant and widespread, the others distribute occasionally in the edge of mining tailings. The five prevalent plants are characterized by relatively strong heavy metals tolerance and accumulation capability in filed, Cyperus microiria have the strongest capacity of accumulation for Cd, Pb. However, the amount of heavy metal accumulation in plant does not approach the hyperaccumulation plant definition. Both Coriaria nepalensis and Elaeagnus pungens have higher capability tolerating heavy metal than the others. These two actinorhizal plants are candidates of pioneer plants for bioremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, due to their symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Frankia.%对兰坪铅锌尾矿区的土壤和自然发生植物的调查分析发现:该尾矿区土壤污染以Cd最为严重,是云南土壤背景值的350倍,其次是以Pb、Zn为主.尾矿区重金属含量随堆积时间而减少,尾矿边缘重金属含量明显低于中心.尾矿区自然发生多种植物类群,绝大多数植物类群零星发生,仅有5种植物为优势类群.5种优势植物对铅锌富集和耐性研究表明,这5种植物对重金属具有较强的耐性与富集能力,虽然莎草对cd、Pb的富集能力最强,但5种植物的富集量均未达到超积累植物所规定的临界含量.研究表明,放线菌根植物马桑与胡颓子的耐性都高于其他3种植物,它们能与Frankia菌共

  16. Study of the Lead Source in the Surrounding Soil of the Lead-zinc Smelters by Isotope Tracing%铅锌冶炼厂周边土壤铅源的铅同位素示踪

    于凯; 李旭祥; 支泽林; 王海波; 郑刘孙

    2014-01-01

    Taken the soil samples nearby a lead-zinc smelter as the research object,the lead content of the lead-zinc ore,the metallurgical coal and the nearby soil were detected.It was concluded that lead content in the soil surrounding the lead-zinc smelter varied from 22.73 mg/kg to 126.51 mg/kg,and the average content was 42.68 mg/kg which was higher by a factor of 1.85 than the local soil background level.Meanwhile the possible contamination sources were analyzed by means of the spatial variability analysis and the lead isotope mixed model formula.It was concluded that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal nearby the lead-zinc smelter and the lead isotope rates were close to the metallurgical coal and so that the metallurgical coal was the largest contribu-tion to the soil pollution.%以某铅锌冶炼厂周边土壤为研究对象,通过对其原料及周边土壤中铅含量的检测,结果显示:该冶炼厂周边土壤铅质量比在22.73 mg/kg~126.51 mg/kg之间,平均值为42.68 mg/kg,是当地土壤铅背景值的1.85倍。采用铅质量比空间分布分析和同位素混合模型计算分析了冶炼厂周边土壤中铅的可能来源,分析表明:土壤铅质量比的空间分布及铅同位素比值与冶炼厂的焦化原料煤相近,焦化原料煤对周边土壤铅污染贡献最大。

  17. Grinding Properties of Abandoned Concrete

    ZHENG Fang-yu; WANG Li-jiu; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The grinding properties of abandoned concrete, which consists primarily of hardened cement, limestone aggregate and river sand, are studied. Theoretical models of grinding are used to explain the experimental observation. The results show that 1) The principle disintegration mechanism of hardened cement and river sand is volumetric grinding, although at later stages grinding of cement becomes difficult because of its flaked structure; 2) The limestone grinding process can be divided into two steps. First, volumetric grinding, with an obvious component of surface grinding, followed by primarily surface grinding as the micro-particle content increases; 3) Initially, the principle mechanism of grinding limestone and river sand is volumetric grinding, albeit less efficient grinding than if these components were ground separately, and; 4) After 10 to 20 min of grinding the grinding bottleneck phenomenon appears and after 20 min of grinding the content of micro-particles is large and surface grinding is the main mechanism while the particle size of the mixture is smaller than that of separately ground river sand and cement but bigger than that of separately ground limestone.

  18. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  1. Why General Intelligence Assessment Should Be Abandoned

    Beck, Clive

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that general intelligence assessment should be abandoned on moral and theoretical grounds, but that the conceptualization, testing, and identification of specific intellectual abilities is both defensible and worthwhile. (MB)

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  3. Effective Method for Finding the Lead-zinc and Gold-Preponderant Mines in Fengtai Area%陕西凤太地区寻找优势矿种铅锌金的有效方法

    陈明寿; 武晓迪; 温深文; 陈二虎; 张选固

    2015-01-01

    Fengtai area is our important region focused on the lead-zinc and gold, ant it is also a hot spot district for see-king the lead-zinc and gold which have the big potential and good condition for prospecting the lead-zinc and gold deposits. Here we accumulated a lot of experiences and moral in searching for the deeply-burried lead-zinc and gold, and also make a significant breakthrough.The most effective method for prospecting the deeply-burried lead-zinc mines is make a deeper investigation and proceed in an orderly ways along the ore body, mineralized stratum, mineral-controlled anticline.Here in Fengtai area three gold mines had been explored in forty years, they are Taibai, Sifang and Pangjiahe gold deposits.The measured gold resources in accumulative total is nearly 200 tons.These three gold mines were found by the clue of geochem-ical anormals.The effective method for gold-finding is geochemical secondary halo scanning in first, and geochemical dis-persion trains check when find the normals in second, and confirm with geochemical primary halo in third, and verify with geochemical method in the end.These four steps can achieve the purpose of ore prospecting which have the characteristic s of less-investment, operate quickly and easy-to-accomplish steps.%凤太地区是我省重要的铅锌金矿集中区,也是寻找铅锌金矿的热点地区,具备有寻找铅锌金矿的潜力和条件. 在寻找深部隐伏铅锌矿和金矿方面积累了大量的经验和教训,也取得了重大突破. 寻找隐伏铅锌矿最有效的方法就是沿着矿体、含矿地层、控矿背斜顺藤摸瓜循序渐进. 凤太地区近四十年左右的时间找了三个金矿(太白金矿、四方金矿(也叫八卦庙金矿)、庞家河金矿) ,累计探明黄金资源量近200 t,三大金矿的发现都是化探异常提供的线索. 找金矿的有效方法,先用化探次生晕扫面,有异常再用化探分散检查定位,再用化探原生晕地化剖面进行检查确

  4. Determination of silicon dioxide in lead-zinc ore by potassium fluosilicate titration with acid dissolution%酸溶-氟硅酸钾滴定法测定铅锌矿中二氧化硅

    王娜; 滕新华; 王力强; 陈曦; 刘义博; 吴磊

    2015-01-01

    A determination method of silicon dioxide in lead-zinc ore samples was proposed by potassium fluosilicate titration after decomposition with acid. The lead-zinc ore sample was digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid successively. Then, the hydrofluoric acid was added to react with silicon dioxide to form fluosilicic acid, which re-acted with excessive potassium nitrate in nitric acid medium to form potassium fluosilicate precipitate. After filtra-tion and washing, the precipitate was dissolved in boiling water. With nitrazine yellow as indictor, the hydrofluoric acid generated by hydrolysis was titrated by sodium hydroxide standard solution to indirectly determine the content of silicon dioxide in lead-zinc ore. The results showed that the interference of much lead in lead-zinc ore could be effectively eliminated when the precipitate was filtrated and washed with 50 g/L potassium nitrate-50% ethanol so-lution after placing for 20 min with 10 mL of nitric acid as precipitation medium and 3. 0 g of potassium nitrate as precipitator. The color mutation at titration endpoint was more obvious when nitrazine yellow was selected as the in-dicator. The proposed method was applied to the determination of silicon dioxide in lead-zinc ore certified reference materials, and the results were consistent with the certified values. The proposed method was also used in the deter-mination of lead-zinc ore actual sample. The relative standard deviation(RSD, n=12) was 0. 5% and 1. 3%, re-spectively. The test was also compared with the conventional gravimetric method, and the results were consistent. The proposed method was applicable for the determination of the mass fraction of silicon dioxide in range of 8%-67% in lead-zinc ore.%提出了酸分解铅锌矿试样,氟硅酸钾滴定法测定试样中二氧化硅的方法。铅锌矿样品依次用硝酸、盐酸消解后,在加入氢氟酸的情况下,二氧化硅与氢氟酸反应形成氟硅酸,

  5. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  6. Litter decomposition patterns in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem

    María, Almagro; Jorge, López; María, Martínez-Mena

    2010-05-01

    Accumulation of soil carbon is mainly controlled by the balance between litter production and litter decomposition. While aboveground litter decomposition in mesic systems is thought to be controlled by climate, litter quality, and soil faunal interactions (Aerts, 1997), it is becoming increasingly evident that factors other than water availability, including photodegradation, physical fragmentation of litter, and soil movement may play central roles in determining rates of carbon and nutrient turnover in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Whitford et al., 2002; Austin and Vivanco, 2006; Throop and Archer, 2007). Decomposition and its controls were studied using the litter-bag method by exposing two different litter types (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) for a 20 month period in two Mediterranean ecosystems of the eastern Iberian Peninsula: 1) a ~ 150-yr-old forest stand, and 2) an abandoned agricultural field. Both sites are covered by a typical Mediterranean shrubland (Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus coccifera, and Juniperus oxycedrus) with scattered Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis). A single exponential decay model (Olson, 1963) fit the data well (R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.82). Litter types differed in their decomposition dynamics despite of similar initial content of C and N, and C:N ratios. Rosemary litter decomposed more rapidly than Aleppo pine litter across sites (R2 = 0.742; F= 132.18; Pofficinalis litter decay rates were 1.2 fold-higher in forest than in abandoned field site. Soil temperature or water availability could not explain the differences in decomposition rates between sites throughout the study period. Instead, there was a strong relationship across collection dates between decay rates and litterbag ash content, a conservative indicator of soil accumulation (Throop and Archer, 2007). Moreover, ash content was strongly correlated with the total duration of rainfall events across collection dates for both pine (R2= 0

  7. The Application of CCF Flotation Column in Separation of Lead-zinc Ore%CCF 浮选柱在铅锌矿选矿中的应用

    张建刚; 吉红; 卿林江; 陈典助

    2015-01-01

    The application of CCF flotation column in lead-zinc ore separation has reached good result.Taking PanLong lead-zinc plant for example, 1 CCF flotation column operation could re-place 2-3 flotation machine work, the separation processes reduced from 18 to 9.Compared with original indexes, the grade and recovery of lead concentrate increased by 5.27% and 0.54% re-spectively, which of zinc concentrate increased by 2.88%and 1.27%respectively.Good effect al-so obtained in FanKou lead-zinc plant.The flotation operations reduced to 7 by the combination of flotation column and flotation machine, and 38 machines were less than the original installed capac-ity, the grade of the concentrate was unchanged, single lead and single zinc concentrates were ob-tained through combined flowsheet, and the recovery of lead and zinc was improved 20%and 30%than before respectively.%CCF浮选柱在铅锌矿选矿取得了良好的效果,以盘龙铅锌矿为例,一次浮选柱作业可以代替2~3次浮选机作业,选别作业由原来的18个分选作业减少为9个分选作业,最终获得的铅精矿中铅品位和回收率分别比原来高5.27%和0.54%,获得的锌精矿的中锌品位和回收率分别比原来高为2.88%和1.27%。 CCF浮选柱在凡口铅锌矿同样获得了较好的效果,改造后采用的柱机联合流程比原来减少7个浮选作业,装机台数比原来少38台,且在品位基本保持不变时,采用柱机联合分选流程,可获得单一铅精矿和锌精矿,其回收率分别比原来提高19.56%和31.73%。

  8. Study on Green Beneficiation of a Low Grade Silver-bearing Copper-lead-zinc Ore%某地低品位铜铅锌银矿绿色环保选矿试验研究

    朱一民

    2011-01-01

    Mineral processing tests on a low grade silver-bearing copper-lead-zinc ore from Qinghai Province were carried out. The results show that, adopting a copper-lead-zinc selective flotation technique and using non-toxic (low toxic) agents, three silver-bearing concentrates can be reclaimed from the raw ore with the corresponding copper, lead, zinc grade as 0.16%, 2.60% and 3.84%, and with a silver content of 61 g/t. The copper concentrate is obtained with a copper grade and recovery of 16.37% and 49.07%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 1 231 g/t and 9.67%, respectively; the lead concentrate is obtained with a lead grade and recovery of 55.06% and 86.81%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 769 g/t and 51.69%, respectively; and the zinc concentrate is obtained with a zinc grade and recovery of 46.80% and 81.65%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 206 g/t and 22. 64%, respectively. The total silver recovery for these three concentrates accounts for 84.00%.%对青海某地低品位铜铅锌银矿体进行了选矿试验研究.研究结果表明,采用铜-铅-锌优先浮选方案和无毒(低毒)选矿药剂,可从含铜0.16%、含铅2.60%、含锌3.84%、含银61 g/t的试样中获得含铜16.37%、铜回收率为49.07%、含银1231 g/t、银回收率为9.67%的铜精矿,含铅55.06%、铅回收率为86.81%、含银769g/t、银回收率为51.69%的铅精矿和含锌46.80%、锌回收率为81.65%、含银206 g/t、银回收率为22.64%的锌精矿,铜精矿、铅精矿和锌精矿中银的总回收率为84.00%.

  9. Soil carbon dynamics during secondary succession in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    A. Novara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clarifying which factors cause an increase or decrease in soil organic carbon (SOC after agricultural abandonment requires integration of data on the temporal dynamics of the plant community and SOC. A chronosequence of abandoned vineyards was studied on a volcanic island (Pantelleria, Italy. Vegetation in the abandoned fields was initially dominated by annual and perennial herbs, then by Hyparrhenia hirta (L. Stapf, and finally by woody communities. As a consequence, the dominant photosynthetic pathway changed from C3 to C4 and then back to C3.

    Conversion of a plant community dominated by one photosynthetic pathway to another changes the 13C/12C ratio of inputs to soil organic carbon (SOC. Using the time since abandonment and the shift in belowground δ13C of SOC relative to the aboveground δ13C plant community, we estimated SOC turnover rate.

    SOC content (g kg−1 increased linearly (R2 = 0.79 and 0.73 for 0–15 and 15–30 cm soil depth with the age of abandonment, increasing from 12 g kg−1 in cultivated vineyards to as high as 26 g kg−1 in the last stage of the succession.

    δ13C increased in the bulk soil and its three fractions during succession, but only for soil fractions the effects of soil depth and its interaction with succession age were significant. Polynomial curves described the change in δ13C over the chronosequence for both depths. δ13C in the bulk soil had increased from −28 to −24‰ by 30 yr after abandonment for both depths but then decreased to −26‰ at 60 yr after abandonment (corresponding with maturity of the woody plant community. Overall, the results indicate that abandoned vineyards on volcanic soil in a semi-arid environment are C sinks and that C storage in these soils is closely related to plant succession.

  10. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  11. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  12. 铅锌冶炼渣处理的系统分析及研究%Systematic Analysis and Study on the Treatment of the Slag of Lead-Zinc Metallurgy

    侯晓波

    2011-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis of various slag which is produced from the lead - zinc combined metallurgy system is presented in this paper, and the safety treatment methods of various slag is also studied in this paper, so the effective technical treatment ways of main slag is presented from the perspective of system.%对铅锌联合冶炼系统产出的各种渣类进行了综合分析,研究了各类渣的安全处置方法,并从系统的角度出发,提出了针对主要渣类处理的有效技术路线.

  13. 某高氧化率铅锌矿的选矿试验研究%Experimental Research on Beneficiation of a High-oxidative Lead-zinc Ore

    赵晖; 张汉平

    2011-01-01

    A certain multi-metallic lead-zinc oxide ore contains lead 1.09%,zinc 8.39%.The oxide rate of lead and zinc is 96.34% and 98.15% respectively.In order to comprehensively recover the valuable minerals in the oxide ore,a study on detailed mineral processing technology was undertaken adopting a flow-sheet consisting of lead-zinc mixed flotation-gravity separation processing.In the experiments,a Pb-Zn concentrate mixture with Pb and Zn grade of 10.71% and 37.91% respectively and a zinc concentrate with Zn grade of 22.51% were respectively achieved.The overall recovery of lead was 91.27%,and the overall recovery of zinc was 93.77%.%某氧化铅锌多金属矿含铅1.09%,含锌8.39%,铅锌氧化率分别为96.34%、98.15%。为综合回收各有用矿物,采用"铅锌混合浮选-铅锌分离重选"流程进行了详细的选矿工艺研究,最终试验获得了铅品位10.71%、锌品位37.91%的铅锌混合精矿,锌品位22.51%的锌精矿。铅总回收率为91.27%,锌总回收率为93.77%。

  14. 某铅锌金银多金属矿综合回收选矿试验研究%Experimental Study on Comprehensive Recycling of a Lead-Zinc and Silver Polymetallic Mineral

    肖天祥

    2015-01-01

    针对某铅、锌、金、银多金属矿,矿石结构复杂难选的特点,进行了原矿性质分析、浮选药剂筛选、工艺流程结构和工艺参数的确定及闭路实验等研究,成功实现了铅锌分离,达到了铅、锌、金、银综合回收的目的,获得了铅精矿中铅回收率90.23%,金回收率为60.35%,银回收率60.87%,铅品位53.55%;锌精矿中锌回收率90.96%,锌品位52.32%的理想技术指标。%A lead, zinc, gold, silver polymetallic ore with refractory ore complex structure characteristics was analyzed on ore properties, flotation reagent screening, process flow parameters and closed-circuit experiments were studied.Successful separation of lead and zinc was implemented while lead, zinc, gold, silver were comprehensive recovered.Lead concentrate gained the recovery of lead 90.23%, gold 60.35%, silver 60.87%, with lead grade of 53.55%;Recovery of zinc concen-trate is 90.96%, with zinc grade of 52.32%.

  15. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND... in § 157.203(b), provided the certificate holder obtains the written consent of each customer served... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served...

  16. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  19. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  20. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event that exportation is abandoned at any time after merchandise has been placed under cover of a TIR carnet, the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  3. Solidification of heavy metal and production of cement clinker by lead-zinc tailings%铅锌尾矿制备水泥熟料及重金属固化特性

    何哲祥; 肖祈春; 周喜艳; 李翔; 肖威

    2015-01-01

    Taking Qiaokou lead-zinc tailings as a kind of main raw materials to produce cement, the burn-ability of raw meal, the heavy metal curing, leaching toxicity and the strength of clinker were studied. The mineral phases and microstructure of cement clinker were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively, and the mass fractions of heavy metals in clinker were analyzed by the method ofICP−AES. The results show that portland cement which is in accordance with GB 175—2007 can be produced under the calcination temperature over 1 350℃ with 15%−16% mass fraction of lead-zinc tailings, the mass fraction of C3S reaches the maximum of 49.2%, and the compressive strength of cement in 28 d is 53.99 MPa. After incorporating the lead-zinc tailings, the mass fraction of f-CaO in clinker is less than 0.5%, and it improves the burn-ability of raw material. The averaged curing degrees of Zn, As, Cd and Pb are 89.76%, 83.62%, 73.20% and 15.19%,respectively. The leaching toxicities of As, Cd, Pb and Zn are far below the national standard of hazardous waste.%以桥口铅锌尾矿为原料制备水泥熟料,主要研究生料的易烧性、熟料的重金属固化、浸出毒性及水泥的强度。利用X线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)分析不同尾矿掺量及煅烧温度下水泥熟料的矿物相和微观结构,用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP−AES法)分析熟料中重金属的质量分数。研究结果表明:当煅烧温度超过1350℃且加入铅锌尾矿质量分数为15%~16%时,可生产出符合GB 175—2007标准的硅酸盐水泥,其硅酸三钙(C3S)质量分数最高可达49.2%,28 d抗压强度为53.99 MPa;掺入铅锌尾矿,熟料中游离氧化钙(f-CaO)的质量分数低于0.5%,改善了生料的易烧性;在煅烧过程中,重金属Zn,As,Cd和Pb的平均固化率分别为89.76%,83.62%,73.20%和15.19%;熟料Zn,As,Cd和Pb的浸出毒性远低于危险废物的国家标准。

  4. The role of the perch effect on the nucleation process in Mediterranean semi-arid oldfields

    Pausas, Juli G.; Bonet, Andreu; Maestre, Fernando T.; Climent, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Oldfield succession in Mediterranean ecosystems has been studied extensively in mesic conditions. However, this phenomenon is still poorly understood in semi-arid Mediterranean areas, where reduced plant cover, the importance of facilitation processes and the role of abiotic factors make these environments distinct. We first test whether the carob tree ( Ceratonia siliqua) generates nucleation patterns in semi-arid oldfields, and to what extent such patterns change with abandonment age. Then we test to what extent nucleation can be explained by the perch effect. And finally, we test whether the nucleated pattern around carob trees is a source of diversity in the oldfields studied. To answer these questions we located oldfields abandoned 25 and 50 years ago (20 in each case) in the Alacant Province (SE Spain, Iberian Peninsula) on the basis of aerial photographs and personal interviews with local landowners and managers. In each oldfield woody plant density and richness were sampled on two microsites: under the carob tree and in the open field. Analysis was performed on all woody plants and by separating the species in two functional groups: fleshy-fruited (with fleshy mesocarp) and non-fleshy-fruited species. The results suggest that woody vegetation colonising abandoned C. siliqua fields in SE Spain is not randomly distributed but follows a nucleation pattern with higher plant density under the trees. However, the nucleation pattern is only significant for fleshy-fruited species, suggesting that facilitative interactions alone cannot explain the nucleation pattern and that the perch effect plays an important role. The results also show that the nucleation pattern (total plant density and density of non-fleshy-fruited plants) did not increase with abandonment age, while the perch effect (density of fleshy-fruited plants) did increase significantly. Furthermore, the results also show that the nucleation pattern is not only a loci of high plant density but also a

  5. Research on Wastewater Purification and Its Recycling in a Lead-Zinc Ore Beneficiation Plant%铅锌选矿厂废水净化回用研究

    张晓春

    2012-01-01

    介绍了采用“中和-机械混合反应-斜管沉淀-活性炭吸附”对铅锌选矿厂选矿废水进行处理后回用的方法,运行结果表明,采用该工艺处理后废水达到选矿工艺用水标准要求,由此不仅节约了大量新水,而且处理效率高,运行成本低,创造了良好的经济效益、社会效益和环境效益.%The method of wastewater reuse after treating wastewater from a lead-zinc ore benefieiation plant covering neutralisation, mix reaction by machinery, inclined lube sedimentation and activated carbon adsorption was introduced. The running results show that wastewater treated by the proposal technology has met the requirement of water standards for mineral processing technology, which saves a large amount of fresh water, and has created favorable economic, social and environmental benefits.

  6. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others.

  7. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    , especially with the frequent observations provided by coarser-resolution sensors and new classification techniques. Past efforts to map abandoned agriculture relied mainly on Landsat data, making it hard to map large regions, and precluding the use of phenology information to identify abandoned agriculture...... with Support Vector Machines (SVM). Training data were derived from several Landsat classifications of agricultural abandonment in the study area. A validation was conducted based on independently collected data. Our results showed that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture for large areas from MODIS...

  8. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    Taylor, P.A. [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States); Moseley, P.T. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. (orig.)

  9. Silver extraction using nitric acid from lead-zinc mine tail slag by response surface design%响应面法优化硝酸浸铅锌矿尾渣回收银工艺研究

    杨彦松

    2011-01-01

    以硝酸浸铅锌矿尾渣回收银工艺进行了研究.以银浸出率为评价指标,探讨了硝酸质量浓度、液固比、浸出时间和浸出温度对回收银工艺的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面法对银浸出的条件进行了优化.结果表明,当硝酸质量浓度为33.16%,液固比为16.39:1,在64.62℃的条件下浸出1.3h,该模型预测的最大银浸出率为69.73%.验证实验误差<3%,表明该模型与实际情况拟合良好.%The extraction process using nitric acid leaching silver from lead-zinc mine tail slag was studied. According to silver leaching rate using as an evaluation index, the effect of nitric acid mass concentration, the liquid-solid ratio,leaching time and leaching temperature on silver leaching rate was discussed. Based on single factor experiment, the leaching condition is further optimized by response surface method. The results showed that the largest model silver leaching rate of 69. 73% was obtained under the conditions of the concentration of 33.16% nitric acid quality and the liquid-solid ratio of 16.39:1 at 64.62 ℃ for 1.3 h. The verify error of the model was less than 3% ,and the model was fitted for the actual experiments well.

  10. 西藏洞中松多铅锌多金属矿床地质特征及成因%A preliminary study of the geologic characteristics and genesis of the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit, Tibet

    辛存林; 都卫东; 张育平; 魏明; 陈世伟

    2013-01-01

    The Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit is located in the east part of the eastern Gangdese polymetallic mineralization belt. The ore body has mainly occurred as strumiform and stratoid structures in the carbonatite within the skarns of the pre-Ordovician Songduo group complex and the mid-permian Luobadui formation. Wall rock is made up of carbonatite and has strongly altered. Two alterations and nine main ore zones have been delineated. Lead and zinc are the main useful elements in the ore, and silver, iron, copper, sulfur as beneficial groups in the ore. The length of the layered ore-bodies is between 2 620 and 4 100 m, 50∼150 m and the thickness is between the Songduo group complex and the Luobadui formation. The ore is 120∼2 881 m long and 2.1∼13.1 m thick. The footwall of the ore are limestone and tuff and the hanging wall is crystal tuff. The ore minerals include pyrrhotine, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite, etc. The gangue minerals include quartz, diopside, garnet, chlorite, epidote, calcite and feldspar, etc. The mineralization of lead and zinc was closely related to magmatic activity and meteoric, especially related to the magmatic hydrothermalism which had intruded into carbonatite in the period of late Yanshan-early Himalayas. Presumably, the formation of lead and zinc deposit has been related closely to the plate collision of the Indian-Eurasian Plate and the uplift zone in the Tibetan Plateau. This is the first study of the causes of the deposit. Through an analysis and discussion of the geological characteristics and metallogenic source materials, we believe that the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit has been related to the tectonic and magmatic activities. The structure has provided motive channels and accumulated space for the deposit. And the deep magma of late Yanshan period-early Himalayas has provided the main ore-forming materials and energy for the deposit. Therefore, it is considered that the

  11. 云南某铜铅锌混合矿降硅试验研究%Silicon Removal Study on a Copper-Lead-Zinc Composite Ore from Yunnan

    王德海; 李福兰

    2016-01-01

    A copper-lead-zinc composite ore from Yunnan is quite uneven in terms of particle size distribution and close in-tergrowth, and is rich in lead and zinc.After grinding, as a copper-lead-zinc concentrate, it can be sold directly to the Third Smelting Plant of Baiyin Nonferrous Metallic Group.But this concentrate contains 7.51%silicon dioxide, resulting in difficulties for the smelting process.To reduce the silicon content of this product, bulk flotation of copper-lead-zinc, water removal and second bulk flotation is adopted.Under the condition of grinding fineness of 85%-0.074 mm, a composite con-centrateⅠis obtained after the first bulk flotation.A certain amount of water is removed from the corresponding tailings to increase its pulp density.After two roughings and one concentration treatment of this dense pulp, a composite concentrateⅡis obtained.The resulting tailings is the final.Sodium silicate, copper sulfate, butyl xanthate and pine oil were used in the process.The final composite concentrate contains 2.95%copper, 20.68%lead and 24.17%zinc and the corresponding recovery was 95.26%, 93.12%and 96.15%respectively.The concentrate also contains silver 147.22g/t and its recovery is 92.79%.The content of silicon dioxide in the concentrate is reduced to 4.25%, which meets the requirements of smelting operation.This beneficiation process is relatively simple, easy to operate.%云南某铜铅锌混合矿矿石各矿物嵌布粒度不均匀,共生关系密切,铅锌含量较高,经磨矿后即可作为铜铅锌混合精矿直接销售给白银集团公司第三冶炼厂,由于铜铅锌混合精矿中二氧化硅高达7.51%,给冶炼工艺造成了一定的困难,为降低铜铅锌混合精矿中二氧化硅的含量,采用铜铅锌混合浮选-脱水再混合浮选的工艺对该矿石进行了选矿试验研究。结果表明,在磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占85%的情况下,采用铜铅锌混合粗选Ⅰ直接选出混合精矿1,再

  12. Wind and water erosion on abandoned land in High Andalusia - First results of a portable combined wind and rainfall simulator

    Iserloh, T.; Fister, W.; Marzen, M.; Ries, J. B.; Schmidt, R.-G.

    2009-04-01

    On abandoned land in semi-arid environments wind and water erosion are the main driving factors causing soil degradation. Recent research has proven the existence of very complex interactions between both processes. For in situ assessment of these interactions on soil erosion rates a portable combined wind and rainfall simulator was constructed and used in a field study in Andalusia. The main objective is to get first results for comparison of erosion rates with and without the influence of wind on plot scale on abandoned land in a semi-arid environment. The simulator is 4 m long, 0.7 m high, 0.7 m wide and rectangular in shape. A bounded plot of 2.2 m² can be irrigated by four downward spraying pressure nozzles (Lechler 460.608) in the roof of the tunnel producing a rainfall intensity of about 90 mm h-1. Approximate wind speed is 8 m s-1 free stream. For sediment collection a gutter system has been combined with two wedge-shaped sediment traps and a beam with four Modified Wilson & Cook Samplers. Runoff was collected with 0.5 l plastic bottles. Test duration is 30 min with measurement intervals of 2.5 min for surface runoff. The test runs were carried out with three variations in the following order on each plot: (1) single wind test run, (2) single rainfall test run and (3) simultaneous wind and rainfall test run. Runoff results show no distinctive differences between test runs without (2) and in combination with wind (3). The sediment loss seems to be higher with wind (3). This might indicate the influence of wind on the kinetic energy and impact angle of raindrops and consequently on the detachment and provision of soil particles. It could be argued that in addition to conventional rainfall simulations the inclusion of wind could assist a better understanding of soil erosion processes in the future.

  13. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  14. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  15. What About Our Responsibility Toward the Abandoned Elderly?

    Donahue, Wilma T.

    1978-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization policy has excluded older people from the mental health system and has resulted in abandoning many of them. Causes of this failure are discussed. Suggestions are made for rescuing the abandoned elderly. Presented at the Gerontological Society meeting, November, 1977, San Francisco. (Author/JEL)

  16. 77 FR 74063 - Amendments to the Abandoned Plan Regulations

    2012-12-12

    ... account plans may be considered ``abandoned'' and procedures by which financial institutions (so-called... theory that such plans are effectively being abandoned by the sponsor as a result of the liquidation... financial institutions and other asset custodians described in section 7701(a)(37) of the Code to...

  17. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section 2.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

  18. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  19. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  20. Dislocation of an infected and abandoned pacemaker lead.

    Kostopoulou, Anna G; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatios D; Livanis, Efthimios G

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of pacemaker lead dislodgment in an 83-year-old patient with a pacemaker infection. Initially, the generator and the proximal part of the leads were removed, and the remaining leads were severed and abandoned. Twenty-five days later, dislodgment of both abandoned leads and systemic infection were documented. The leads were then surgically removed without further complications.

  1. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method to... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... the NPMS-required attributes, operators must submit the date of abandonment, diameter, method...

  2. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  3. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  4. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Flotation Experiment Study on a Copper-Lead-Zinc Complex Polymetallic Ore in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古某铜铅锌复杂多金属矿的浮选试验研究

    宋涛; 洪家薇; 刘宸婷

    2011-01-01

    试验矿样取自内蒙古某地的铜铅锌复杂多金属矿,原矿含Cu 0.25%、Pb 2.53%、Zn 4.47%,并且伴生Ag 92.5 g/t、In 42.5 g/t,研究了该矿石的浮选工艺以及在浮选过程中各种药剂的用量,最终得到铜精矿中含Cu 17.62%、回收率达到58.26%;铅精矿含Pb 66.55%、回收率高达90.39%;锌精矿含Zn 48.12%,回收率90.29%;与此同时,铅精矿含Ag达到1 642.0 g/t、回收率60.3%,锌精矿含In达到248.7 g/t、回收率达到53.5%.结果表明,此浮选工艺可有效处理该复杂多金属矿.%The experiment sample is taken from a copper-lead-zinc complex polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia, there are 0. 25 % Cu, 2. 53 % Pb, 4.47% Zn in the raw ore, and it also associated with 92. 5 g/t Ag and 42. 5 g/t In, the flotation process of this ore and also the dosage of agents which used in the flotation process is researched, the copper concentrate contents Cu 17.6% , and the recovery can be reached to 58. 26% ; the lead concentrate contents Pb 66. 55% , the recovery reach up to 90. 39% ; the zinc concentrate contents Ag 1 642.0 g/t, the recovery is 60. 3% ; the zinc concentrate contents In 248. 7 g/t, the recovery is 53.5%. The results showed that this flotation process can treat this complex polymetallic ore effectively.

  6. 氧压酸浸低品位富银硫化矿富集提取银和锌%Silver and Zinc Recoveries by Acid Pressure Oxidative Leaching of Silver-bearing Lead-Zinc-Iron Sulfide Concentrate

    梁铎强; 王吉坤; 汪云华

    2008-01-01

    The beneficiation of silver-bearing lead-zinc-iron sulfide concentrate from Yunnan Lancang Lead Ore Co.,Ltd is very difficult because of existence of great deal of pyrite and marcasite with content up to 70%,and the a-certain-extent oxidation of galena to yellow lead.In the present work,acid pressure oxidative leaching of such complex sulfide was investigated at the temperature ranging 90~170℃ to shed new light on the deportment of silver from the source concentrates to the residue with subsequent recovery by cyanidation.Lab-scale leaching experiments were conducted in a 2L autoclave to investigate the influences of temperature,acidity,sodium iodide usage,oxygen partial pressure,oxygen flow rate on the recoveries of silver and zinc.The results obtained show that the recovery of silver depends on whether the leached silver is incorporated into jarosite or convened into silver iodide by reaction with sodium iodide.Under optimum conditions,recoveries of silver and zinc can reach 71.5% and 41.29%,respectively.%由于含有大量的黄铁矿和白铁矿(它们约占原矿的70%,质量分数),以及闪铅矿一定程度上的氧化,云南澜沧铅矿股份有限公司所产的富银硫化矿难以富集.本文通过对该矿在90-170℃下氧压酸浸,以期连同后面的氰化能提取精矿中的银.通过进行2L高压釜的小型试验,考察了温度、酸度、碘化钠用量、氧分压、氧气流速对银和锌回收率的影响.结果表明,银的回收率取决于银是否进入黄钾铁矾渣,或者与碘化钠反应生成碘化银沉淀.在优化的条件下,银和锌的回收率分别达到71.5%和41.29%.

  7. 南京栖霞山铅锌矿区铅同位素示踪%Lead Isotopes as Tracers in the Qixiashang Lead-Zinc Mining Area,Nanjing

    储彬彬; 罗立强; 王晓芳; 刘颖; 伯英

    2012-01-01

    南京栖霞山铅锌矿已开采50余年,环境问题日益突出.为了了解污染来源和污染传播方式,采集了该地水、土、植物、大气沉降、燃油灰尘、矿石、人血和生物等多种样品进行重金属元素含量和铅同位素示踪分析.结果表明矿区重金属污染严重,且污染随着靠近矿区而逐渐加重,重金属元素Pb、As、Cd、Cu、Zn之间相关性明显,初步反映了污染与矿山有关;同位素分析显示,矿区大气沉降样品、大部分植物样品、部分土壤和部分生物样品铅同位素组成与矿石铅同位素组成相似,证实了污染源为矿山.另外,大气沉降与植物样品铅含量高且它们的铅同位素组成相当,反映了大气沉降是污染传播方式之一.%The Qixiashan lead-zinc mine in Nanjing has been exploited for more than 50 years, and environmental pollution has become increasingly serious. In order to investigate the source and dispersion of the pollution, the authors collected water, soil, plants, atmospheric deposition, vehicle exhaust dust, ore, human blood and biological samples and analyzed heavy metals concentrations and lead isotopes with ICP-MS. The results show that the concentrations of heavy metals in soil, plants, and atmospheric deposition are very high, and the nearer to the mining area, the heavier the pollution. In addition, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Zn show obvious correlation. Analyses of lead isotopes show that the lead isotope compositions in atmospheric deposition, plants, and part of soils and biological samples around the mining area are similar to those in ores, indicating that the pollution source has been derived form the mine. Furthermore, atmospheric deposition and plants have high lead concentrations and similar lead isotope compositions, suggesting that lead in atmospheric deposition contributes substantially to lead transfer.

  8. 兰坪铅锌尾矿区根瘤菌对铅锌响应研究%Study on the Response to Lead and Zinc of Rhizobia Isolated from Lanping Lead-Zinc Mining Tailings

    张武先; 王金华; 熊智; 郝明; 谢起堂

    2011-01-01

    以从兰坪铅锌尾矿区已分离纯化的10株豆科植物根瘤茵为研究对象,用含50~1 500 mg/L的铅、200~2 000 mg/L的锌的单盐YMA培养基和双盐培养基进行培养,观察根瘤茵的生长情况,筛选出3株耐(抗)铅锌菌株,分别为菌株14.2.9、18.2.17、3.2.3.结合生理生化指标的测定结果,发现耐性强的菌株对各种糖利用特征与其他茵有所不同,能产酸而不产气;分解利用油脂、淀粉、明胶等物质的能力高于耐性弱的根瘤茵.说明在兰坪尾矿区根瘤茵存在多种生理类型,很可能通过改变代谢途径适应重金属污染的环境.%The cell growth of 10 rhizobia of leguminous plants isolated from Lanping lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mining tailings were observed on YMA culture plates adding 50-1 500 mg/L Pbz', 200-2 000 mg/L Zn2+ or disalt. Three strains,3.2.3, 14.2.9 and 18.2.17 were screened out as Pb-Zn high resistance rhizobium strains. The detection results of physiological and biochemical properties showed that carbohydrate fermentation pathways of strain 14.2.9,18.2.17,3.2.3 were different from the Pb-Zn low resistace strains, these 3 rhizobia fermented to produce sour instead of gas, and they had high ability of hydrolyzing lipin, starch and gelatine et al. The results confirmed that rhizobia in Lanping Pb-Zn mining tailings had abundant physiological and biochemical diversity. The adaption of rhizobia to the Pb-Zn pollution was probably resulted from the change of their metabolic pathway.

  9. Analysis of the Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Changlingzi Lead-Zinc Deposit in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古长岭子铅锌矿地质特征及矿床成因探讨

    宋均秋; 谷建军; 郎朋林

    2016-01-01

    Changlingzi Lead-Zinc deposit is located in the south of Huanggang-Ganzhuermiao polymetallic ore belt,which is one of the most important Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic metallogenic belts in the Southern Da Hinggan Mountains.Based on the strata,lithology and structure,the geological characteristics and genesis of the deposit are discussed in this paper.It was thought that the Ⅰore belt of metallogenic material mainly comes from Permian carbonate rocks,deep source magma activity,the formation and migration of ore-bearing hydrothermal,and contact with carbonate metasomatism to form the skarn type zinc polymetallic ore body; Ⅱore zone of Yanshan period granite differentiation of ore and metallogenic hydrothermal ore-forming provide the heat source material, the occurence mode is hydrothermal filling vein,the formation and distribution of ore bodies are controlled by the north-east thrend structure significantly,formed the warm fluid pulse type metal body.%长岭子铅锌矿床位于黄岗—甘珠尔庙多金属矿带南部,该成矿带是大兴安岭南段地区最重要的银—铅—锌—铜等多金属成矿带。从地层、岩性和构造等方面入手对矿床地质特征及成因进行了探讨,认为Ⅰ号矿带成矿物质主要来源于二叠系碳酸盐岩,深源岩浆活动促使含矿热液形成和运移,并与碳酸盐岩发生接触交代作用,从而形成矽卡岩型锌多金属矿体;Ⅱ号矿带燕山期花岗岩分异出的含矿热液为成矿提供了热源和成矿物质,矿体产出方式为热液充填脉状,矿体的形成和分布受 NE 向断裂控制明显,形成了中温热液脉型多金属矿。

  10. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  11. Nurses' attitudes and knowledge of their roles in newborn abandonment.

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to "abandon" her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.

  12. Tolerance and physiological response of rhizobia isolated from leguminous plants to lead-zinc stress in tailing area of Shangzhou District%陕西商州铅锌尾矿区豆科植物根瘤菌耐铅锌胁迫能力及其生理生化特征

    冀玉良; 韦革宏

    2014-01-01

    以从陕西商州铅锌尾矿区豆科植物中分离纯化的12株根瘤菌为对象,采用固体平板接种培养法研究了菌株耐铅、锌单盐与铅锌双盐胁迫的能力,同时用液体试管振荡培养法测定了菌株的生理生化特征。结果表明,该区域的豆科植物根瘤菌对铅、锌单盐胁迫具有良好的耐性,但对铅锌双盐胁迫的耐性明显低于单盐。耐性菌株在生理生化特性上存在广泛差异,对铅锌耐性越强的根瘤菌,其阳性生理生化特征也越多。实验初步筛选到了3株耐铅锌胁迫能力强的根瘤菌菌株CH3、MX7和HZ10,它们分别与豆科植物刺槐( Robinia pseucdoacacia )、天蓝苜蓿(Medicago lupulina)和多花胡枝子(Lespedeza floribunda Bunge)共生。研究可以得出耐性根瘤菌对铅锌胁迫的抵抗能力可能是建立在其具有多种生理代谢反应基础上的,即它们通过改变代谢途径以适应重金属的污染环境,对铅锌胁迫耐性强的根瘤菌菌株在重金属尾矿区的土壤和植被恢复中有潜在的开发应用价值。%With twelve rhizobium strains that were isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing naturally in the tailing area of lead-zinc mine in Shangzhou District ,Shangluo City ,Shaanxi Province as study object ,their tolerance to lead salt stress ,zinc salt stress and lead-zinc double salt stress was investigated by using solid tablet inoculation cul-ture method ,and their physiological and biochemical characteristics were determined by using liquid tube oscillation cul-ture method .The results showed that the rhizobium strains exhibited strong capability to tolerate single lead or zinc salt , but their tolerance capability to lead-zinc double salt was significantly lower than that to single salt .There were consider-able differences of physiological and biochemical characteristics among the strains .The stronger the tolerance to lead-zinc stress a rhizobium strain

  13. 云南会泽废弃铅锌矿区植物丛枝菌根和深色有隔内生真菌研究%Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Dark Septate Endophytes in an Abandoned Lead-Zinc Mine in Huize, Yunnan, China

    梁昌聪; 肖艳萍; 赵之伟

    2007-01-01

    用碱解离、酸性品红染色法对云南省会泽县者海镇废弃铅锌矿区的17科21种植物的丛枝菌根状况进行了调查,结果发现,15种植物形成典型的丛枝菌根,占所调查植物的71%;2种植物不确定是否形成丛枝菌根,占所调查植物的10%;4种植物没有形成丛枝菌根,占所调查植物的19%.用湿筛沉淀法从这些植物根际土壤中共分离鉴定出了4属20种丛枝菌根真菌(AMF),即无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)4种,球囊霉属(Glomus)14种,巨孢囊霉属(Gigaspora)1种,盾巨孢囊霉属(Scutellospora)种;其中,球囊霉属分离频率为77%,是样地的优势属.在AMF中,疣突球囊霉(G.verruculosum)分离频率最高,在20种植物的根际土中都有发现;此外,聚生球囊霉(G. fasciculatum)的相对多度最大,为56%,具有最强的产孢能力.同时,在13种植物的根中发现了深色有隔内生真菌(DSE),占调查植物的62%,其中,10种植物同时被DSE和AMF感染.本调查研究表明,AMF和DSE能普遍存在于Pb、Zn重金属污染土壤中.图1表2参36

  14. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of c...

  15. Robust Abandoned Object Detection Using Dual Foregrounds

    Tetsuji Haga

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the tracking-based approaches that heavily depend on accurate detection of moving objects, which often fail for crowded scenarios, we present a pixelwise method that employs dual foregrounds to extract temporally static image regions. Depending on the application, these regions indicate objects that do not constitute the original background but were brought into the scene at a subsequent time, such as abandoned and removed items, illegally parked vehicles. We construct separate long- and short-term backgrounds that are implemented as pixelwise multivariate Gaussian models. Background parameters are adapted online using a Bayesian update mechanism imposed at different learning rates. By comparing each frame with these models, we estimate two foregrounds. We infer an evidence score at each pixel by applying a set of hypotheses on the foreground responses, and then aggregate the evidence in time to provide temporal consistency. Unlike optical flow-based approaches that smear boundaries, our method can accurately segment out objects even if they are fully occluded. It does not require on-site training to compensate for particular imaging conditions. While having a low-computational load, it readily lends itself to parallelization if further speed improvement is necessary.

  16. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  17. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  18. 安徽某金铅锌硫化矿选矿新工艺试验研究%Experimental Study on a New Mineral Processing Technology for a Gold -Lead-Zinc Sulfide Ore in Anhui Province

    冯章标; 俞献林; 陈江安

    2016-01-01

    For a gold-lead-zinc complex polymetallic sulfide ore in Anhui has a problem such as the low ore dressing indexes,the dosage of reagent system is complex and big.The mineral composition and ore characteristic of raw-ore is analyzed and a large number of exploratory experiments is explored.The last put forward the principle of process to deal with the ore by magnetic separation removal of pyrrhotite,gold-lead bulk flotation,gold-lead separation flotation,activation of tailings flotation zinc.By closed circuit texts can obtain the good indicators,and the gold concent rate with the Au grade of 43.67×10-6 and recovery rate of 46.11%;lead concentrate with the Au grade of 162.00×10-6 and recovery rate of 35.39%, Pb grade of 38.53% and recovery rate of 72.24%,the accumulation of the gold recovery rate is 81.50%;zinc concent rate with the Zn grade of 42.76% and recovery rate of 67.46%.This new method has a better index than the traditional process,as it can not only improve dressing indexes,but reduce a lot reagents dosage.%针对安徽某金铅锌复杂多金属硫化矿选矿指标较低、药剂制度复杂且用量大等问题,分析了原矿的矿物组成及矿石性质,并开展了大量探索性试验,最后提出采用磁选脱除磁黄铁矿—金铅混合浮选—金铅分离浮选—尾矿活化选锌的原则流程处理该矿石。结果显示:闭路试验可获得金含量为43.68×10-6,回收率为46.12%的金精矿;铅精矿中金含量为162.00×10-6,回收率为35.39%,铅含量为38.53%,回收率为72.24%,金的累积回收率达81.51%;锌精矿中锌含量为42.79%,回收率为67.51%。与原有选矿工艺相比,新工艺不仅提高了选矿指标还大幅减少了药剂用量。

  19. "The Giver" and "Shade's Children": Future Views of Child Abandonment and Murder.

    Gross, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for child abandonment and murder and how it relates to abandonment in traditional literature. Considers new views of child abandonment and murder (focusing not on overcoming their abandonment, but changing and restructuring their entire society) presented in "The Giver" and "Shade's Children." Discusses the…

  20. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  1. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO{sub 2}, compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  2. Timescales, mechanisms, and controls of incisional avulsions in floodplain wetlands: Insights from the Tshwane River, semiarid South Africa

    Larkin, Zacchary T.; Tooth, Stephen; Ralph, Timothy J.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; McCarthy, Terence; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Humphries, Marc S.

    2017-04-01

    Avulsion (relocation of a river course to a new position) typically is assumed to occur more frequently in rivers with faster sedimentation rates, yet supporting field data are limited and the influence of sedimentation rate on avulsion style remains unclear. Using analysis of historical aerial photographs, optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial sediments, and field observations, we document three avulsions that have occurred in the last 650 years along the lower reaches of the semiarid Tshwane River in northern South Africa. Study of the modern river and abandoned reaches reveals that a downstream decrease in discharge and stream power leads to reduced channel size and declining sediment transport capacity. Bank erosion drives an increase in channel sinuosity, leading to a decline in local channel slope, and to a further decrease in discharge and sediment transport. Local sedimentation rates > 10 mm a- 1 occur within and adjacent to the channel, so over time levees and an alluvial ridge develop. The resulting increase in cross-floodplain gradient primes a reach for avulsion by promoting erosion of a new channel on the floodplain, which enlarges and extends by knickpoint retreat during periods of overbank flow. Ultimately, the new channel diverts the discharge and bedload sediment from the older, topographically higher channel, which is then abandoned. Our findings support the assumption that avulsion frequency and sedimentation rate are positively correlated, and we demonstrate that incisional avulsions can occur in settings with relatively rapid net vertical aggradation. The late Holocene avulsions on the semiarid Tshwane River have been driven by intrinsic (autogenic) processes during meander belt development, but comparison with the avulsion chronology along a river in subhumid South Africa highlights the need for additional investigations into the influence of hydroclimatic setting on the propensity for avulsion.

  3. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  4. Geochemical quantification of semiarid mountain recharge.

    Wahi, Arun K; Hogan, James F; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baillie, Matthew N; Eastoe, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a typical semiarid mountain system recharge (MSR) setting demonstrates that geochemical tracers help resolve the location, rate, and seasonality of recharge as well as ground water flowpaths and residence times. MSR is defined as the recharge at the mountain front that dominates many semiarid basins plus the often-overlooked recharge through the mountain block that may be a significant ground water resource; thus, geochemical measurements that integrate signals from all flowpaths are advantageous. Ground water fluxes determined from carbon-14 ((14)C) age gradients imply MSR rates between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) m(3)/year in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. This estimated range is within an order of magnitude of, but lower than, prior independent estimates. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MSR has a 65% +/- 25% contribution from winter precipitation and a 35% +/- 25% contribution from summer precipitation. Chloride and stable isotope results confirm that transpiration is the dominant component of evapotranspiration (ET) in the basin with typical loss of more than 90% of precipitation-less runoff to ET. Such geochemical constraints can be used to further refine hydrogeologic models in similar high-elevation relief basins and can provide practical first estimates of MSR rates for basins lacking extensive prior hydrogeologic measurements.

  5. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    Paola Friedrich

    Full Text Available Treatment abandonment (TxA is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC. However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data.Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted.602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%, practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83% in general or children's hospitals (79%. Results suggested, 23,854 (15% of 155,088 children 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥ 6% (p<0.001. Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC.Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally, confirm the suspected high burden of TxA in LMC, and illustrate the negative impact of poverty on its occurrence. The present estimates may appear small compared to the global burden of child death from malnutrition and infection (measured in millions. However, absolute numbers suggest the burden of TxA in LMC is nearly equivalent to annually losing all kids diagnosed with cancer in HIC just to TxA, without even considering deaths from disease progression, relapse or toxicity-the main causes of childhood cancer mortality in HIC. Results document the importance of monitoring and addressing TxA as part of childhood

  6. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  7. Fluvial transport and surface enrichment of arsenic in semi-arid mining regions: examples from the Mojave Desert, California.

    Kim, Christopher S; Stack, David H; Rytuba, James J

    2012-07-01

    As a result of extensive gold and silver mining in the Mojave Desert, southern California, mine wastes and tailings containing highly elevated arsenic (As) concentrations remain exposed at a number of former mining sites. Decades of weathering and erosion have contributed to the mobilization of As-enriched tailings, which now contaminate surrounding communities. Fluvial transport plays an intermittent yet important and relatively undocumented role in the migration and dispersal of As-contaminated mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Assessing the contribution of fluvial systems to tailings mobilization is critical in order to assess the distribution and long-term exposure potential of tailings in a mining-impacted environment. Extensive sampling, chemical analysis, and geospatial mapping of dry streambed (wash) sediments, tailings piles, alluvial fans, and rainwater runoff at multiple mine sites have aided the development of a conceptual model to explain the fluvial migration of mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Intense and episodic precipitation events mobilize mine wastes downstream and downslope as a series of discrete pulses, causing dispersion both down and lateral to washes with exponential decay behavior as distance from the source increases. Accordingly a quantitative model of arsenic concentrations in wash sediments, represented as a series of overlapping exponential power-law decay curves, results in the acceptable reproducibility of observed arsenic concentration patterns. Such a model can be transferable to other abandoned mine lands as a predictive tool for monitoring the fate and transport of arsenic and related contaminants in similar settings. Effective remediation of contaminated mine wastes in a semi-arid environment requires addressing concurrent changes in the amounts of potential tailings released through fluvial processes and the transport capacity of a wash.

  8. The detection of abandoned mine shafts in the Netherlands

    Mooijman, O.P.M.; Vanderkruk, J.; Roest, J.P.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Faculty of Applied Earth Sciences

    1998-09-30

    In the Old Coal Mine District of East Limburg, in the south of the Netherlands, a number of abandoned mine shafts exist of which the exact coordinates are uncertain. The area is now densely populated, and the majority of the shafts are located near or underneath roads and/or houses. Some of these shafts urgently need to be secured for reasons related to a recent rise in deep ground water levels. This paper describes preliminary investigations for abandoned mine shafts by means of aerial photographs and georadar. Inspection of various photo series indicates that the chances of finding clues for abandoned mine shafts are reasonable, and that digital techniques facilitate identification and exact determination of shaft coordinates. In a densely populated survey environment, such as the area in which the abandoned shafts are located, georadar is a suitable shallow geophysical method for mine shaft detection. In these circumstances, shielded antennae give a clearer subsurface image than unshielded antennae. Signal penetration in the loess-rich deposits commonly found in the area is limited, but the results of a trial survey over a known abandoned shaft accurately confirm the geometry of a collapse zone surrounding the shaft center.

  9. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  10. Recycled Urban Wastewater for Irrigation of Jatropha curcas L. in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Land

    María Dorta-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL has enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, due partly to its ability to grow in degraded zones and under arid and semi-arid conditions. The present study evaluates the potential for JCL production under irrigation with non-conventional water resources in abandoned agricultural soils of the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain, which is one of the most arid parts of the European Union. JCL growth and productivity are compared during the first 39 months of cultivation in two soil types (clay-loam and sandy-loam and with two irrigation water qualities: recycled urban wastewater (RWW and desalinated brackish water (DBW. The results indicate that JCL growth (in terms of plant height and stem diameter was significantly influenced both by soil type and water quality, with better development observed in the sandy-loam soil under RWW irrigation. Productivity, measured as cumulative seed production, was not affected by soil type but was affected by water quality. Production under RWW irrigation was approximately seven times greater than with DBW (mean ~2142 vs. 322 kg·ha−1. The higher nutrient content, especially P, K and Mg, and lower B content of the RWW were found to be key factors in the greater productivity observed under irrigation with this type of water.

  11. Ecosystem services provided by agricultural terraces in semi-arid climates.

    Romero-Díaz, Asunción; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Since ancient times, agricultural terraces are common features throughout the world, especially on steep slope gradients. Nowadays many terraces have been abandoned or removed and few new terraces are build due to increased mechanisation and intensification of agriculture. However, terraces are amongst the most effective soil conservation practices, reducing the slope gradient and slope length, as well as runoff rate and soil erosion, and without terraces, it would be impossible to cultivate on many hillslopes. Moreover, their scenic interest is undeniable, as in some cases, terraced slopes have even become part of UNESCO World Heritage. In order to highlight the potential benefits, requirements and limitations of terraces, we reviewed different types of sustainable land management practices related to terraces and characterised their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We centred our review on terraces in semi-arid environments worldwide, as were documented in the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. Our results show that the most important ecosystem services provided by terraces relate to regulation of the on-site and off-site effects of runoff and erosion, and maintenance of soil fertility and vegetation cover. The presence of terraces also favours the provision of food, fiber, and clean water. In short, our results stress the crucial environmental, geomorphological and hydrological functions of terraces that directly relate to improving the quality of life of the people that use them. These results highlight the need for renewed recognition of the value of terraces for society, their preservation and maintenance.

  12. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-10-12

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  13. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  14. Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment

    Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Dekker, S.C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web comp

  15. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  16. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Beguería, S.; Pueyo, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland abandonment

  17. Affirmation of the Method that Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt and Nickel in Copper, Lead and Zinc Ores by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素方法确认

    熊英; 王晓雁; 胡建平

    2011-01-01

    文章在修订GB/T 14353-1993研究工作中,建立了电感耦合等离子体发射光谱同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素的标准分析方法.通过控制试样量和制备试样溶液的体积,可实现主量元素铜、铅、锌与次量元素钴、镍的同时测定.测定范围为铜0.002%~8.5%,铅0.01%~5%,锌0.005%~3%,钴0.001 5%~0.5%,镍0.003%~0.5%.按照相关国家标准对测量方法与结果的准确度进行8个实验室协同参加的准确度试验,统计参数结果表明在限定水平范围内方法偏倚不显著;利用方法重复性限参数,计算可能产生的最大相对偏差.分析方法精密度满足的要求.%A standard analysis method for simultaneous detecting copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel and other elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was developed when improving GB/T 14353-1993 , the method for chemical analysis of copper ore, lead ore and zinc ore. The major elements such as copper, lead, zinc and the minor elements of cobalt and nickel can be simultaneous detected by adjusting the test portion amounts and reagent solution volumes. The determination ranges of copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and nickel are respectively 0.002% -8.5% , 0. 01% - 5% , 0. 005% - 3% , 0. 001 5% - 0. 5% and 0. 003% - 0. 5%. According to relevant national standards, this method was tested by eight cooperation laboratories. Statistical results indicated that the method is impartial within a definitive range. The repeatability limit parameter was used to calculate the possible maximum deviations. The precision of the method satisfied the requirement of "The specification of testing quality management for geological laboratoris".

  18. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  19. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  20. Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems

    Jose Saul Lizondo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.

  1. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  2. 77 FR 51614 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    2012-08-24

    ... Abandonments to abandon a 0.1-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Niagara Subdivision, between milepost QDN 28.0 near North Avenue to the end of the track at milepost QDN 28.1, in Niagara Falls... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County, NY...

  3. Ecogeomorphic Feedbacks in Semiarid Rangelands: A Review

    I.STAVI; H.LAVEE; E.D.UNGAR; P.SARAH

    2009-01-01

    The ecogeomorphic processes occurring on semiarid rangelands are reviewed,with emphasis on the source-sink relations and positive feedback loops that existed between shrub patches and intershrub areas,and the way livestock presence affected these interactions.Compared with intershrub areas,the shrub patches had a higher soil porosity,infiltration capacity,water-holding capacity,hydraulic conductivity,structural stability,and organic matter content,and lower bulk density.These differences derived from a host of processes whose intensity was less in the shrub patches,including raindrop impact,mechanical crust formation,overland water flow,soil erosion,evaporative moisture loss,and flock trampling.Thcre was also greater shading of the soil surface;soil and litter deposition;water accumulation;microbial,fungal,and mesofaunal activities in the shrub patches.The overland flow of water carried soil and litter from the intershrub areas to the shrub patches and resulted in microtopographic modifications that tended to strengthen these source-sink relations.Grazing had an impact on these processes,not only at the shrub-intershrub scale but also within the intershrub areas,through the creation of highly compacted trampling routes.The combined role of the above ecogeomorphic processes was to maintain the rangeland's functionality.Without these inter-relationships,water loss,soil erosion,and nutrient depletion would occur at the hillside scale,causing degradation of the landscape.

  4. Contamination assessment and spatial distribution of heavy metals in dust surrounding the Changqing town lead-zinc smelting plant in Baoji%宝鸡长青镇铅锌冶炼厂周围灰尘中重金属的空间分布及污染评价

    任春辉; 卢新卫; 陈灿灿; 杨林娜; 杨光

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in dust samples surrounding the Changqing town lead-zinc smelting plant in Baoji city were measured by X- Ray fluorescence spectrometry. The contamination levels of heavy metals in dust were assessed based on the geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor. The results show that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni and V in dust were 123.1, 1449.1, 2082.1, 1085.0, 40.8 and 81.8 mg. kg -~ , respectively, which were higher than the corresponding background values of Shaanxi topsoil. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, ~Ni and V in dust were respectively 5.8, 67.7, 30.0, 17.4, 1.4 and 1.2 times the corresponding background values of Shaanxi topsoil. The content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni in dust was the highest within 500 m of lead-zinc smelting plant. The assessment results showed that Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr had different contamination levels in dust around the lead-zinc smelting plant and the contaminated areas were mainly distributed in the northwest and southwest and southeast of lead-zlnc smelting plant. The dust surrounding the Changqing lead-zinc smelting plant were not polluted by Ni and V.%利用X-Ray荧光光谱仪对宝鸡市长青镇铅锌冶炼厂周围灰尘中重金属含量进行了分析,并采用地积累指数和富集因子评价方法评价了灰尘中重金属的污染状况.结果表明,该铅锌厂周围灰尘中Cu、Pb、Zn、Cr、Ni和V的几何平均含量分别为123.1、1449.1、2082.1、1085.0、840.和81.8mg·kg-1,均明显高于陕西省表层土壤背景值,分别为陕西省表层土壤背景值的5.8、67.7、30.0、17.4、1.4和1.2倍.距离铅锌厂500m范围的灰尘中Cu、Pb、Zn、Cr、Ni的含量最高.污染评价结果表明,长青镇铅锌厂周围灰尘中Cu、Pb、Zn、Cr都存在着不同程度的污染,污染区域主要集中在铅锌厂的西北、西南和东南方向,而Ni和V则基本无污染.

  5. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The trend towards a more arid climate conditions in some areas of the Mediterranean environments will positively feedback the desertification enhancing the soil degradation processes. Several researchers have established that some soil properties can be used as indicators of desertification and of soil degradation. One of those properties is the soil water content, highly dependent of the rainfall in the Mediterranean. Soil water content is one of the main indicators to asses the recharge of water supply for the vegetation survival, and therefore affect to the organic matter and organic carbon cycle in the short time. This study presents the results of the monitoring of soil water content, some physico-quemical soil properties and the vegetal cover from three hillslopes of abandoned fields, affected by sporadic grazing, during four years (2002-06) under different climatic conditions, in order to evaluate the survival possibilities of the vegetation, which re-colonized those abandoned fields, faced to a decrease in water supplies a cause of the Climate Change in Mediterranean. The research was carried out in the South of Spain, where there is a climatic gradient from the Strait of Gibraltar (1,500 mm year-1) to Cape of Gata (150 mm year-1), and which is one of the most affected areas by the soil degradational processes in the Western Mediterranean. Three hillslopes were selected along the study area, under three different climatic conditions (sub-humid, dry-Mediterranean and semi-arid), with similar topography, geology and original landuse. The differences between them were originated by the climate, which implied changes in vegetal cover and geomorphological processes. Soil water content was measured with a TDR-Tektronix at two depths (5 and 15 cm) since Nov-2002 to Sep-2006, from bottom to top every 10 m along the hillslopes. Vegetal cover was measured by means of a detailed photo-interpretation. Rainfalls were collected in rain gauges located in each field site

  6. Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine

    Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Elbakidze, Marine;

    2011-01-01

    of abandonment and its drivers are not well understood. Our goal was to map post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine using Landsat images from 1986 to 2008, and to identify spatial determinants of abandonment using a combination of best-subsets linear regression models and hierarchical partitioning...... period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe...

  7. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  8. Listing causes of risk of vulnerability and abandonment

    María Luisa Santamaría Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a state of law, a citizen must live under the protection of their fundamental rights. Therefore, when authorities makes an intervention in a family nucleus and separates children from their parents for alleged protection purposes, it should be noted that if the decision was misguided, during the time that the separation remains, fundamental rights of the whole family are being infringed, especially for children, as stated in Article 9 of the CRC. With these premises, this article reveals that the reasons of risk and abandonment of a child should be typified in order to ensure the full success of the decisions of family separation. In addition, following a declaration of abandonment of a child, a lawsuit should be arise, whose procedural aspects would ensure fully adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the child in question, regardless of their parents' litigator ability.

  9. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  10. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  11. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  12. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  13. Nebkha patterns in semi-arid environments

    Nield, J. M.; Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid supply-limited, environments, nehbka dunes typically form through ecogeomorphic feedbacks. The size, shape and orientation of these dunes are controlled by the interactions between vegetation growth and aeolian sedimentations processes. Once established, these dune patterns modify sediment transport and often form streets of bare surfaces between dune corridors. We examine typical dune and vegetation patterns that form with varying amounts of sediment availability and nebkha maturity at Jornada in the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to separate the plant and sand elements. Manual and automated TLS shrub height extractions compare well at all sites (p = 0.48-0.94) enabling the quantification of both solid and plant roughness element components in three dimensions. We find that there is a switch in orientation of the dune elements with respect to dominant wind direction from perpendicular to parallel as the landscape develops from an incipient to mature configuration and mesquite-nebkha streets are enhanced. As the nebkha dunes develop the surface coverage of bare sand increases and dune surfaces exceed the size of their companion shrubs. Roughness density also increases at the mature dune site. Individual shrub orientations remain similar at each site, but nebkhas typically host multiple shrub crowns at the mature site. Over a two year period up to 20 cm of erosion was measured on the upwind faces of the mature nebkha dunes, in agreement with the dominant annual wind direction. However, deposition patterns were more diffuse and influenced by the vegetation patterns. This study highlights the importance of ecogeomorphic interactions in shaping nebkha landscape patterns.

  14. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  15. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and to propose mitigation strategies. The methodologies used in this study are combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of literature review, questionnaire survey, and interview. The results show that many risks are involved in housing project, including risks related to environmental impacts, construction, politics, law, management, finance, materials, and economy, of which the probability of risks from unexpected ground condition, project delays, bureaucracy, contractual disputes between developer and landlord, weakness in management by inexperience developer, and financial crisis is very high. It was also found that all relevant parties involved in housing industry are required to have extensive cooperation in advance and should perform systematic risk management strategies in order to mitigate the risks leading to problems associated with abandoned housing projects.

  16. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  17. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands.

    Cushman, John C; Davis, Sarah C; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.

  18. Biophysical and sociocultural factors underlying spatial trade-offs of ecosystem services in semiarid watersheds

    Marina García-Llorente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical and social systems are linked to form social-ecological systems whose sustainability depends on their capacity to absorb uncertainty and cope with disturbances. In this study, we explored the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors underlying ecosystem service supply in two semiarid watersheds of southern Spain. These included variables associated with the role that freshwater flows and biodiversity play in securing the system's capacity to sustain essential ecosystem services and their relationship with social demand for services, local water governance, and land-use intensification. Our results reveal the importance of considering the invisible dimensions of water and biodiversity, i.e. green freshwater flows and trait-based indicators, because of their relevance to the supply of ecosystem services. Furthermore, they uncover the importance of traditional irrigation canals, a local water governance system, in maintaining the ecosystems' capacity to supply services. The study also highlights the complex trade-offs that occur because of the spatial mismatch between ecosystem service supply (upstream and ecosystem service demand (downstream in watersheds. Finally, we found that land-use intensification generally resulted in losses of the biophysical factors that underpin the supply of some ecosystem services, increases in social demand for less diversified services, and the abandonment of local governance practices. Attempts to manage social-ecological systems toward sustainability at the local scale should identify the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors that are essential for maintaining ecosystem services and should recognize existing interrelationships between them. Land-use management should also take into account ecosystem service trade-offs and the consequences resulting from land-use intensification.

  19. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  20. REPRODUCTIVE ADAPTATIONS OF THE GREEN IGUANA ON A SEMIARID ISLAND

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; ALBERS, KB

    1993-01-01

    Reproductive cycle and clutch size were studied in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) on the semiarid Caribbean island of Curacao. The reproductive cycle is correlated with seasonality in rainfall. Mating is in the first half of the dry season, egg laying in the second part of the dry season, and hatc

  1. Extreme climatic events shape arid and semiarid ecosystems

    Holmgren, M.; Stapp, P.; Dickman, C.; Gracia, C.; Graham, S.

    2006-01-01

    Climatic changes associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can have a dramatic impact on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, but especially on arid and semiarid systems, where productivity is strongly limited by precipitation. Nearly two decades of research, including both short-term exp

  2. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  3. A knowledge base system for ground control over abandoned mines

    Nazimko, V.V.; Zviagilsky, E.L. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    The knowledge of engineering systems has been developed to choose optimal technology for subsidence prevention over abandoned mines. The expert system treats a specific case, maps consequences of actions and derives relevant technology (or a set of technologies) that should be used to prevent ground subsidence. Input parameters that characterise the case are treated using fuzzy logic and are then fed to a neural network. The network has been successfully trained by a backpropagation algorithm on the basis of three fuzzy rules. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  5. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    2010-10-01

    ... and does not require demilitarization. (b) Plant clearance officers may abandon sensitive property that does not require demilitarization, with contractor consent, provided appropriate instructions...

  6. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    2010-10-01

    ... does not require demilitarization. (b) Plant clearance officers may abandon sensitive property that does not require demilitarization, with contractor consent, provided appropriate instructions...

  7. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation.

  8. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  9. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  10. Climate Warming Threatens Semi-arid Forests in Inner Asia

    WU, X.; Liu, H.; Qi, Z.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    A line of evidences reveal an increasing tree growth decline and tree mortality mainly attributable to climate warming and the warming-mediated changes in drought and other processes (such as fire and insect dynamics) in many parts of world tropical, temperate and boreal forests. However, the growth responses to climate change of the widely distributed semi-arid forests are unclear. Here, we synthetically investigate the tree growth patterns during past decades and its interannual response to climate variations in Inner Asia combining the ground truth field survey and samplings, remote sensing observations and climate data. We identified a pervasive tree growth decline since mid-1990s in semi-arid forests in Inner Asia. The widely observed tree growth decline is dominantly attributable to warming-induced water stress during pre- and early growing season. Tree growth of semi-arid forests in Inner Asia is particularly susceptible to spring warming and has been suffering a prolonged growth limitation in recent decades due to spring warming-mediated water conditions. Additionally, we identified a much slower growth rate in younger trees and a lack of tree regeneration in these semi-arid forests. The widely observed forest growth reduction and lack of tree regeneration over semi-arid forests in Inner Asia could predictably exert great effects on forest structure, regionally/globally biophysical and biochemical processes and the feedbacks between biosphere and atmosphere. Notably, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be reasonably expected, especially in context of the increase frequency and severity of high temperature and heat waves and changes in forest disturbances, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests. Given the potential risks of climate induced forest dieback, increased management attention to adaptation options for enhancing forest resistance and resilience to projected climate stress can be expected

  11. Climate warming threatens semi-arid forests in Inner Asia

    WU, X.

    2015-12-01

    A line of evidences reveal an increasing tree growth decline and tree mortality mainly attributable to climate warming and the warming-mediated changes in drought and other processes in many parts of world tropical, temperate and boreal forests. However, the growth responses to climate change of the widely distributed semi-arid forests are unclear. Here, we synthetically investigate the tree growth patterns during past decades and its interannual response to climate variations in Inner Asia combining the ground truth field survey and samplings, remote sensing observations and climate data. We identified a pervasive tree growth decline since mid-1990s in semi-arid forests in Inner Asia. The widely observed tree growth decline is dominantly attributable to warming-induced water stress during pre- and early growing season. Tree growth of semi-arid forests in Inner Asia is particularly susceptible to spring warming and has been suffering a prolonged growth limitation in recent decades due to spring warming-mediated water conditions. Additionally, we identified a much slower growth rate in younger trees and a lack of tree regeneration in these semi-arid forests. The widely observed forest growth reduction and lack of tree regeneration over semi-arid forests in Inner Asia could predictably exert great effects on forest structure, regionally/globally biophysical and biochemical processes and the feedbacks between biosphere and atmosphere. Notably, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be reasonably expected, especially in context of the increase frequency and severity of high temperature and heat waves and changes in forest disturbances, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests. Given the potential risks of climate induced forest dieback, increased management attention to adaptation options for enhancing forest resistance and resilience to projected climate stress can be expected. However, the functionally realistic

  12. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  13. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  15. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis in Lead-zinc Smelting Process

    Wei-Hua Gui; Chun-Hua Yang; Jing Teng

    2007-01-01

    According to the fault characteristic of the imperial smelting process (ISP), a novel intelligent integrated fault diagnostic system is developed. In the system fuzzy neural networks are utilized to extract fault symptom and expert system is employed for effective fault diagnosis of the process. Furthermore, fuzzy abductive inference is introduced to diagnose multiple faults. Feasibility of the proposed system is demonstrated through a pilot plant case study.

  16. Elastic properties of Li+ doped lead zinc borate glasses

    Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    Glasses in the system 0.25PbO-(0.25-x) ZnO-0.5B2O3-xLi2O have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, DSC studies have been employed to study the role of Li2O in the present glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been determined using pulsed echo ultrasonic interferometer operating at 10MHz. Sound velocities Vl, Vt and elastic moduli decrease up to 5 mol% and then gradually increase with increase in Li2O concentration. Debye temperature and the glass transition temperature decreases with increase in Li2O. Densities remains almost constant up to 15 mol% Li2O concentration and increases monotonically while the molar volume decreases with the increase of Li2O concentration. The results are discussed in view of the borate structural network and dual role of Zn and Pb in these glasses.

  17. Influence of microscale in snow distributed modelling in semiarid regions

    Pimentel Leiva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the importance of the microscale snow distribution in the modelling of the snow dynamics in semiarid regions. Snow over these areas has particular features that further complicate its measuring, monitoring and modelling (e.g. several snowmelt cycles throughout the year and a very heterogeneous distribution). Most extended GIS-based calculation of snowmelt/accumulation models must deal with non-negligible scales effects below the cell size, which may result ...

  18. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.

  19. Contamination from abandoned mine tailings: the geochemical approach

    Fanfani, L. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1998-12-31

    The oxidation of sulphide minerals in flotation tailings and waste materials in the main source of chemical contamination at abandoned mine sites. Pyrite and the other iron-bearing sulphide minerals are responsible for acid mine drainage which leads to the weathering of other sulphides and mobilizes toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and As. An environment rich in earth-alkaline carbonates buffers the ph close to neutrality and mitigates chemical pollution, but liming is insufficient to control pollution. Prevention has to be based essentially on fighting sulphide oxidation with water covers or organic matter covers impermeable to atmospheric oxygen. Remediation strategies are to be addressed to the application of soft biological technologies.

  20. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  1. 78 FR 66988 - Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Minn.

    2013-11-07

    ... Line).\\1\\ The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 56517. \\1\\ Upon abandonment, MNN... abandonment of rail service and salvage of the Line, the Line may be suitable for other public use, including... Herzig, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  2. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than... plugging and abandonment cost estimates; (C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and...

  3. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problemwith environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE resea

  4. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment of Class III... abandonment of Class III wells. To meet the requirements of § 146.10(d) of this chapter, owners and operators of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which...

  5. Inhomogeneous CTMC Model of a Call Center with Balking and Abandonment

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a nonstationary multiserver queuing model with abandonment and balking for inbound call centers. We present a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model which captures the important characteristics of an inbound call center and obtain a numerical solution for its transient state probabilities using uniformization method with steady-state detection. Keywords: call center, transient, Markov processes, numerical methods, uniformization, abandonment, balking

  6. Biodiversity of soil biota and plants in abandoned arable fields and grasslands under restoration management

    Brussaard, L.; Bakker, J.P.; Olff, H.

    1996-01-01

    The currently widespread abandoning of agricultural land use in Western Europe offers new opportunities for ecological restoration and nature conservation. This is illustrated for abandoned arable fields and for permanent grasslands cut for hay after the cessation of fertilizer application. Although

  7. Identification of vulnerable areas for gully erosion under different scenarios of land abandonment in Southeast Spain

    Lesschen, J.P.; Global Change Commission,

    2006-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land is the result of interacting processes of global change and human behaviour. Due to changing European policies, urbanisation, desertification and climate change land abandonment has become one of the main changes in land use in Mediterranean countries. The consequenc

  8. 75 FR 7303 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon .20 miles of a line of railroad on the Ankeny Industrial Lead from milepost 10.50 in Ankeny to milepost 10.70 in Ankeny, in Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 50021. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for...

  9. 78 FR 17468 - Alabama Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Monroe County, AL

    2013-03-21

    ... Abandonments to abandon approximately 7.42 miles of rail line between milepost 655.20 (east of Route 21 at Tunnel Springs) and milepost 662.62 (west of Main Street in Beatrice), in Monroe County, Ala. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 36425 and 36471. ALAB has certified that: (1) No...

  10. 76 FR 2445 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Rolette and Towner Counties, ND

    2011-01-13

    ... F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 17.75 miles of rail line between milepost 30.00, north of Bisbee and milepost 47.75 at Rolla, in Rolette and Towner Counties, N.D.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 58317, 58363, and 58367. \\1\\ On December 23, 2010, the Rollo Job...

  11. 76 FR 59770 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Boulder County, CO

    2011-09-27

    ... Abandonments to abandon 1.37 miles of rail line extending between milepost 20.80 and milepost 22.17 at Lafayette, in Boulder County, CO (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 80026 and includes no stations. BNSF has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for...

  12. 77 FR 16585 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Phillips County, AK

    2012-03-21

    ..., in Phillips County, Ark. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 72342 and 72390. AKMD has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least 2 years; (2) there... CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon an approximately 2.66-mile rail line known...

  13. 77 FR 35751 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Manitowoc County, WI

    2012-06-14

    ...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 6.8 miles of rail line extending from milepost 69.0 in Newton to milepost 62.2 in Cleveland in Manitowoc County, WI. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 53015 and 53063, and there are no stations on the line. WCL has certified that: (1) No local traffic...

  14. 75 FR 7302 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ... Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 50317, 50032, 50021, 50009, and 50035. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least 2 years...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a portion of its line of railroad known as the Bondurant Industrial...

  15. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    2013-09-19

    ... Postal Service Zip Codes 50309 and 50317. \\1\\ According to NSR, the line segments are part of the same... subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.6 miles of non-contiguous rail line segments in Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, as follows: (1) Approximately 0.3 miles of rail line extending...

  16. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    2013-12-31

    ...-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.5 miles of rail line between milepost HG 37.50 (near the line's crossing of Brooks Road) and milepost HG 38.00 (north of Robinson Road), in Crowders (Gastonia), Gaston County, N.C.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 28052. \\1\\ NSR...

  17. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    2013-09-04

    ... part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.16 miles of rail line between mileposts 0.36 and 0.20, in Jackson, Hinds County, Miss. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least two years; (2) there is no...

  18. 78 FR 11733 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Calhoun County, AL

    2013-02-19

    ... County, Ala. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 36201. NSR has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least two years; (2) no overhead traffic has moved.... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 1.81 miles of rail line extending...

  19. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    2013-08-12

    ... 300.3 (near the intersection of Douglas Rd. and Dorr St.) in Toledo, Lucas County, Ohio (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 43606 and 43607. NSR has certified that: (1.... 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 1.0 miles of rail line extending...

  20. 76 FR 82348 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marietta, Lancaster County, PA

    2011-12-30

    ... County, Pa. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 17547. NSR has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least 2 years; (2) no overhead traffic has moved over... 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 2.0 miles of rail line extending...

  1. 75 FR 7151 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, OH

    2010-02-17

    ..., OH. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 43607, 43606, 43613, and 43612, and includes no stations. CSXT has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least 2... Abandonments to abandon approximately 4.15 miles of rail line on its Northern Region, Chicago Division,...

  2. 75 FR 73161 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In East Carroll Parish, LA

    2010-11-29

    ....\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 71254. \\1\\ On November 16, 2010, DSR supplemented its notice of exemption. DSR has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for... subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon 8 miles of rail line extending from milepost 463.0, near...

  3. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    2013-04-05

    ... F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.58-mile line of railroad on its Menomonie Industrial Lead from milepost 0.32 near Cedar Falls Road to the end of the line at milepost 0.90 near Oak Avenue, in Menomonie, Dunn County, Wis. (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 54751. UP...

  4. 75 FR 35514 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, WA

    2010-06-22

    ... Abandonments to abandon a 0.8-mile line of railroad, on the Yakima Industrial Lead, from milepost 62.75 to milepost 63.55 near Midvale, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... over the line for at least 2 years; (2) there is no overhead traffic on the line; (3) no...

  5. 75 FR 32535 - Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lake County, IN.

    2010-06-08

    ... CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon its line of railroad between milepost 46.10 and milepost 48.28, a distance of 2.18 miles, in Hammond, Lake County, Ind. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 46320. EJ&E has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line...

  6. 76 FR 51469 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Beaver County, PA

    2011-08-18

    ... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 2.39-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Pittsburg Subdivision, between milepost PLK 0.0 and milepost PLK 2.39, in Koppel, Beaver County, Pa. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 16136 and includes no stations. CSXT has certified that: (1) No...

  7. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    2013-11-06

    ... Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 46613 and 46614. NSR has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for at least two years; (2) no overhead traffic has... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a total of approximately 1.5 miles of rail line...

  8. 77 FR 21154 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Oklahoma County, OK

    2012-04-09

    ... Abandonments to abandon 1.22 miles of rail line extending between milepost 541.69 and milepost 542.91 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, Okla. (the Line).\\1\\ The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 73108 and 73109 and includes no stations. \\1\\ The Line previously was part of a larger BNSF...

  9. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    2013-04-10

    .... 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 0.28 miles of rail line (New Meadows Industrial Lead), between mileposts 0.22 and 0.50 at Weiser, in Washington County, Idaho. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 83672. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for...

  10. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different hab

  11. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  12. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  13. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  14. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  15. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  16. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  17. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    with recultivating abandoned cropland to assess the potentially available cropland in European Russia, western Siberia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan—the region where the vast majority of post-Soviet cropland abandonment took place. Using spatial panel regressions, we characterized the socio-economic determinants...... of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes in cropland to (i) spatially characterize the socio-economic, accessibility and soil constraints associated with the recultivation of abandoned croplands and (ii) investigate the environmental trade-offs regarding carbon stocks......-economic constraints suggested that the remaining 30.6 (25.7– 30.6) Mha of abandoned croplands were unlikely to provide important contributions to future crop production at current wheat prices but could provide various ecosystem services, and some could support extensive livestock production. Political...

  18. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  19. 湖南岳阳桃林铅锌矿周边土壤复合重金属污染及优势植株对铅锌铜超累积性能研究%Heavy Metal combined Pollution in Soil and Hyperaccumulating Performance of Local Plant in Hunan Yueyang Lead-zinc ore

    刘畅; 罗旭彪; 邓芳

    2013-01-01

    The local plants and soil around Yueyang lead - zinc ore of Hunan and Yintan tailings were investigated in this research. The results show that the soil of mining area has been seriously polluted by combined heavy metal, and the pollution of lead, zinc and copper in this area is the most serious. Lead content in this soil is about 53 times more than standard value of soil, and zinc content is 46 times more than standard value of soil. Eight kinds of local plants have strong tolerance to combined heavy metal. The enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn in Miscanthus floridulus ( Labill. ) Warb. and Dandelion is greater than 1, Pb content in the root of Miscanthus floridulus ( Labill. ) Warb. is as high as 702. 6 mg/kg,the transfer coefficient of Zn in Miscanthus floridulus ( Labill. ) Warb. is also greater than 1. Although this plant has not reached the critical standard of hyperaccumulators (1000 mg/kg) , their enrichment ability for composite heavy metals is more excellent than normal plant of clean area. During the process of long - term domestication in the mining area, these plants have gained the basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. All these plants make a contribution to restore the heavy metal combined pollution in this mining area.%通过对湖南岳阳市桃林铅锌冶炼厂生产区及银滩尾矿植物和土壤的研究结果表明,该矿区土壤存在较为严重的重金属复合污染,其中铅、锌、铜污染最为严重,铅含量超过标准值约53倍,锌含量超过标准值约46倍.8种植物对铅、锌、铜耐受性较强,其中芭茅、蒲公英分别对Pb和Zn的富集系数大于1,芭茅根系内Pb含量高达702.6mg/kg,对锌的转移系数大于1,尽管未能达到超累积植物的临界标准(l000mg/kg),但其富集性能远超过清洁地区生长的植株.这些植物在矿区经受了高含量重金属的长期“驯化”,已经具备了超累积植物的某些基本特征,并对复合重金属污染具有一定的修复效果.

  20. 旬阳-白河汉江以南地区下志留统梅子垭组地层铅锌金找矿预测%Lead-Zinc-Gold Prospecting Forecast in Lower Silurian Series Meiziya Group Stratum of Southern Hanjiang Area in Xunyang-Baihe

    唐敏杰; 刘文革

    2013-01-01

    陕西旬阳-白河地区的下志留统梅子垭组地层是近年来发现的铅锌、金主要含矿层位,其岩性主要为次深海相沉积的富含Au、Ag、Hg、Sb、As、Zn、Ba等元素的碳硅质岩-碳酸盐岩-泥质岩组合的“黑色岩系”。铜铅锌矿体受该地层控制明显,金矿受地层中脆-韧性剪切带控制;矿产呈北西向带状展布,成矿元素分带较明显,自南向北成矿元素具有金-铜-铅锌水平分带的特点;在汉江以南的矿权空白区划分出印沟垭铅锌(铜)成矿远景区、西营-鹰子山铅锌、金成矿远景区、双河-茅坪地区金多金属成矿远景区及秦家老庄-平安金多金属成矿远景区,在热水沉积岩、构造及物化探异常发育地段找矿潜力较大。%In recent years , lower Silurian series Meiziya group has been found to be the main lead and zinc , gold-beared layer in Xunyang-Baihe area ,Shaanxi province .The main lithology is sub-marine sediments rich in elements of gold , sil-ver, mercury, antimny,arsenic, zinc, barium, etc, and combined with carbonaceous silicate-carbonatite-argillaceous rock ,and it always be named "black rock series".Copper , lead and zinc deposits are controlled obviously by these strata , but the gold mine are controlled by crisp ductile shear zone beared in these strata .The minerals are distributed in northwestern banding , the ore-forming elements have a distinctive zonation;from south to north , the elements have a feature of level zon-ing by gold-copper-lead and zinc .The author marked out three mineralized blocks in lower Silurian series Meiziya group at southern Hanjiang, that is Yingouya lead-zinc (copper) metallogenic prospect area , Xiying-Yingzishan lead-zinc-gold met-allogenic prospect area , and Shuanghe Maoping gold and multi-metal metallogenic prospect area , and Qinjialaozhuang Pin-gan gold and multi-metal metallogenic prospect area .It was recognized that there are much more prospecting

  1. 会泽铅锌尾矿区自然生长的3种豆科植物铅锌耐性的研究%Tolerance to Pb2+ and Zn2+ of three local legumes species growing in lead-zinc mining tailing of Huize

    李彪; 熊智; 王金华; 汪姝; 孙浩; 缪福俊

    2011-01-01

    为了解会泽铅锌尾矿区自然发生的豆科植物对重金属的耐性,研究了该地区自然发生的3种豆科植物在Pb2+/Zn2+单盐和双盐胁迫下种子萌发及其幼苗生长的情况.研究表明:在本实验所设的浓度范围内,Pb2+/Zn2+单独胁迫时,对供试植物种子及幼苗的生长主要表现为抑制作用,除苕子(ViciaCraccaL.)外,金属离子的质量浓度越大抑制作用越强;Pb2+/Zn2+共同胁迫时出现复杂的交互作用.对于苕子的种子及幼苗的生长,Pb2+/Zn2+呈现明显的相互加强抑制作用;对于其它2种植物,当Zn2+浓度在低质量浓度时,Pb2+似乎对Zn2+抑制有缓解作用,同样当Pb2+浓度在低质量浓度时,Zn2+似乎对Pb2+抑制有缓解作用,但是当Pb2+/Zn2+高浓度时,Pb2+/Zn2+呈现明显的相互加强抑制作用.不论是单盐还是双盐,苕子对的耐性最强,其次为白三叶(Trifolium repens L.),紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)最弱.会泽铅锌尾矿区重金属含量高是该区植被恢复的最大障碍,进一步研究植物对Pb2+及Zn2+的耐受性对于铅锌尾矿区的植被恢复有极其重要的意义.%In this paper, the effects of Pb2+/Zn2+ on seed germination and seedling growth of three legumes species which occurred naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings in Huize were studied. The result showed that, under Pb2+ or Zn2+ stress, the seed germination and seedling growth of three plants were inhibited under concentration of Pb2+-Zn2+ on this paper, and except Vicia Cracca, the higher concentration of heavy metal ion was, the stronger inhibition was exerted on two others. Under double Pb2+-Zn2+salts, the complicated interaction existed commonly among the experiment plants. For Vicia Cracca, the interaction on the seed germination and seedling growth was increased strongly under interaction of Pb2+ and Zn2+. When the concentration of Zn2+ was low, the inhibition of Pb2+ was alleviated by Zn2+ in two others. Similarly, when the concentration

  2. Effects of slag media with different lead-zinc contents on seed germination and seedling growth in Ricinus communis%不同铅锌含量的矿渣基质对蓖麻种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    易心钰; 蒋丽娟; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    为给利用蓖麻及类似油料能源植物修复铅、锌等重金属污染的土壤提供理论与技术依据,采用盆栽方法,将蓖麻种子栽种在由铅锌尾矿渣、泥炭土、黄土和不同体积配比的有机菌肥混配而成的基质中,观测了不同栽培基质处理的蓖麻种子萌发与幼苗生长情况,同时测量并分析了铅、锌、铜、镉在其幼苗各组织中的分布情况,以了解蓖麻对铅锌等重金属的耐受力与转运潜力。试验结果表明:蓖麻种子在纯矿渣基质和不同铅锌含量矿渣混合基质中均能萌发与生长;处理Ⅴ(60%矿渣+20%泥炭土+20%黄土)的蓖麻种子的萌芽率、发芽势、幼苗成活率及幼苗植株的生长势均较好,而处理Ⅲ(80%矿渣+10%泥炭土+10%黄土+有机菌肥)的各项指标却显著低于其他处理(p<0.05);蓖麻种子和幼苗均表现出了对铅锌等重金属的较强的耐受性,蓖麻根系为重金属的主要累积部位,只有少量的重金属转移到地上部分,4种元素的转运能力由大到小依次为铜>锌>铅>镉,其转移系数均小于1。研究结果表明:蓖麻不属于铅、锌的超富集植物,但耐受性强,生物量大,可用于铅锌污染土壤植物修复及能源化利用。%In order to provide a theoretical and technological basis for remedying soil contaminated by heavy metal using energy oil plants, Ricinus communis seeds were planted in the mixed media of different volume ratio of lead-zinc tailings, peat soil, loess and organic bacterial manure, seed germination and seedling growth in R. communis were observed. Distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in tissues of seedling were determined and analyzed in order to learn heavy metal tolerance and transport potential of R. communis. The results demonstrate that seeds can germination and grow in both the pure slag media and the mixed media with different lead-zinc contents. In treatmentⅤ(60

  3. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  4. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    Yiliang Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  5. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    Llovet Lopez, J.; Ruiz Varela, M.; Josa March, R.; Vallejo Calzada, V. R.

    2009-07-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  7. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  9. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam;

    2014-01-01

    the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size = 0.2109, P,0...... management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. ...

  10. Resource flows, crops and soil fertility management in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Dimes, J.P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Poor soil fertility and erratic rains are major constraints to crop production in semi-arid environments. In the smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa, these constraints are manifested in frequent crop failures and endemic food insecurity. We characterized a semi-arid smallholder farming

  11. The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya

    Mganga, K.Z.; Nyangito, M.M.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Muiri, W.M.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Kaufmann, Von R.; Verhagen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However,

  12. Analysis and evaluation of tillage on an alfisol ina semi-arid tropical region of India

    Klaij, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Tillage field experiments were conducted on Alfisols in a semi-arid tropical environment in India. The research was conducted within the framework of the Farming Systems Research Program of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).To put the experiments into per

  13. Opiate written behavioral agreements: a case for abandonment.

    Helft, Paul R; Williams, Jessica R; Bandy, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    Written behavioral agreements (WBAs) are gaining popularity as part of the effort to manage the alarming increase in prescription drug abuse. The rationale for increased use of WBAs in managing patients with chronic pain is that they are believed to increase adherence to agreed-upon behaviors, reduce addiction to or diversion of prescription drugs, and satisfy informed consent requirements. However, there are no high-quality data to support their widespread use in any of these areas. The evidence used to support the use of WBAs is insufficient to justify their unfairness and the high risk of harm they pose to the doctor-patient relationship. Instead, we contend that WBAs are being used to provide leverage for severing relationships with some of our most challenging patients. We propose that physicians treating patients for chronic pain abandon the use of WBAs. Alternatives include open communication, detailed informed consent processes, carefully documented discussions, and most important, commitment to ongoing relationships even with difficult patients.

  14. Design Parameters for Abandoned Dumpsite Soil as Liner Material

    Adefemi Afeez BELLO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of laboratory tests that were carried out on abandoned dumpsite soil from Orita-Aperin, Ibadan, and Southwestern Nigeria, to determine its potentiality as hydraulic barrier. Three soil samples were collected (labeled AB1 - AB3 and compacted at –2, 0, 2 and 4% of optimum moisture content using four compactive energy levels namely reduced Proctor (RP, Standard Proctor (SP, West African Standard (WAS and modified Proctor (MP. The design parameters namely: hydraulic conductivity, volumetric shrinkage and unconfined compressive strength showed appreciable variations in their respective values as moulding water contents and compactive efforts were varied. The soil samples studied had hydraulic conductivity that was less than or equal to 1 x 10-7cm/s provided that: the initial dry unit weight is greater than or equal to 16.48 kN/m3; the initial degree of saturation is greater than or equal to 85%; compaction is carried out at a compactive effort greater than or equal to that of the standard Proctor. Hence, the samples can be used as hydraulic barrier in waste containment structure.

  15. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes.

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-05-19

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  16. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHlevels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  17. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  18. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  19. Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates

    Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

    2004-12-01

    Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition

  20. Soil Chemistry after Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in Semiarid Climate

    Pedro Carlos Pacheco de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil irrigation using treated wastewater in the Brazilian semiarid region is a promising practice as this area currently faces water scarcity and pollution of water resources by domestic sewage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of treated wastewater in drip irrigation and its effect on the chemistry of soil cultivated with squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. Coroa IAC and to verify whether there was an increase in soil salinity under a semiarid climate. The experiment was conducted for 123 days on a farm close to the sewage treatment plant, in a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two irrigation water depths (100 and 150 % of the evapotranspiration, two applications of gypsum to attenuate wastewater sodicity (0 and 5.51 g per plant, and a control treatment with no application of wastewater or gypsum. During the experiment, treated wastewater and soil gravitational water, at a depth of 0.40 m, were collected for measurement of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO−3, NH4+, Cl− , alkalinity, electrical conductivity, pH and sodium adsorption ratio. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m; and pH, total N, organic C, exchangeable cations and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (CEs were analyzed. Besides an increase in pH and a reduction in total N, the irrigation with wastewater reduces soil salinity of the naturally salt-rich soils of the semiarid climate. It also led to soil sodification, in spite of the added gypsum, which indicates that irrigation with wastewater might require the addition of greater quantities of gypsum to prevent physical degradation of the soil.

  1. Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland

    Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.

  2. Conserving the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) biome under climate change

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rangel, Thiago Fernado

    2012-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semiarid biome of the northeast of Brazil with only 1 % of its territory currently conserved. The biome’s biodiversity is highly threatened due to exposure to land conversion for agricultural and cattle ranch. Climate forecasts predict increases in aridity, which could pose...... additional threats to the biome’s biodiversity. Here, we ask if the remnants of natural vegetation in Caatinga biome, where endemic terrestrial vertebrate species occur, are likely to retain more climatic suitability under climate change scenarios than other less pristine areas of the biome. In order...

  3. Coevolution of Semiarid Hillslopes in Response to Alternative Management Strategies

    Saco, Patricia M.; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    We study the coevolution of landforms, vegetation and soils in semiarid areas with sparse vegetation cover composed by mixed herbaceous and woody plant species. The vegetation is subject to competition and facilitation interactions. Shifts in vegetation structure resulting from human pressures and management strategies that alter the hydrologic response of the hillslopes, can have very diverse impacts on ecosystem functioning. We analyse results from a spatial ecogeormorphologic model that simulates the dynamics of runoff redistribution and erosion for hillslopes with patterned vegetation in Australia. We investigate the effects of shrub clearing strategies for plant species with varying competition and facilitation mechanisms, and the implications for the productivity of Australian rangelands.

  4. Mediterranean semi-arid systems-sensitivity and adaptation

    Lavee, H.; Sarah, P.

    2009-07-01

    The semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean are sensitive to climate change as they are located. In many cases, between two different systems, the arid system and the Mediterranean sub-humid system. A number of quick response ecogeomorphological variables were monitored along a climatic transect in Israel, running from west to east, covering an annual rainfall range of 700-100mm. The relationships of climatic conditions-available water soil properties overland flow erosion, were investigates. Soil samples were taken from open areas between shrubs and overland flow was monitored in posts of 7, 14 and 21 m in length (3m width). (Author)

  5. SURVEY OF ABANDONED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN THE PROVINCE OF CARINTHIA/AUSTRIA - METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS

    WOLFGANG FISCHER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper in hand mainly addresses the issue of abandoned industrial and commercial sites. The results of a survey form the central content and regards the method of investigation of this survey of abandoned sites in the province of Carinthia, including experiences and recommendations. The survey started with a number of more than 10,000 businesses. After the different steps of the survey (research phase, exploration phase, clarification phase and evaluation phase 444 sites had to be attributed an increased potential for danger. After these steps followed an evaluation which concerned the priority in regard to the securing and/ or remediation of the abandoned sites. On the basis of certain gathered values, future surveys of abandoned industrial and commercial sites can be calculated fairly exactly.

  6. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  7. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  9. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the...

  10. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA and...

  11. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  12. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...

  13. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305....

  14. 76 FR 43374 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH CSX... Street and Champion Court, in Kenton, Hardin County, Ohio. The line traverses United States...

  15. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  16. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Regions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  18. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  19. THE IMAGE OF THE TSAR ABANDONING HIS THRONE IN ALEXANDER PUSHKIN'S POETRY

    Lebedeva E. S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the image of the Tzar, who abandoned his family name, throne and crown and hid to repent his sins, created by Alexander Pushkin in his poems "Angelo" and "Roderick".

  20. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  1. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells.

    Qin, Wei; Xu, Jialin; Hu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model.

  2. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    A.Cerdà

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2 show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces the soil losses to very low values, the fire increase runoff and soil erosion. Water and soil losses are much lower in the fire-affected plots than on the cultivated ones due to the use of herbicides.

  3. Soil carbon dynamics during secondary succession in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    A. Novara; L. Gristina; Mantia, T.; J. Rühl

    2011-01-01

    Clarifying which factors cause an increase or decrease in soil organic carbon (SOC) after agricultural abandonment requires integration of data on the temporal dynamics of the plant community and SOC. A chronosequence of abandoned vineyards was studied on a volcanic island (Pantelleria, Italy). Vegetation in the abandoned fields was initially dominated by annual and perennial herbs, then by Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf, and finally by woody communities. As a consequence, th...

  4. Heavy Metals Pollution and Eco-security Evaluation in the Surrounding Soil of An Untapped Lead-zinc Mining%一个未开采的铅锌矿周边土壤重金属含量及生态安全评价

    张广胜; 徐文彬; 李俊翔; 韦金莲

    2015-01-01

    金属污染情况大不相同,该拟开采铅锌矿在其后续的开采、选矿活动中,应高度重视重金属污染的研究和防治,采取合理措施,防止加剧周边土壤的重金属累积。%In order to comprehand the content and potential ecological risk of haavy metals in the surrounding soil of Jianbidong lead-zinc mining in Fengshun Guangdong, adopting the methods of field sampling and laboratory analysis test, regarding four different surface soil areas as analyzing case studies, the heavy metal contents (Pb、Zn、Cu、Cd、Cr、As) of the surrounding surface soil from the lead-zinc mining were determined.The analyzing methodologies include single factor evaluation, Nemerow comprehensive index method, evaluation of Hakanson potential ecological risk assessment and health risk assessment so that to assess the level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals from the soil. The result shows that: under the undeveloped situation of this lead-zinc mining, the soil around the mining area has occourred somewhat pollution of heavy metals, and most of the soil samples with Pb(average of 106.77 mg·kg-1), Cd(average of 0.27 mg·kg-1), Zn(average 55.75 mg·kg-1) from the four research areas were over the background value of Guangdong Province;The polluted index shows Pb(maximum value of 4.57), Cd(maximum value of 2.98), Zn(maximum value of 1.41) pollutions are the most common;Comprehensive index shows polluted degree of the soil of Laohuge paddy field area is the most serious and the value is accounting 3.47. Meanwhile, the number of the soil samples which have medium degree of pollution is equal 51.02% of the number of the whole;While the Hakanson potential ecological risk assessment indicated that the mining potential ecological risk at low level, the four area of potential ecological risk index (RI) was less than 150, the average value was 110.67, probably due to the fact that the mine area were still undeveloped, and influence of human

  5. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  6. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  7. 印度尼西亚西加里曼丹省吉打邦县马拉乌铅锌矿床地质特征%Geologic characteristics of the Marau lead-Zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province,Indonesia

    姚仲友; 杨献忠; 赵牧华; 袁平峰

    2011-01-01

    The Marau deposit is a newly discovered lead-zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province in Indonesia.The deposit is distinctly controlled by fissures in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics.The hanging wall of the deposit is formed of pyritized carbargilites,and the bottom wall of chalcedonized silicalites.The ore bodies show pinnate,vein and lenticular shapes.The main wall rock alterations of the deposit are silication,argillization and chloritization.The mineral assemblages are complex and are composed of galena,sphalerite,pyrite,pyrrhotite,chalcopyrite,bornite,stibnite,gold,electrum and argentite.Basing on the analyses of mineral assemblages and chemical compositions of ores,it is clarified that the ore bodies obviously show a zonation in both horizontal and vertical directions,indicating that the formation of the deposit is related to the hydrothermal alteration,caused by intrusion(injection) of subvolcanic rocks,and the hydrothermal solution is derived from late calc-alkaline volcanic rock formations.%马拉乌铅锌矿床为印度尼西亚西加里曼丹(Kalimantan)省吉打邦县近年来发现的铅锌银矿床。该矿矿体顶板为黄铁矿化含碳质泥砂岩,矿体底板为玉髓状硅质岩。矿体呈侧羽状、脉状及透镜状。矿区通常发育的蚀变有硅化、泥化和绿泥石化等。主要矿物组合有方铅矿、闪锌矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、黄铜矿、斑铜矿、辉锑矿以及自然金、银金矿、辉银矿等,通过对矿石组构等综合分析,表明该矿床的成因是岩浆期后热液充填交代矿床。

  8. Contamination of semiarid potiguar reservoirs by harmful bacteria

    Ermeton Duarte do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination in the semi-arid section of Northeast Brazil is a current concern for the country’s researchers, since this region is considered one of the poorest in Brazil and the water in these locations is a primary vehicle for disease transmission. We collected physical and chemical data as well as water samples from four semiarid potiguar reservoirs during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. These samples were prepared in a laboratory at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN and their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were evaluated. The procedures of microbial isolation and identification followed the Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater. Then Vitek II system (Bio-Merieux® was used to identify the microbial specimens and we calculated the frequency of specimens’ occurrence. Altogether, 168 bacteria were isolated and identified; 97% were Gram-negative and only 3% were Gram-positive. Within the Gram negatives, 73.2% were identified as belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and, in general terms, the most constant genera in the water reservoirs were Vibrio and Aeromonas. Among the Enterobacteriaceae family, the species Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent. There was no statistical difference between the number or morphotype groups found in the periods, p=0.255 and p=0.237, respectively. The analyzed data indicate possible contamination of these water reservoirs by human and/or animal fecal material.

  9. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  10. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (Pconservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  11. Using NDVI to measure precipitation in semi-arid landscapes

    Birtwhistle, Amy N.; Laituri, Melinda; Bledsoe, Brian; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precipitation in semi-arid landscapes is important for understanding the processes related to rainfall and run-off; however, measuring precipitation accurately can often be challenging especially within remote regions where precipitation instruments are scarce. Typically, rain-gauges are sparsely distributed and research comparing rain-gauge and RADAR precipitation estimates reveal that RADAR data are often misleading, especially for monsoon season convective storms. This study investigates an alternative way to map the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation inputs along ephemeral stream channels using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. NDVI values from 26 years of pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat imagery were derived across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), a region covering 3,367 km2 of semiarid landscapes in southwestern Arizona, USA. The change in NDVI from a pre-to post-monsoon season image along ephemeral stream channels explained 73% of the variance in annual monsoonal precipitation totals from a nearby rain-gauge. In addition, large seasonal changes in NDVI along channels were useful in determining when and where flow events have occurred.

  12. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  13. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  14. Releasing mother's burdens: child abandonment and retrieval in Madrid, 1890-1935.

    Revuelta Eugercios, Bárbara A

    2012-01-01

    In nineteenth-century Europe, the foundling hospital grew beyond its traditional purpose of mitigating the shame of unwed mothers by also permitting widows, widowers, and poor married couples to abandon their children there temporarily. In the Foundling Hospital of Madrid (FHM), this new short-term abandonment could be completely anonymous due to the implementation of a wheel—a device on the outside wall of the institution that could be turned to place a child inside—which remained open until 1929. The use of survival-analysis techniques to disentangle the determinants of retrieval in a discrete framework reveals important differences in the situations of the women who abandoned their children at the FHM, partly depending on whether they accessed it through the Maternity Hospital after giving birth or they accessed it directly. The evidence suggests that those who abandoned their children through the Maternity Hospital retrieved them only when they had attained a certain degree of economic stability, whereas those who abandoned otherwise did so just as soon as the immediate condition prompting the abandonment had improved.

  15. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  16. Effects of different agricultural managements in soil microbial community structure in a semi-arid Mediterranean region.

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugan, Alicia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Scow, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced in semi-arid Mediterranean regions for 10.000 years and in many cases these practices have been unsuitable causing land degradation for millennium and an important loss of soil quality. The land management can provide solutions to find the best agricultural practices in order to maintain the soil quality and get a sustainable agriculture model. Microbiological properties are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of soil perturbations and land use managements. The study of microbial community and diversity has an important interest as indicators of changes in soil quality. The main objective of this work was to asses the effect of different agricultural management practices in soil microbial community (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Four different treatments were selected, based on the most commonly practices applied by farmers in the study area, "El Teularet Experimental Station", located at the Enguera Range in the southern part of the Valencia province (eastern Spain). These treatments were: a) ploughing, b) herbicides c) mulch, using the types applied by organic farmers to develop a sustainable agriculture, such as oat straw and d) control that was established as plot where the treatment was abandonment after farming. An adjacent area with the same type of soil, but with natural vegetation was used as a standard or reference high quality soil. Soil samples were taken to evaluate the changes in microbial soil structure, analysing the abundance of PLFA. The results showed a major content of total PLFA in soils treated with oats straw, being these results similar to the content of PLFA in the soil with natural vegetation, also these soils were similar in the distribution of abundance of different PLFA studied. However, the herbicide and tillage treatments showed great differences regarding the soil used as reference (soil under natural vegetation).

  17. Soil carbon sequestration and mineralization potential in an old-field revegetated with shrubs in semi-arid climate conditions

    de Dato, G.; Lagomarsino, A.; Abou Jaoudé, R.; De Angelis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Revegetation and afforestation of abandoned fields can modify mineralisation processes of soil organic matter and, as a consequence, the potential for C sequestration. Our work aimed to analyse these changes identifying C fractions with different degrees of physical protection and potential mineralization, in a old-field revegetated with shrubby species in a Mediterranean semi-arid area. A multi-specific plantation was made up in February 2006, by planting Juniperus phoenicea L. (JP), Pistacia lentiscus L. (PL) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO). The area has a typical Mediterranean climate with an average temperature of 16.8 °C and a total annual precipitation of 643 mm. Soil cores were collected in three plots with a mixed specific composition, and in one plot used as control (grass cover). Soil cores (0 - 20 cm depth) were sampled in April 2010 at two distances (30 and 60 cm) from the centre of shrub crown cover in revegetated plots, and randomly in the control. The following variables were examined: soil aggregates (macro- > 250 µm and micro-aggregates between 53 and 250 µm), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM) and its C and N content, microbial respiration after 28 days at 24 °C, and mineralization rate of labile and stable C. In the short period, no variation in soil C accumulation induced by the plantation was detected. On the other hand, C input from the different soil covers had a distinct pattern: in revegetated plots it was mainly made up by POM, while fine roots represented the major C input in the control. Macro- and micro-aggregates distribution differed in the control and revegetated plots, allowing a higher physical protection of organic carbon in the control. Nevertheless, more recalcitrant organic matter inputs in the plantation can likely determine a more robust soil C accumulation in the long term.

  18. 内蒙古红岭铅锌多金属矿床辉钼矿Re-Os 同位素年龄及其意义%Re-Os Radiometric Dating of Molybdenite in Hongling Lead-Zinc Polymetallic Deposit,Inner Mongolia,and Its Significance

    万多; 李剑锋; 王一存; 王可勇; 王志高; 魏良民

    2014-01-01

    Hongling lead-zinc polymetallic deposit share many similarities with others from the southern Daxinganling poly-metallic metallogenic belt.There are two types of molybdenum mineralization in the mining area,including porphyry and skarn.The former,displaying spot-disseminated feature,occurs in granite porphyry,whereas the latter,displaying film like feature,occurs in quartz.The metallogenic age of Hongling deposit can be constrained from Re-Os isotopic dating of the two kinds of molybdenite.Five samples of spot-disseminated molybdenite yield model ages varying from 139.9±2.3 Ma to 141.5± 3.2 Ma,with an isochron age of 140.3±3.4 Ma (MSWD=0.082),and a weighted average of 140.10±1.80 Ma.The isochron age and weighted average model age are consistent with one another,implying that molybdenum mineralization in Hongling de-posit occurred in Late Jurassic.A film-like molybdenite sample yielded a model age of 143.7±3.6 Ma,representing the initial stage of lead-zinc mineralization.The Re-1 87 Os contents of the film-like molybdenite are higher than that of spot-disseminated molybdeniteby one order of magnitude,which hints that they have different origins and there are two phases of molybdenum mineralization.The characteristics of Re content of the 6 molybdenite samples suggest that the ore-forming elements had a shal-low source,and was mainly derived from the crust.The extremely low content of Re might be du to the low Re content within its parent magma as well as its paragenetic mineral assemblage.Combined with the results of previous study,it is concluded that (a)both rock-and ore-forming materials of Hongling deposit came from hyperplasia crust;and (b)the deposit formed in a dynamical environment of continental crust extension post Mongolia-Okhotsk collisional orogeny.%红岭铅锌多金属矿床为大兴安岭南段多金属成矿带的代表性矿床之一.区内发育斑岩型和矽卡岩型2种钼矿化,前者为产于花岗斑岩内呈斑点-浸染状产出的

  19. Pb2 + Tolerance and Adsorption of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 Isolated from Lead-zinc Mine Tailing Dam%铅锌矿尾矿坝分离节杆菌12-1对Pb2+的耐受和吸附性能研究

    陈志; 邹情雅; 潘晓鸿; 林璋; 关雄

    2014-01-01

    The extensive exploitation and usage of lead resources have caused serious environmental pollution problems currently. Bioremediation of Pb2 + contaminated water and soil environments using microbes is regarded as a promising technology due to the advantages of its cost-effective, easy operation and environmental-friendly properties. In order to understand Pb2+ biosorption characterization of microbes, an indigenous lead-resistant bacterium-Arthrobacter sp. 12-1(GenBank No. KM362724) was isolated from lead-zinc mine tailing dam, and the process and mechanism of Pb2+ biosorption by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 were furtherly investigated in this study. Study on the growth of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 in LB medium containing different concentration of Pb2+suggested that the highest Pb2+tolerant concentration of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 was 800 mg/L. In water solution, 105 mg/L of Pb2+could be reduced to 2.17 mg/L by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 within 24 h with biosorption rate of 97.93%. Microscopic investigation (atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that lead containing mineral was formed on the surface of cell after Pb2+sorption by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1. Further fourier transform infrared (FT- IR) analysis revealed that carboxyl, amide and phosphate groups of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 might be involved in Pb2 + biosorption process. The results demonstrated that the Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 isolated from lead-zinc mine tailing dam had strong ability of Pb2 + resistance and biosorption, indicating an attractive prospect of practical applications in bioremediation Pb2+ contaminated water and soil environments. The present work provides much fundamental information for help in constructing feasible strategies for Pb2+bioremediation in the environment.%当前铅资源的粗放式开采和使用对环境造成了严重的污染。利用微生物修复铅污染具有费用低、易操作、环境友好等优

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  1. Untangling the biological contributions to soil stability in semiarid shrublands

    Chaudhary, V. Bala; Bowker, Matthew A.; O'Dell, Thomas E.; Grace, James B.; Redman, Andrea E.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Johnson, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    Communities of plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to influence soil stability individually, but their relative contributions, interactions, and combined effects are not well understood, particularly in arid and semiarid ecosystems. In a landscape-scale field study we quantified plant, BSC, and AM fungal communities at 216 locations along a gradient of soil stability levels in southern Utah, USA. We used multivariate modeling to examine the relative influences of plants, BSCs, and AM fungi on surface and subsurface stability in a semiarid shrubland landscape. Models were found to be congruent with the data and explained 35% of the variation in surface stability and 54% of the variation in subsurface stability. The results support several tentative conclusions. While BSCs, plants, and AM fungi all contribute to surface stability, only plants and AM fungi contribute to subsurface stability. In both surface and subsurface models, the strongest contributions to soil stability are made by biological components of the system. Biological soil crust cover was found to have the strongest direct effect on surface soil stability (0.60; controlling for other factors). Surprisingly, AM fungi appeared to influence surface soil stability (0.37), even though they are not generally considered to exist in the top few millimeters of the soil. In the subsurface model, plant cover appeared to have the strongest direct influence on soil stability (0.42); in both models, results indicate that plant cover influences soil stability both directly (controlling for other factors) and indirectly through influences on other organisms. Soil organic matter was not found to have a direct contribution to surface or subsurface stability in this system. The relative influence of AM fungi on soil stability in these semiarid shrublands was similar to that reported for a mesic tallgrass prairie. Estimates of effects that BSCs, plants, and AM fungi have

  2. Modeling of Water balance in semiarid region of Mexico

    González-Sosa, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C.; Medina-frutos, C.; Ramos-Salinas, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    Around the world water is becoming scarce, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The present study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in three semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Amazcala and Cadereyta in the State of Queretaro. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in the semiarid ecosystems, specifically through two objectives (1) to quantify and to model the rainfall interception process (EI) employing an adequate sampling strategy and an evaluation of the models developed by Rutter et al. (1975) and Gash (1979) in two shrubs species: huisache (Acacia farnesisna) and mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) both, in situ and ex situ and (2) to quantify and model the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atamosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parametrisation of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that EI represented between 20% and 22% of the total rainfall (PG). Gash's model reproduced EI with satisfactory efficiency (E>0.6), wind's speed and maximum intensity have a local effect on EI. It was also found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil. This, was

  3. Estimation of overland flow metrics at semiarid condition: Patagonian Monte

    M. J. Rossi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow (WIOF processes are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological management. WIOF processes in arid and semiarid regions present regional characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina was performed in order to estimate infiltration-overland descriptive flow parameters. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots at z-scale <1 mm was characterized through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical modelling. The overland flow areas produced by experimental runoff events were video-recorded and the runoff speed was measured with ortho-image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the soil at the upper vadose zone were estimated. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, time explicit model of water balance in the upper soil and overland flows with a modified Green-Ampt (infiltration and Chezy's (overland flow algorithms. Modelling results satisfy validation criteria based on the observed overland flow areas, runoff-speed, water mass balance of the upper vadose zone, infiltration depth, slope along runoff-plume direction, and depression storage intensity. The experimental procedure presented supplies plot-scale estimates of overland flow and infiltration intensities at various intensities of water input which can be incorporated in larger-scale hydrological grid-models of arid regions. Findings were: (1 Overland flow velocities as well as infiltration-overland flow mass balances are consistently modelled by considering variable infiltration rates corresponding to depression storage and/or non-ponded areas. (2 The statistical relations presented

  4. Island abandonment and sea-level rise: an historical analog from the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Gibbons, S.J.A. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Geography and Enivronmental Studies; Nicholls, R.J. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Small islands are widely agreed to be vulnerable to human-induced sea-level rise during the 21st century and beyond, with forced abandonment of some low-lying oceanic islands being a real possibility. A regional abandonment of islands in the Chesapeake Bay, USA provides an historical analog of such vulnerability as this has been linked to a mid 19th Century acceleration in relative sea-level rise. Using a case study approach for Holland Island, Maryland, this hypothesis was tested using a range of physical and human historical data. While sea-level rise was the underlying driver, this analysis shows that the abandonment was more complex than a direct response to sea-level rise. Between 1850 and 1900, Holland Island was a booming community and population increased from 37 to 253, with immigration causing the majority of the increase. At the same time, the upland area where people made their homes was steadily diminishing, losing about 15 ha or 38% of the total. After 1900, the island experienced a decrease in population to 169 in 1916, with final abandonment in 1918, with the exception of one family who left by 1920. Final abandonment was triggered by this depopulation as the population fell below a level that could support critical community services, and the community lost faith in their future on Holland Island. It is likely that similar social processes determined the abandonment of the other Chesapeake Bay islands. Looking to the future, it shows that many small low-lying islands could be abandoned due to sea-level rise long before they become physically uninhabitable. (author)

  5. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  6. Annual plants in arid and semi-arid desert regions

    Xuehua LI; Xiaolan LI; Deming JIANG; Zhimin LIU; Qinghe YU

    2008-01-01

    Annual plants are the main vegetation in arid and semi-arid desert regions.Because of their unique traits,they are the optimal experimental subjects for eco-logical studies.In this article,we summarize annual plants' seed germination strategies,seedling adaptability mechanism to environments,seed dispersal,and soil seed banks.We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the composition and dynamics of annual plant populations and communities.Because annual plants have important ecological functions in desert vegetation systems,this study on annual plants will be of great bene-fit to the conservation and restoration of desert ecosys-tems,the rational utilization of resources,and the sustainable development of desert regions.

  7. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  8. Quantifying macropore recharge: Examples from a semi-arid area

    Wood, W.W.; Rainwater, K.A.; Thompson, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered to be the difference between total recharge through floors of topographically dosed basins and interstitial recharge through the same area. On the regional scale, macropore recharge was considered to be the difference between regional average annual recharge and interstitial recharge measured in the unsaturated zone. Stable isotopic composition of ground water and precipitation was used us an independent estimate of macropore recharge on the regional scale. Results of this analysis suggest that in the Southern High Plains recharge flux through macropores is between 60 and 80 percent of the total 11 mm/y. Between 15 and 35 percent of the recharge occurs by interstitial recharge through the basin floors. Approximately 5 percent of the total recharge occurs as either interstitial or matrix recharge between the basin floors, representing approximately 95 percent of the area. The approach is applicable to other arid and semi-arid areas that focus rainfall into depressions or valleys.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in arid and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered

  9. Evolving soils and hydrologic connectivity in semiarid hillslopes

    Saco, Patricia M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture availability is essential for the stability and resilience of semiarid ecosystems. In these ecosystems the amount of soil moisture available for vegetation growth and survival is intrinsically related to the way water is redistributed, that is from source to sink areas, and therefore prescribed by the hydrologic connectivity of the landscape. Recent studies have shown that hydrologic connectivity is highly dynamic and linked to the coevolution of geomorphic, soil and vegetation structures at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. This study investigates the effect of evolving soil depths on hydrologic connectivity using a modelling framework. The focus is on Australian semiarid hillslopes with patterned vegetation that result from coevolving landforms, soils, water redistribution, and vegetation patterns. We present and analyse results from simulations using a coupled landform evolution-dynamic vegetation model, which includes a soil depth evolution module and accounts for soil production and sediment erosion and deposition processes. We analyse the effect of soils depths on surface connectivity for a range of biotic (plant functional type strategies) and abiotic (slope and erodibility) conditions. The analysis shows that different plant functional types, through their varying facilitation strategies, have a profound effect on soils depths and therefore affect hydrologic connectivity and soil moisture patterns. This interplay becomes particularly important for systems that coevolve to have very shallow soils. In this case soil depth becomes the key factor prescribing surface connectivity and available soil moisture for plants, which affect the recovery of the system after disturbance. Conditions for the existence of threshold behaviour for which small perturbations can trigger a sudden increase in hydrologic connectivity, reduced soil moisture availability and decrease in productivity leading to degraded states are investigated. Critical

  10. Aridity modulates N availability in arid and semiarid Mediterranean grasslands.

    Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo

    Full Text Available While much is known about the factors that control each component of the terrestrial nitrogen (N cycle, it is less clear how these factors affect total N availability, the sum of organic and inorganic forms potentially available to microorganisms and plants. This is particularly true for N-poor ecosystems such as drylands, which are highly sensitive to climate change and desertification processes that can lead to the loss of soil nutrients such as N. We evaluated how different climatic, abiotic, plant and nutrient related factors correlate with N availability in semiarid Stipa tenacissima grasslands along a broad aridity gradient from Spain to Tunisia. Aridity had the strongest relationship with N availability, suggesting the importance of abiotic controls on the N cycle in drylands. Aridity appeared to modulate the effects of pH, plant cover and organic C (OC on N availability. Our results suggest that N transformation rates, which are largely driven by variations in soil moisture, are not the direct drivers of N availability in the studied grasslands. Rather, the strong relationship between aridity and N availability could be driven by indirect effects that operate over long time scales (decades to millennia, including both biotic (e.g. plant cover and abiotic (e.g. soil OC and pH. If these factors are in fact more important than short-term effects of precipitation on N transformation rates, then we might expect to observe a lagged decrease in N availability in response to increasing aridity. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the increase in aridity predicted with ongoing climate change will reduce N availability in the Mediterranean basin, impacting plant nutrient uptake and net primary production in semiarid grasslands throughout this region.

  11. Estimating Depth and Producing Formations of Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells Using Geospatial Analysis

    Christian, S.; Kang, M.; Celia, M. A.; Maloof, A. C.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    More than three million abandoned oil and gas wells exist in the U.S., and information on many of these wells are lost. Recent measurements of 93 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania show that they may be a significant source of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Data such as depth and producing formation of 98% of these measured wells are unavailable. Information on the likely depth of the well and the formation, from which the well likely produced from, is important when evaluating the wells' potential to emit methane and/or to contaminate overlying aquifers, and when developing mitigation strategies. We use geospatial analysis that combines available public databases from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and historic documents to determine the likely depth and formation from which the measured abandoned wells produced. We develop a framework to systematically evaluate the nearest well, pool, and field attributes and assign depth and producing formation to the measured wells based on how well these attributes match. We then use this information to perform a cost analysis for plugging based on well depth for Pennsylvania. The geospatial analysis framework presented here for determining abandoned well properties can be valuable for future field measurement designs, upscaling methane emissions, and mitigating abandoned wells in Pennsylvania but also the many other states with a long history of oil and gas production.

  12. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo;

    2015-01-01

    Farmland abandonment is a widespread land-use change in temperate regions, due to increasing yields on productive lands, conservation policies, and the increasing imports of agricultural products from other regions. Assessing the environmental outcomes of abandonment and the potential for reculti......Farmland abandonment is a widespread land-use change in temperate regions, due to increasing yields on productive lands, conservation policies, and the increasing imports of agricultural products from other regions. Assessing the environmental outcomes of abandonment and the potential...... for recultivation hinges on incomplete knowledge about the spatial patterns of fallow and abandoned farmland, especially at broad geographic scales. Our goals were to develop a methodology to map active and fallow land using MODIS Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series and to provide the first...... observations from the field and from satellite images. The annual maps had an average overall accuracy of 90.1% (average user's accuracy of the fallow class was 73.9%), and we detected an average of 128.7 million hectares (Mha) of fallow land (24.4% of all farmland). Using the fallow/active time series, we...

  13. Chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties of soils from abandoned and extensively cultivated olive orchards.

    Palese, A M; Magno, R; Casacchia, T; Curci, M; Baronti, S; Miglietta, F; Crecchio, C; Xiloyannis, C; Sofo, A

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β -glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  14. Disappointed Love and Suicide: A Randomized Controlled Trial of "Abandonment Psychotherapy" Among Borderline Patients.

    Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes.

  15. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  16. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  17. Canopy management and water use efficiency in vineyards under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    de la Fuente Mario

    2015-01-01

    In addition, both positive effects of sprawl treatments (crop load and training system resulted in better yield and quality in Mediterranean semiarid conditions under the same inputs (sun, water and soil, causing higher efficiency of natural resources.

  18. Precipitation Frequency for Semiarid Southwest, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 1

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Semiarid Southwest based on precipitation data collected between 1893-2000. This atlas is an...

  19. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless \

  20. Integrating management objectives and grazing strategies on semi-arid rangelands

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rangelands account for almost half of Nebraska's 24 million acres. Much of these expansive natural resource areas are in the semi-arid climatic region of Nebraska...

  1. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  2. Rapid warming accelerates tree growth decline in semi-arid forests of Inner Asia.

    Liu, Hongyan; Park Williams, A; Allen, Craig D; Guo, Dali; Wu, Xiuchen; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Liang, Eryuan; Sandanov, Denis V; Yin, Yi; Qi, Zhaohuan; Badmaeva, Natalya K

    2013-08-01

    Forests around the world are subject to risk of high rates of tree growth decline and increased tree mortality from combinations of climate warming and drought, notably in semi-arid settings. Here, we assess how climate warming has affected tree growth in one of the world's most extensive zones of semi-arid forests, in Inner Asia, a region where lack of data limits our understanding of how climate change may impact forests. We show that pervasive tree growth declines since 1994 in Inner Asia have been confined to semi-arid forests, where growing season water stress has been rising due to warming-induced increases in atmospheric moisture demand. A causal link between increasing drought and declining growth at semi-arid sites is corroborated by correlation analyses comparing annual climate data to records of tree-ring widths. These ring-width records tend to be substantially more sensitive to drought variability at semi-arid sites than at semi-humid sites. Fire occurrence and insect/pathogen attacks have increased in tandem with the most recent (2007-2009) documented episode of tree mortality. If warming in Inner Asia continues, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be expected, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests.

  3. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  4. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  5. A New Windows-based Program for Analyzing Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mines

    Jae, L. S.; Choi, Y.; Yi, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a new Windows-based program based on GRAM(Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mineworkings) model which can analyze the groundwater rebound in abandoned mines. The program consists of the graphic user interface and the simulation engine modules. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013 and Visual Studio.NET 2010 were used to effectively implement the graphic user interface and the simulation engine modules. The standard formats of input and output files were designed by considering the characteristics of GRAM model. We carried out a case study to analyze groundwater rebound at the Dongwon coal mine, Korea. As a result, we could know that the developed program can provide useful information for predicting the groundwater rebound in abandoned mines.

  6. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  7. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF CULTIVATED LAND ABANDONMENT IN THE HILLS OF WESTERN NEPAL

    CHHABI LAL CHIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of Cultivated Land Abandonment in the Hills of Western Nepal. This paper deals with the change in agricultural land use pattern in the Andhi khola watershed of Syangja district, Western hills of Nepal, where the population has decreased for the last two decades, which is being the main cause of the agricultural land abandonment, resulting into increase in the fallow lands and vegetation wilderness. This phenomenon has also occurred elsewhere in other parts of the hill region of Nepal, resulting in labor deficit in the agriculture activities. Landsat images of 1999 and 2014 have been used for land use change. Topographic map has been used as the map source. DEM was generated from the contours of the topographic map to derive altitude, slope gradient and slope aspect. The Geographically Weighted Regression Model has been used for prediction of abandonment of cultivated land by location across the study region as well as to identify local variability of the strength of the explanatory variables. Changes in population and altitudinal variation are found as significant factors of agricultural land abandonment. Besides, slope gradient and slope aspect are also found as determining factors. Combined effects of accessibility, landform, land suitability, and irrigation facility on change in agricultural land use pattern are the result of greater strength of the altitudinal variation effect. The lowland areas together with easy access to market and better irrigation facilities are found suitable for the cultivation of a variety of crops. Therefore, these areas have less land abandonment as compared to the highland areas, which were used by local residents for cultivation, though marginal. It is concluded that most of the previously cultivated marginal land in the hills has released population pressure, resulting into land abandonment, which is further accelerated by institutional weaknesses.

  9. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  10. Framing land abandonment and its consequences on soil and vegetation changes

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Sanz, Verónica; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Kukuls, Imants; Sultana, Daniel; Zdruli, Pandi; Fiori, Valeria; Zucca, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A significant increase in forest areas has been observed in the last decades in Europe due to the abandonment of agricultural activities but also thanks to the implementation of reforestation/afforestation projects. These changes in land use have consequences in soil processes (e.g. erosion rates, accumulation of organic matter, humification, leaching, podzolisation), water and nutrient cycle, or productivity, amongst others. This new situation deserves an analysis of the causes and consequences in different scenarios, as the advantages and disadvantages of land abandonment can be different according to particular circumstances. In ordinary local soil surveys, some of the most widely used indicators to evaluate soil changes are organic carbon, nutrients and pH. Variations of these key soil properties can also be used to evaluate the consequences of land abandonment. On the landscape scale, changes in vegetation cover provide valuable information to analyse and evaluate the extent of land abandonment and its impacts on ecosystem functions and services. The re-establishment of natural vegetation can be seen as an invasive process by shrubs or trees, but it also can be considered as a process of natural restoration of these abandoned lands. This study will cover different soils from different study areas in Soria (Spain; 500 mm annual rainfall and 11ºC of average temperature); in Pula, Sardinia (Italy, 500 mm and 17ºC); in Acquaviva delle Fonti in Bari (Italy, 560 mm and 15.3ºC); in Malta (600 mm and 18ºC) and in the Vidzeme upland, central part of Latvia (Latvia, 703 mm and 5.8 ºC). The variations of the abovementioned indicators will be considered in these different scenarios after several decades of abandonment of the agricultural activities. The analysis will also address the diversity of driving forces related to land productivity, population structure, socio economic conditions and/or policy measures which are leading to land abandonment with different

  11. Child abandonment as an indicator of Christianization in the Nordic countries

    Juha Pentikäinen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, child abandonment seems to have been a commonly accepted social tradition until the acceptance of Christianity. When Christian influences reached the Far North, this old practice was gradually criminalized. When the old practice was criminalized by Christian sanctions and norms, the abandoned, murdered or aborted unbaptized children were experienced supernaturally. Their supranormal manifestations are described in Nordic folk beliefs and narratives concerning dead children; in Old Norse sagas, Swedish and Norwegian provincial and ecclesiastical laws and in Finnish runic poetry, all stemming from the Middle Ages.

  12. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Handy, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coal was last mined in Saginaw County, Michigan in 1950. Water from abandoned mines and from undisturbed coal-bearing beds in the Saginaw Formation is highly mineralized and contains high concentrations of iron. Compared to streams in the area, the water contains higher concentrations of at least 15 constituents including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium, and manganese. Water from abandoned mines and coal-bearing beds is a poor source of water for domestic, public, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality.

  13. Water pulses and biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid ecosystems.

    Austin, Amy T; Yahdjian, Laura; Stark, John M; Belnap, Jayne; Porporato, Amilcare; Norton, Urszula; Ravetta, Damián A; Schaeffer, Sean M

    2004-10-01

    The episodic nature of water availability in arid and semiarid ecosystems has significant consequences on belowground carbon and nutrient cycling. Pulsed water events directly control belowground processes through soil wet-dry cycles. Rapid soil microbial response to incident moisture availability often results in almost instantaneous C and N mineralization, followed by shifts in C/N of microbially available substrate, and an offset in the balance between nutrient immobilization and mineralization. Nitrogen inputs from biological soil crusts are also highly sensitive to pulsed rain events, and nitrogen losses, particularly gaseous losses due to denitrification and nitrate leaching, are tightly linked to pulses of water availability. The magnitude of the effect of water pulses on carbon and nutrient pools, however, depends on the distribution of resource availability and soil organisms, both of which are strongly affected by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation cover, topographic position and soil texture. The 'inverse texture hypothesis' for net primary production in water-limited ecosystems suggests that coarse-textured soils have higher NPP than fine-textured soils in very arid zones due to reduced evaporative losses, while NPP is greater in fine-textured soils in higher rainfall ecosystems due to increased water-holding capacity. With respect to belowground processes, fine-textured soils tend to have higher water-holding capacity and labile C and N pools than coarse-textured soils, and often show a much greater flush of N mineralization. The result of the interaction of texture and pulsed rainfall events suggests a corollary hypothesis for nutrient turnover in arid and semiarid ecosystems with a linear increase of N mineralization in coarse-textured soils, but a saturating response for fine-textured soils due to the importance of soil C and N pools. Seasonal distribution of water pulses can lead to the accumulation of mineral N in the dry season

  14. 78 FR 57680 - Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Allegheny County, PA

    2013-09-19

    ... Harwick, Allegheny County, Pa. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 15024 and 15049... under 49 CFR Part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.79 miles of rail line... certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least two years; (2) there is...

  15. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological

  16. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  17. Potential oilseed crops from the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Pinho, R S; Oliveira, A F M; Silva, S I

    2009-12-01

    The caatinga semi-arid ecosystem of northeastern Brazil is characterized by a dry, spiny and predominantly deciduous shrub/forest vegetation, and many species there are potential sources of renewable resources for the oleochemical industry. The present research determined the oil content and fatty acid profiles of seeds from eight caatinga species. Seed oils were extracted in a Soxhlet system, and their fatty acid content identified by GC-MS. Oil content varied between 20.2% in Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) and 46.4% in Barnebya harleyi (W.R. Anderson & B. Gates) Malpighiaceae. Anemopaegma laeve DC. (Bignoniaceae) had the highest oleic acid content (63.4%), while high levels of linoleic acid were found in Banisteriopsis pubipetala (Juss.) Cuatrec. (42.8%) and B. harleyi (31.9%) (both Malpighiaceae). Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid (50%) in Hippocratea volubilis (L.) (Celastraceae). High levels of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), averaging 44.2% and 45.2% respectively. Gadoleic acid in was the most abundant fatty acid in the oil produced by Serjania lethalis A. St. Hill. (Sapindaceae), averaging 69.6%. B. pubipetala, B. harleyi, C. adamantinus, and H. volubilis were identified as promising species for cultivation.

  18. Efficiency of snake sampling methods in the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Mesquita, Paula C M D; Passos, Daniel C; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    The choice of sampling methods is a crucial step in every field survey in herpetology. In countries where time and financial support are limited, the choice of the methods is critical. The methods used to sample snakes often lack objective criteria, and the traditional methods have apparently been more important when making the choice. Consequently researches using not-standardized methods are frequently found in the literature. We have compared four commonly used methods for sampling snake assemblages in a semiarid area in Brazil. We compared the efficacy of each method based on the cost-benefit regarding the number of individuals and species captured, time, and financial investment. We found that pitfall traps were the less effective method in all aspects that were evaluated and it was not complementary to the other methods in terms of abundance of species and assemblage structure. We conclude that methods can only be considered complementary if they are standardized to the objectives of the study. The use of pitfall traps in short-term surveys of the snake fauna in areas with shrubby vegetation and stony soil is not recommended.

  19. Expansive Soil Properties in a Semi-Arid Region

    MuawiaA. Dafalla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansive soils in semi-arid regions are of great concern to design and geotechnical engineers. Range and variations of geotechnical properties of soils are very useful for appropriate design. Saudi Arabia; a semi arid region attracted the attention of researchers and practicing engineers over the last three decades following the rapid urbanizations in different parts of the country. Advanced testing equipments were made available for this study. The research group conducted joint visits with high officials from different municipality authorities to survey the problem and study the extent of damage to various structures. The areas visited included Al Ghatt, Al Zulfi, Al Hofuf, Um Al Sahik, Al Qatif, Tabuk, Tayma and Al Qaleeba. Single and two storey buildings, boundary walls, pavements and asphalt roads suffered significant damage in many parts of the visited locations. This paper presents the outcome of survey and a general review of previous works carried out for swelling clays in Saudi Arabia. Engineering properties for typical soil formation are presented.

  20. The Ecohydrologic Role of Coexistence and Competition in Semiarid Hillslopes

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Through its influence on runoff and erosion-deposition processes, vegetation remarkably regulates different aspects of landscape dynamics. Here, the influence of different plant functional traits on the coexistence of different species in arid and semi-arid regions with patchy vegetation is investigated using an ecohydrology model. The model simulates coevolving changes in biomass patterns for two species, as well as overland flow and soil moisture dynamics. Vegetation patterns emerge as a result of facilitation (shading and infiltration) and competition mechanisms as well as varying seed dispersal strategies. The results show that the survival of only one species or the coexistence of both species not only strongly depends on environmental stresses, but also on differences in hillslope micro and macro topography. These vegetation patterns have very different hydrologic signatures and the potential to trigger remarkably different geomorphic responses. Based on these results we establish new hypothesis that will be used to further investigate the role of plant interspecific and intraspecific feedbacks on landscape coevolution processes.

  1. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas.

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages belonging to Pleosporales that were found previously in semiarid sandy grasslands. For molecular phylogenetic studies seven loci (ITS, partial 18S nrRNA, 28S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, transcription-elongation factor 1- α and ß -tubulin genes) were amplified and sequenced. Based on morphology and the resulting molecular phylogeny these isolates were found to represent three novel genera within the Pleosporales, namely Aquilomyces, Flavomyces and Darksidea, with eight novel species. Molecular data revealed that monotypic Aquilomyces belongs to Morosphaeriaceae, monotypic Flavomyces represents an incertae sedis lineage related to Massarinaceae, and Darksidea, with six new species, is allied to the Lentitheciaceae. During this study we tested numerous conditions to induce sporulation, and managed for the first time to induce several DSE to form their sexual morphs.

  2. Analysis of the abundance of abandoned tanks in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    I.P. Senanayake

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Around two thirds of the area in Sri Lanka is covered by the dry zone, which receives less than 1750 mm average annual rainfall, but not equally distributed over the land. Due to rainfall variations, dry zone of Sri Lanka faced periodic drought conditions in the past. On the basis of surface water availability, Hambantota District appears to be a highly affected area. Tanks have been constructed in order to harvest rainwater to overcome this problem. But, there are many abandoned tanks in Hambantota, which decrease the effectiveness and efficiency of water harvesting. In order to minimize the number of abandoned tanks, an analysis is carried out to find the cause for the abundance of abandoned tanks in the area. Integrating GIS techniques with the relevant data such as rainfall, topographic contours, spot heights, land use, temperature, geology, etc. gives an accurate and updated database, which helps to analyze the reason for the abundance of the abandoned tanks in the area, and hence facilitate the increase of efficiency and effectiveness of rainwater harvesting through a proper water management system.

  3. The option to abandon : Stimulating innovative, groundwater remediation technologies characterized by technologies and uncertainty

    Compernolle, T.; van Passel, S.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon.

  4. Is sex advantageous in adverse environments? A test of the abandon-ship hypothesis.

    Griffiths, Joshua G; Bonser, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology. Stress often induces sexual reproduction in facultatively sexual species (those species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction). The abandon-ship hypothesis predicts higher allocation to sex under stress to allow low-fitness individuals to recombine their genotype, potentially increasing offspring fitness. However, effective tests of the abandon-ship hypothesis, particularly in multicellular organisms, are lacking. Here we test the abandon-ship hypothesis, using cyanogenic and acyanogenic defense phenotypes of the short-lived perennial herb Trifolium repens. Cyanogenesis provides an effective defense against herbivores and is under relatively simple genetic control (plants dominant for cyanogenesis at two alleles express the defended phenotype). Thus, maladapted individuals can acquire adaptive defense alleles for their offspring in a single episode of sexual reproduction. Plants were grown under high- and low-herbivory treatments (plants were exposed to herbivorous snails) and a control treatment (no herbivory). Herbivores reduced growth and fitness in all treated plants, but herbivory induced higher sexual allocation only in maladapted (acyanogenic) individuals. Overall, our results support the abandon-ship hypothesis.

  5. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator must prepare a written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of plugging the injection well...

  6. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the investigation of historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard

    Koster, Benjamin; Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard in the European High Arctic. A short-lived British marble quarry in Kongsfjorden lay deserted after 1920. We ask why this attempt at the large-scale development of High Arctic marble was unproductive; whether there are structural feat

  7. 78 FR 42998 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, MD

    2013-07-18

    ... States Postal Service Zip Code 21740. There are no stations on the line.\\1\\ \\1\\ CSXT states that there is... abandonment of rail service and salvage of the line, the line may be suitable for other public use, including..., Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  8. 78 FR 2316 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, IL

    2013-01-10

    ...). The Line traverses U.S. Postal Service Zip Codes 60608, 60623, and 60632. There are no stations on the..., following the abandonment of rail service and salvage of the Line, the Line may be suitable for other public... Herzig, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  9. 75 FR 65048 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Chesterfield and Darlington Counties, SC

    2010-10-21

    ... Codes 29101 and 29550 and includes stations at Darlco, FSAC 71202366, OPSL 2638, milepost SJ 306, and... abandonment of rail service and salvage of the line, the line may be suitable for other public use, including... of Proceedings. Andrea Pope-Matheson, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  10. 76 FR 21425 - Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Aroostook County, ME

    2011-04-15

    ... States Postal Service Zip Code 04785. In addition to an exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903... abandonment of rail service and salvage of the line, the line may be suitable for other public use, including.... Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  11. 49 CFR 1152.50 - Exempt abandonments and discontinuances of service and trackage rights.

    2010-10-01

    ..., including United States Postal Service ZIP Codes, indicate that the exemption procedure is being used, and... the public that following any abandonment of rail service and salvage of the line, the line may be... requests for public use conditions under 49 U.S.C. 10905 and 49 CFR 1152.28(a)(2) must be filed within...

  12. 75 FR 69152 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart...

  13. 78 FR 59424 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI On September 6, 2013, Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) filed with the Surface Transportation Board a petition...

  14. 78 FR 17282 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  15. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI Wisconsin Central, Ltd. (WCL), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart...

  16. 75 FR 34626 - Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2578 Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1927 to End, revised as...

  17. Abandonment of farmland and vegetation succession following the Eurasian plague pandemic of AD 1347-52

    Yeloff, D.; van Geel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper reviews the available documentary, archaeological and palaeoecological evidence for the abandonment of agricultural land and consequent regeneration of the forest in Europe after the Black Death. Location: Western and northern Europe. Methods: This review is the result of an exhausti

  18. 7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.

    2010-01-01

    ... abandoned property shall take the actions necessary to secure, maintain, preserve, lease, manage, or operate... requested, at the address currently used by Finance Office, outlining proposed actions by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to secure, maintain, and operate the project. (i) If the...

  19. Housing Abandonment and Demolition: Exploring the Use of Micro-Level and Multi-Year Models

    Li Yin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policies focusing on enforcing property code violations and the improvement of vacant properties are argued to be more efficacious than demolition policies to fight urban blight. This study applies parcel level data to a multi-year hybrid modeling structure. A fine-grained analysis is conducted on the dynamic patterns of abandonment and demolition for a unique period of four years before and after the City of Buffalo’s stepped-up demolition efforts. Results showed that proximity to vacant and abandoned properties, sustained over the years, had the greatest impact on the possibility of a property being abandoned. The second greatest positive impact on property abandonment was small lot front size. Results also showed that neighborhood vacancy density had the greatest negative impact on surrounding housing sales prices over the years. There was no significant impact of demolition on housing sales prices. These findings suggested that the City should aim to have more incentive programs that are tailored to control the number of vacant properties, rather than focusing primarily on demolition-oriented programs.

  20. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C.

  1. Potential sediment delivery and runoff from abandoned fields in Southeast Spain: control or natural development?

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    RECONDES is a three-year EU-funded project, which focus is to mitigate desertification processes by means of innovative techniques using vegetation in specific landscape configurations prone to severe degradation processes. One of the research themes is the impact of desertification on abandoned lan

  2. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

  3. 77 FR 51107 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pocahontas County, IA

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pocahontas County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  4. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  5. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  6. Effect of vegetation manipulation of abandoned arable land on soil microbial properties

    Maly, S.; Korthals, G.W.; Van Dijk, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; De Boer, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of vegetation composition on various soil microbial properties in abandoned arable land was investigated 2 years after agricultural practice had terminated. Microbial numbers and processes were determined in five replicate plots of each of the following treatments: continued agricultural

  7. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    2012-07-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF... Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA), between milepost 7.95 (just north of West... the City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Cal. (the line). The line traverses United States...

  8. 76 FR 35946 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA.

    2011-06-20

    .... 477X] BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA. On May 31, 2011, BNSF... over 4.85 miles of rail line owned by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA..., just east of the Santa Anita Blvd. grade crossing, in Arcadia, in Los Angeles County, CA (the...

  9. 77 FR 40147 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA

    2012-07-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Boston and Maine Corporation (B&M) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152....\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 01440. \\1\\ On June 20, 2012, the...

  10. Father abandonment and jealousy : A study among women on Curaçao

    van Brummen-Girigori, Odette; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Girigori, Auronette

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether women who were abandoned by their father experience more anxious, preventive and reactive jealousy than women who grew up in the presence of their father. The sample consisted of 186 female undergraduate students from Curacao (age M = 22.88; SD =

  11. Economic valuation of a toll road concession with traffic guarantees and the abandonment option

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governments worldwide have been encouraging private participation in transportation infrastructure. To increase the feasibility of a project, public-private partnership (PPP may include guarantees or other support to reduce the risks for private investors. It is necessary to value these opportunities under a real options framework and thereby analyze the project's economic feasibility and risk allocation. However, within this structure, sponsors have an implicit option to abandon the project that should be simultaneously valued. Thus, this article proposes a hypothetical toll road concession in Brazil with a minimum traffic guarantee, a maximum traffic ceiling, and an implicit abandonment option. Different combinations of the minimum and maximum levels are presented, resulting in very high or even negative value added to the net present value (NPV. The abandonment option impacts the level of guarantee to be given. Governments should calibrate an optimal level of guarantees to avoid unnecessarily high costs, protect the returns of the sponsor, and lower the probability of abandonment.

  12. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    2012-09-27

    ... abandon approximately 8.5 miles of rail line between approximate milepost 0.0 (at or near Pickens) and the end of the line at approximate milepost 8.5 (at or near Easley), in Pickens County, S.C. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 29671 and 29641. Pickens has certified that: (1) No...

  13. 77 FR 21153 - Georgia Department of Transportation-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, GA

    2012-04-09

    ... of 49 U.S.C. 10903 to abandon a 3.12-mile line of railroad between milepost 469.15 and milepost 472.27, which comprises a portion of a line known as the L&N Belt, in Fulton County, Ga. (West End Property). The West End Property traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 30310 and 30314,...

  14. Assessment of Reclamation Treatments of Abandoned Farmland in an Arid Region of China

    Haichang Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation of abandoned farmland is crucial to a sustainable agriculture in arid regions. This study aims to evaluate the impact of different reclamation treatments on abandoned salinized farmland. We investigated four artificial reclamation treatments, continuous cotton (CC, continuous alfalfa (CA, tree-wheat intercropping (TW and trees (TS, which were conducted in 2011–2012 in the Manasi River Basin of Xinjiang Province, China. Soil nutrient, microorganism and enzyme activity were examined in comparison with natural succession (CK in an integrated analysis on soil fertility improvement and soil salinization control with these reclamations. Results indicate that the four artificial reclamation treatments are more effective approaches than natural restoration to reclaim abandoned farmland. TW and CA significantly increased soil nutrient content compared to CK. CC reduced soil salinity to the lowest level among all treatments. TW significantly enhanced soil enzyme activity. All four artificial reclamations increased soil microbial populations and soil microbial biomass carbon. TW and CA had the greatest overall optimal effects among the four treatments in terms of the ecological outcomes. If both economic benefits and ecological effects are considered, TW would be the best reclamation mode. The findings from this study will assist in selecting a feasible method for reclamation of abandoned farmland for sustainable agriculture in arid regions.

  15. Possible mechanism for spontaneous establishment of Calluna vulgaris in a recently abandoned agricultural field

    Van der Wal, A.; De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In Western Europe, arable lands have been abandoned to increase the area of nature, such as Calluna vulgaris–dominated heathlands. However, the growth conditions, e.g., nutrient availability and lack of a phenolics-rich organic layer, on ex-arable sandy soils differ markedly from those of heathland

  16. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs, to cover the proprietor's receipt of the merchandise and its... designated by the port director or an electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs. (b) Recording and... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized...

  17. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    2010-04-01

    ... similar Customs document as designated by the port director or an electronic equivalent as authorized by... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. 127.41 Section 127.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton...

  19. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States...

  20. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de, E-mail: anasanti@ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero-Perea, Cristina, E-mail: crvaquer@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.valverde@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Quintana Nieto, Jose R., E-mail: jrquinta@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); González-Huecas, Concepción, E-mail: chuecas@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio L., E-mail: lopezlafuente@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio, E-mail: vazquez@inia.es [INIA, Forest Research Centre, Carretera de A Coruña km 7.5, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg{sup −1} (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  1. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  2. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils.

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Vaquero-Perea, Cristina; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana Nieto, Jose R; González-Huecas, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01-0.15 (Cd), 2.6-34 (Cu), 6.6-30 (Pb), and 29-92mgkg(-1) (Zn). Cadmium (11-100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and availability of metals

  3. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    Scanlon, B.R.; Keese, K.E.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Gaye, C.B.; Edmunds, W.M.; Simmers, I.

    2006-01-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from ???140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ???720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Nin??os (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Nin??as (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (??? 10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The

  4. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, Kelley E.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gaye, Cheikh B.; Edmunds, W. Michael; Simmers, Ian

    2006-10-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374 000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to 720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU

  5. Early warning signals of desertification transitions in semiarid ecosystems

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The identification of early warning signals for regime shifts in ecosystems is of crucial importance given their impact in terms of economic and social effects. We present here the results of a theoretical study on the desertification transition in semiarid ecosystems under external stress. We performed numerical simulations based on a stochastic cellular automaton model, and we studied the dynamics of the vegetation clusters in terms of percolation theory, assumed as an effective tool for analyzing the geometrical properties of the clusters. Focusing on the role played by the strength of external stresses, measured by the mortality rate m , we followed the progressive degradation of the ecosystem for increasing m , identifying different stages: first, the fragmentation transition occurring at relatively low values of m , then the desertification transition at higher mortality rates, and finally the full desertification transition corresponding to the extinction of the vegetation and the almost complete degradation of the soil, attained at the maximum value of m . For each transition we calculated the spanning probabilities as functions of m and the percolation thresholds according to different spanning criteria. The identification of the different thresholds is proposed as an useful tool for monitoring the increasing degradation of real-world finite-size systems. Moreover, we studied the time fluctuations of the sizes of the biggest clusters of vegetated and nonvegetated cells over the entire range of mortality values. The change of sign in the skewness of the size distributions, occurring at the fragmentation threshold for the biggest vegetation cluster and at the desertification threshold for the nonvegetated cluster, offers new early warning signals for desertification. Other new and robust indicators are given by the maxima of the root-mean-square deviation of the distributions, which are attained respectively inside the fragmentation interval, for the

  6. Nonlinear biofluvial responses to vegetation change in a semiarid environment

    Neave, Mel; Rayburg, Scott

    2007-09-01

    indicate that biophysical interactions in semiarid environments, such as the Jornada del Muerto Basin, are extremely complex and highlight the need for integrative investigations in these regions.

  7. Biogeochemical indicators of elevated nitrogen deposition in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems.

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Bowker, Matthew A; Maestre, Fernando T; Pérez-Corona, M Esther; Theobald, Mark R; Vivanco, Marta G; Manrique, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has doubled the natural N inputs received by ecosystems through biological N fixation and is currently a global problem that is affecting the Mediterranean regions. We evaluated the existing relationships between increased atmospheric N deposition and biogeochemical indicators related to soil chemical factors and cryptogam species across semiarid central, southern, and eastern Spain. The cryptogam species studied were the biocrust-forming species Pleurochaete squarrosa (moss) and Cladonia foliacea (lichen). Sampling sites were chosen in Quercus coccifera (kermes oak) shrublands and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) forests to cover a range of inorganic N deposition representative of the levels found in the Iberian Peninsula (between 4.4 and 8.1 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). We extended the ambient N deposition gradient by including experimental plots to which N had been added for 3 years at rates of 10, 20, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Overall, N deposition (extant plus simulated) increased soil inorganic N availability and caused soil acidification. Nitrogen deposition increased phosphomonoesterase (PME) enzyme activity and PME/nitrate reductase (NR) ratio in both species, whereas the NR activity was reduced only in the moss. Responses of PME and NR activities were attributed to an induced N to phosphorus imbalance and to N saturation, respectively. When only considering the ambient N deposition, soil organic C and N contents were positively related to N deposition, a response driven by pine forests. The PME/NR ratios of the moss were better predictors of N deposition rates than PME or NR activities alone in shrublands, whereas no correlation between N deposition and the lichen physiology was observed. We conclude that integrative physiological measurements, such as PME/NR ratios, measured on sensitive species such as P. squarrosa, can provide useful data for national-scale biomonitoring programs, whereas soil acidification and soil C and N storage

  8. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  9. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    Guentner, A.

    2002-09-01

    Semi-arid areas are characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand due to population growth and economic development as well as a possible decreasing water availability in the course of climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future in these areas. The quantitative assessment of the water resources is a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management. For this task, hydrological models within a dynamic integrated framework are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceara in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Surface water from reservoirs provides the largest part of water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. (orig.)

  10. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  11. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    Gutiérrez, Mélida, E-mail: mgutierrez@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Mickus, Kevin, E-mail: kevinmickus@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Camacho, Lucy Mar, E-mail: lucy.camacho@tamuk.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas & M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  12. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late quaternary

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Sharpe, S.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Semi-arid woodlands have dominated the middle elevations of Great Basin mountain ranges during the Holocene where subalpine woodlands prevailed during the Pleistocene. Ancient woodrat middens, and in a few cases pollen records indicate in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene woodland history lowered elevation of subalpine woodland species. After a middle Holocene retrenchment at elevations in excess of 500 meters above today, Juniper-dominated semi-arid woodland reached its late Holocene maximum areal extent during the Neoglacial (2 to 4 ka). These records, along with others indicate contracting semi-arid woodland after the Neoglacial about 1.9 ka. Desert shrub community expansion coupled with increased precariousness of wetland areas in the southern Great Basin between 1.9 and 1.5 ka coincide with shrinking wet-lands in the west-central and northern Great Basin. Coincident greater grass abundance in northern Great Basin sagebrush steppe, reaching its maximum between 1.5 and 1.2 ka, corresponds to dramatic increases in bison remains in the archaeological sites of the northern Intermontane West. Pollen and woodrat midden records indicate that this drought ended about 1.5 ka. Succeeding ameliorating conditions resulted in the sudden northward and downward expansion of pinon into areas that had been dominated by juniper during the Neoglacial. Maximum areal extent of pinon dominated semi-arid woodland in west-central Nevada was centered at 1.2 ka. This followed by 100 years the shift in dominance from juniper to pinon in southern Nevada semi-arid woodlands. Great Basin woodlands suffered from renewed severe droughts between .5 to .6 ka. Effectively wetter conditions during the {open_quotes}Little Ice Age{close_quotes} resulted in re-expansion of semi-arid woodland. Activities related to European settlement in the Great Basin have modified prehistoric factors or imposed new ones that are affecting woodland response to climate.

  13. Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cropley, Ford;

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) for semi-arid savanna ecosystems of the Sahel region and its response to climatic and environmental change. A subsidiary aim is to study and quantify the seasonal dynamics in light use efficiency (ε) being a key...... variable in scaling carbon fluxes from ground observations using earth observation data. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) 2010-2013 was measured using the eddy covariance technique at a grazed semi-arid savanna site in Senegal, West Africa. Night-time NEE was not related to temperature...

  14. Effects of habitat on avian productivity in abandoned pecan orchards in southern Georgia

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs and nestlings were determined for Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) occupying abandoned pecan orchards in a highly fragmented and intensively farmed area of southern Georgia. The effects of nest placement parameters, seasonal factors and habitat disruptions on DSRs for all species combined were statistically analyzed. Egg and nestling DSRs varied significantly by month of nesting, percent cover, vegetative form and position of nest in substrate. Causes of nest failure (no fledglings produced) in order of decreasing importance were predation by small mammals/snakes, avian predation, predation by large mammals, and abandonment. Results provide further evidence that the importance of nest placement and habitat disruptions in nesting success is influenced by foraging strategies of the predator community. Site-specific predator/habitat complexes may be a more appropriate criterion than habitat conditions alone for evaluating avian nesting habitat

  15. Comparison of Kriging and coKriging for soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination mapping around abandoned mines is an important task for the planning and design of mine reclamation. This study compared the ordinary Kriging and the co-Kriging methods for the soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites. Four approaches were conducted as follows: (1) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) data only; (2) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) data only; (3) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF; and (4) soil contamination mapping using the co-Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF. Results indicate that the approach 3 provides substantial improvements over other three approaches including a more reasonable spatial pattern of soil contamination and reduction in the error of its estimates.

  16. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  17. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-11-26

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation.

  18. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  19. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  20. The impact of legalized abortion on child health outcomes and abandonment. Evidence from Romania.

    Mitrut, Andreea; Wolff, François-Charles

    2011-12-01

    We use household survey data and a unique census of institutionalized children to analyze the impact of abortion legalization in Romania. We exploit the lift of the abortion ban in December 1989, when communist dictator Ceausescu and his regime were removed from power, to understand its impact on children's health at birth and during early childhood and whether the lift of the ban had an immediate impact on child abandonment. We find insignificant estimates for health at birth outcomes and anthropometric z-scores at age 4 and 5, except for the probability of low birth weight which is slightly higher for children born after abortion became legal. Additionally, our findings suggest that the lift of the ban had decreased the number of abandoned children.

  1. A WebGIS Decision Support System for Management of Abandoned Mines

    Ranka Stanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a WebGIS application aimed at providing safe and reliable data needed for reclamation of abandoned mines in national parks and other protected areas in Vojvodina in compliance with existing legal regulations. The geodatabase model for this application has been developed using UML and the CASE tool Microsoft Visio featuring an interface with ArcGIS. The WebGIS application was developed using GeoServer, an open source tool in the Java programming language, with integrated PostgreSQL DB and the possibility of generating and publishing WMS, WFS and KML services. The WebGIS application is publicly available, based on an appropriate central database, which for the first time encompasses all available data on abandoned mines in Vojvodina, and as such may serve as a model for similar databases on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  2. Sealing abandoned mines with treated flyash kills two birds with one stone

    Giacinto, J.F.; Rafalko, L.G.; Petzrick, P. [Environmental Resources Management Inc. (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Environmentally benign disposal of coal combustion products/by-products (CCPs) such as flyash and bottom ash has been a problem since the first coal-fired power plant went on-line. In recent years, ways have been developed to recycle CCPs into useful commercial products like bricks and roadbase. This article describes an innovative State of Maryland program that is putting CCPs to yet another use: stabilizing abandoned mines to permanently sequester acids and harmful metals. As engineering consultants to the State's Power Plant Research Project (PPRP), Environmental Resources Management (ERM) Inc. has conducted several projects to evaluate and demonstrate the beneficial use of CCPs for deep mine stabilization. These are several hundred abandoned underground mines in western Maryland and several thousand across the Mid-Atlantic Highlands and their proximity to coal-fired plants makes it cost-effective to transport CCPs via existing railroads and highways. 8 figs.

  3. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  4. Using indicator kriging for the evaluation of arsenic potential contamination in an abandoned mining area (Portugal).

    Antunes, I M H R; Albuquerque, M T D

    2013-01-01

    Mining and mineral-processing activities can modify the environment in a variety of ways. Sulfide mineralization is notorious for producing waters with high metal contents. Arsenic is commonly associated with sulfide mineralization and is considered to be toxic in the environment at low levels. The studied abandoned mining area is located in central Portugal and the resulting tailings and rejected materials were deposited and exposed to the air and water for the last 50 years. Sixteen water sample-points were collected. One of these was collected outside the mining influence, with the aim of obtaining a reference background. The risk assessment, concerning the proximity to abandoned mineralized deposits, needs the evaluation of intrinsic and specific vulnerabilities aiming the quantification of the anthropogenic activities. In this study, two indicator variables were constructed. The first one (I(1)), a specific vulnerability, considers the arsenic water supply standard value (0.05 mg/L), and the probability of it being exceeded is dependent on the geologic and hydrological characteristics of the studied area and also on the anthropogenic activities. The second one (I(2)), an intrinsic vulnerability, considers arsenic background limit as cut-off value, and depends only on the geologic and hydro-geological characteristics of the studied area. At Segura, the arsenic water content found during December 2006 (1.190 mg/L) was higher than the arsenic water content detected in October 2006 (0.636 mg/L) which could be associated to the arsenic released from Fe oxy-hydroxide. At Segura abandoned mining area, the iso-probability maps of October 2006 and December 2006, show strong anomalies associated with the water drainage from abandoned mining activities. Near the village, the probability of exceeding the arsenic background value is high but lower than the probability of exceeding the arsenic water supply value. The arsenic anomalies indicate a high probability for water

  5. Use of risk assessment to evaluate effects and plan remediation of abandoned mines

    Boyle, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    A framework of risk assessment is elaborated for the evaluation of the effects of abandoned mines and mills. Steps in this process include environmental description, identification and characterization of sources, assessment of exposure, assessment of effects, risk characterization, and risk management of remediation. The development and use of ecological end-points for remediation is discussed in terms of the chemical constituents, toxicity tests and the biological community.

  6. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  7. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    Guilherme, João Lopes; Miguel Pereira, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR) to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat) models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD) at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest) at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain areas.

  8. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Makoto Yokohari; Mariko Miyamoto; Jay Bolthouse; Jiro Kogi

    2010-01-01

    Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N) and phosphorous (T-P) loads, an increasingly problemat...

  9. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and ...

  10. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Child Health Outcomes and Abandonment. Evidence from Romania.

    2010-01-01

    We use household survey data and a unique census of institutionalized children to analyze the impact of abortion legalization in Romania. More exactly, we exploit the lift of the abortion ban in December 1989, when communist dictator Ceausescu and his regime were removed from power, to understand its impact on children's health at birth and during early childhood. Also, we try to understand whether the lift of the ban had an immediate impact on child abandonment. Our study suggests a positive...

  11. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  12. Potential Consequences of Abandonment in Preschool-Age: Neuropsychological Findings in Institutionalized Children

    Juan F. Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several longitudinal studies had shown that early deprivation and institutionalization during the first six months of life affects the emotional, cognitive, social and neurophysiologic development. Nevertheless, our understanding of possible similar effects of delayed institutionalization, in preschool-age remains unclear to this day. The goal of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of institutionalized children with history of preschool-age physical abandonment.

  13. Multiyear riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for a semiarid watershed

    Scott, R.L.; Cable, W.L.; Huxman, T. E.; Nagler, P.L.; Hernandez, M.; Goodrich, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the surface and subsurface water balance for many semiarid watersheds. Measurement or model-based estimates of ET are often made on a local scale, but spatially distributed estimates are needed to determine ET over catchments. In this paper, we document the ET that was quantified over 3 years using eddy covariance for three riparian ecosystems along the Upper San Pedro River of southeastern Arizona, USA, and we use a water balance equation to determine annual groundwater use. Riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for the watershed were then determined by using a calibrated, empirical model that uses 16-day, 250-1000 m remote-sensing products for the years of 2001-2005. The inputs for the model were derived entirely from the NASA MODIS sensor and consisted of the Enhanced Vegetation Index and land surface temperature. The scaling model was validated using subsets of the entire dataset (omitting different sites or years) and its capable performance for well-watered sites (MAD=0.32 mm day-1, R2=0.93) gave us confidence in using it to determine ET over the watershed. Three years of eddy covariance data for the riparian sites reveal that ET and groundwater use increased as woody plant density increased. Groundwater use was less variable at the woodland site, which had the greatest density of phreatophytes. Annual riparian groundwater use within the watershed was nearly constant over the study period despite an on-going drought. For the San Pedro alone, the amounts determined in this paper are within the range of most recently reported values that were derived using an entirely different approach. However, because of our larger estimates for groundwater use for the main tributary of the San Pedro, the watershed totals were higher. The approach presented here can provide riparian ET and groundwater use amounts that reflect real natural variability in phreatophyte withdrawals and improve the accuracy of a

  14. Nitrogen Uptake Preferences by Plants in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems

    Macko, S.; Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.

    2005-12-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems like African savannas, nutrient availability varies spatially and temporally and nutrients are considered to be a major limiting factor for growth in addition to water availability. Preference for different nitrogen forms presumably enhances the survivorship and fitness of plants since the relative abundances of nitrate and ammonium varies between drier and wetter areas. To test the hypothesis that species developing in dry areas will prefer nitrate whereas species growing in wet areas will prefer ammonium, a controlled experiment using a greenhouse was undertaken. Six native African grass species from different precipitation regimes were used in this study. Two species were from relatively wet areas (Pandamatenga, Botswana, precipitation = 698 mm/year), two were from relatively dry areas (Tshane, Botswana, precipitation = 232 mm/year) and other two were from intermediate environments (Ghanzi, Botswana, precipitation = 400 mm/year). The grass seeds were collected in the field during the dry season of 2004 and using germination pans, were grown in a greenhouse. When individuals were mature, they were transferred into plastic pots (one individual per pot) containing commercial sand. After one week period of adjustment, a 15N labeled fertilizer (NH4NO3) was applied. The total N applied as fertilizer was comparable to the mineralized field N based on a calculated rate for the top 15 cm of soil. A pair of individual plants was treated as an experimental unit. Each plant received the same amount of total N fertilizer, but one was 15NO3 labeled and another was 15NH4 labeled. Nutrient uptake preference was determined by the 15N difference between pairs. The preliminary results with three species shows that, the individuals from dry area ( Enneapogon cenchroides from Tshane) has significantly higher foliar 15N signatures in the 15NO3 labeling treatment (p = 0.0103) and no difference in root 15N signatures. Whereas individuals from the wet

  15. Feelings of abandonment and quality of life among older persons in rural northeast Thailand.

    Sudnongbua, Supaporn; LaGrow, Steven; Boddy, Julie

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which older persons in rural Northeast Thailand felt abandoned by the emigration of their children and the impact this may have on their quality of life. A cross sectional survey, consisting of 113 questions including the 26-item WHOQOL-BREF and the 24-item WHOQOL-OLD was administered to 212 participants. Participants ranged in age from 60 to 107 with a mean age of 71. While only 9% were found to live alone, 20% stated that they felt abandoned to some degree. A one-way between groups MANOVA was conducted to determine if those who felt abandoned differed from those who did not on a single-item question of Overall QOL and the total scores for the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups on the combined dependent variable [F (3, 208) = 4.75, p = .003; Wilks' Lambda = .94]. When the results for each of the dependent variables were considered separately, statistically significant differences were found on the WHOQOL-BREF [F (1, 210) = 13.61, p < .001] and the WHOQOL-OLD [F (1, 210) = 9.85, p = .001] only.

  16. Weed inhibition by sowing legume species in early succession of abandoned fields on Loess Plateau, China

    Li, Jin-Hua; Xu, Dang-Hui; Wang, Gang

    2008-01-01

    A major constraint on vegetation succession on abandoned land is dominance by early successional species. Our aim was to inhibit weeds and alter the initial vegetation succession by the introduction of legume species ( Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens, and Astragalus adsurgens) into abandoned fields on the Loess Plateau, China. Results from our study showed that the addition of legume species strongly affected the dominance pattern of the abandoned-field vegetation. The number of naturally colonizing species was inhibited by the introduction of legume species in the first two growing seasons. The strongest effect on weed inhibition appeared by sowing Melilotus suaveolens. Vegetation cover and above-ground biomass increased after introduction of legume species and the number of naturally colonizing plant species showed a positive correlation with above-ground biomass. Later successional species like Stipa breviflora and Astragalus polycladus appeared three years following the introduction of Melilotus suaveolens, indicating that the course of old-field succession may be accelerated by introducing legume species such as Melilotus suaveolens, at least temporarily.

  17. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the carpathian mountains: do dominant species matter?

    Csergő, Anna Mária; Demeter, László; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor.

  18. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the carpathian mountains: do dominant species matter?

    Anna Mária Csergő

    Full Text Available Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania, the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor.

  19. MAPPING SECONDARY FOREST SUCCESSION ON ABANDONED AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE POLISH CARPATHIANS

    N. Kolecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015. This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  20. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Jason Sherba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.

  1. Striped-tailed Yellow-finch nesting success in abandoned mining pits from central Brazilian cerrado

    DT. Gressler

    Full Text Available Suitability of degraded areas as breeding habitats can be tested through assessment of nest predation rates. In this study we estimated nest success in relation to several potential predictors of nest survival in the Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina breeding in abandoned mining pits at Brasília National Park. We monitored 73 nests during the 2007-breeding season. Predation was the main cause of nest failure (n = 48, 66%; while six nests were abandoned (8% and 19 nests produced young (26%. Mayfield’s daily survival rates and nest success were 0.94 and 23%, respectively. Our results from nest survival models on program MARK indicated that daily survival rates increase linearly towards the end of the breeding season and decrease as nests aged. None of the nest individual covariates we tested - nest height, nest size, nest substrate, and edge effect - were important predictors of nest survival; however, nests placed on the most common plant tended to have higher survival probabilities. Also, there was no observer effect on daily survival rates. Our study suggests that abandoned mining pits may be suitable alternative breeding habitats for Striped-tailed Yellow-finches since nest survival rates were similar to other studies in the central cerrado region.

  2. Biological Cycles of Mineral Elements in a Young Mixed Stand in Abandoned Mining Soils

    Da-Lun Tian; Wen-Hua Xiang; Wen-De Yan; Wen-Xing Kang; Xiang-Wen Deng; Zhu Fan

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. In this study, biological cycles of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) and eight heavy metal elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Co) were examined in young paniculed goldraintree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) mixed stands in an abandoned mining area. We found that after vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas, the organic matter and concentrations of nutrient elements were significantly increased and the heavy metal elements were significantly decreased, the annual retention, uptake and return were 75.0, 115.4, and 40.3 kg/hm2 for nutrient elements, and 1 878.0,3 231.0 and 1 353.0 g/hm2 for heavy metal elements, respectively, with the utilization coefficient, cycling coefficient and turnover rate of 0.92, 0.35 and 0.32 for nutrient elements, and 1.24, 0.42 and 1.92 for heavy metal elements, respectively.Our results suggested that the vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas had significant effects in improving environmental conditions, enhancing soil available nutrients, and ensuring human health.

  3. [Abandonment of tuberculosis treatment among patients co-infected with TB/HIV].

    Rodrigues, Ivaneide Leal Ataide; Monteiro, Larissa Lima; Pacheco, Régia Hevelline Barros; da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the reasons that patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV leave the treatment of tuberculosis and to know the conduct of the health team toward that abandonment. The study, using a qualitative approach, performed semi-structured interviews on 45 professionals working at a referral health center in Pará state. Two units emerged based on the thematic analysis: patient-associated factors that make TB treatment adherence difficult; and service-associated factors that contribute to treatment abandonment. It was found that, in terms of the patients, that their low socioeconomic condition was the most common factor that led to abandonment. Other factors that led to this outcome included the adverse drug effects, the use of illegal drugs, and poor personal motivation. Regarding the service, issues related to the physical structure, working process organization and accessibility were also relevant to their non-adherence. Results show there is a need to change the practices performed at the health care services.

  4. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  5. Established and abandoned tea (Camillia sinensis L.) rhizosphere: dominant bacteria and their antagonism.

    Sood, Anchal; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Ram L

    2008-01-01

    Some parts of the Indian Himalayan region are covered by established and abandoned tea bushes. Rhizospheric soils of these plants were studied for bacterial dominance and antagonism. Representatives of Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera were found to dominate the rhizosphere of established and abandoned tea bushes, respectively. Amongst the isolated species Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mycoides appeared to be closely associated with roots of established tea bushes while the rhizosphere of abandoned tea bushes was dominated by Pseudomonas putida. Four isolates of both B. subtilis and P. putida were selected on the basis of maximum antibacterial activity. The bacteriocin-like activity of B. subtilis and P putida strains was detected to be active over a range of temperature 0-50 degrees C and was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. Incubation of indicator strains with different concentrations of bacteriocin-like substances confirmed their bactericidal activity. Various species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas behaved antagonistically amongst themselves due to the production of bacteriocins under in vitro conditions.

  6. Colloid investigations of acid rock drainage solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-Ag mine by ultrafiltration and PCS measurements

    Richter, W.; Zaenker, H.

    2002-05-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) solution from an abandoned ore mine was investigated by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ICP-MS. A colloid concentration of about 1 g/L was found. The prevailing particle size was < 5 nm. (orig.)

  7. 78 FR 33891 - North Central Railway Association, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Franklin and Hardin Counties, Iowa

    2013-06-05

    ... (Sub-No. 3X)] North Central Railway Association, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption-- in Franklin and Hardin... milepost 201.46 at or near Ackley, and milepost 191.0 at or near Geneva, in Franklin and Hardin...

  8. Dislocation of a non-functional transvenous ventricular pacemaker lead in a child 6 years following abandonment.

    Nagel, Bert; Koestenberger, Martin; Knez, Igor; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    This case report describes for the first time a late dislocation of an abandoned transvenous ventricular pacemaker (PM) lead in a child. Further management of this complication and the importance for follow-up of PM leads are discussed.

  9. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  10. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, Plandforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  11. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    Tobias Plieninger

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1 which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants are more affected by land abandonment; (2 at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3 whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4 how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001 plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  12. Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers

    Hoekstra, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

  13. Cover crop effects on soil microbial communities and enzyme activity in semiarid agroecosystems

    The objective of this study was to compare a fallow-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation to several cover crop-winter wheat rotations under dryland and irrigated conditions in the semiarid US High Plains. We carried out a study that included two sites (Sidney, NE, and Akron, CO), and three s...

  14. Rainwater harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones (repr. 1997)

    Boers, Th.M.

    1994-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, the scarcity of water can be alleviated by rainwater harvesting, which is defined as a method of inducing, collecting, storing, and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture. Rainwater harvesting can be applied with different systems, and this dissertation deals

  15. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  16. Determining soil erosion rates on semi-arid watersheds using radioisotope-derived sedimentation chronology 2327

    This study investigates erosion dynamics of the past 90 years on three small semi-arid watersheds with histories of grazing and vegetation change. Activity of 137Cs and excess 210Pb from 18 cores collected from sedimentation ponds were measured using a gamma spectrometer. The sediment was dated usi...

  17. Soil moisture prediction to support management in semiarid wetlands during drying episodes

    Aguilera, Héctor; Moreno, Luis; Wesseling, Jan G.; Jiménez-Hernández, María E.; Castaño, Silvino

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands supported by groundwater in semiarid regions are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of droughts, particularly anthropized systems. During drying periods, soil water content arises as the controlling factor for environmental and ecological disturbances such as the spread of invasive plan

  18. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  19. Extensive Green Roof Species and Soilless Media Evaluations in Semi-arid Colorado

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, soilless media blends and plant interactions on an existing, modular-extensive (shallow, 10 cm deep) green roof in Denver, Colo...

  20. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5 yea

  1. Acclimation of Pistacia integerrima trees to frost in semi-arid environments depends on autumn's drought.

    Sperling, Or; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2017-03-01

    Main conclusion Cold acclimation is revealed through induced stem respiration during pre-winter frost of native Pistacia integerrima trees in continental semi-arid environments. Semi-arid environments challenge vegetation by simultaneous abiotic stresses. In this study, we examine the combined effects of water stress and frost on the physiology of Pistacia integerrima stems. This species is native to semi-arid environments where drought and frost frequently co-occur. We quantified carbohydrates and proline in P. integerrima stems responding to frost and experiencing water potentials between -0.2 and -1.8 MPa. We report that dehydrated trees (i.e., Ψstem <=-1 MPa) had more soluble sugars and proline than the well-watered trees (-0.2 MPa). The dehydrated trees also froze at lower temperatures and were less damaged by freezing. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in stem CO2 efflux at near-freezing temperatures that could be linked to frost protection. This novel finding challenges current paradigm of plant respiration-kinetics which predicts, according to Arrhenius equation, lower respiration rates during frost. Our results support the notion that drought and frost are analogous stresses that can independently activate corresponding physiological processes in trees and amplify protection. This inevitable stress response 'collaboration' may be the key to understanding how non-dormant perennial plants survive the highly variable weather patterns of early winters in semi-arid environments.

  2. Understanding hydrological variability for improved water management in the Semi-Arid Karkheh basin, Iran

    Masih, I.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a hydrology based assessment of (surface) water resources and its continuum of variability and change at different spatio-temporal scales in the semi-arid Karkheh Basin, Iran, where water is scarce, competition among users is high and massive water resources development is under

  3. Mapping impervious surfaces using object-oriented classification in a semiarid urban region

    Mapping the expansion of impervious surfaces in urbanizing areas is important for monitoring and understanding the hydrologic impacts of land development. The most common approach using spectral vegetation indices, however, is difficult in arid and semiarid environments where vegetation is sparse an...

  4. Wind erosion in a semiarid agricultural area of Spain: the WELSONS project

    Gomes, L.; Arrue, J.L.; Lopez, M.V.; Sterk, G.; Richard, D.; Gracia, R.; Sabre, M.; Gaudichet, A.; Frangi, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-ordinated European research project Wind Erosion and Loss of SOil Nutrients in semiarid Spain (WELSONS) was carried out from 1996 to 1999 to understand and predict the potential impacts of land-use change and management on soil degradation by wind erosion on agricultural land in Central Arago

  5. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids-amended, semiarid grassland soil

    Predicting trace metal solid phase speciation changes associated with long-term biosolids land application is important for understanding and improving environmental quality. Biosolids were surface-applied (no incorporation; 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 tons per acre) to a semi-arid grassland in 1991 (si...

  6. Energetics of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) in a semi-arid environment

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter David

    1991-01-01

    Energy budgets in the herbivorous green iguana (Iguana Iguana) were studied from April 1985-October 1988 in a strongly seasonal environment on the semi-arid island Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) under the auspices of the CARMABI Foundation in cooperation with the State University of Groningen (The N

  7. Testing for thresholds in a semiarid grassland: The influence of prairie dogs and plague

    State and transition models for semiarid grasslands in the Great Plains of North America suggest that the presence of herbivorous black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on a site (1) creates a vegetation state characterized by increased dominance of annual forbs and unpalatable bunchgrasse...

  8. Tillage and farmyard manure efects on crusting and compacting soils at Katumani, Semi-arid Kenya

    Biamah, E.K.; Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid Kenya, the most dominatn soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction

  9. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  10. Land-surface and boundary layer processes in a semi-arid heterogeneous landscape

    Jochum, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Field Experiment in a Desertification-threatened Area (EFEDA) provides a comprehensive land-surface dataset for a semiarid Mediterranean environment. It is used here to study heat and moisture transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), to derive grid-scale surface flux

  11. Infiltration and planting pits for improved water management and maize yield in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.; Nyagumbo, I.

    2014-01-01

    Realising that rainwater harvesting (RWH) improves crop productivity, smallholder farmers in semi-arid Zimbabwe modified contour ridges traditionally used for rainwater management by digging infiltration pits inside contour ridge channels in order to retain more water in crop fields. However, scient

  12. Semi-arid Northeast Brazil: integrated modelling of regional development and global change impacts

    Krol, Maarten S.; Fuhr, Dagmar; Döring, Andreas; Unruh, Jon D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Kliot, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    Societies in semi-arid areas in developing regions are amongst those most vulnerable to climate variability and potentially most vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability to climate variability emerges from a combination of the level of availability of natural resources and the human dependenc

  13. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa

    Slegers, M.F.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize d

  14. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation methods for the semi-arid Nyamandhlovu area, Zimbabwe

    Sibanda, T.; Nonner, J.C.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Nyamandhlovu aquifer is the main water resource in the semi-arid Umguza district in Matebeleland North Province in Zimbabwe. The rapid increase in water demand in the city of Bulawayo has prompted the need to quantify the available groundwater resources for sustainable utilization. Groundwater r

  15. Assessment of salinity status in intensively cultivated soils under semiarid climate, Murcia, SE Spain

    Acosta, J.A.; Faz, A.; Jansen, B.; Kalbitz, K.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2011-01-01

    This research presents the results from the assessment of the salinity status of a highly productive agricultural area, under a semiarid climate. The objectives were to: identify the origin of salts, assess seasonal changes of salt contents, and examine spatio-temporal and vertical variability of th

  16. Soil quality improvement for crop production in semi-arid West Africa

    Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil quality maintenance and crop production improvement in semi-arid West Africa require appropriate cropping technologies, which are ecologically sound and economically viable. Thus, on-farm and on-station experiments have been carried out on the central plateau and in the south of Burkina Faso Th

  17. Runoff controlling factors in various sized catchments in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment in Spain

    Wit, A.M.W. de

    2001-01-01

    Understanding land degradation in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment is very difficult because of the contributing factors: precipitation, infiltration vegetation cover and discontinuity of flow and the temporal and spatial levels of resolution at which these factors are acting. Therefore it is s

  18. Tracing sediment movement on semi-arid watershed using Rare Earth Elements 1988

    A multi-tracer method employing rare earth elements (REE) was used to determine sediment yield and to track sediment movement in a small semiarid watershed. A 0.33 ha watershed near Tombstone, AZ was divided into five morphological units, each tagged with one of five REE oxides. Relative contributi...

  19. Water scarcity under scenarios for global climate change and reginoal development in semiarid Northeastern Brazil

    Araújo, de José Carlos; Döll, Petra; Güntner, Andreas; Krol, Maarten; Rodrigues Abreu, Cláudia Beghini; Hauschild, Maike; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2004-01-01

    The State of Ceará, located in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, suffers under irregularly recurring droughts that go along with water scarcity. Structural policies to control and reduce water scarcity, as water supply and demand management, should be seen as long-term planning, and thus have to conside

  20. Biogeographic history and cryptic diversity of saxicolous Tropiduridae lizards endemic to the semiarid Caatinga

    Werneck, Fernanda P.; Leite, Rafael N; Silvia R Geurgas; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Phylogeographic research has advanced in South America, with increasing efforts on taxa from the dry diagonal biomes. However, the diversification of endemic fauna from the semiarid Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil is still poorly known. Here we targeted saxicolous lizards of the Tropidurus semitaeniatus species group to better understand the evolutionary history of these endemic taxa and the Caatinga. We estimat...