WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoned plant-recovery efforts

  1. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  2. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Edouard

    namely freedom from gender discrimination and the rights to health, life and to physical integrity. The World Health Organization has been at the forefront of international initiatives for the elimination of FGM since 1979 when it hosted a seminar on “Harmful Tra- ditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children”.

  3. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  4. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  6. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  7. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  8. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inventory impacts of abandoned wells for the U.S. . Available methane emission rate data for abandoned wells is reviewed and some of the ongoing research to better characterize emissions is discussed. Efforts to compile a database of well drilling activities since the 1870’s for each state and each state’s establishment of well plugging standards for abandoned wells is described. Progress towards an estimate of national methane emissions from abandoned wells and major sources of uncertainty are presented. These emissions are put in to context by comparing to other sources of methane emissions from oil and gas production activities. This is an abstract for a presentation at the Natural GasSTAR Annual Implementation Workshop on November 16-18, 2015 in Pittsburgh, PA. The subject is methane emissions fro abandoned wells. This is a report on interim progress on a effort we have with ERG. OAP is involved in the project and will review slides.

  9. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  10. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  11. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... texanus) to determine the use and importance of tributaries to sustaining native fish communities in the... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments...

  12. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species...-vetch (Astragalus holmgreniorum), Kodachrome bladderpod (Lesquerella tumulosa), San Rafael cactus...

  13. 78 FR 1878 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... reed-mustard) and Sclerocactus wrightiae (Wright fishhook cactus), in conjunction with surveys and...

  14. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for...), Knowlton's cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii), Mancos milk- vetch (Astragalus humillimus), North Park phacelia...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  17. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  3. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    of the transformations is to reveal and preserve material and immaterial values such as aspects of cultural heritage, local narratives, and building density. The responses of local people are used as a feedback mechanism and considered an important impact indicator. Eleven transformations of varying strategies have......This paper outlines a research project on the increasing quantity of abandoned houses in the depopulating rural villages, and it reports on how an attempt is made to establish a counter-practice of radical preservation based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings. The aim...... houses. Transformation prototypes are tested as present manifestations in rural villages as an alternative way to preserve buildings as well as memories....

  6. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life......, executed in March 2014, investigated the transformation of three single-family houses into controlled ruins in different village environments. The transformation of these buildings was performed in order to produce examples of prototypes of a long-term transformation strategy. A strategy in which...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONED PROPERTIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    of landed property abandonment. Abandonment and Health. The incidence of pollution activities as a result of abandoned landed properties is suggestive of the fact that health problems may be generated by the presence of abandonment. Abandoned buildings with lead point asbestos are also very dangerous to health.

  8. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  10. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2017-01-01

    At the moment the Danish rural population are abandoning their home villages and moving into the cities. Thus, the economic and social inequality between the urban and rural populations is increasing. The implications for rural villages are conspicuous and exemplified by a rapidly increasing numb......-practice indicates that this anxiety may not be legitimate. Time, when stretched in a ruination process or prolonged demolition, acts similarly to a mourning process, thus creating an exchange of memories of what is lost....... in the process of provoking an exchange of memories of buildings and places among the residents in rural villages. Today’s state authorized funds for demolition projects, if redirected, could easily contribute to the on-going rural transformation through integration into radical preservation strategies. Instead...... of posing a threat to the local identity of rural villages, their density and cultural heritage, as instruments of rapid eradication of history, they could be utilized to contribute to community cohesion. An anxiety towards ruins permeates the Danish debate on rural transformation, however the counter...

  12. Effects of hydromulch on post-fire erosion and plant recovery in chaparral shrublands of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken R. Hubbert; Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Jan L. Beyers

    2012-01-01

    Following the Cedar Fire (one of seven large wildfires that burned in southern California during the autumn of 2003), aerial hydromulch was applied at 50 and 100% cover to reduce hillslope erosion in chaparral shrublands. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of hydromulch in preventing erosion, and to see if plant recovery was hindered by treatment. We...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  19. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jing-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are "foreground-mask sampling" to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and "selective tracking" to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  20. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  1. 78 FR 4865 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Columbia Basin Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... implementation of appropriate adaptive management measures, reintroduction efforts were resumed in the summer of... Columbia Basin for inclusion in the reintroduction program, initiation of partially controlled field...

  2. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil, the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT. These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. Methods We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. Results There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%, a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not

  3. Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fu...

  4. Trade-offs of European agricultural abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.

  5. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... Marshal or his designee to cause said motor vehicle to be moved to an impoundment lot for storage. (b) Any... authority or employment. (c) Unit commanders, with knowledge of an abandoned vehicle in their unit area...

  6. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  7. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis.

  8. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  9. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  10. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  11. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  13. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Szili-Kovács, T.; Tříska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2002), s. 435-440 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) T25739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  15. Assistive technology devices: abandonment related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Rodrigues da Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to identify factors related to abandonment of assistive technology devices in face of the increased number of individuals with disabilities, as well as the importance of the assistive technology devices (ATD to improve their occupational performance, the increased abandonment rates of these devices and the high costs associated with them. We used a critical literature review with the keywords: assistive technology/tecnologia assistiva, abandonment/abandono, rejection/rejeição, and disuse/desuso, published between the years 2002 and 2013. The search was conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO and identified a total of 49 articles and 9 publications that met the inclusion criterion. It found that the most cited factors related to the abandonment of devices are problems with the user’s physical condition; lack of information and training both professionals and users; pain; lack of functionality; ATD preference or other use of remaining capacity; increased weight; changes in ADT conditions; use difficulty; unsatisfactoriness; discomfort; inadequacy/inappropriate; and “lot of noise”. The better understanding of these factors is critical to improve the effectiveness of prescription and intervention by professionals and imperative to increase membership and promote effective results.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONED PROPERTIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    relationship between the incidence of abandonment and variables of environmental problems. Effects observed include pollution, health problem, city's financial loss, obscenity, crime, property value decline, development control problem ... and their environmental impacts on the aesthetics and the general livability of towns ...

  17. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notify, in writing, the State public service commission having regulatory authority over retail service... to provide: (i) Interruptible transportation service during the one year period prior to the effective date of the proposed abandonment, or (ii) Firm transportation service during the one year period...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  20. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942 Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land... announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan under... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV...

  1. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942 Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land...; approval of amendment. SUMMARY: We are approving an amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV...

  2. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  3. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  4. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  5. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RAILROAD ABANDONMENT: CARRINGTON-TO-TURTLE LAKE RAIL LINE; SUMMARY

    OpenAIRE

    Joel S. HONEYMAN; Bangsund, Dean A.; F. Larry LEISTRITZ

    1996-01-01

    The Carrington-to-Turtle Lake rail line serves five agricultural shippers in a four county area in central North Dakota. Service on the line has been affected by recent embargoes, floods, and poor, deteriorating track conditions. The line is a strong candidate for abandonment as efforts to rehabilitate the line have lacked financial support. Prior to this study, a benefit/cost study, which compares benefits and costs of a rail line reconstruction, was performed for the rail line in an attempt...

  6. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RAILROAD ABANDONMENT: CARRINGTON-TO-TURTLE LAKE RAIL LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Joel S. HONEYMAN; F. Larry LEISTRITZ

    1996-01-01

    The Carrington-to-Turtle Lake rail line serves five agricultural shippers in a four county area in central North Dakota. Service on the line has been affected by recent embargoes, floods, and poor, deteriorating track conditions. The line is a strong candidate for abandonment as efforts to rehabilitate the line have lacked financial support. Prior to this study, a benefit/cost study, which compares benefits and costs of a rail line reconstruction, was performed for the rail line in an attempt...

  7. Housing Abandonment and Demolition: Exploring the Use of Micro-Level and Multi-Year Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policies focusing on enforcing property code violations and the improvement of vacant properties are argued to be more efficacious than demolition policies to fight urban blight. This study applies parcel level data to a multi-year hybrid modeling structure. A fine-grained analysis is conducted on the dynamic patterns of abandonment and demolition for a unique period of four years before and after the City of Buffalo’s stepped-up demolition efforts. Results showed that proximity to vacant and abandoned properties, sustained over the years, had the greatest impact on the possibility of a property being abandoned. The second greatest positive impact on property abandonment was small lot front size. Results also showed that neighborhood vacancy density had the greatest negative impact on surrounding housing sales prices over the years. There was no significant impact of demolition on housing sales prices. These findings suggested that the City should aim to have more incentive programs that are tailored to control the number of vacant properties, rather than focusing primarily on demolition-oriented programs.

  8. A Study on the Process Development of Collective Intelligence for Utilization of Unused Space of Abandoned Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Uk; Yang, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    Living conditions and social environment are changing through time, and recently schooling population is diminishing in Korea. Thus the number of abandoned schools has increased. In order to utilize unused space a mechanism is required for the exchange of various ideas. However, there is little effort to provide a platform for this purpose. This…

  9. Getting cold feet?: Why health care mergers are abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anne-Fleur; Postma, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence and sizeable consequences of merger abandonment in other sectors, there is no thorough understanding of merger abandonment in health care. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of determinants of health care merger abandonment. On the basis of the literature on merger abandonment, we formulated a framework on potential determinants of health care merger abandonment. We then constructed a survey that was sent to 70% of all executives of Dutch health care organizations (response rate = 35%, n = 291). We provide descriptive overviews of open, multiple-response, and multiple-choice questions on merger abandonment and use chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to test whether abandoned and completed merger processes differ. About 62% of the respondents were involved in at least one merger process during the period of 2005-2012. Thirty-eight percent of these respondents reported that their last merger case ended prematurely (n = 53). The most frequently mentioned determinants of merger abandonment are changing insights on the desirability and feasibility during merger processes, incompatibilities between executives, and insufficient support for the merger from internal stakeholders. We did not find significant relationships between merger abandonment and executives' previous merger experience, degree of organizational diversification, health care sector, size differences, or other organizational differences. Our findings partially confirm results from previous studies, especially with regard to the importance of changing insights and incompatibilities between the involved executives in merger abandonment. We also find that pressure from internal stakeholders, particularly nonexecutive directors, and distrust, fear, and animosity play an important role in merger abandonment. To minimize the organizational and societal costs of abandoned mergers, we advise executives who engage in mergers to construct backup plans with

  10. L’abandon en formation à distance

    OpenAIRE

    Dussarps, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Cette contribution questionne l’abandon des apprenants en formation ouverte à distance (FOAD) au prisme de la dimension socioaffective, c’est-à-dire de l’ensemble des sentiments et émotions véhiculés dans et par les relations sociales entre les acteurs du dispositif de formation (enseignants, autres apprenants, proches), et de la dimension motivationnelle. Il s’agira de comprendre comment, en dépit de l’éventuelle solitude que peut induire l’isolement en formation à distance, les apprenants p...

  11. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  12. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  13. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  14. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for...

  15. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and Osogbo, Nigeria. ... ANOVA and chi-square test were used to explain the variation in the incidence of environmental effects among the residential densities. Correlation ... Keywords: Effects, Buildings, Lots, Abandonment, Landed Properties, Environment ...

  16. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  17. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  18. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  19. At risk and abandoned: street children, AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, S

    1995-01-01

    When Covenant House was established in the late 1960s, its mission was to end the harassment and murder of homeless street children by authorities in Latin America. At present, Covenant House Latin America is broadening its focus to encompass another form of societal violence against vulnerable youth--acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Street educators include information on AIDS as part of their outreach efforts, and Covenant House Crisis Centers provide AIDS counseling. Most of these young people are on the streets as a result of abandonment, child abuse, and poverty. A study of 143 street children in Guatemala ages 7-17 years found that 100% had been sexually abused, 53% by a family member. 71% currently had 1-2 sexual partners per day, 4% had 3-4 partners, and 25% reported more than 4 partners per day; none was using contraception. Covenant House seeks to publicize this latest form of violence against children and is urging adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates, among other things, that special care will be given to children who have been rendered vulnerable by separation from their families.

  20. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  1. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  2. RILEY AND ABANDONMENT: EXPANDING FOURTH AMENDMENT PROTECTION OF CELL PHONES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abigail Hoverman

    2017-01-01

    ... of cell phones during searches incident to arrest in Riley v. California. This Note argues for expansion of heightened protections for cell phones in the context of abandoned evidence because the same privacy concerns apply...

  3. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z

    2009-05-01

    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for, clearer evidence-based policy and provision is vital.

  4. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West, 122... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land...

  5. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine Land...

  6. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TONWSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-02-01

    This report represents the tenth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, engineering continued during this reporting period toward development of the Construction Plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  7. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-12-01

    This report represents the thirteenth Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this semi annual reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, construction was completed during this reporting period and surface monitoring began. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  8. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Friedrich

    Full Text Available Treatment abandonment (TxA is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC. However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data.Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted.602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%, practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83% in general or children's hospitals (79%. Results suggested, 23,854 (15% of 155,088 children 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥ 6% (p<0.001. Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC.Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally, confirm the suspected high burden of TxA in LMC, and illustrate the negative impact of poverty on its occurrence. The present estimates may appear small compared to the global burden of child death from malnutrition and infection (measured in millions. However, absolute numbers suggest the burden of TxA in LMC is nearly equivalent to annually losing all kids diagnosed with cancer in HIC just to TxA, without even considering deaths from disease progression, relapse or toxicity-the main causes of childhood cancer mortality in HIC. Results document the importance of monitoring and addressing TxA as part of childhood

  9. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  10. How to find abandoned oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, K.H.; Carroll, H.B.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1973-01-01

    This guide was written to furnish the coal industry with a description of techniques, instruments, and clues on how to find abandoned oil and gas wells that have penetrated coal seams. The report includes specific information on searching techniques currently in use by several coal mining companies, gas-transmission companies, and waterflood operators, as well as information on State agencies responsible for the enforcement of laws and the preservation and distribution of data pertaining to the drilling, development, and abandonment of oil and gas wells. Comparative tests were performed with several commercial electronic metal detectors to determine the feasibility of using them to aid in the search for abandoned wells and to determine the instrument most suited for that particular use. The role of methane detectors to locate abandoned wells is described, including a case history. Tests were made to develop an efficient procedure to follow in systematically searching an area for metallic clues or hydrocarbon evidence to abandoned wells. The guide describes, in detail, a search sequence, including the collection of basic data, preparation of the selected area, and the physical search. Methods are given for evaluating the results. (auth)

  11. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  13. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  14. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  15. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  16. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the Comprehensive Database and Atlas to determine which mines should be cleaned up first. US EPA continues to research and identify Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) under Superfund to contribute to the costs of cleanup efforts.This US EPA Region 9 web service contains the following map layers:Abandoned Uranium Mines, Priority Mines, Tronox Mines, Navajo Environmental Response Trust Mines, Mines with Enforcement Actions, Superfund AUM Regions, Navajo Nation Administrative Boundaries and Chapter Houses.Mine points have a maximum scale of 1:220,000, while Mine polygons have a minimum scale of 1:220,000. Chapter houses have a minimum scale of 1:200,000. BLM Land Status has a minimum scale of 1:150,000.Full FGDC metadata records for each layer can be found by clicking the layer name at the web service endpoint and viewing the layer description. Data used to create this web service are available for download at https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/data/data.page.Security Classification: Public. Access Constraints: None. Use Constraints: None. Please check sources, scale, accuracy, currentness and other available information. Please confirm that you are using the most recent copy of both data and metadata. Acknowledgement of the EPA would be appreciated.

  17. Poverty and patient abandonment in the University of Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 100 respondents which were stratified into hospital workers and patients were used for the research. Field data confirmed that cultural interpretation and perception of poverty bordered on economic and welfare dimensions and that there is a significant relationship between poverty and patient abandonment.

  18. Variations in soil seed banks of abandoned farmlands of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except seeds of Canariums chweinfurthii and Dialium guineense no other tree seeds were recorded. It was concluded that man should help in tree seeds dispersal and seedlings maintenance within abandoned farmland of the tropical rainforest to minimize the danger of most tree species being classified as being rare or ...

  19. Arthropods on Abandoned Apple Trees: Comparison of Orchard Versus Alley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Psota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of arthropods on abandoned apple trees was studied in 2010 and 2011. The research was carried out in South Moravia (Czech Republic. Two sites were selected within this area – apple trees (Malus domestica in an alley along a road and an abandoned apple orchard. At each location, arthropods were collected from 5 separate trees. Deltamethrin was applied into the treetops using a fogger. The killed arthropods were collected 15 minutes after the application. From among the collected data, 48 families were determined in accordance with a generalized linear model with a logarithmic-link function and Poisson distribution. As a result it was found that 33 families have significantly higher abundance in the abandoned orchard and 9 families in the alley. According to the Shannon-Wiener index, diversity of families was higher in the alley in both years (2010: H’ = 3.016, 2011: H’ = 3.177 compared to the abandoned orchard (2010: H’ = 2.413, 2011: H’ = 3.007.

  20. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anomalies, and babies from the third birth positions onward were mostly abandoned. ... the biodata, birth position, clinical diagnosis, causes/ ... 205. 18.8. Ventral wall defects. 96. 8.8. Genitourinary lesions. 21. 1.9. Musculoskeletal lesions. 18. 1.6. Neonatal sepsis. 611. 55.9. Preterm. 225. 20.6. Perinatal mishaps. 91. 8.3.

  1. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and Non-Mining areas in the Northern Parts of the Ashanti. Gold Belt, Ghana. C. Tay1* and F. W. Y. Momade2. 1 CSIR-Water Research ...... within the Ashanti gold belt is gold recovery using mercury amalgamation as practiced by small- scale miners. Evidence of ...

  2. Vegetational dynamics in some tropical abandoned rice fields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    their study opined that family Poaceae and Cyperacae have the maximum seed dispersal mechanism and the grass species (Poaceae) have the capacity to tolerate drought, low soil nutrient and climatic stress, which facilitate their colonization on early abandoned rice fields. In the present study the moisture content of soil ...

  3. Archaeological Finds from Isale, an Abandoned Settlement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the archaeological finds collected from Isale an abandoned site in southeast Abeokuta, Nigeria. From the reconnaissance carried out, a number of artifacts were recovered. These include cowrie shells, metal objects, animal remains, and smoking pipes among others. These artifacts helped us in ...

  4. Abandonment of government projects and socio-economic lives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient(r) was used to analysed data and the test of significance at 0.05 level of freedom was used to test the ... a conscious planning of vital capital projects to avoid a situation whereby contracts are awarded because of political ambition to avoid abandonment, amongst others.

  5. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  6. Poverty and patient abandonment at Muhimbili National hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty can be caused by unemployment, low education, deprivation and homelessness Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between poverty and patient abandonment (PA) in hospitals, and its impact on health care employing Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) as a prototype and to assess the ...

  7. The intersection of abandonment, HIV-positive status and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intersection of abandonment, HIV-positive status and residential care for a group of perinatally infected adolescents. Jeanette Schmid, Jenita Chiba. Abstract. Although anti-retroviral treatments have significantly reduced the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and AIDS, there remains, for the foreseeable ...

  8. Alternative trajectories of land abandonment: causes, consequences and research challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munroe, D.K.; van Berkel, D.B.; Verburg, P.H.; Olson, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Land abandonment is not a static end state but a transitional stage leading to different trajectories of varying intensity and long-term outcomes. Environmental benefits include carbon sequestration, regulation of terrestrial albedo and increases in certain habitat. Tradeoffs include the spatial

  9. Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Wal, van der A.; Dekker, S.C.; Putten, van der W.H.; Ruiter, de P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web

  10. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  11. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  12. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  13. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  14. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  15. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  16. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment of any water... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section 77.216-5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  17. 75 FR 60373 - Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines. On the basis of these criteria, the Secretary of the.../Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior... proposed amendment to the Louisiana regulatory program (Louisiana program) and the Louisiana abandoned mine...

  18. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... reclaiming abandoned mine lands and waters adversely impacted by inadequately reclaimed surface coal mining... CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, et al. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal... Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, 884, and 885 RIN 1029-AC66 Abandoned Mine Land...

  19. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... money collected is used to finance the reclamation of abandoned coal mines and for other authorized... Interior for approval, a program (often referred to as a plan) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines... Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...

  20. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... money collected is used to finance the reclamation of abandoned coal mines and for other authorized... Interior for approval, a program (often referred to as a plan) for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines... Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...

  1. 77 FR 66912 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, IL Soo Line Railroad Company, d/b/a Canadian Pacific (Soo Line) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F- Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 2.88 mile line of railroad between milepost 2.38...

  2. 75 FR 35873 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in San Mateo County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in San Mateo County...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.57-mile line of railroad, on the South San Francisco Industrial Lead, from milepost 12.29 to milepost 12.86 in South San Francisco, in San Mateo County, Cal. The line...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody... Management of Property § 1955.55 Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions... under Public Law 103-354 custody. When security property is determined to be abandoned, the running...

  4. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  5. 30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval... § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as... available for review at the following locations: (a) Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation, P.O...

  6. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine Land... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  7. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program; organizational... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land...

  8. 30 CFR 913.20 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 913.20 Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 20, 1980, effective June 1, 1982. Copies of the..., Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Division, One Natural Resources Way, Springfield, Illinois 62701-1787. (b...

  9. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13, 1981... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land...

  10. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 906.20 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Colorado Abandoned Mine Land... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  11. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 17, 1982, effective March 28, 1983. Copies of the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land...

  12. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 30, 1981, effective January 21, 1982. Copies of... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land...

  13. 30 CFR 916.20 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 916.20 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary conditionally approved the Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on October 1, 1981, effective February 1... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land...

  14. 30 CFR 756.18 - Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.18 Section 756.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.18 Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan...

  15. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Mine Lands and Reclamation, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304-2345, Telephone (304... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of State abandoned mine lands...

  16. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land...

  17. 30 CFR 925.20 - Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 925.20 Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on September 11, 1981, effective January 29... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land...

  18. 30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PENNSYLVANIA § 938.20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted on November 3, 1980, is approved. Copies of the approved Plan... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land...

  19. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 935.20 Section 935.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  20. 30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE KENTUCKY § 917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) The... Kentucky Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan amendment, submitted to OSM on April 29, 2002, is approved... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land...

  1. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and as... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land...

  2. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on April 24, 1980, and amended on May 30, 1980, June 2... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land...

  3. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a...), (I)(1)(d), (e). March 19, 1996 March 26, 1997 Revisions to the Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land...

  4. 30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 918.20 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on February 3, 1986, effective December 10... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land...

  5. 30 CFR 914.20 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 914.20 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on December 7, 1981, on July 26, 1982, effective July 29... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land...

  6. 77 FR 51614 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County, NY CSX... Abandonments to abandon a 0.1-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Niagara Subdivision, between milepost QDN 28.0 near North Avenue to the end of the track at milepost QDN 28.1, in Niagara Falls...

  7. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water Street...

  8. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and as...

  9. Correlates of poor health among orphans and abandoned children in less wealthy countries: the importance of caregiver health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thielman, Nathan; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Kathryn; Whetten, Rachel; O'Donnell, Karen

    2012-01-01

    ... abandoned. We investigated relationships between the health of orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) and child, caregiver, and household characteristics among randomly selected OAC in five countries...

  10. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  11. The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

    2010-06-30

    This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperator's Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperator's Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.

  12. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White

  13. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  14. Listing causes of risk of vulnerability and abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Santamaría Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a state of law, a citizen must live under the protection of their fundamental rights. Therefore, when authorities makes an intervention in a family nucleus and separates children from their parents for alleged protection purposes, it should be noted that if the decision was misguided, during the time that the separation remains, fundamental rights of the whole family are being infringed, especially for children, as stated in Article 9 of the CRC. With these premises, this article reveals that the reasons of risk and abandonment of a child should be typified in order to ensure the full success of the decisions of family separation. In addition, following a declaration of abandonment of a child, a lawsuit should be arise, whose procedural aspects would ensure fully adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the child in question, regardless of their parents' litigator ability.

  15. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  16. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  17. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Maas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

  18. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies.

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  1. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Arpanius, Victor; Daan, Serge; Bos, Nicolaas

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression.

  3. Day surgery: patients' felt abandoned during the preoperative wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Wright, Kerrie

    2008-09-01

    The rapid expansion in day surgery has facilitated a shift in surgical nursing intervention. The evolving evidence base has a major part to play in influencing nurse-led preassessment, information provision, pain management and postoperative intervention. However, the literature is characterised by a number of deficits: poor attention to patient experience from admission to discharge, anxieties evoked and the potential needs of patients are not well articulated. The purpose of this paper is to describe and interpret patients' experiences of contemporary day surgery. This hermeneutic phenomenological approach focused on the experience of 20 adult patients. Data was collected by using unstructured interviews. The transcripts were interpreted through the identification of four prevalent themes using the phenomenological method. The themes that emerged from the data are emphasised, ranging from the feeling of empowerment during preparation, through apprehensions encountered and the feeling of abandonment in the preoperative waiting area, to recovery dynamics. The study demonstrates that the majority of the patients felt abandoned in the preoperative stage and nurses did not recognise the importance of ongoing psychological support. Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen the provision of emotional support and person-centred care in a day surgery context. There is also a need to be aware that environmental factors can impact on patient anxiety, promoting the use of music preoperatively can reduce anxiety and increase well-being. Crucially health professionals need to facilitate person-centred and continuity of care throughout the day surgery experience. Using dynamic interpersonal skills, such as active listening 'holding''containment' and attunement to reduce anxiety and feelings of abandonment in the preoperative period. Moreover, being alert to verbal utterances, para-language and non-verbal cues demonstrated by the patient. Specific information about delays regarding

  4. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Space and Missile Systems Center Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 11 June 2015 Col Steve Whitney GPS User Equipment Division PUBLICALLY...DATE 11 JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 5a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space and Missile Systems Center, GPS User Equipment Division ,Los Angeles AFB, El Segundo,CA

  5. Dysplastic nevus: why this term should be abandoned in dermatoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Harald; Tschandl, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    The term "dysplastic nevus" is a misnomer and should be abandoned. Dysplastic nevus is not just a name, it is the root of the concept that histomorphology (or any morphologic examination including dermatoscopy) is able to predict the fate of a benign melanocytic proliferation. There is no evidence that this hypothesis is true but there are observations that falsify it. Preferably a specific diagnosis should be made based on dermatoscopic pattern and, if this is not possible, on clinical or dermatoscopic grounds alone the term "nevus, not otherwise specified" should be used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  7. Differential effects of abandonment on the demography of the grassland perennial Succisa pratensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Sascha; Dahlgren, Johan Petter; Mildén, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Abandonment of traditional land-use practices can have strong effects on the abundance of species occurring in agricultural landscapes. However, the precise mechanisms by which individual performance and population dynamics are affected are still poorly understood. To assess how abandonment affects...... population dynamics of Succisa pratensis we used data from a 4-year field study in both abandoned and traditionally grazed areas in moist and mesic habitats to parameterize integral projection models. Abandoned populations had a lower long-term stochastic population growth rate (kS=0.90) than traditionally...... managed populations (kS=1.08), while kS did not differ between habitat types. The effect of abandonment differed significantly between years and had opposed effects on different vital rates. Individuals in abandoned populations experienced higher mortality rates and lower seedling establishment, but had...

  8. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  9. Improvement in treatment abandonment in pediatric patients with cancer in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Elysia; Seppa, Midori; Rivas, Silvia; Fuentes, Lucia; Valverde, Patricia; Antillón-Klussmann, Federico; Castellanos, Mauricio; Sweet-Cordero, E Alejandro; Messacar, Kevin; Kurap, John; Bustamante, Marisol; Howard, Scott C; Efron, Bradley; Luna-Fineman, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    Treatment refusal and abandonment are major causes of treatment failure for children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), like Guatemala. This study identified risk factors for and described the intervention that decreased abandonment. This was a retrospective study of Guatemalan children (0-18 years) with cancer treated at the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica (UNOP), 2001-2008, using the Pediatric Oncology Network Database. Treatment refusal was a failure to begin treatment and treatment abandonment was a lapse of 4 weeks or longer in treatment. The impact of medicina integral, a multidisciplinary psychosocial intervention team at UNOP was evaluated. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified the effect of demographic and clinical factors on abandonment. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the survival. Of 1,789 patients, 21% refused or abandoned treatment. Abandonment decreased from 27% in 2001 to 7% in 2008 following the implementation of medicina integral. Factors associated with increased risk of refusal and abandonment: greater distance to the centre (P < 0.001), younger age (P = 0.017) and earlier year of diagnosis (P < 0.001). Indigenous race/ethnicity (P = 0.002) was associated with increased risk of abandonment alone. Abandonment correlated with decreased overall survival: 0.57 ± 0.02 (survival ± standard error) for those who completed therapy versus 0.06 ± 0.02 for those who abandoned treatment (P < 0.001) at 8.3 years. This study identified distance, age, year of diagnosis and indigenous race/ethnicity as risk factors for abandonment. A multidisciplinary intervention reduced abandonment and can be replicated in other LMICs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  11. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a metaanalysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal...... the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. ...

  12. OUTLINES OF JUDICIALIZATION: REFLECTIONS ON REMARRIED FAMILIES AND EMOTIONAL ABANDONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina eiras coelho Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to articulate two studies in the overview of Legal Psychology and taking as objects of study issues relating to the family in the sphere of justice. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the outlines that characterize the movement of judicialization on the demands of remarried families and emotional abandonment. In general, judicialization can be understood as the movement of expansion of judicial powers to matters that used to be resolved in other spaces. With respect to remarried families, this study identified how jurisprudence can provide a way to resolve demands that are not covered by the legislation. However, respondents’ reports indicated that they look for solutions without resorting to court, which differs from the proposal found on the theoretical reference to formulate specific legislation to address this family configuration. In regards to emotional abandonment, the analysis of aspects related to the production and validation of this demand by the legal system highlights the difficulty to measure damage and its relationship with absence of affection, in addition to the important gender approach, that assigns different positions and specific roles for each parental figure. Therefore, we conclude that the judicialization trend reflects and at the same time forges demands, denoting a social change in the way society deals with family impasses.

  13. The valorisation of abandoned railway yards. The case of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Milan’s urban growth was heavily influenced by the structure of the rail network for transporting goods and people. The great railway yards that used to service the industrial system have now lost their raison d'être after the relocation of industrial plants and the tertiary sector dynamics took over the city. These have become large abandoned brownfields or soon to be abandoned, totaling over 1,300,000 square meters, located mainly along the urban belt surrounding the city walls, often in densely built environments. Since 2005 these areas were the subject of several agreements between the City of Milan, State Railways SpA (FS and the Lombardy Region, to examine various scenarios and the feasibility of their conversion, as confirmed in the draft of the new Territorial Government Plan (PGT, which identifies the Areas of Urban Transformation. Scenarios and assumptions that, in the current revision of the PGT, must approach the strategic role of this rich heritage from an environmental regeneration and valorization perspective extended to urban and metropolitan scales.

  14. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ABANDONMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Glavan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we performed a spatial analysis to determine the influence of selected environmental factors (forests share, elevation a.s.l., slope, aspect, flooding and the management status of an area on the spatial distribution of the abandoned agricultural land (land use class 1410, and agricultural land with forest trees (land use class 1800 in Slovenia. All these natural factors influence the management decisions of landowners. We found out that land use class 1410 is distributed over the entire country, along the south-west to the north-east axis. The majority of the land use class 1800 can be found in the south-western part of the country. On municipality level, the link between the forest and studied land uses was weak. The percentage of land use classes 1410 and 1800 grows with increasing altitude a.s.l. and slope. Land use class 1400 is more frequent in flooded areas. The percentage of the abandoned agricultural land is greater in areas with special management status (e.g. Natura 2000 areas. A strict, professional and fast implementation of the Agricultural Land Act is needed to improve the situation and prevent further agricultural land losses.

  15. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  16. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  17. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  20. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts n...

  1. The AstroHDF Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant,

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  3. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  4. SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED CROP FALLOWS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom N Pathak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  The succession in areas once vegetated before the disturbance to a forest as climax community is called secondary succession. Secondary succession is influenced by soil type and the vegetation that invades the community. During the literature survey we found that the cropping areas are abandoned in different parts of the world and the fallows left are under secondary succession. There the socio-economy of the people has been found to affect the succession. Species diversity, species richness, rate of replacement and the soil type etc. have been studied by succession researchers. Succession study has also been carried out by using the tools like remote sensing, geographical information system etc.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 166-176

  5. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  6. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is... reclamation on all lands adversely impacted by past coal mining. August 24, 1997 January 30, 1997...

  7. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Wyoming certification of completing all known coal-related impacts is accepted, effective May 25, 1984. (b) The...

  8. Time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  9. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and abandonment expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. Within 60 days after receiving bills for plugging and abandonment activities, the Regional Administrator will...) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement. (4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or...

  10. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and...

  11. 30 CFR 918.25 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE LOUISIANA § 918.25 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 918.25 Section 918.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  12. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  13. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... acquisition, management and disposal of property, and reclamation on private lands. April 25, 1990 August 31... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land...

  14. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 936.25 Section 936.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  15. 30 CFR 756.16 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land reclamation plan. 756.16 Section 756.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.16 Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Hopi Tribe's...

  16. 30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE NORTH DAKOTA § 934.25 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments... Emergency response reclamation program; set-aside trust funds, eligible lands. September 20, 1995 October 8... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land...

  17. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  18. 30 CFR 944.25 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE UTAH § 944.25 Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 944.25 Section 944.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  19. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section 915.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 938.25 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE PENNSYLVANIA § 938.25 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 938.25 Section 938.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. 30 CFR 920.25 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MARYLAND § 920.25 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 920.25 Section 920.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  2. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments. 948.25 Section 948.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 925.25 - Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE MISSOURI § 925.25 Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 925.25 Section 925.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  4. 30 CFR 948.26 - Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. 948.26 Section 948.26 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.26 Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. ...

  5. 30 CFR 914.25 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE INDIANA § 914.25 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 914.25 Section 914.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  6. 30 CFR 902.25 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ALASKA § 902.25 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 902.25 Section 902.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  7. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  8. Quantification of Methane Leaks from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, E.; Kang, M.; Lu, H.; Jackson, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned oil and gas wells can provide a pathway for subterranean methane and other gases to be emitted to the atmosphere. However, abandoned wells are unaccounted for in greenhouse gas emissions inventories. While relatively little is known about abandoned wells, previous studies have shown that emissions from abandoned wells contribute approximately 4-7% of anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania (Kang et al. 2014) and Ohio, and Wyoming (Townsend-Small et al. 2015). Another study (Boothroyd et al. 2016) has shown that 30% of abandoned wells in the UK have a positive surface methane flux. California has a long history of oil and gas production, beginning from the 1860s, and currently ranks third in oil production by state. As a result, there are more than 100,000 wells across the state. Our study uses static flux chambers to measure individual abandoned wells in California to estimate state-wide methane emissions from these wells. In addition to measuring methane concentrations, we measure ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, and 13-CH4 to understand whether this methane has a biogenic or thermogenic source. We hope that our research will determine whether or not abandoned oil and gas wells are a significant source of anthropogenic methane emissions in California. Our results along with measurements in other parts of the United States can be used to scale up methane emission estimates to the national level, accounting for the millions of abandoned wells in the country.

  9. Spatial distribution of vulnerable areas for gully erosion due to agricultural land abandonment in Southeast Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Gutiérrez, F.; Gutiérrez, M.; Desir, G.; Guerrero, J.; Lucha, P.; Marin, C.; Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land is one of the main changes of land use in Mediterranean countries. From the land use change analysis with the CLUE-S model appeared that especially marl areas without irrigation possibilities are potentially subject to abandonment. However, specifically these areas

  10. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine... PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's.... Copies of the approved Plan are available at the following locations: (a) Crow Tribal Council, Crow...

  11. Erosion and terrace failure due to agricultural land abandonment in a semi-arid environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Nieman, T.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is currently widely spread in Mediterranean countries and a further increase is expected. Previous research has shown that abandoned fields in semi-arid areas are more vulnerable to gully erosion. The absence of ploughing and slow vegetation recovery cause the formation

  12. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1986-01-01

    To develop habitat and management procedures to protect declining populations of least terns, colony site selection and abandonment by this species was investigated at 26 sites in New Jersey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare (1) colony sites to adjacent unused areas, (2) those located on beaches to dredge spoil sites and (3) abandoned to occupied colony sites.

  13. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  14. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  15. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  16. Utility of ASTER and Landsat for quantifying hydrochemical concentrations in abandoned gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamichael, Solomon G; Ndlovu, Aros

    2017-10-21

    The effect of mining on water resources is severe and requires careful monitoring and management. Remote sensing has been used to characterize water quality indicators in efforts to fight mine-induced contamination. Much focus has however been placed on producing a qualitative classification of water qualities. Moreover, the number of variables considered in most studies is relatively small for a large number of hydrochemical constituents common in water bodies associated with gold mining activities. This study is aimed at quantifying a comprehensive list of field- and laboratory-measured chemical constituents of water samples from abandoned mines using remotely-sensed data. Akaike's Information Criterion was used to estimate each of the constituents using statistical values derived from individual bands of ASTER and Landsat data as predictors. Fairly good accuracies were obtained for constituents such as redox potential (Eh), major anions and cations. In contrast, trace elements correlated poorly with ASTER and Landsat bands, due mainly to a sampling anomaly. The performances of the two images in estimating the constituents were comparable. These findings suggest the potential of multispectral, moderate spatial resolution remote sensing for quantifying different hydrochemical properties of water bodies in mining environments. Further studies are however encouraged to enhance accuracies and reliability using a greater number of samples than was used in this study to capture the variability present in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of outcomes in patients with abandoned versus extracted implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelot, Mathieu; Foucault, Anthony; Scanu, Patrice; Gomes, Sophie; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Pellissier, Arnaud; Milliez, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Despite the increased number of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients and the frequent need for device upgrading and/or occurrence of lead malfunction, the optimal approach to managing abandoned leads remains debated. To determine the rate and type of complications related to either abandoned or extracted ICD leads. Patients with abandoned or extracted leads were identified retrospectively. Patient medical records were reviewed to assess long-term lead or device malfunction, defibrillation test values before and after lead abandonment or extraction, and appropriateness of delivered shocks and subsequent surgical procedures related to devices or leads. A total of 58 ICD patients with 47 extracted and 34 abandoned leads were identified. After a mean follow-up of 3.2 ± 2.6 years, the defibrillation test was not affected by either abandoned or extracted leads (23.4 ± 6.6 J vs 25.4 ± 4.9 J, respectively; P = 0.24). There were no differences in the number of ICD-related surgical procedures after extracting versus abandoning leads (22% vs 12%, respectively; P = 0.3) or in the thromboembolic event rate (7.7% vs 6.3%; P = 0.83). During follow-up, no differences in the occurrence of major complications or appropriate/inappropriate shocks were observed between patients with or without abandoned leads. We observed no difference in rates of immediate or medium-term complications between extracting versus abandoning leads. Lead abandonment remains an alternative and safe option when extraction does not appear mandatory according to the age of the leads or experience of the operating centre. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2012-06-01

    that most of the abandoned and/or delayed projects were to be implemented in key sectors such as electricity (power supply, construction of roads and other works, petroleum, oil and natural gas development (which forms the major sources of revenue for the Nigerian economy, education, health and so forth, represents huge opportunity losses arising from losses of development benefits and spin-offs that would have accrued from the various economic sectors of Nigeria’s economy. The implication of these findings for policy includes the need to include all project resources in the list of the recovery and resource accounting effort of the government’s anti-corruption programme.

  19. Terrafirma product : case study for the application of Terrafirma ground motion services to areas of abandoned mining : Northumberland, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Luke; Lawrence, David

    2012-01-01

    The UK Coal Authority are responsible for all areas of abandoned coal mining in the UK and are responsible for the settlement of subsidence claims raised by those living in areas of abandoned coal mining. The scope for radar based ground measurements to assist the Coal Authority with their understanding of ground motions which might relate to abandoned coal mines offers an interesting possibility.

  20. Constraining the abundance of high emitters is critical to mitigating the effect of abandoned oil and gas wells on methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Ferrara, T.; Fries, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that methane inventories may underrepresent emissions from the oil and gas supply chain, and this has led to an effort by several groups to assess whether abandoned wells are a significant source. Our work has shown that unplugged wells are a larger source than plugged wells, and that a small percentage of unplugged wells likely make up the majority of emissions. Preliminary work also suggests that the oldest oil and gas producing region, the Appalachian Basin, has the largest emitters. However, many of these wells are over 100 years old and state databases lack accurate plugging and location data. Our current work is focused on determining the proportion of high emitters among abandoned wells in the Appalachian basin of Ohio. We are also making component-level measurements of conventional oil and gas wells on federal land for comparison. Our methods include analysis of gas composition to identify the relative contributions of biogenic and thermogenic methane to emissions. Identifying the location and emission rate of abandoned wells will not only mitigate a potential regionally important methane source, but will also help prevent interactions of these older wells with new drilling for shale gas as well as groundwater.

  1. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  2. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  3. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  4. Sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological aspects of Tuberculosis treatment abandonment in Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo Luiz Medeiros; Amaral, Nathália Alves Castro do; Zacarias, Amanda Correia Paes; Ribeiro, Leila Karina de Novaes Pires

    2017-01-01

    to describe abandonment rates according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new tuberculosis cases being treated in Pernambuco State, Brazil. this is a descriptive ecological study using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2014; the abandonment rate was calculated by the Regional Administration on Health (GERES). of the 57,015 new cases, 6,474 (11.3%) abandoned treatment, although abandonment decreased from 16.4% (2001) to 9.3% (2014); the abandonment rate in GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina and IX Ouricuri was still >5% in 2014; the rate was higher in males (11.9%), people aged 20-39 (12.7%), people with incomplete elementary school (12.1%), black-skinned people (13.7%), institutionalized people (12.5%) and those with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis (14.1%). despite the decrease, the abandonment rate remained high; males, adults with low education level, black-skinned people, institutionalized patients and patients with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis seemed more prone to abandoning treatment.

  5. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  6. Secondary succession and its effects on soil moisture and nutrition in abandoned old-fields of hilly region of Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Shao, Hong-Bo; Shan, Lun; Liang, Zong-Suo; Shao, Ming-An

    2007-08-01

    Floristic composition, community structure and soil moisture and nutrient contents in abandoned fields of different ages were analyzed to clarify the regenerative aspects of succession as a tool for vegetation restoration. The results indicated that secondary succession in this region can be interpreted as an auto-succession: there are main changes in species-relative abundance and species turnover. Annual or biennial species (e.g. Artemisia scoparia), acted as pioneers and strongly dominated the early stages. Then, they underwent a progressive decline, while forbs (e.g. Artemisia sacrorum) and grasses (e.g. Xanthium sibiricum) had their peak abundance at intermediate stages. Dwarf shrubs (e.g. Lespedeza dahurica) and short rhizome grass (e.g. Bothriochloa ischaemum) appeared at mid-succession stage and gradually increased in abundance during succession, becoming dominant at late stages. The first axis of detrended correspondence canonical analysis arranged the sites according to their fallow time, indicating a successional sere. The second axis, associated with diverging pathways of regeneration, correlated with topographic factors and soil moisture and nutrition. Structural divergence between plots increased as succession went on, attained the highest at the mid-succession stage, decreased at the late stage. Soil moisture and available phosphorus content decreased steadily with field age after their abandonment, whereas pools of organic matter, total and available nitrogen, potassium and total phosphorus increased with field age. The pace and direction of recovery of native vegetation and natural soil properties in these abandoned fields resembled classic old-field succession, which is a form of secondary succession that often serves as a template for guiding restoration efforts. Interface between the abandoned field soil and plant system was crucial to the above process. Our current study supported the generally accepted hypothesis in the succession literature.

  7. Resource recycling technique of abandoned TNT-RDX-AL mixed explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyang; Ding, Yukui

    2017-08-01

    TNT-RDX-AL mixed explosive is a kind of high energy mixed explosive. It has the detonation characteristics even when reaching the scrapping standard. Inappropriate disposal often causes serious accident. Employing the resource recycling technique, the abandoned TNT-RDX-AL mixed explosive can be recycled. This paper summarized the progress of recycling of abandoned mixed explosive. What's more, three kinds of technological process of resource recycling abandoned TNT-RDX-AL mixed explosives are introduced. The author analysis of the current recovery processes and provided a reference for the recycling of the other same type explosive.

  8. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  9. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  10. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  11. Mobilisation and bioaccessibility of lead in paint from abandoned boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2014-12-15

    Fragments of leaded paint sampled from abandoned boats have been ground as a composite and added in different quantities to aliquots of clean estuarine sediment in order to examine the mobility and bioaccessibility of Pb. Concentrations of Pb mobilised by sea water increased with increasing quantity of paint present, but the percentage of total Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lead mobilisation was enhanced in the presence of the protein, bovine serum albumin, a surrogate for the digestive fluids of deposit-feeding invertebrates, but, likewise, the percentage of Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lower percentage mobility and bioaccessibility in contaminated sediment than in paint-free sediment is attributed to the relatively low solubility and amenability of Pb compounds in the paint matrix. Despite the low mobility of Pb, however, sediment contaminated by as little as 0.2% paint is predicted to result in dissolved concentrations that exceed available water quality standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  13. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

  14. Technology of mine stone packing in abandoned workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neshitin, V.M.; Kurchenko, Eh.P.; Afanas' ev, V.V. (DonUGI (USSR))

    1990-03-01

    Describes technology of stone packing into abandoned workings using a scraper and a slinging machine of belt drum type. Three schemes are presented, one that uses the BS-4P scraper, the 1LP winch and a slinging machine, a second one that uses the UZM slinger with the stone delivered by a conveyor and a third scheme that uses the UZM slinger, 1PPN-5 loader and the OB or BOM tippler. The first and third schemes can be used in two-way workings with cross-section area not less than 9 m{sup 2} and the second scheme in workings with cross-section area not under 6 m{sup 2}. The rate of packing is 168, 236 and 248 m{sup 3}/d respectively. The cost of packing operations is 2.36, 2.82 and 2.46 rubles/t respectively which is 0.99-1.45 less than in the case of hauling and hoisting waste rock to the surface. Organization of packing operations is described.

  15. SOIL SEED BANK IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST AND ABANDONED PASTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the seed bank in the soil of different successional stages of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and abandoned pasture in order to understand the natural regeneration potential of these areas. At each successional stage, 30 samples of soil were collected in the rainy and dry seasons to evaluate the qualitative heterogeneity of the forest, at the regeneration stage (FEA forest, intermediate regeneration stage forest (ISF and pasture (PAS. The species were classified according to the life form, successional group and dispersion syndrome. The number of individuals germinated was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the ISF and in the rainy season (15,949 individuals. Richness was higher in the pasture area (79 species, with a significant difference only between the environments. Most species are herbaceous (49.5%, pioneers (76.5% and zoocory was the main dispersion syndrome (49% of species. The results show that seed bank in the fragment of the regeneration advanced stage forest presents the highest resilience potential, since it is formed by different life forms and, mainly, by early and late secondary species.

  16. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  17. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  18. THE IMAGE OF THE TSAR ABANDONING HIS THRONE IN ALEXANDER PUSHKIN'S POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva E. S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the image of the Tzar, who abandoned his family name, throne and crown and hid to repent his sins, created by Alexander Pushkin in his poems "Angelo" and "Roderick".

  19. 75 FR 54216 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption―in Clay County, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... (Sub-No. 704X)] CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption[horbar]in Clay County, KY CSX... Manchester, Clay County, KY. The following stations are located on the line: (1) Claymont, milepost 0CF208...

  20. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  1. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...

  2. RESEARCH: Managing Mountainous Degraded Landscapes After Farmland Abandonment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinillo; Lasanta; Garcia-Ruiz

    1997-07-01

    / Plant succession and pasture resources have been studied in abandoned fields of the central Spanish Pyrenees, in an environment severely affected by strong demographic pressure in the past. Several hydromorphological features (runoff and sediment yield) were also analyzed for different environments of the abandoned fields, in order to forecast the effects of their reclamation and transformation into areas for livestock use. The availability and accessibility of pastures as well as soil and water conservation is related to the process of colonization of Genista scorpius. Under a dense shrub cover both runoff and sediment yield are strongly controlled. As the shrub cover becomes open, sediment yield and runoff increase greatly. A dense herbaceous cover yields high runoff coefficients but moderate soil losses. From the results obtained, the possibility of abandoned field reclamation by means of selective clearing of scrub is discussed.KEY WORDS: Abandoned fields; Plant succession; Degraded environments; Soil erosion; Runoff; Spanish Pyrenees

  3. Pediatric Malignancies, Treatment Outcomes and Abandonment of Pediatric Cancer Treatment in Zambia: e89102

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy S Slone; Catherine Chunda-Liyoka; Marta Perez; Nora Mutalima; Robert Newton; Chifumbe Chintu; Chipepo Kankasa; James Chipeta; Douglas C Heimburger; Sten H Vermund; Debra L Friedman

    2014-01-01

    .... To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH...

  4. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slone, Jeremy S; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Perez, Marta; Mutalima, Nora; Newton, Robert; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chipeta, James; Heimburger, Douglas C; Vermund, Sten H; Friedman, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    .... To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH...

  5. Underlying drivers and spatial determinants of post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in temperate Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel; Baumann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    %), and the differences in land abandonment rates reflected the contrasting strategies for transitioning toward a market economy. The spatial patterns of agricultural land abandonment across Lithuania and Russia corresponded to the land rent theory of von Thünen, as sites with low crop yields that were distant from......Our goal was to understand the underlying drivers and spatial determinants of agricultural land abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent transition from state-command to market-driven economies from 1990 to 2000. We brought an example of agricultural land-use change...... in one agro-climatic zone stretching across Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Here, we provide an overview of the agricultural changes for the studied countries. We estimated the rates and patterns of agricultural land abandonment based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and linked these data...

  6. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Cerdà

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2 show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces the soil losses to very low values, the fire increase runoff and soil erosion. Water and soil losses are much lower in the fire-affected plots than on the cultivated ones due to the use of herbicides.

  7. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    .... From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2...

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  9. 76 FR 55471 - Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad-Abandonment Exemption-in Allegheny County, PA; Wheeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad--Abandonment Exemption--in Allegheny... County, PA Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad (PWV) and Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway Company (WLE...

  10. 75 FR 54215 - East Penn Railroad, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Montgomery County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... (Sub-No. 1X)] East Penn Railroad, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Montgomery County, PA East Penn... Bridgeport, and milepost 2.14 at Henderson Road in Upper Merion Township, in Montgomery County, Pa. The line...

  11. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the...

  12. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA and...

  13. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  14. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Regions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  15. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  16. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region Polygons, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  18. [Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Costa Júnior, Aderson Luiz; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2011-10-01

    To identify variables potentially related with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion. Data were collected by a longitudinal study with 111 mothers who breastfeed their children until six months of age. Univariate analyses were used to assess factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, and also multiple regression analyses. The mothers were divided in two groups: 57 mothers breastfeed, exclusively, their children until six months of age and 54 mothers introduced other kinds of food before this age. The following variables were found to be factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: pacifier use (OR 4,65; IC95% 1,66-12,99), social and economic high level (OR 11,46; IC95% 3,09-42,37) and mother's work (OR 2,44; IC95% 0,91-5,62). Pacifier use, social and economic high level and mother's work are associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment.

  19. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Pueyo, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland

  20. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  2. Grazing and abandonment determine different tree dynamics in wood-pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Komonen, Atte; Tervonen, Kaisa; Halme, Panu

    2017-03-01

    Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing. In abandoned sites, deciduous trees and spruces regenerated abundantly. In the long term, both grazing and abandonment lead to changes in tree species compositions and low diversity wood-pastures. Landscape scale planning and disturbance dynamics are needed for the creation of new wood-pastures and the maintenance of all pasture types within the landscape.

  3. Estimating limits for the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines: A simple methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  4. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." ...

  5. More than the loss of a parent: potentially traumatic events among orphaned and abandoned children

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn, Whetten; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; O'Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines rates of potentially traumatic events and associated anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties among 1,258 orphaned and abandoned children in 5 low and middle-income countries. The study quantifies the types of events the children experienced and demonstrates that anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties increase with additional event exposure. As policies for orphaned and abandoned children are being implemented, this study helps policy makers and providers recog...

  6. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Coppice abandonment and its implications for species diversity in forest vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    Coppicing, once a common type of management in European broadleaved forests, was abandoned in many places after WWII. This form of management provided a variety of structural and microclimatic conditions for tree and understorey vegetation. After the abandonment of this intensive management, succession towards mature close forests ensued, and suitable habitats for species ecologically connected to coppicing were reduced. In our study, we chose a region in central Europe where coppicing was the dominant type of forest management until the first half of the 20 th century but was abandoned after WWII. We investigated long-term changes in both woody and herbaceous species composition in the Lower Morava UNESCO Biosphere Reserve using historical sources and vegetation plot resurveys from the 17 th to the 21 st century. The impact of coppice abandonment on vegetation composition and on the conservation value of forests was evaluated. Dominant tree species appeared to be very stable throughout the past four centuries, but changes occurred in their proportions. A shift from species rich oak-hornbeam woodland towards species poorer communities with increasing proportions of lime, ash and maple was observed after the abandonment of coppicing. The observed tendencies partly differed according to site and data source. The conservation value of forests was measured as the occurrence of red-list species, which were considerably reduced after coppice abandonment. To stop the process of biodiversity loss and support the goals of nature conservation, the re-establishment of coppice management is proposed.

  8. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  9. Modelling drivers of mangrove propagule dispersal and restoration of abandoned shrimp farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Nitto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Propagule dispersal of four mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia officinalis in the Pambala–Chilaw Lagoon Complex (Sri Lanka was studied by combining a hydrodynamic model with species-specific knowledge on propagule dispersal behaviour. Propagule transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model to investigate the effect of dispersal vectors (tidal flow, freshwater discharge and wind, trapping agents (retention by vegetation and seed characteristics (buoyancy on propagule dispersal patterns. Sensitivity analysis showed that smaller propagules, like the oval-shaped propagules of Avicennia officinalis, dispersed over larger distances and were most sensitive to changing values of retention by mangrove vegetation compared to larger, torpedo-shaped propagules of Rhizophora spp. and C. tagal. Directional propagule dispersal in this semi-enclosed lagoon with a small tidal range was strongly concentrated towards the edges of the lagoon and channels. Short distance dispersal appeared to be the main dispersal strategy for all four studied species, with most of the propagules being retained within the vegetation. Only a small proportion (max. 5% of propagules left the lagoon through a channel connecting the lagoon with the open sea. Wind significantly influenced dispersal distance and direction once propagules entered the lagoon or adjacent channels. Implications of these findings for mangrove restoration were tested by simulating partial removal in the model of dikes around abandoned shrimp ponds to restore tidal hydrology and facilitate natural recolonisation by mangroves. The specific location of dike removal, (with respect to the vicinity of mangroves and independently suitable hydrodynamic flows, was found to significantly affect the resultant quantities and species of inflowing propagules and hence the potential effectiveness of natural regeneration. These results demonstrate the

  10. Modelling drivers of mangrove propagule dispersal and restoration of abandoned shrimp farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nitto, D.; Erftemeijer, P. L. A.; van Beek, J. K. L.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Higazi, L.; Quisthoudt, K.; Jayatissa, L. P.; Koedam, N.

    2013-07-01

    Propagule dispersal of four mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia officinalis in the Pambala-Chilaw Lagoon Complex (Sri Lanka) was studied by combining a hydrodynamic model with species-specific knowledge on propagule dispersal behaviour. Propagule transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model to investigate the effect of dispersal vectors (tidal flow, freshwater discharge and wind), trapping agents (retention by vegetation) and seed characteristics (buoyancy) on propagule dispersal patterns. Sensitivity analysis showed that smaller propagules, like the oval-shaped propagules of Avicennia officinalis, dispersed over larger distances and were most sensitive to changing values of retention by mangrove vegetation compared to larger, torpedo-shaped propagules of Rhizophora spp. and C. tagal. Directional propagule dispersal in this semi-enclosed lagoon with a small tidal range was strongly concentrated towards the edges of the lagoon and channels. Short distance dispersal appeared to be the main dispersal strategy for all four studied species, with most of the propagules being retained within the vegetation. Only a small proportion (max. 5%) of propagules left the lagoon through a channel connecting the lagoon with the open sea. Wind significantly influenced dispersal distance and direction once propagules entered the lagoon or adjacent channels. Implications of these findings for mangrove restoration were tested by simulating partial removal in the model of dikes around abandoned shrimp ponds to restore tidal hydrology and facilitate natural recolonisation by mangroves. The specific location of dike removal, (with respect to the vicinity of mangroves and independently suitable hydrodynamic flows), was found to significantly affect the resultant quantities and species of inflowing propagules and hence the potential effectiveness of natural regeneration. These results demonstrate the value of propagule

  11. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  12. Effect Analysis of Early Warning for Abandoned Object on Highway Based on Internet-of-Vehicles CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: (1 the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. (2 Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. (3 Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.

  13. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  14. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  15. Effort and cognition in schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Marielle; Sanz, Juan Carlos; Schmand, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether low cognitive test scores in schizophrenia patients are due to insufficient effort and, if so, to what extent. Method: Mental effort was measured with the Word Memory Test (WMT), an effort test that has been extensively validated.

  16. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Groundwater quality in an abandoned metal extraction site: the case study of Campello Monti (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Lasagna, Manuela; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Extractive activities present threat to natural water systems and their effects are observed even after the cessation of activities. The harmful effects of extractive activities such as deterioration of water sources by low quality waters or by allowing leaching of metals into groundwater makes it necessary to carry out careful, scientific and comprehensive studies on this subject. Consequently, the same problem statement was chosen as part of a PhD research Project. The PhD research is part of REMEDIATE project (A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action Initial Training Network for Improved decision making in contaminated land site investigation and risk assessment, Grant Agreement No. 643087). The current work thus points out on the contamination of groundwater sources due to past mining activities in the area. Contaminated groundwater may act as possible contamination source to surface water also. The impacts on water systems connected to mining activities depend on the ore type, metal being extracted, exploitation method, ore processing, pollution control efforts, geochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions of water and surroundings. To evaluate the effects posed by past metal extracting activities the study was carried out at an abandoned site used for extracting nickel in Campello Monti (Valstrona municipality, Piedmont region, Italy). Campello Monti is located in basement of Southern Italian Alps in the Ivrea Verbano Zone. The area is composed of mafic rocks intruded by mantle periodite. The mafic formation consists of peridotites, pyroxenites, gabbros, anorthosites, gabbro-norite, gabbro-diorite and diorite. Mines were used for nickel exploitation from 9th Century and continued until 1940s. The long history of nickel extraction has left the waste contaminated with Ni and Co in the mountains alongwith tunnels used for carrying out metal extracting activities. The area around the site is used for housing, shows the presence of domestic animals and has Strona creek

  18. Evolution of abandoned channels: Insights on controlling factors in a multi-pressure river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépret, Thomas; Riquier, Jérémie; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-10-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, channelization of large multi-thread rivers such as the Rhine, the Danube, and the Rhône rivers induced artificial disconnection of most of their secondary channels. Compared to naturally abandoned channels, terrestrialization (i.e., the passage from the aquatic to the terrestrial stage, controlled by sediment deposits and/or lowering of the water level) patterns and rates of such artificially prematurely abandoned channels remain largely unknown. Moreover, factors controlling their evolutionary trajectories are complex owing to a set of pressures occurring throughout the 20th century within specific space-time windows. Through a case study of the Rhône River, this paper aims to assess and distinguish the effects of a set of potential controlling factors on abandoned channel terrestrialization dynamics and lifespan. We tested the influence of: (i) submersible embankments closing the entrance of abandoned channels, (ii) main channel degradation following its channelization or the water level lowering due to channel bypassing in the middle of the 20th century involving drastic water abstraction in these reaches, (iii) transverse dykes within the abandoned channels, (iv) the flooding regime of abandoned channels (i.e., frequency and magnitude of upstream connections producing lotic functioning), and (v) longitudinal variation in the suspended sediment concentration along the main channel. To this end, we studied 24 abandoned channels (16 artificially disconnected at their upstream end by submersible embankments and eight naturally disconnected by bar plug establishment) from the mid-19th to the beginning of the 20th century. Their terrestrialization rates were characterized through the reconstruction of their planimetric trajectories using historical maps and aerial photos. The results reveal a much longer lifespan of artificial abandoned channels compared to natural ones because of the truncation of the initial bedload

  19. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  20. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10 or periodically (n = 2 leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  1. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  2. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  3. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  4. Using Local Data to Address Abandoned Property: Lessons Learned From a Community Health Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samantha; Kolke, Demi

    A growing body of research highlights the role of the built environment in promoting or impeding health. This research suggests that environmental issues like abandoned properties exact a toll on physical and mental health. We describe a community partnership aimed at improving community health through equitable land use policies and blight remediation. A collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Operation Better Block, Inc. (OBB), a community development corporation in Pittsburgh, was formed. We implemented an intervention to address property abandonment using data-driven techniques. In addition to successful advocacy for city-wide policies addressing abandonment, 80% of the properties that were part of our intervention were improved or addressed by the city. Balancing the needs of community and academic partners can be challenging, but our experiences suggest that community health partnerships to address built environmental issues may be an important conduit to health promotion.

  5. Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  6. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo

    2015-01-01

    European-wide map of the extent of abandoned farmland (cropland and grassland) and recultivation. We used a geographically well-distributed training dataset to classify active and fallow farmland annually from 2001 to 2012 using a Random Forests classifier and validated the maps using independent...... observations from the field and from satellite images. The annual maps had an average overall accuracy of 90.1% (average user's accuracy of the fallow class was 73.9%), and we detected an average of 128.7 million hectares (Mha) of fallow land (24.4% of all farmland). Using the fallow/active time series, we...... the robustness of our maps in relation to different abandonment and recultivation definitions, highlighting the usefulness of time series approaches to overcome problems when mapping transient land-use change. Our maps provide, to our knowledge, the first European-wide assessment of fallow, abandoned...

  7. Diagnostic dilemma in reckoning cytomegaloviral infection is prompting increased mortality among abandoned newborns of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroni Chatterjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes on an almost untouched aspect of medical adversity concerning the health ordeal of the abandoned newborns in India. The case described here is that of an abandoned female newborn suffering from neonatal hepatitis, respiratory distress, intravascular coagulation and microcephaly. While treating the infant, the practitioners suffered from diagnostic dilemma in identifying the actual cause to be that of Human cytomegalovirus infection. This delay is mostly due to its non-specific clinical presentation and lack of adequate awareness about the virus amongst the practicing physicians. This article being the first of its kind from India aims to provide effective clinical observations and juxtapose the investigative maneuvers vital for differential diagnosis with early treatment initiation and positive outcomes. We also aim to inflict a sociological impact on the issue of abandoning newborn children which leads to their severe diseased fate and acute sufferings.

  8. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  9. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Soares Mariz

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Results. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8, high maternal education (OR=2.4, white skin color (OR=2.9, and obesity (OR=3.6. Conclusion. Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  10. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  11. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  12. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  13. Effect of the baby-friendly initiative on infant abandonment in a Russian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvoff, N M; Lvoff, V; Klaus, M H

    2000-05-01

    To study whether early mother-infant contact with suckling and rooming-in reduces the rate of infant abandonment. The infant abandonment rate was studied at a Russian hospital before and after the introduction of early mother-infant contact with suckling and rooming-in. Maternity Hospital 11 , a public hospital in St Petersburg, Russia, was chosen as the site of this study because it recently changed its maternity care practices, implementing portions of the United Nations Children's Fund Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. In mid 1992, Maternity Hospital 11 changed its practices in accord with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, encouraging early contact, suckling, and rooming-in of the mother and infant from birth to the time of discharge from the hospital. The location of a mother's maternity hospital is related to her residential district. Maternity Hospital 11 serves an urban working-class community, with most mothers receiving prenatal care. All deliveries at this hospital from 1987 to 1998 were studied. Infant abandonment. The rate of infant abandonment at Maternity Hospital 11 was studied from 1987 to 1998, 6 years before and 6 years after the implemented changes in mother-infant contact. The mean (+/-SD) infant abandonment rate decreased from 50.3 +/- 5.8 per 10,000 births in the first 6 years to 27.8 +/- 8.7 per 10,000 births in the next 6 years following implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Encouraging early mother-infant contact with suckling and rooming-in may provide a simple, low-cost method for reducing infant abandonment.

  14. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with legacy pacemakers and defibrillators and abandoned leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Deepak; Kella, Danesh K; Mehta, Ramila; Kapa, Suraj; Abhishek, Deshmukh; Mulpuru, Siva; Jaffe, Allan S; Felmlee, Joel P; Jondal, Mary L; Dalzell, Connie M; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Cha, Yong-Mei; Watson, Robert E; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-10-16

    During magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abandoned leads may act as antennae that result in tissue heating and arrhythmia induction. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of MRI in patients with abandoned leads, with the addition of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) assessment to screen for myocardial damage. We reviewed our prospectively collected database of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) undergoing MRI between 2008 and 2017 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and selected patients who had abandoned leads. We compared the adverse events in this population with an age, sex, and site of MRI-matched cohort of patients selected from this database. We evaluated paired (before/after) cTnT values using MRI in these patients. Of 952 patients, 80 underwent 97 MRI scans with CIEDs in situ with 90 abandoned leads in place during the scans. The median age was 66 years (interquartile range 22.3 years) with 66.3% men. There was no clinical or electrical evidence of CIED dysfunction, arrhythmias, or pain. Paired samples for the measurement of cTnT values were available in 40 patients undergoing 44 MRI examinations. The mean difference between the pre- and postimaging values was -0.002 ± 0.006 ng/mL (interquartile range 0). There was no difference after adjustment for total number of leads per patient and total number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator coils. There was no evidence of myocardial injury as measured by paired cTnT. The risk of MRI with abandoned leads appears low, suggesting a favorable risk-benefit profile in patients with CIEDs and abandoned leads who are considered for MRI. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety and outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with abandoned pacemaker and defibrillator leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John V; Gard, Joseph J; Sheldon, Seth H; Espinosa, Raul E; Wood, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Cha, Yong-Mei; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Dalzell, Connie; Acker, Nancy; Watson, Robert E; Friedman, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Abandoned cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) leads remain a contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, largely due to in vitro data showing endocardial heating secondary to the radiofrequency field. We tested the hypothesis that abandoned CIED leads do not pose an increased risk of clinical harm for patients undergoing MRI. This single-center retrospective study examined the outcomes of patients who had device generators removed before MRI, rendering the device leads abandoned. Information was gathered through chart review. Data collected included lead model, pacing threshold before MRI, anatomic region examined, threshold data after generator reimplantation, and clinical patient outcome. Patients (n = 19, 11 men and eight women) ranged in age from 19 to 85 at the time of MRI. There was a mean of 1.63 abandoned leads at the time of imaging; none of the leads were MRI conditional. Of the three implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads, two of three were dual coil. Most (31/35) of the scans performed were of the central nervous system, including head and spinal imaging. There were no adverse events associated with MRI in any of these patients with abandoned leads within 7 days of the scan. No lead malfunctions or clinically significant change in pacing thresholds were noted with generator reimplantation. The use of MRI in patients with abandoned cardiac device leads appears feasible when performed under careful monitoring, with no adverse events, although the experience is small. MRI did not affect the function of leads that were subsequently reconnected to a cardiac device. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic learning environment, which records the amount of time students are logged in and the fraction of exercises completed. Our third measure of study effort is participation in an on-line summer course....

  17. Abandoned coal mine drainage and its remediation: impacts on stream ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; McTammany, Matthew E; Newbold, J Denis; Rier, Steven T; Sweeney, Bernard W; Battle, Juliann M

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streams and responses to remediation efforts were studied using three streams (AMD-impacted, remediated, reference) in both the anthracite and the bituminous coal mining regions of Pennsylvania (USA). Response variables included ecosystem function as well as water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community composition. The bituminous AMD stream was extremely acidic with high dissolved metals concentrations, a prolific mid-summer growth of the filamentous alga, Mougeotia, and > 10-fold more chlorophyll than the reference stream. The anthracite AMD stream had a higher pH, substrata coated with iron hydroxide(s), and negligible chlorophyll. Macroinvertebrate communities in the AMD streams were different from the reference streams, the remediated streams, and each other. Relative to the reference stream, the AMD stream(s) had (1) greater gross primary productivity (GPP) in the bituminous region and undetectable GPP in the anthracite region, (2) greater ecosystem respiration in both regions, (3) greatly reduced ammonium uptake and nitrification in both regions, (4) lower nitrate uptake in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, (5) more rapid phosphorus removal from the water column in both regions, (6) activities of phosphorus-acquiring, nitrogen-acquiring, and hydrolytic-carbon-acquiring enzymes that indicated extreme phosphorus limitation in both regions, and (7) slower oak and maple leaf decomposition in the bituminous region and slower oak decomposition in the anthracite region. Remediation brought chlorophyll concentrations and GPP nearer to values for respective reference streams, depressed ecosystem respiration, restored ammonium uptake, and partially restored nitrification in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, reduced nitrate uptake to an undetectable level, restored phosphorus uptake to near normal rates, and brought enzyme activities more in line with the reference stream in the bituminous

  18. Efforts in Preparation for Jack Validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azuola, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    ... articulated geometric figures. This report reflects current efforts to develop and refine Jack software to enable its validation and verification as a tool for performing human engineering analysis...

  19. Socially mediated trade-offs between aggression and parental effort in competing color morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Sarah R; Griffith, Simon C

    2009-10-01

    Individuals often face trade-offs between investment in parental care and alternative investments of time, energy, and resources into other life-history components, such as dominance, attractiveness, and health. Selection is thought to promote the optimal balance between the costs and the benefits of these conflicting activities by favoring individuals that adopt different tactics to maximize their overall evolutionary fitness in different environments. To test this, we experimentally manipulate both aggression (i.e., competitive environment) and parental effort (i.e., brood size) in red and black morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Although aggressive red males provide parental effort comparable to that of black males in environments where competition is low, irrespective of their relative brood size, they severely reduce or abandon parental investment in highly competitive environments. In contrast, nonaggressive black males are largely unaffected by the competitive environment and instead adaptively adjust their provisioning effort to the relative demands of their brood. Consequently, in highly competitive environments, although dominant red males defend higher-quality nest sites, they produce fewer and lower-quality offspring (in terms of mass and immunocompetence) than black males do. These opposing effects of frequency-dependent competitive environments on red and black males underlie their differential trade-offs between the costs and the benefits of aggression and parental effort.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator....1721 Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

  1. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO General § 41.25 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and...

  2. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Danya Keene; Bernadette C. Hohl; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on...

  3. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's... RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Revisions to the following provisions of the Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as submitted...

  4. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  5. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  6. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  7. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  8. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  9. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  10. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adamu, Haruna

    info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by ... Mining activities ceased long before statutory controls on mining waste were established and thus, Pb pollution load of the mine waste sites in Rhandirmwyn ...

  11. FDA abandons the Declaration of Helsinki: The effect on the ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDA abandons the Declaration of Helsinki: The effect on the ethics of clinical trial conduct in South Africa and other developing countries. ... South African Journal of Bioethics and Law ... The FDA's adoption of less morally stringent guidelines could encourage pharmaceutical companies to take ethical short cuts. It could ...

  12. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The physico-chemical properties and toxic heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) levels were determined. ... Organic waste can provide nutrients for increased plant growth, and ... Mean ± SEM values of the physico-chemical properties of the abandoned waste dump soils with respect to the profiles. meq/100 g ...

  13. 27 CFR 40.44 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products. A Federal, State, or local officer shall... the manufacturer or proprietor does not intend to place such products on the domestic market for taxable products but will dispose of them otherwise, such as by destruction or return to bond through...

  14. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United States...

  15. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal...

  16. Environmental impacts of abandoned dredged soils and sediments; available options for their handling, restoration and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohimain, E.I.; Andriesse, W.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aim and Background. In the process of creating safe navigable waterways for oil exploitation, the companies operating in the Niger Delta generate tons of sulfidic spoils. These are often deposited over bank, mostly upon fringing mangroves, and abandoned. This leads to a myriad of environmental

  17. Possible mechanism for spontaneous establishment of Calluna vulgaris in a recently abandoned agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, A.; De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In Western Europe, arable lands have been abandoned to increase the area of nature, such as Calluna vulgaris–dominated heathlands. However, the growth conditions, e.g., nutrient availability and lack of a phenolics-rich organic layer, on ex-arable sandy soils differ markedly from those of heathland

  18. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  19. Runoff generation in an intensively disturbed, abandoned farmland catchment, Central Spanish Pyreneesp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ruiz, J.M.; Arnáez, J.; Seeger, M.; Martí-Bono, C.; Regüés, D.; Lana-Renault, N.; White, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the hydrological response to rainstorm events of a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The Arnás catchment was cultivated until 40 years ago, and then abandoned and affected by plant recolonisation, especially shrubs. A rainfall of a few mm is enough

  20. Abandonment of farmland and vegetation succession following the Eurasian plague pandemic of AD 1347-52

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; van Geel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper reviews the available documentary, archaeological and palaeoecological evidence for the abandonment of agricultural land and consequent regeneration of the forest in Europe after the Black Death. Location: Western and northern Europe. Methods: This review is the result of an

  1. Association of prescription abandonment with cost share for high-cost specialty pharmacy medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Sarran, H Scott

    2009-10-01

    In 2008, specialty medications accounted for 15.1% of total pharmacy benefit medication spending, and per member expenditures have increased by 11.1% annually from 2004 to 2008 within a commercially insured population of 8 million members. Insurers face increasing pressure to control specialty medication expenditures and to rely on increasing member cost share through creation of a fourth copayment tier within the incentive-based formulary pharmacy benefit system. Data are needed on the influence that member out-of-pocket (OOP) expense may have on prescription abandonment (defined as the patient never actually taking possession of the medication despite evidence of a written prescription generated by a prescriber). To explore the relationship between prescription abandonment and OOP expense among individuals newly initiating high-cost medication therapy with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or multiple sclerosis (MS) biologic agent. This observational cross-sectional study queried a midwestern and southern U.S. database of 13,172,480 commercially insured individuals to find members with a pharmacy benefit-adjudicated claim for a TNF blocker or MS specialty medication during the period from July 2006 through June 2008. Prescription abandonment was assessed among continuously enrolled members newly initiating TNF blocker or MS therapy. Prescription abandonment was defined as reversal of the adjudicated claim with no evidence of a subsequent additional adjudicated paid claim in the ensuing 90 days. Separate analyses for MS and TNF blocker therapy were performed to assess the association between member OOP expense and abandonment rate using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariate logistic regression. Members were placed into 1 of the 7 following OOP expense groups per claim: $0-$100, $101-$150, $151-$200, $201-$250, $251-$350, $351-$500, or more than $500. The association of MS or TNF blocker abandonment rate with OOP expense was tested with logistic

  2. Chemical and mineral control of soil carbon turnover in abandoned tropical pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Marín-Spiotta; Christopher W. Swanston; Margaret S. Torn; Whendee L. Silver; Sarah D. Burton

    2007-01-01

    We investigated changes in soil carbon (C) cycling with reforestation across a long-term, replicated chronosequence of tropical secondary forests regrowing on abandoned pastures. We applied CP MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil density fractions from the top 10 cm to track changes in C chemistry and turnover during secondary forest establishment...

  3. LAND REBORN: TOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY/NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ABANDONED MINE LAND PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  4. 76 FR 9375 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Sealing of Abandoned Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Abandoned Areas AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration. ACTION: Notice of request for public comments... underground coal mines. Seals must be designed to withstand elevated pressures from explosions, and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine...

  5. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS ABANDONED MINE LAND REMEDIATION WORKSHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  6. 77 FR 16585 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Phillips County, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption-- in Phillips County, AK Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49...

  7. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... eligible lands and water; Ranking and selection procedures; Coordination of reclamation work; Acquisition management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public...

  8. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the investigation of historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Benjamin; Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard in the European High Arctic. A short-lived British marble quarry in Kongsfjorden lay deserted after 1920. We ask why this attempt at the large-scale development of High Arctic marble was unproductive; whether there are structural

  9. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Toward an update of the atlanta classification on acute pancreatitis: review of new and abandoned terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Thomas L.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The 1992 Atlanta classification is a clinically based classification system that defines the severity and complications of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this review was to assess whether the terms abandoned by the Atlanta classification are really discarded in the literature. The

  11. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton County...

  12. Abandoned field succession in Russia and its potential effect on Corncrake Crex crex habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grishchenko, Mikhail; Prins, H.H.T.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the former USSR went through major economic and political changes. Sweeping reorganisation of the Russian agriculture resulted in widespread land abandonment and development of secondary forest. Here we report on this old field succession in northern European Russia where

  13. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. 931.20 Section 931.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... Minerals Division, Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, 2040 South Pacheco Street, Santa Fe...

  14. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Canadian National Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara...

  15. From Okra to Oak: Reforestation of Abandoned Agricultural Fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    There has been a tremendous upsurge in interest in reforestation of bottomland hardwoods. In the lower Mississippi alluvial valley, reforestation projects are occurringon a large scale on abandoned agricultural fields, often in conjunction with state or federal cost-share programs. This paper describes some of the cost share programs used to establish bottomland...

  16. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  17. 78 FR 66988 - Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Minn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County... banking under 49 CFR 1152.29 will be due no later than November 27, 2013. Each trail use request must be...

  18. CHANGES IN EARTHWORM DENSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE DURING SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED TROPICAL PASTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoming Zou; Grizelle Gonzalez

    1997-01-01

    Plant community succession alters the quantity and chemistry of organic inputs to soils. These differences in organic input may trigger changes in soil fertility and fauna1 activity. We examined earthworm density and community structure along a successional sequence of plant communities in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. The chronological sequence of these...

  19. Scheduling of multi-class multi-server queueing systems with abandonments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayesta, U.; Jacko, P.; Novák, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-145 ISSN 1094-6136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV260475 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : stochastic scheduling * abandonment * restless bandits Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.281, year: 2016

  20. 78 FR 52235 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Winnebago County, Wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... expand and redevelop its rail facilities so that it can accommodate Galloway's future expansion and business growth. WCL further states that Galloway will remain a rail-served property after the abandonment. WCL states that, based on information in its possession, the line does not contain federally granted...

  1. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's... RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, the Crow Tribe is required to submit to OSM by the date specified either a...

  2. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  3. 75 FR 34626 - Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2578 Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1927 to End, revised as of...

  4. 77 FR 14591 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Page and Fremont Counties, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... the line, Green Plains Shenandoah LLC (GPS). After abandonment, BNSF intends to convert a portion of... CFR 1152.28 or for trail use/rail banking under 49 CFR 1152.29 will be due no later than April 2, 2012...

  5. Economic valuation of a toll road concession with traffic guarantees and the abandonment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governments worldwide have been encouraging private participation in transportation infrastructure. To increase the feasibility of a project, public-private partnership (PPP may include guarantees or other support to reduce the risks for private investors. It is necessary to value these opportunities under a real options framework and thereby analyze the project's economic feasibility and risk allocation. However, within this structure, sponsors have an implicit option to abandon the project that should be simultaneously valued. Thus, this article proposes a hypothetical toll road concession in Brazil with a minimum traffic guarantee, a maximum traffic ceiling, and an implicit abandonment option. Different combinations of the minimum and maximum levels are presented, resulting in very high or even negative value added to the net present value (NPV. The abandonment option impacts the level of guarantee to be given. Governments should calibrate an optimal level of guarantees to avoid unnecessarily high costs, protect the returns of the sponsor, and lower the probability of abandonment.

  6. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de, E-mail: anasanti@ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero-Perea, Cristina, E-mail: crvaquer@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.valverde@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Quintana Nieto, Jose R., E-mail: jrquinta@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); González-Huecas, Concepción, E-mail: chuecas@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio L., E-mail: lopezlafuente@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio, E-mail: vazquez@inia.es [INIA, Forest Research Centre, Carretera de A Coruña km 7.5, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg{sup −1} (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  7. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  8. Community-led approaches and interventions for the regeneration of abandoned towns in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May East

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined as towns or villages that have been abandoned by their original inhabitants, the so-called ‘ghost towns’ are a sub-product of the opposing conditions of excessive urban growth in one hand and decline of rural regions on the other. Natural disasters, economic and demographic decline, armed conflict, disease and environmental contamination are repeatedly the drivers for their abandonment.  An increasing large concentration of these abandoned small villages is found in the impoverished Southern regions of Italy.  To investigate this problem and identify conservation approaches that could generate new dynamics to the abandoned historic villages, the paper starts by identifying the linkages between globalisation, rapid urbanisation and ghost towns. This is followed by an analysis of the root causes of ghost towns in an attempt to define a ghost town typology. With this in mind, this paper investigates integrated conservation approaches, which could promote the restoration of abandoned towns, strengthening their local identity and enhancing resource-efficient local economies. Based on these considerations, the paper focus the attention on three scenarios of rehabilitation: a community-led approach to conservation demonstrated by the medieval village Torri Superiore embedded in ecovillage principles; the hospitality concept albergo diffuso demonstrated by Albergo Diffuso Borgo di Castelvetere, acting as social, cultural and economic stimuli to depopulated villages; the Riace village humanitarian approach which has integrated migrants in the social fabric of its aging population. The paper ends by reflecting if Torri Superiore and Riace’s approaches offer a potential solution to the housing crises currently engulfing southern Europe. As a result of imaginative housing and food production practices, these villages have made significantly more progress than mainstream government approaches towards the realisation of sustainable communities

  9. Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asmarhansyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate   appropriate   land   development measures and amelioration  strategies for  utilization of mined  areas  for crop  production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general  food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana  L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.

  10. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy S; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Perez, Marta; Mutalima, Nora; Newton, Robert; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chipeta, James; Heimburger, Douglas C; Vermund, Sten H; Friedman, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97). Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58). Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection be adapted for pediatric cancer treatment to

  11. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Slone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. RESULTS: Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97. Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  12. Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p = 0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p = 0.005) and follow-up systems (p = 0.002). The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process.

  13. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIALS OF FAST TRACK IN MITIGATING PROJECT ABANDONMENT: CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hassin B.Baharuddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry plays a very role in the fixed capital formation of any economy. Thus, the activities of construction in any economy, mirrors its general performance; a healthy economy usually experiences an upward swing in construction activities and a depressed economy indicates the reverse. But, project abandonment has been posing a threat to so many countries in their march towards the achievement of the above economic independence and greater civilization, and Nigeria is no exception. We have road and other construction projects that have taken ages in building, whose completion date is only in the imagination of the gods. Governments succeed governments and waste many months reviewing contracts and on-going projects, and re-awarding contracts. The ritual has come to stay and public funds are sunk into projects whose viability, usefulness, and urgency remain doubtful; then they are abandonment. However, majority of project abandonment could be traced to longer project duration. This is because the longer the duration of a project the more additional costs to the project through variations, inflations, and other expenses associated with time (time related to expenses. Time consumed by project directly influence the cost incurred on a project. When these traditional costs are too much, they lead to the client’s budget for the project to be exceeded. And when clients can no longer entertain those additional costs, it becomes a subject of disputes, and eventually the project is abandoned. As such, there is the need for the construction industry participants to embrace an efficient and effective means of minimizing projects’ duration in order to minimize the occurrences of project abandonment; and Fast Track procurement method is one good project management tool that have been in used to meet these challenges of time and cost.

  14. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  15. Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A

    2011-05-01

    Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions.

  16. Using a 3-Component Age Model for the Seaward Portions of an Abandoned Delta to Quantitatively Assess Sedimentary Input Pre- and Post-Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Bentley, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how deltaic landscapes naturally build and degrade is essential to conservation of deltaic coasts that are retreating worldwide. In the Mississippi Delta, the Lafourche delta complex holds the greatest potential for evaluating these processes under natural conditions. The last major avulsion in the Mississippi River delta occurred 700 years ago, when the Lafourche delta was abandoned for the distributary network that led to the modern birds-foot (Balize) delta. Subaerial portions of the abandoned Lafourche delta exist along Bayou Lafourche, but the youngest seaward deposits are disappearing quickly. Annual overbank flooding, organic production, changes in porosity and water content, and storm processes are all important to deltaic wetlands, for maintaining vertical equilibrium with sea-level. Quantifying their relative importance is problematic, especially considering that high-resolution sedimentological studies that cover the complete timescales relevant to this system (1 to 102 years) are lacking. To capture this time window for the Lafourche delta, 15 co-located vibracores (4-5 m, susceptible to compaction) and piston cores (0.5-1.5 m, negligible compaction) have been collected within the Lafourche delta west of Port Fourchon, LA, USA. Sediment composition via X-ray fluorescence (elements) and loss-on-ignition (organics), bulk-density, and grain size analysis have been applied to develop a stratigraphic model. 210Pb and 137Cs gamma decay, radiocarbon of bulk sediments, and optically-stimulated-luminescence of prodelta quartz (which can differ with radiocarbon by an order of magnitude) have been applied here to create an age model for the studied portion of the delta, and allow for quantitative interpretations of sedimentary controls over time. Total mineral sediment input to the delta decreased by an order of magnitude following abandonment, from about 16 kg m-2y-1 to 1.5 kg m-2y-1. Identified discrete storm events represent about 5% of these

  17. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  18. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  20. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  2. Maternal regulation and toddlers’ effortful control

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel Y Ancona, María Fayne; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; García Cabrero, Benilde; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; Montero Y López Lena, María; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; Valencia Cruz, Alejandra; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control is a regulatory component of emotion (Calkins & Hill, 2007). This descriptive study analyzed the relation between maternal co-regulation strategies and children self-regulation strategies in order to evaluate their effortful control skills.19 dyads [mother-child] with children between 18 and 36 months old participated and were divided in three groups, the sample was taken from government´s nurseries. A transversal study with direct observation of the experimental situati...

  3. Mental Effort and Safety in Curved Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Entzinger, Jorg Onno; Uemura, Tsuneharu; Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Curved approach procedures are implemented around the world. Although typically flown by the autopilot, human pilots need the situational awareness and skills to take over control in rare-event cases to ensure flight safety. We try to understand the pilot’s cognitive models and differences in required (mental) effort between conventional straight-in approaches and curved approaches. We developed various methods to visualize pilots’ control efforts during manual flight, show their capabilities...

  4. Treatment abandonment in children with cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Rikka; Purssell, Edward

    2017-10-11

    To establish and quantify the main reasons for treatment abandonment in children with cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa through a systematic review of the literature. Great advances have been made in the treatment of childhood cancer, however this requires that families are able to complete treatment. Failure to do this is referred to as treatment abandonment, which is recognized as a reason for treatment failure. Systematic review and meta-analysis of data on the reasons for treatment abandonment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ovid MEDLINE 1946 to May Week 1 2017 and Embase 1974 to 2017 Week 19. Additional hand-searching was undertaken. Two reviewers independently screened papers and extracted the data. The R package meta was used to calculate the relative risk of treatment abandonment or the proportion of parents stating a reason. The relative risk of treatment abandonment was highest for not being in a research cohort; followed by mothers only having primary education, being HIV negative, parents not being employed, travel and no insurance. When parents who had abandoned treatment were asked, the most common reason was finance, followed by insurance, transport, lack of social support, their child appearing well, fear and waiting. More data are needed on the extent of treatment abandonment in different countries. Clinicians should encourage parents without insurance to enrol onto the relevant insurance programme straight after diagnosis, provide housing for patients and families close to the treatment centres and to develop treatment at more localized centres. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida, E-mail: mgutierrez@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Mickus, Kevin, E-mail: kevinmickus@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Camacho, Lucy Mar, E-mail: lucy.camacho@tamuk.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas & M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  6. Ecological and hydrological response of farmlands abandoned for different lengths of time: Evidence from the Loess Hill Slope of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Fu, Bojie; Liu, Yu; Lu, Nan; Gao, Guangyao; Zhou, Ji

    2014-02-01

    As a widely distributed land use type, abandoned farmland has become a research focus due to its complex ecological and hydrological responses. Most recent studies have focussed on the interactions between the ecological and hydrological responses in degradation processes, whilst little research has focussed on the recovery of the ecosystem. Moreover, some in-depth analyses are required to further elucidate their interactive on abandoned farmland. In addition, although runoff generation and soil erosion on abandoned farmland have been investigated, few reports have investigated nutrient transport in runoff and eroded sediments.

  7. Changes in organic carbon pools and C sequestration potential in abandoned Chernozems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Kurganova, I.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Land use system in Russia has been significantly changed since 1990. More than quarter of croplands (about 34 M ha) including soils of southern regions (Chernozems. Kastanozems) was abandoned. The abandonment of cultivated lands and successive establishment of natural vegetation led to carbon (C) accumulation in soil, qualitative changes in organic C pools and microbial community. This study was aimed (1) to quantify the different C organic pools (total, labile, recalcitrant, and microbial) in the former arable Chernozems depending on the abandonment period and (2) to estimate C sequestration potential of soils after land use change from crops to natural vegetation. Our investigations were carried out on arable soil under winter wheat and soils abandoned 5, 11, 21 and 77 years ago after land use change from crops to permanent grassland (Haplic Chernozems, Rostov region, Russia, 47o27'N, 39o35'E). The total soil organic C (Ctotal, dichromate oxidation method), labile and recalcitrant C (after 7 week incubation at 20 oC and 60% of water holding capacity) were determined in the former plough-layer (0-20 cm). A first order two-component model was used for the analysis of cumulative CO2-C evolution, calculation of mineralization rate constants for labile and recalcitrant C-pools, and estimation of their mean residence time (MRT). Carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic) was estimated by fumigation-extraction method before and after 10 weeks of incubation without and following addition of glucose at rate of 730 μg/g of soil. Carbon sequestration potential of soils (CSP, %) was calculated using the ratio between extra C-CO2 release induced by glucose addition and amount of C applied to soil. Our results showed that the establishment of perennial vegetation after land use change from arable Chernozems to permanent grassland resulted in the significant C-accumulation in soils. The SOC-content (0-20 cm layer) increased from 2.08±0.03 to 2.24±0.04% for the first 5

  8. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  10. A WebGIS Decision Support System for Management of Abandoned Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Stanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a WebGIS application aimed at providing safe and reliable data needed for reclamation of abandoned mines in national parks and other protected areas in Vojvodina in compliance with existing legal regulations. The geodatabase model for this application has been developed using UML and the CASE tool Microsoft Visio featuring an interface with ArcGIS. The WebGIS application was developed using GeoServer, an open source tool in the Java programming language, with integrated PostgreSQL DB and the possibility of generating and publishing WMS, WFS and KML services. The WebGIS application is publicly available, based on an appropriate central database, which for the first time encompasses all available data on abandoned mines in Vojvodina, and as such may serve as a model for similar databases on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  11. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Surface water arid;ground water from an area underlain by coal- bearing rocks in the vicinity of St. Charles Michigan, were analyzed to determine the quality characteristics of these water resources and to assess the relation between the two. Data for 15 constituents, including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium and manganese, were in such high concentrations that they could be used to differentiate between water from wells drilled into coal-bearing beds and water from streams not directly associated with coal deposits. Ground water from abandoned mines and undisturbed coal-bearing beds is highly mineralized, and contains higher concentrations of trace metals than surface water. Water from the undistrubed coal- bearing beds and abandoned mines is not suitable for domestic, public supply, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality.

  12. The signature of the city: abandonment and dreaming in colonial Williamsburg and Ottawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kristmanson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the themes of abandonment and dreaming in relation to two North American capital cities, this interdisciplinary narrative essay examines the Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's influence on the planning and architecture of Ottawa in relation to his frequent visits to Colonial Williamsburg, the restored former capital of Virginia. At the invitation of John D. Rockefeller Jr., King became a regular guest in Williamsburg during the 1930s and 1940s culminating in the conferral of an honorary degree by the College of William and Mary in 1948. The records of these visits provide a diagnostic used to conceptualize the 'signature' of the capital city. In abandonment and in dreaming, capital cities are especially exposed to latent forces of nature and of 'museumification'. These two forces created a tension that complicated attempts by King and Rockefeller to leave permanent architectural legacies in the signatures of their respective capitals.

  13. More than the loss of a parent: potentially traumatic events among orphaned and abandoned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; O'Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines rates of potentially traumatic events and associated anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties among 1,258 orphaned and abandoned children in 5 low- and middle-income countries. The study quantifies the types of events the children experienced and demonstrates that anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties increase with additional exposure. As policies for orphaned and abandoned children are being implemented, this study helps policy makers and care providers recognize that (a) children and caregivers are willing to report experiences of potentially traumatic events, (b) those who report such events are at higher risk for experiencing additional events, (c) resulting symptomatology indicates a need for appropriate mental health services, and (d) boys are as vulnerable as girls, indicating an equal need for protection. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. [Distancing as a Social Process: 'Abandoned' Young and Old in Ayacucho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2010-12-01

    In previous research on fostering and adoption in Ayacucho, I explored how amid the creative negotiation of discourses and spaces constructed by institutions, communities, and social structures, Ayacuchanos take up and produce new social relations. This article discusses the opposite process: undoing kinship, and the social process of abandonment or distancing. When a person is withdrawn from his or her family or community, those who remain come to understand themselves as certain kinds of persons. The case studies considered here, collected through careful participant observation and ethnographic interviews recorded between 2001 and 2007, reveal how, after social distancing or abandonment, the individuals who do the distancing reinterpret themselves as subjects who are improving themselves and becoming modern.

  15. Concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals in vegetation at two abandoned mine tailings in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peichun; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-04-01

    Untreated abandoned mines may result in hazards to ecosystems due to dispersion of various toxic elements such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Phytoremediation is an alternative of remediation for large scale mine dumps. Plant species were sampled from two abandoned gold (Au) mines in South Korea. Plant samples were digested following the guidelines of US EPA Method 3050 (US-EPA, 1996) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations and bioaccumulation factors of plants are reported and out-performing species are summarized. Poplar trees (Populus davidiana) growing on the Myoungbong tailings were suggested to be a potential species for revegetation of large scale Au mine tailings. Arsenic accumulations of bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum) sampled from the Duckum tailings were far lower than those of the reported hyperaccumulators, but the possible chronic adverse effects on residents through daily diet are of concern.

  16. Study of Abandoned Heritage Buildings from the Owners’ Perspectives in George Town, Penang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shukuri N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoning a heritage building is not a new phenomenon. In George Town, Penang specifically, there are many dilapidated heritage buildings that can be seen. These undeniable eye sores affect Penang’s designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This research aims to identify and assess the issues related to the dangerous hazards of abandoned buildings as well as problems involved in restoring these historical structures in order to determine how severe the current situation is. This study was also carried out to better understand the reasons why owners decide to leave heritage buildings unoccupied to the point that they became unsafe to inhabit. A total of six case studies were carried out with data collection focusing on the historical background of each site, clarification of the causes of neglect to each heritage building and plans made by respective owners towards the future of their properties. The majority of relevant information was gathered through semi-structured interviews.

  17. Alternative Education and the Development of Resilience in Youth Who Have Abandoned School in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barrientos Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the practices of Alternative Schools in Puerto Rico that promote the aptitudes of resilience in students returning to school after having dropped-out. The research aims to identify the factors leading up the decision of dropping out of school and the specific practices performed which have made a difference for these students to remain in their new Alternative Schools. Information was analyzed from 10 Alternative Schools in Puerto Rico on the pressing factors that lead them to abandon school. The educational model of an Alternative School was examined to determine the best practices that build resilience in these youth. Among the findings, the leading factors in the decision to abandon school were related to academic failure followed by chronic absenteeism and cutting classes. The relation with a caring adult, significant student participation and emotional healing appear to be critical aspects in developing resilience in this student population.

  18. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  19. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union...... and habitat for biodiversity. Less cropland abandonment and more recultivation after 2000 occurred in areas with an increasing rural population and a younger labor force, but also improved yields. Synergies were observed between cropland recultivation and intensification over the 2000s. From 47.3 million......-economic constraints suggested that the remaining 30.6 (25.7– 30.6) Mha of abandoned croplands were unlikely to provide important contributions to future crop production at current wheat prices but could provide various ecosystem services, and some could support extensive livestock production. Political...

  20. The factory in San Ignacio: abandoned industrial heritage in Aguascalientes [Mexico]. Analysis, agricultural landscape and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Collazo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The factory of San Ignacio is situated on the western side of Aguascalientes City in Mexico. The foundation of the factory was in 1861. It had functioned during Porfirio Díaz’s government and during the Mexican Revolution until the middle of the 20th century. This factory is the first example of industrial architecture in Aguascalientes. The buildings of San Ignacio are cataloged as historical monuments and now are totally abandoned. San Ignacio is situated at the agricultural territory that ...

  1. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric Malignancies, Treatment Outcomes and Abandonment of Pediatric Cancer Treatment in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Jeremy S; Catherine Chunda-Liyoka; Marta Perez; Nora Mutalima; Robert Newton; Chifumbe Chintu; Chipepo Kankasa; James Chipeta; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Vermund, Sten H.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted...

  3. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  4. An improved void-resistance model for abandoned coal mine gas reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, JQ; Rubio, RM; Durucan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the gas pressure behaviour of some abandoned coal mines may be described with the aid of a simple conceptual model, the so called void-resistance model. In this study, an improved void-resistance model has been developed and validated using previously collected data. Two model parameters, i.e. an apparent source/sink pressure and a time constant, which control the gas pressure behaviour during recharge and under certain gas production conditions, are defined. ...

  5. Prioritizing abandoned coal mine reclamation projects within the contiguous United States using geographic information system extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Yuri; Reid, Matthew; Mignone, Erica; Voros, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Coal mine reclamation projects are very expensive and require coordination of local and federal agencies to identify resources for the most economic way of reclaiming mined land. Location of resources for mine reclamation is a spatial problem. This article presents a methodology that allows the combination of spatial data on resources for the coal mine reclamation and uses GIS analysis to develop a priority list of potential mine reclamation sites within contiguous United States using the method of extrapolation. The extrapolation method in this study was based on the Bark Camp reclamation project. The mine reclamation project at Bark Camp, Pennsylvania, USA, provided an example of the beneficial use of fly ash and dredged material to reclaim 402,600 sq mi of a mine abandoned in the 1980s. Railroads provided transportation of dredged material and fly ash to the site. Therefore, four spatial elements contributed to the reclamation project at Bark Camp: dredged material, abandoned mines, fly ash sources, and railroads. Using spatial distribution of these data in the contiguous United States, it was possible to utilize GIS analysis to prioritize areas where reclamation projects similar to Bark Camp are feasible. GIS analysis identified unique occurrences of all four spatial elements used in the Bark Camp case for each 1 km of the United States territory within 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 km radii from abandoned mines. The results showed the number of abandoned mines for each state and identified their locations. The federal or state governments can use these results in mine reclamation planning.

  6. Reconnaissance of water availability and quality in abandoned coal mines near Roslyn, Kittitas County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The recoverable volume of ground water in abandoned coal mines near Roslyn, Wash., is estimated to be 20,000 acre-feet. During times of drought, pumping this water into the Cle Elum and Yakima Rivers for use in irrigation downstream should present few major water-quality problems. Wells at seven locations should be sufficient to withdraw the recoverable water from nine separate reservoirs within the mines. Under normal recharge (precipitation) conditions, these reservoirs would refill in about 6 years. (USGS)

  7. Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Christian, Shanna; Celia, Michael A; Mauzerall, Denise L; Bill, Markus; Miller, Alana R; Chen, Yuheng; Conrad, Mark E; Darrah, Thomas H; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-11-29

    Recent measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil/gas wells show that these wells can be a substantial source of methane to the atmosphere, particularly from a small proportion of high-emitting wells. However, identifying high emitters remains a challenge. We couple 163 well measurements of methane flow rates; ethane, propane, and n-butane concentrations; isotopes of methane; and noble gas concentrations from 88 wells in Pennsylvania with synthesized data from historical documents, field investigations, and state databases. Using our databases, we (i) improve estimates of the number of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania; (ii) characterize key attributes that accompany high emitters, including depth, type, plugging status, and coal area designation; and (iii) estimate attribute-specific and overall methane emissions from abandoned wells. High emitters are best predicted as unplugged gas wells and plugged/vented gas wells in coal areas and appear to be unrelated to the presence of underground natural gas storage areas or unconventional oil/gas production. Repeat measurements over 2 years show that flow rates of high emitters are sustained through time. Our attribute-based methane emission data and our comprehensive estimate of 470,000-750,000 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania result in estimated state-wide emissions of 0.04-0.07 Mt (1012 g) CH4 per year. This estimate represents 5-8% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. Our methodology combining new field measurements with data mining of previously unavailable well attributes and numbers of wells can be used to improve methane emission estimates and prioritize cost-effective mitigation strategies for Pennsylvania and beyond.

  8. Abandoning Peracetic Acid-Based Dialyzer Reuse Is Associated with Improved Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiling; Mooney, Ann; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher mortality risk reported with reuse versus single use of dialyzers is potentially related to reuse reagents that modify membrane surface characteristics and the blood-membrane interface. A key mechanism may involve stimulation of an inflammatory response. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a prospective crossover design, laboratory markers and mortality from 23 hemodialysis facilities abandoning reuse with peracetic acid mixture were tracked. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, and prealbumin were measured for 2 consecutive months before abandoning reuse and subsequently within 3 and 6 months on single use. Survival models were utilized to compare the 6-month period before abandoning reuse (baseline) and the 6-month period on single use of dialyzers after a 3-month “washout period.” Results Patients from baseline and single-use periods had a mean age of approximately 63 years; 44% were female, 54% were diabetic, 60% were white, and the mean vintage was approximately 3.2 years. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.70 and after case-mix adjustment was 0.74 for single use compared with reuse. Patients with CRP ≥ 5 mg/L during reuse (mean CRP = 26.6 mg/ml in April) declined on single use to 20.2 mg/L by August and 20.4 mg/L by November. WBC count declined slightly during single use, but nutritional markers were unchanged. Conclusions Abandonment of peracetic-acid-based reuse was associated with improved survival and lower levels of inflammatory but not nutritional markers. Further study is needed to evaluate a potential link between dialyzer reuse, inflammation, and mortality. PMID:20947788

  9. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  10. Exploring Factors Associated with Educational Outcomes for Orphan and Abandoned Children in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Aakanksha; Lombe, Margaret; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Whetten, Kathryn; Whetten, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    India has more than 25 million orphan and abandoned children (UNICEF, 2012). The burden of care for these OAC is on caregivers that are often ill equipped to meet their needs due to inadequate assets. Previous studies suggest that in communities with limited resources, OAC residing with non-biological caregivers are more at risk than those fostered by a biological parent. This study explores the association of caregiver and child characteristics with OAC educational outcome in India. The anal...

  11. Geoenvironmental Characterisation of Heap Leach Materials at Abandoned Mines: Croydon Au-Mines, QLD, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Parbhakar-Fox

    2016-01-01

    Heap leaching is a well-established metallurgical technology which allows metal recovery (e.g., Au, Cu, U) from low-grade ores. However, spent heap leach materials remaining at abandoned or historic mine sites may represent a potential source of contamination. At the Croydon Au-mines, heap leaching operations (1984–1985) were performed on mineralized rhyolites hosting sulphides including pyrite, galena, arsenopyrite and minor sphalerite. Characterization of spent heap leach materials (n = 14)...

  12. Compensation and the Abandoned Property of the 1948 Palestinian Refugees: Assessment and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Frank D Lewisf

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the analysis of "Agricultural Property and the 1948 Palestinian Refugees: Assessing the Loss" (Lewis 1996) to non-agricultural property. The estimate is based mainly on the area of urban property abandoned by refugees, where valuations are based on contemporary transfer prices, tax payable on the property, and inferences about rent. The amounts are much higher than those derived by the United Nations Conciliation Commission in 1951. Still the total implied by this paper and...

  13. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  14. Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Christian, Shanna; Celia, Michael A.; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Bill, Markus; Miller, Alana R.; Chen, Yuheng; Conrad, Mark E.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil/gas wells show that these wells can be a substantial source of methane to the atmosphere, particularly from a small proportion of high-emitting wells. However, identifying high emitters remains a challenge. We couple 163 well measurements of methane flow rates; ethane, propane, and n-butane concentrations; isotopes of methane; and noble gas concentrations from 88 wells in Pennsylvania with synthesized data from historical documents, field investigations, and state databases. Using our databases, we (i) improve estimates of the number of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania; (ii) characterize key attributes that accompany high emitters, including depth, type, plugging status, and coal area designation; and (iii) estimate attribute-specific and overall methane emissions from abandoned wells. High emitters are best predicted as unplugged gas wells and plugged/vented gas wells in coal areas and appear to be unrelated to the presence of underground natural gas storage areas or unconventional oil/gas production. Repeat measurements over 2 years show that flow rates of high emitters are sustained through time. Our attribute-based methane emission data and our comprehensive estimate of 470,000–750,000 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania result in estimated state-wide emissions of 0.04–0.07 Mt (1012 g) CH4 per year. This estimate represents 5–8% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. Our methodology combining new field measurements with data mining of previously unavailable well attributes and numbers of wells can be used to improve methane emission estimates and prioritize cost-effective mitigation strategies for Pennsylvania and beyond. PMID:27849603

  15. The contribution of chestnut coppice forests on slope stability in abandoned territory: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bassanelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet chestnut has been for many centuries fundamental for the Italian mountainous economies, where this kind of forest was traditionally managed in short rotation to rapidly produce wood biomass. Due to the social and economic changes, which made such management scheme unprofitable especially on the steep and remote slopes, such practice has been mainly abandoned and most of chestnut forests became over-aged and very dense, causing an increase of localized slope instability. In this work the effect of over-aged chestnut coppice forests on shallow landslides was analysed by evaluating and comparing mechanical contribution to soil shear strength provided by root systems in differently managed chestnut stands. The study area is located in Valcuvia (Lombardy Prealps where three different stands, one managed and the others abandoned (over 40 year aged, established on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits were chosen having care to select homogeneous conditions in terms of substrate, aspect and elevation. As slope steepness strongly affects forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned, the considered stands have different terrain inclination, 30-35° in abandoned stands and 13° in the managed one. Slope stability of the three sites was evaluated by applying the infinite slope approach accounting for additional root cohesion and tree surcharge. Additional root cohesion was estimated through the Fiber Boundle Model approach by collecting roots in the field and measuring their resistance in laboratory, and by measuring root diameter and density distribution with depth by the wall technique method. The results, as expected, showed that over-aging does not affect root mechanical properties, whereas it significantly affects root distribution within the soil. In terms of slope stability, when steepness exceeds 35°, instability phenomena can be triggered by high level of soil saturation in the case of over-aged forests

  16. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and id...... and statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. A small simulation study and a real data example are presented....

  17. Update on research software citation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  18. Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen following Land Abandonment of Farmland on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Sweeney, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0–5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (Soil OC and N storage (0–100 cm) was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0–30 cm) soil levels. PMID:23940793

  19. [Abandonment of tuberculosis treatment among patients co-infected with TB/HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ivaneide Leal Ataide; Monteiro, Larissa Lima; Pacheco, Régia Hevelline Barros; da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the reasons that patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV leave the treatment of tuberculosis and to know the conduct of the health team toward that abandonment. The study, using a qualitative approach, performed semi-structured interviews on 45 professionals working at a referral health center in Pará state. Two units emerged based on the thematic analysis: patient-associated factors that make TB treatment adherence difficult; and service-associated factors that contribute to treatment abandonment. It was found that, in terms of the patients, that their low socioeconomic condition was the most common factor that led to abandonment. Other factors that led to this outcome included the adverse drug effects, the use of illegal drugs, and poor personal motivation. Regarding the service, issues related to the physical structure, working process organization and accessibility were also relevant to their non-adherence. Results show there is a need to change the practices performed at the health care services.

  20. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  2. Abandonment and dislocation in the border line to United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Echavarría Canto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From psychoanalitic categories of abandonment (Grinberg, 1996, subject missing (Lacan, 1964; Zizek, 1998 and dislocated subject (Laclau 1993, 2001 testimonies from illegal mexican migrants are analyzed with respect to leaving a country of origin, meaning a symbolic abandon of a protective land, which besides the very dangerous border crossing creates a traumatic dislocative situation of subjectivities and make deep feelings of abandonment happen. Such feeling gets deeper on the subject of the border crossing, which could be explained by the search of a minimun level of economic welfare, which would operate as the irruption of the Lacanian Real that generates processes of dislocation in the subject, dislocation that represents the structural failure of the symbolic order and its constitutive incompletiveness, but also involves an imaginary migrant of ideals of plenitude. (In Lacan, Real threats, denies and questions the simbolic order, shows the failure of the identity, makes visible its dislocation, creating the need for new identifications through which it is intended once more to suture the structure. In this context, the role-impact of the so called american dream in the migrant subjectivity, is also profoundly analysed.

  3. Analysis of performance measures to handle medical E-commerce shopping cart abandonment in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedhanayagam Priya

    Full Text Available The E-commerce zone is crowded with many Internet users. Medical E-commerce has had significant growth in part because of a great deal of growth in the Indian E-commerce field. Medical E-commerce sites use cloud computing to guarantee a high quality of service anywhere and anytime in the world. For online access, the customer's expectations are very high. Medical E-commerce retailers are directed towards cloud service providers based on their quality of service. During online shopping, impatient customers may abandon a specific medical E-commerce shopping cart due to slow response. This is quite difficult to endure for a medical E-commerce firm. The research described herein observed the effect of shopping cart abandonment on medical E-commerce websites deployed in cloud computing. The impact of the idle virtual machine on customer impatience during medical E-commerce shopping was also studied. The ultimate aim of this study was to propose a stochastic queueing model and to yield results through probability generating functions. The results of the model may be highly useful for a medical E-commerce firm facing customer impatience, so as to design its service system to offer satisfactory quality of service. Keywords: Cloud computing, Queueing, Virtual machine, E-commerce, Cart abandonment, Quality of Service

  4. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sherba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.

  5. Mutualism Persistence and Abandonment during the Evolution of the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherali, Hafiz; Oberle, Brad; Stevens, Peter F; Cornwell, William K; McGlinn, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Mutualistic symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi are widespread in plants. The majority of plant species associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. By contrast, the minority associate with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, have abandoned the symbiosis and are nonmycorrhizal (NM), or engage in an intermediate, weakly AM symbiosis (AMNM). To understand the processes that maintain the mycorrhizal symbiosis or cause its loss, we reconstructed its evolution using a ∼3,000-species seed plant phylogeny integrated with mycorrhizal state information. Reconstruction indicated that the common ancestor of seed plants most likely associated with AM fungi and that the EM, NM, and AMNM states descended from the AM state. Direct transitions from the AM state to the EM and NM states were infrequent and generally irreversible, implying that natural selection or genetic constraint could promote stasis once a particular state evolved. However, the evolution of the NM state was more frequent via an indirect pathway through the AMNM state, suggesting that weakening of the AM symbiosis is a necessary precursor to mutualism abandonment. Nevertheless, reversions from the AMNM state back to the AM state were an order of magnitude more likely than transitions to the NM state, suggesting that natural selection favors the AM symbiosis over mutualism abandonment.

  6. Weed inhibition by sowing legume species in early succession of abandoned fields on Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Xu, Dang-Hui; Wang, Gang

    2008-01-01

    A major constraint on vegetation succession on abandoned land is dominance by early successional species. Our aim was to inhibit weeds and alter the initial vegetation succession by the introduction of legume species ( Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens, and Astragalus adsurgens) into abandoned fields on the Loess Plateau, China. Results from our study showed that the addition of legume species strongly affected the dominance pattern of the abandoned-field vegetation. The number of naturally colonizing species was inhibited by the introduction of legume species in the first two growing seasons. The strongest effect on weed inhibition appeared by sowing Melilotus suaveolens. Vegetation cover and above-ground biomass increased after introduction of legume species and the number of naturally colonizing plant species showed a positive correlation with above-ground biomass. Later successional species like Stipa breviflora and Astragalus polycladus appeared three years following the introduction of Melilotus suaveolens, indicating that the course of old-field succession may be accelerated by introducing legume species such as Melilotus suaveolens, at least temporarily.

  7. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  8. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  9. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of “action values,” which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  10. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  11. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  12. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals Affect Collaborative Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Peggy C.; Blase, Joseph J.

    1991-01-01

    If teachers perceive their principals as "closed"--inaccessible, unsupportive, and insecure--they are wary of efforts toward increased collaboration. With closed principals, teachers resort to micropolitical strategies, including avoidance, excessive rationality, ingratiation, confrontation, coalition-building, and deliberate noncompliance.…

  14. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  15. On Making an Effort | Coffman | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is in the main a critical study of Robert Kane's account of the nature of Free Choice. I begin by briefly describing Kane's theory. I then consider four questions about a concept that is central to his account—viz., the concept of an Effort of Will. I argue that Kane's position affords satisfactory answers to three of these ...

  16. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Annick St-Denis; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier

    2013-01-01

    Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and ...

  17. Effect of land abandonment on soil organic carbon fractions along a precipitation gradient in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Trigalet, Sylvain; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment has been the main land use change in rural European Mediterranean areas over the last decades. The secondary succession process following land abandonment is strongly affected by precipitation, which in consequence determines the parallel change of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other soil properties. SOC is usually assumed to increase due to the intensification of plant residues inputs to soil, above as well below ground. However, SOC is composed of different fractions with contrasting resistance to decomposition that can have different responses to land abandonment. The objectives of this study are: i) to determine the net effect of land abandonment on the different soil organic carbon fractions; ii) to assess the relation between vegetation evolution and SOC fractions; iii) to establish the conditions with the greater potential to store stable SOC along a precipitation gradient. Three field sites with contrasting annual precipitation (GAU: 1080.5 mm yr-1- ALM: 650 mm yr-1- GER: 350 mm yr-1) were selected. On each site Fields abandoned in different periods, as verified on aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2009, were selected using a chronosequence approach. The fractionation protocol implemented was based on the separation of different soil particle sizes, which are associated to SOC pools with different degree of stability. Samples of the first 10 cm of soil were added to a sodium-hexametaphosphate (HMP) solution (40 g L-1) and shaken horizontally for 1h (150 r.p.m.). The soil solution was then sieved consecutively through two meshes of 250 µm and 50 µm, obtaining the following fractions: i) >250 µm (coarse fraction), it contains coarse particles (coarse sand) and plant residues (particulate organic matter, POM), easily decomposable, that constitute the more labile SOC pool; ii) 50 - 250 µm (mid fraction), it contains fine sand, fine POM easily decomposable and stable microaggregates, that contains SOC

  18. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human actions and the human-linked land use changes are the main responsible of the present landscapes and vegetation patterns (Antrop, 2005; Pelorosso et al., 2009). Hence, revised concept of potential natural vegetation has been developed in landscape ecology. In fact, it cannot more be considered as the optimum for a certain landscape, but only as a general indication never widely reached. In particular Ingegnoli and Pignatti (2007) introduced the concept of fittest vegetation as "the most suitable or suited vegetation for the specific climate and geomorphic conditions, in a limited period of time and in a certain defined place with a particular range of incorporable disturbances (including man's) under natural or not natural conditions". Anthropic exploitation of land and its resources to obtain goods and services (Willemen et al, 2008) can be considered therefore the main cause of landscape change as an integrant part of nature, not external. The abandon of the land by farmers or other users it is one of the more felt problems for the marginal territories of Mediterranean basin. It is therefore caused by socio-economic changes of last decades and cause several impact on biodiversity (Geri et al. 2010) and hydro-geological assessment. A mountain landscape has however the capacity to provide goods like timber and services like aesthetic pleasure or regulation of water system. The necessity of a conservation strategy and the development of sustainable socio-economic management plan play a very important role in governing land and quality of life for people and ecosystems also for marginal territory. After a land abandonment, soil conditions and several climatic and orographic characteristic plus human disturbance affect the length of time required by secondary succession, throwing the establishment of vegetation with different association, structure and composition until a (stable or meta-stable) equilibrium is reached (Ingegnoli and Pignatti, 2007). In this

  19. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  20. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  1. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  2. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  3. Estimating design effort for GE hydro projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, H.A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Thomson, V. [McGill University, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-04-01

    Effort estimation is an essential process in determining the final cost, as well as the duration of, a future design project. This paper discusses the construction of a parametric model done in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Hydro (GE Hydro is a world leader in the design and construction of generators and turbines for hydro-electric power generation), the purpose being to estimate the effort needed to create designs for hydro-electric generators. An analysis of the data showed that the developed model resulted in a mean relative error of 13% compared to original estimation errors by GE Hydro staff, which averaged 27%. GE has been using the estimation model for its projects since the beginning of the year 2000. (author)

  4. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  5. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  6. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  7. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

  8. The effects of tournament incentive contracts and relative performance feedback on task effort, learning effort, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    2015-01-01

    When employees work hard, they exert more effort on job tasks (task effort); and when employees learn hard, they exert more effort to learn (learning effort). Task effort and learning effort are important causes of improved performance. This thesis investigates whether the use of tournament schemes motivates employees to work harder and learn harder, and also whether providing performance feedback in tournament schemes has any impact on task effort and learning effort.This thesis has three go...

  9. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort–effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  10. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  11. Exploring the Dynamic Mechanisms of Farmland Abandonment Based on a Spatially Explicit Economic Model for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment has important impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem recovery, as well as food security and rural sustainable development. Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, farmland abandonment has become an increasingly important problem in many countries, particularly in China. To promote sustainable land-use management and environmental sustainability, it is important to understand the socioeconomic causes and spatial patterns of farmland abandonment. In this study, we explored the dynamic mechanisms of farmland abandonment in Jiangxi province of China using a spatially explicit economical model. The results show that the variables associated with the agricultural products yield are significantly correlated with farmland abandonment. The increasing opportunity cost of farming labor is the main factor in farmland abandonment in conjunction with a rural labor shortage due to rural-to-urban population migration and regional industrialization. Farmlands are more likely to be abandoned in areas located far from the villages and towns due to higher transportation costs. Additionally, farmers with more land but lower net income are more likely to abandon poor-quality farmland. Our results support the hypothesis that farmland abandonment takes place in locations in which the costs of cultivation are high and the potential crop yield is low. In addition, our study also demonstrates that a spatially explicit economic model is necessary to distinguish between the main driving forces of farmland abandonment. Policy implications are also provided for potential future policy decisions.

  12. Temporal dynamics of plant succession in abandoned field in Mediterranean mountain areas: farming terraces and sloping fields (Iberian System, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Cropland abandonment is an important problem in mountain areas worldwide. This process represents the change from an agricultural management to an abandoned land in which a complex plant succession process occurs, with important hydromorphological effects, and consequences in water resources availability and soil erosion. Literature indicates that plant succession depends on multiple natural factors (soil properties, topography, climate, lithology, and distance to natural covers…) and anthropogenic factors (age of abandonment, management of each field during the cultivation period and after the abandonment…). Despite the advances, much is unknown about the vegetation succession, due to the complexity of ecological and social conditions in which land abandonment occurs. Recently, it is shown that only local factors can explain the heterogeneity of the process (Burel and Baudry, 2002; Jouba and Alados, 2012). In this work, we analyze the diversity of vegetation cover in abandonment fields in Cameros Viejo (Iberian System, Spain), related to the different field patterns (terraces and sloping fields) and the age of abandonment. Agricultural lands were delimited using aerial photographs from 1956 and 1978. The current land cover was obtained from SIOSE (Information System of Land Occupation in Spain). According to our cartography, cultivated land occupied as much as 15,491 ha (39% of the area), remaining abandoned 14,505 ha by 1978. Farming terraces occupied 55.9% of the abandoned area, and 44.1% as sloping fields. On the other hand, our cartography highlights the complexity of current land cover of abandoned fields in a landscape matrix of scrubland. Our results suggest that ecological succession is faster in farming terraces than in sloping fields, mostly until scrubland phase is attained. They also suggest that current land cover is better explained by the physical conditions of each field than by the abandonment age. Acknowledgement This research was supported

  13. On the Boundary Conditions of Effort Losses and Effort Gains in Action Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffmeier, Joachim; Filusch, Michael; Mazei, Jens; Hertel, Guido; Mojzisch, Andreas; Krumm, Stefan

    2017-07-27

    While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013). Consistent with our hypotheses, we observed a linear increase in effort across the relay. The first relay swimmers showed effort losses in the relay as compared with the individual competition whereas the remaining relay swimmers showed effort gains. However, this was only evident (a) when team members could realistically expect meaningful team outcomes in return for their performance, and (b) when the valence of these outcomes was equivalent to individual competitions. If such favorable conditions were not given, we found effort losses in team as compared with individual competitions at all relay positions. Results of a second study (N = 228) showed that the linear increase in effort across the relay was indeed attributable to the team members' serial position and not to their relative strength. Together, the studies demonstrate the motivating potential of teamwork even in the high performance contexts of action teams, such as competitive sports relays, where athletes are already highly motivated in their individual competitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Impact of capped and uncapped abandoned leads on the heating of an MR-conditional pacemaker implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Gentili, Giulia; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    To assess the risk of radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in patients with MR-conditional pacemaker (PM) systems, in the presence of another lead abandoned from a previous implant. Four commercial pacemaker leads were placed beside a MR-conditional PM system, inside a human trunk simulator. The phantom has been exposed to the RF generated by a 64 MHz body bird-cage coil (whole-body specific absorption rate [SAR] = 1 W/kg) and the induced heating was measured at the tip of the abandoned lead and of the MR-conditional implant. Configurations that maximize the coupling between the RF field and the leads have been tested, as well as realistic implant positions. Abandoned leads showed heating behaviors that strongly depend on the termination condition (abandoned-capped or saline exposed) and on the lead path (left or right positioning). Given a whole-body SAR = 1 W/kg, a maximum temperature rise of 17.6°C was observed. The presence of the abandoned lead modifies the RF-heating profile of the MR-conditional implant: either an increase or a decrease in the induced heating at its lead tip can occur, mainly depending on the relative position of the two leads. Variations ranging from -63% to +69% with respect to the MR-conditional system alone were observed. These findings provide experimental evidence that the presence of an abandoned lead poses an additional risk for the patient implanted with a MR-conditional PM system. Our results support the current PM manufacturers' policy of conditioning the MR compatibility of their systems to the absence of abandoned leads (including leads from MR-conditional implants). From a clinical point of view, in such cases, the decision whether to perform the exam shall be based upon a risk/benefit evaluation, as in the case of conventional PM systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in abandoned radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquet-Muñoz, Salim Abraham; Rendón-Pereira, Gabriel Jaime; Acuña-González, Denise; Peñate, Monica Vanessa Heymann; Herrera-Montalvo, Luis Alonso; Gallardo-Alvarado, Lenny Nadia; Cantú-de León, David Francisco; Pareja, René

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer (CC) occupies fourth place in cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in women, with 560,505 new cases and 284,923 deaths per year. Approximately, nine of every ten (87%) take place in developing countries. When a macroscopic nodal involvement is discovered during a radical hysterectomy (RH), there is controversy in the literature between resect macroscopic lymph node compromise or abandonment of the surgery and sending the patient for standard chemo-radiotherapy treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the prognosis of patients with CC whom RH was abandoned and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed with that of patients who were only biopsied or with removal of a suspicious lymph node, treated with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy in the standard manner. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in two institutions from Mexico and Colombia. Clinical records of patients with early-stage CC programmed for RH with an intraoperative finding of pelvic lymph, para-aortic nodes, or any extracervical involvement that contraindicates the continuation of surgery were obtained. Between January 2007 and December 2012, 42 clinical patients complied with study inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. In patients with CC whom RH was abandoned due to lymph node affectation, there is no difference in overall survival or in disease-free period between systematic lymphadenectomy and tumor removal or lymph node biopsy, in pelvic lymph nodes as well as in para-aortic lymph nodes, when these patients receive adjuvant treatment with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. This is a hypothesis-generator study; thus, the recommendation is made to conduct randomized prospective studies to procure better knowledge on the impact of bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy on this group of patients.

  16. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  17. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Gomes, Nathália Mota; da Mota Bastos, Meire Cardoso; Marins, Renata Magliano; Barbosa, Aline Alves; Soares, Luiz Clóvis Parente; de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu, Annelise Maria; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2015-01-01

    To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR=2.05; 95% CI=1.15-3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR=3.14; 95% CI=1.96-5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.14-0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.76-3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR=6.01, 95% CI=3.78-9.56), illiteracy (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.27-2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.24-4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.01-3.75). Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  18. Free and protected soil organic carbon dynamics respond differently to abandonment of mountain grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Leifeld, J.; Bahn, M.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-02-01

    Land-use change (LUC) and management are among the major driving forces of soil carbon (C) storage. Abandonment of mountain grassland promotes accumulation of aboveground biomass and litter, but related responses of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are uncertain. To determine SOM-C turnover we sampled 0-10 cm of soils in the European Alps along two land-use gradients (hay meadows, grazed pastures and abandoned grasslands) of different management intensity. A first land-use gradient was located at Stubai Valley (MAT: 3 °C, MAP: 1097 mm) in Austria and a second at Matsch Valley (MAT: 6.6 °C, MAP: 527 mm) in Italy. We estimated C input and decomposition rates of water-floatable and free particulate organic matter (wPOM, fPOM 1.6 g cm-3) using bomb radiocarbon. In mountain grasslands average C turnover increased from roots (3 yr) 2.2> 0.8 g C m-2 yr-1. At both sites, most C was sequestered in the first years after LUC and free POM reached new steady state within 20-40 yr. We conclude that w-and fPOM-C vs. oPOM-C dynamics respond differently to grassland management change and thus POM does not represent a homogeneous SOM fraction. Sequestered C is stored in the labile POM and not stabilized in the long-term. Thus, it is unlikely that abandonment, the dominant form of LUC in the European Alps, provides a substantial net soil C sink.

  19. Hydrogeologic modelling to simulate groundwater inflow after sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kim, G.; Kim, D.; Kim, E.; Kim, D. M.; Baek, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mine adit-plugging is one of the usual methods to control mine water at abandoned mines. An experimental program has been undertaken to provide a practical procedure for sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea. In this program, a three-dimensional hydrogeological modelling of the study area plays an important role to design and install a stable adit-plug system. Once the complete 3D model is constructed, the rate of mine water rebound after the installation of an adit-plug system can be estimated. The maximum water pressure acting behind the plug can also be estimated to evaluate the stability of the adit-plug system. Also, the long-term seepage problems should be considered. Several numerical models are routinely used to design dewatering systems at mines from an adequate simulation of the groundwater flow. MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate the groundwater flow related to mining. In this study, a 3-D groundwater flow model was constructed using MINEDW to simulate the groundwater conditions. Predictions of groundwater inflow require a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other properties of the rockmass, are also required. Two abandoned coal mines were selected, and complete geological and geophysical surveys were performed. Various hydraulic tests, such as pumping tests and packer tests, had also been conducted to assign K values to the hydrogeologic units in the model.

  20. Relationship between plant biodiversity and heavy metal bioavailability in grasslands overlying an abandoned mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Pastor, J

    2008-04-01

    Abandoned metal mines in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid, Spain, are often located in areas of high ecological value. This is true of an abandoned barium mine situated in the heart of a bird sanctuary. Today the area sustains grasslands, interspersed with oakwood formations of Quercus ilex and heywood scrub (Retama sphaerocarpa L.), used by cattle, sheep and wild animals. Our study was designed to establish a relationship between the plant biodiversity of these grasslands and the bioavailability of heavy metals in the topsoil layer of this abandoned mine. We conducted soil chemical analyses and performed a greenhouse evaluation of the effects of different soil heavy metal concentrations on biodiversity. The greenhouse bioassays were run for 6 months using soil samples obtained from the mine polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and from a control pasture. Soil heavy metal and Na concentrations, along with the pH, had intense negative effects on plant biodiversity, as determined through changes in the Shannon index and species richness. Numbers of grasses, legumes, and composites were reduced, whilst other species (including ruderals) were affected to a lesser extent. Zinc had the greatest effect on biodiversity, followed by Cd and Cu. When we compared the sensitivity of the biodiversity indicators to the different metal content variables, pseudototal metal concentrations determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were the most sensitive, followed by available and soluble metal contents. Worse correlations between biodiversity variables and metal variables were shown by pseudototal contents obtained by plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results highlight the importance of using as many different indicators as possible to reliably assess the response shown by plants to heavy metal soil pollution.

  1. Lead Contents and Distribution Characteristics of Soils and Vegetables Around an Abandoned Lead Smeltery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOU Tian-sen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to disclose the degree and scope of lead pollution of the abandoned lead smeltery, 102 surface soil samples and 69 vegetables samples were collected by using the method of fan-shaped sampling points around an abandoned lead smeltery in Hubei Province. The lead contents of soils and vegetables were detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, respectively, and the lead spatial distribution was analyzed. The results showed that the geometric mean of lead contents in soils around the abandoned lead smeltery was 39.8 mg·kg-1 and exceeded the soil background value of Hubei Province(26.7 mg·kg-1. The mean value of geo-accumulation indexes of lead contents in soil was 0.09, and 36.4% of them exceeded zero. The geo-accumulation indexes of sampling distance of 500, 1000 m and 1500 m from the smeltery were 2.11, 0.61 and 0.33, respectively, while the values of sampling distances of more than 2000 m were all less than zero. 24.0%、36.0% and 6.3% of the lead contents exceeded the standard value of limited standards of contaminants in vagetables for cabbage, radish and green onion samples, respectively. The soils and vegetables around the abandonded lead smeltery within 500 m were contaminated seriously. The degree of lead pollution in soils was mild or moderate within 500 m to 2000 m, and the maximum scope in cabbage, radish and green onion was polluted within 500~1000, 1000~1500 m and 500~1000 m, respectively. Lead pollution in vegetables around the abandonded lead smeltery presented obvious characteristics of high pollution and enrichment.

  2. Clinical characteristics and abandonment and outcome of treatment in 67 Chinese children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yuan, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Ma-Wei; Wang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features and outcome of medulloblastoma in Chinese children. The authors analyze the reasons that treatment is abandoned and attempt to provide evidence-based recommendations for improving the prognosis of medulloblastoma in this population. METHODS A total of 67 pediatric cases of newly diagnosed medulloblastoma were included in this study. All of the children were treated at Xinhua Hospital between January 2007 and June 2013. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, treatment modalities, and outcome. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1, and the patients' median age at diagnosis was 51.96 months (range 3.96-168.24 months). The median duration of follow-up was 32 months (range 3-70 months). RESULTS At the most recent follow-up date, 31 patients (46%) were alive, 30 (45%) had died, and 6 (9%) had been lost to follow-up. The estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival, based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, were 55.1% ± 6.4% and 45.6% ± 6.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that standard-risk group (p = 0.009), postoperative radiotherapy (RT) combined with chemotherapy (p medulloblastoma in Chinese children and the outcome in Western children. Based on our data, treatment abandonment was the major cause of therapeutic failure. Parents' misunderstanding of medulloblastoma played a major role in abandonment, followed by financial and transportation difficulties. Establishment of multidisciplinary treatment teams could improve the prognosis of medulloblastoma in Chinese children.

  3. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  4. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes; Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos; Renata Magliano Marins; Aline Alves Barbosa; Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares; Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with ab...

  5. Natural succession on abandoned cropland effectively decreases the soil erodibility and improves the fungal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guobin; Song, Zilin; Qu, Dong; Fang, Linchuan; Deng, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Changes in plants and soils during natural succession have been evaluated, but little is known about the effects of succession on the activities of soil microbes and their interactions with soil erodibility. We conducted a field study on the Chinese Loess Plateau, typical of this semiarid area, to determine the effect of secondary succession on the stability of soil structure against erosion and on the composition of soil fungal communities. Characteristics of plant, soil, and fungal communities were assessed across a 30-yr chronosequence of grassland developed from abandoned cropland. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities were determined using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer. Six grasslands were selected to represent different successional age classes: 0 (cropland), 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 yr. Short-term decreases (initial 5 yr) in the amounts of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and fungal biomass and in fungal diversity had returned to original levels (i.e., cropland) within 15 yr and were much higher after continued succession. Abandoning cropland for succession caused the soil erodibility (K) decrease and the aboveground coverage, soil nutrient levels, content of larger (>5 mm) water-stable aggregate, mean aggregate weight diameter, and diversity of the fungal communities improvement including arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMF), ectomycorrhizas (EMF), and saprotrophs. The fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomeromycota during the succession. The successional patterns of the plant and fungal communities were similar, although distinct fungal communities were not observed in the two initial stages, suggesting that fungal succession may develop more slowly than plant succession. Plant root biomass, EMF, and soil organic carbon content accounted for most of the variation of soil erodibility (28.6%, 19.5%, and 11.8%, respectively), indicating their

  6. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuhao Du; Xiaoli Liu; Enzhi Wang; Sijing Wang

    2017-01-01

    CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and ...

  7. Epidemiology of Dog and Cat Abandonment in Spain (2008–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume Fatjó; Jonathan Bowen; Elena García; Paula Calvo; Silvia Rueda; Silvia Amblás; Lalanza, Jaume F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In this paper we wanted to estimate the incidence of abandonment, as well as the general profile of dogs and cats entering animal shelters in our country. Also, we wanted to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs that had entered animal shelters. More than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. A considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was eu...

  8. Early Abandonment of Exclusive Maternal Nursing in Teenager’s Children

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Navarro, Mairelys; Médico Especialista de Primer Grado en Pediatría. Hospital Pediátrico Docente “San Miguel del Padrón”. La Habana, Cuba; Alonso Uría, Rosa María; Médico Especialista de Segundo Grado en Neonatología. Investigadora Auxiliar. Profesora Titular y Consultante de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Miguel Enríquez"; Rodríguez Alonso, Beatriz; Médico Especialista de Primer Grado en Medicina General Integral y de Primer y Segundo Grado en Higiene y Epidemiología. Profesora e Investigadora Auxiliar de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Miguel Enríquez”.; Uranga Piña, Rolando; Licenciado en Matemáticas, Máster en Estadística y Probabilidades. Máster en Bioestadísticas. Investigador Agregado. Centro Nacional Coordinador de Ensayos Clínicos.; Santos Ravelo, Jacqueline; Licenciada en Matemáticas. Máster en Estadística y probabilidades. Máster en Bioestadísticas. Investigador agregado, Centro Nacional Coordinador de Ensayos Clínicos.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pregnancy in the adolescence continues to increase its incidence in the Cuban population. The precocious abandonment of the maternal nursing is observed in the descendants of adolescent mothers, that which rebounds with the increase of the morbidity and infantile mortality. Objective: To determine the relationship of the precocious weaning with some variables related to the mother and the children of adolescent mothers Methods: An observational study was carried out, of a se...

  9. Free and protected soil organic carbon dynamics respond differently to abandonment of mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change (LUC and management are among the major driving forces of soil carbon (C storage. Abandonment of mountain grassland promotes accumulation of aboveground biomass and litter, but related responses of soil organic matter (SOM dynamics are uncertain. To determine SOM-C turnover we sampled 0–10 cm of soils in the European Alps along two land-use gradients (hay meadows, grazed pastures and abandoned grasslands of different management intensity. A first land-use gradient was located at Stubai Valley (MAT: 3 °C, MAP: 1097 mm in Austria and a second at Matsch Valley (MAT: 6.6 °C, MAP: 527 mm in Italy. We estimated C input and decomposition rates of water-floatable and free particulate organic matter (wPOM, fPOM <1.6 g cm−3 and aggregate-occluded particulate and mineral-associated organic matter (oPOM <1.6 g cm−3, mOM >1.6 g cm−3 using bomb radiocarbon.

    In mountain grasslands average C turnover increased from roots (3 yr < wPOM (5 yr < fPOM (80 yr < oPOM (108 yr < mOM (192 yr. Among SOM fractions the turnover of fPOM-C varied most in relation to management. Along both land-use gradients C input pathways shifted from root-derived towards litter-derived C. The C input rates of both wPOM-C and fPOM-C were affected by land management at both sites. In contrast, oPOM-C and mOM-C dynamics remained relatively stable in response to grassland abandonment. Carbon accumulation rates of free POM decreased strongly with time since LUC (10, 25 and 36 yr. For wPOM-C, for example, it decreased from 7.4 > 2.2> 0.8 g C m−2 yr−1. At both sites, most C was sequestered in the first years after LUC and free POM reached new steady state within 20–40 yr.

    We conclude that w-and fPOM-C vs. oPOM-C dynamics respond differently to grassland management change and thus POM does not represent a homogeneous SOM fraction. Sequestered C is stored in the labile POM and not stabilized in

  10. Effects of irrigation and plastic mulch on soil properties on semi-arid abandoned fields

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Meulen, E.S.; Nol, L.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Guadalentín Basin in Spain is one of the driest areas of Europe and has problems with high evaporation rates, and high risks of desertification exist including soil quality loss and soil erosion. Farmers in this semi-arid region use polyethylene covers on their irrigated croplands to reduce evaporation in order to enhance crop yield. When farmers abandon the acres, they leave the plastic covers on the fields. Up to now research has been concentrating on the effects of plastic covers on cr...

  11. Convergence of a Queueing System in Heavy Traffic with General Abandonment Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    3 in Reiman [27]. We circumvent the use of Reiman’s “Snap-shot Principle” and a comparison result with a non-abandoning queue used in Reed and Ward...4):2606–2650, 2005. 37 [5] R. Atar, A. Mandelbaum, and M. I. Reiman . Scheduling a multi class queue with many exponential servers: asymptotic... Reiman Designing a call center with impatient cus- tomers. Manufacturing and Service Oper. Management, 4(1A):208–227, 2002. [15] J. M. George and J. M

  12. Outcomes Associated With Extraction Versus Capping and Abandoning Pacing and Defibrillator Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Mi, Xiaojuan; Lewis, Robert K; Greiner, Melissa; Epstein, Laurence M; Carrillo, Roger G; Zeitler, Emily P; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Hegland, Donald D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-10-10

    Lead management is an increasingly important aspect of care in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices; however, relatively little is known about long-term outcomes after capping and abandoning leads. Using the 5% Medicare sample, we identified patients with de novo cardiac implantable electronic device implantations between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, and with a subsequent lead addition or extraction ≥12 months after the de novo implantation. Patients who underwent extraction for infection were excluded. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we compared cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality, device-related infection, device revision, and lead extraction at 1 and 5 years for the extraction versus the cap and abandon group. Among 6859 patients, 1113 (16.2%) underwent extraction, whereas 5746 (83.8%) underwent capping and abandonment. Extraction patients tended to be younger (median, 78 versus 79 years; P<0.0001), were less likely to be male (65% versus 68%; P=0.05), and had shorter lead dwell time (median, 3.0 versus 4.0 years; P<0.0001) and fewer comorbidities. Over a median follow-up of 2.4 years (25th, 75th percentiles, 1.0, 4.3 years), the overall 1-year and 5-year cumulative incidence of mortality was 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.7-14.4) and 54.3% (95% CI, 52.8-55.8), respectively. Extraction was associated with a lower risk of device infection at 5 years relative to capping (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.97; P=0.027). There was no association between extraction and mortality, lead revision, or lead extraction at 5 years. Elective lead extraction for noninfectious indications had similar long-term survival to that for capping and abandoning leads in a Medicare population. However, extraction was associated with lower risk of device infections at 5 years. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Exploring Factors Associated with Educational Outcomes for Orphan and Abandoned Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aakanksha; Lombe, Margaret; Saltzman, Leia Y; Whetten, Kathryn; Whetten, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    India has more than 25 million orphan and abandoned children (UNICEF, 2012). The burden of care for these OAC is on caregivers that are often ill equipped to meet their needs due to inadequate assets. Previous studies suggest that in communities with limited resources, OAC residing with non-biological caregivers are more at risk than those fostered by a biological parent. This study explores the association of caregiver and child characteristics with OAC educational outcome in India. The analysis was conducted using hierarchical logistic regression. The findings have implications for practice and policy in the global child welfare field.

  14. Changes in hydrological connectivity due to vegetation recovery and wall collapse in abandoned terraced fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; López-Vicente, Manuel; Oranjuren, Rafael; Ángel Llorente, José; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Arnáez, José

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces have been built in mountain regions worldwide in order to provide a larger surface for cultivation, improve water availability and reduce soil erosion, as they favour infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment connectivity from hillslopes to streams. In many Mediterranean countries, farmland abandonment has led to progressive natural revegetation and, in terraced slopes, due to a lack of maintenance, to a collapse of the water conservation structures, often followed by small mass movements and gullying. Little is known about the effect of such failures on the hydrological system, especially at catchment scale. The aim of this study is to contributing to fill in this gap by exploring the effect of vegetation recovery and terrace failure on hydrological connectivity in a small catchment (192 ha) in northern Spain mostly occupied by abandoned terraced fields. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). Besides using the C-RUSLE factor, as used by many authors, we tested the inclusion of an infiltration component (Kf) to assess the landscape-weighting factor. The Kf factor accounted for the high infiltration rates observed in the terraced soils and was estimated using the permeability classes of the K-RUSLE factor. A 2x2 m resolution DEM was used to capture the terraced fields and run the IC model. Following the recommendation of Cavalli et al. (2015), we used the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm (Tarboton, 1997) to represent the real flow paths, especially on hillslopes, where divergent flow predominates, and on stream channels. To ensure the continuity of the flow path lines, local sinks were filled in with the algorithm of Planchon & Darboux (2001) that preserved a minimum slope gradient of 0.01 degrees. Finally, linear landscape elements such as stonewalls, rock outcrops, and trails and forest roads were also considered. The IC was calculated for the current scenario

  15. Abandoning evolution. The forgotten history of antievolution activism and the transformation of American social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienesch, Michael

    2012-12-01

    From its inception, antievolution activism has been aimed not only at the natural sciences but also, and almost as often, at the social sciences. Although almost entirely overlooked by scholars, this activism played a significant part in the development of American social science in the early twentieth century. Analyzing public writings and private papers of antievolution activists, academic social scientists, and university officials from the 1920s, this essay recalls this forgotten history, showing how antievolution activism contributed to the abandonment of evolutionary theory and the adoption of a set of secular, scientific, and professional characteristics that have come to define much of modern social science.

  16. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.

    2007-01-01

    -eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some......Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north...

  17. Smart FPA's: are they worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Magnan, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    CMOS APS technology allows including signal processing in the sensor array. Inclusion of functionality however will come at a cost both financially and in the field of limited applicability. Based on two real world examples (micro digital sunsensor core and lightning flash detector for Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)) it will be demonstrated that large system gains can be obtained by devising smart focal planes. Therefore it is felt that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for some applications, making it worth to spend the effort on system integration.

  18. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  19. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  20. How costs change with infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    To describe articles since January 2013 that include information on how costs change with infection prevention efforts. Three articles described only the costs imposed by nosocomial infection and so provided limited information about whether or not infection prevention efforts should be changed. One article was found that described the costs of supplying alcohol-based hand run in low-income countries. Eight articles showed the extra costs and cost savings from changing infection prevention programmes and discussed the health benefits. All concluded that the changes are economically worthwhile. There was a systematic review of the costs of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control programmes and a methods article for how to make cost estimates for infection prevention programmes. The balance has shifted away from studies that report the high cost of nosocomial infections toward articles that address the value for money of infection prevention. This is good as simply showing a disease is high cost does not inform decisions to reduce it. More research, done well, on the costs of implementation, cost savings and change to health benefits in this area needs to be done as many gaps exist in our knowledge.

  1. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  2. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  3. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marcia Cabral Mendonça

    Full Text Available Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB burden countries.To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI receiving routine care.Retrospective (2005-2009 descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model.Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%. On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI (hazard ratio-HR: 0.004; 0.000-0.569 of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00-53.3.This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting.

  4. A change in landscape: Lessons learned from abandonment of ancient Wari agricultural terraces in Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Ana C; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Hart, Megan L

    2017-11-01

    Ancient agricultural terrace practices have survived for millennia, sustaining populations through extreme climatic shifts and political regime changes. In arid regions with abrupt relief such as Southern Peru, agricultural terracing is undergoing a resurgence, as has seen revitalization of once abandoned terrace and hydraulic systems. Wari terraces at Cerro Baul provide clues to past cultural practices. They also document sustainable farming practices by using resilient land management techniques which can help combat desertification and degradation of arable lands. Three abandoned Wari terrace systems were mapped using microtopographic methods, the erosion patterns examined, the states of preservation compared, and then the design contrasted with modern terracing practices in the Moquegua Valley. In order to negate the harmful effects of desertification, rehabilitation and reconstruction of these terraces using ancient knowledge and techniques may be necessary. Rehabilitation must be conducted with consideration for preservation of cultural patrimony that may be encountered within the terrace treads or riser structures. With future climatic shifts impacting vulnerable dryland areas more than others, the ability to resiliently respond to these changes may be found in the lessons learned from ancient farming techniques such as the Wari. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  6. An overview of potential benefits and limitations of Compressed Air Energy Storage in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyński, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the methods that can solve the problems with intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy sources. The storage is charged by increasing air pressure with the use of electrically driven compressors, which convert the electric energy into potential energy. The pressurized air is stored in compressed air storage volumes (caverns, voids, porous structures etc.) of any kind and can then be released upon demand to generate electricity again by expansion of the air through an air turbine or gas turbine. Limited availability of salt caverns in Europe creates difficulties in the implementation of this concept on larger scale. This paper deals with underground storage part in CAES concept and lists benefits related to the storage of air in abandoned coal mines. Examples of natural gas storage in abandoned coal mines are given and compared with the compressed air storage. The study shows an example of coal mine volume calculation. The non-exhaustive list of problems and solutions associated with this idea is given in order to develop this concept at larger scale.

  7. Hydrogeological definition and applicability of abandoned coal mines as water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Jardón, S; Álvarez, R; Andrés, C; Pendás, F

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogeologically, the Central Coal Basin (Asturias, Spain) is characterized by predominantly low-permeability materials that make up a multilayer aquifer with very low porosity and permeability values, where the sandstones act as limited aquifers, and wackes, mudstones, shales and coal seams act as confining levels. Preferential groundwater flow paths are open fractures and zones of decompression associated with them, so the hydraulic behaviour of the system is more associated with fracturing than lithology. Thus, abandoned and flooded mines in the area acquire an important role in the management of water resources, setting up an artificial "pseudo-karst" aquifer. This paper evaluates the potential application of the abandoned mines as underground reservoirs, both for water supply and energetic use, mainly through heat pumps and small hydropower plants. In particular, the groundwater reservoir shaped by the connected shafts Barredo and Figaredo has been chosen, and a detailed and multifaceted study has been undertaken in the area. The exposed applications fit with an integrated management of water resources and contribute to improve economic and social conditions of a traditional mining area in gradual decline due to the cessation of such activity.

  8. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  9. Practice on medical support in dealing with abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese army in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu LIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese abandoned chemical weapons (JACWs are a momentous and eventful historical issue for both China and Japan. Large quantities of chemical weapons abandoned by the Japanese invaders still remain on Chinese soil after 1945 when Japanese invaders were defeated and surrendered. Up to date, JACWs have been found in 19 provinces (cities or districts of mainland China. The types of JACWs include chemical bombs, chemical aerial bombs, gas cylinders and loose packed barrels. The types of toxic agents include mustard gas, irritant agents, choking agents, systemic poisoning agents and etc. In order to eliminate JACWs to reduce injuries produced by toxic agents, Chinese government, in cooperation with Japanese government, organized a special troop to search, excavate, retrieve, and destroy JACWs. Up to date, about 50,000 pieces of poisonous chemical had retrieved and destroyed. The first operation was officially begun in Nanjing in October 2010. The main points of medical support on the operation of destroying JACWs include proper treatment of the newly discovered patients caused by JACWs, preparedness for handling the emergency medical rescue, and to actively provide routine medical support for JACWs operation field.

  10. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhao Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and permeability of coal mass, but also causes the basic physical and mechanical properties changing, such as elastic modulus and Poisson ratio. It eventually results in some reduction in pillar strength. Based on the fractional swelling as a function of time and different loading pressure steps, the relationship between volumetric stress and adsorption pressure increment is acquired. Eventually, this paper presents a theory model to analyze the pillar strength reduction after CO2 adsorption. The model provides a method to quantitatively describe the interrelation of volumetric strain, swelling stress, and mechanical strength reduction after gas adsorption under the condition of step-by-step pressure loading and the non-Langmuir isothermal model. The model might have a significantly important implication for predicting the swelling stress and mechanical behaviors of coal pillars during CO2 sequestration in abandoned coal mines.

  12. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  13. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  14. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  15. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in solid wastes and soils from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Michael; Millward, Geoffrey; Henderson, Samuel; Blake, William

    2017-07-01

    Bioaccessible U, Th, Pb and the 238U decay products 214Pb and 210Pb have been determined, using a modified Unified BARGE Method (UBM), in waste solids and soils from an abandoned uranium mine in South West England, UK. Maximum aqua regia extractable concentrations for U, Th and Pb were 16,200, 3.8 and 4750 μg g-1, respectively. 238U had highest activity concentrations near the mine shaft, where the decay products214Pb and 210Pb had values of 235 and 180 Bq g-1, respectively. UBM extractions gave mean gastro-intestinal bioaccessibility factors (BAFs) for U and Pb in the waste solids of 0.05 and 0.03, respectively, whereas those for the soils were significantly higher at 0.24 and 0.17. The mean BAFs for the transient radionuclides, 214Pb and 210Pb, were similar to those for stable Pb implying that the stable and radioactive Pb isotopes were attached to similar sites on the particles. The doses arising from the ingestion of particulate 210Pb due to soil pica behaviour were in the range 0.2-65 and 17 years), respectively. The results suggest that the health risk posed by abandoned uranium mines, with waste rock and tailings, throughout the world should take account of the dose due to both bioaccessible radionuclides, as well as their stable counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended.

  17. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoni Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  18. Lateral heterogeneity of soil physicochemical properties in riparian zones after agricultural abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huijuan; Kong, Weijing; Li, Xuesen; Fan, Juntao; Guo, Fen; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2018-02-02

    The study aimed to identify the lateral heterogeneity of soil physicochemical properties in riparian zones, and its underlying drivers during natural restoration after agricultural abandonment. Abandoned farmlands, after 5-year natural restoration, within 500 m from the edges on both sides of Liaohe River were selected as the study area. Soil physicochemical properties of four lateral buffers (300 m from river edge, respectively) along riparian zones were measured. The results showed that riparian soils were characterized by high sand content (78.88%~96.52%) and poor soil nutrients. Soil silt content, organic carbon (OC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen (AN) increased laterally with increasing distance from river edge, while soil sand content decreased. Total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP) are not spatially autocorrelated. Soil OC, TN, AN, and CEC along upstream and midstream reaches showed negative spatial autocorrelation along the lateral gradients, and positive along downstream reach. Altitude, distance from river edge and distance from nearest farmland were the pronounced factors affecting soil physicochemical properties in this study.

  19. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Rachel; Messer, Lynne; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Kathryn; Pence, Brian Wells; Buckner, Megan; Thielman, Nathan; O'Donnell, Karen

    2011-01-13

    The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

  20. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  1. USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kate; Church, Stan

    2006-01-01

    The following talk was an invited presentation given at the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs meeting in Billings, Montana on Sept. 25, 2006. The objective of the talk was to outline the scope of the U.S. Geological Survey research, past, present and future, in the area of abandoned mine research. Two large Professional Papers have come out of our AML studies: Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 524 p., 2 plates, 1 DVD, URL: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1652 Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2006, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p., 6 plates, 1 DVD (in press). Additional publications and links can be found on the USGS AML website at URL: http://amli.usgs.gov/ or are accessible from the USGS Mineral Resource Program website at URL: http://minerals.usgs.gov/.

  2. Efforts to expand the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to develop an unnatural base pair with which to expand the genetic code we have examined a wide variety of simple phenyl rings derivatized with methyl, fluoro, or nitrogen. The small aromatic surface of these base pairs should prevent inter-strand intercalation, which is thought to inhibit the polymerase-mediated synthesis of base pairs with larger aromatic surface area. Surprisingly, despite reduced aromatic surface area and hydrogen-bonding potential, some of these base pairs are stable and synthesized with reasonable efficiency. We have also been examining the use of activity-based selection systems to evolve DNA polymerases to more efficiently recognize the unnatural substrates, and our initial successes are described.

  3. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  4. VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

  5. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  6. The Massachusetts school-based body mass index experiment: gleaning implementation lessons for future childhood obesity reduction efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Taveras, Elsie M

    2014-04-01

    In 2009, Massachusetts (MA) Department of Public Health (DPH) implemented new regulations that required public schools in the state to measure height and weight, determine body mass index (BMI), and notify parents of children in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 of their child's weight status. After 3 years of implementation, MA DPH recently abandoned parental notification of school-based BMI screening results citing several concerns including flaws in the ability to monitor the way that the BMI screening results were communicated from the schools to parents/guardians and some reports of breaches in confidentiality of students' measurements. In this article, we review implementation issues that could have impacted the success of the MA DPH regulation as well as lessons to be learned and potentially applied to future childhood obesity efforts. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Decision of the asteroid Leptasterias polaris to abandon its prey when confronted with its predator, the asteroid Asterias vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette; Himmelman

    2000-09-20

    We examined the decision of the asteroid Leptasterias polaris to abandon its bivalve prey Spisula polynyma when confronted with the predatory asteroid Asterias vulgaris. The frequency of abandonment decreased as the proportion of prey ingested increased from 10 to 40%, and increased with further increases in proportion of prey ingested. The escape response of L. polaris appears to be a compromise between risk of predation and benefits of feeding. This increase in the frequency of abandonment as the prey became further consumed beyond 30-40% likely represented decreasing benefits in the face of continued risk of predation. We propose that the initial decrease in fleeing as the proportion of prey eaten increased from 10 to 40% was because of a decreasing costs in subduing the prey, as there was a coincident decrease in the proportion of prey which were still capable of holding their valves closed.

  8. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  9. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  10. Possibilities of mine gases outflow prediction during pressure drops considering abandoned shaft located in old coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrona, P. [Silesian University of Technology, Gleiwitz (Poland). Inst. of Geotechnology, Mining Geophysics and Ecology of Industrial Areas

    2005-09-01

    There are abandoned mine shafts, small shafts and drifts located in an old, shallow coal mining area at the slope of Zabrze Dome. Creation of voids and connections with abandoned excavations hasn't been avoided during liquidation of these constructions. Mine gas outflow can create a hazard for people's safety, so it may be helpful to be able to predict volume flow of out flowing gases. One of the abandoned shafts has been selected to conduct extensive measurements of volume flow of mine gases during pressure drops. One case has been selected to perform a comparison between measured and calculated results. Calculated results have been obtained with application of Torricelli's model of gas outflow phenomena from a tank. Pressure drops are considered as the external input functions (the extortions) with quantity of volume flow in the abandoned shaft as the response. The coal shaft must have sufficient volume of voids and a leaky lock. The case of the extortion which is built of pressure drop and pressure buildup is discussed, too. The loop characteristic as the result of the extortion may indicate the existence of volume flow in a hysteresis curve. Mine gases volume flow from abandoned mine shaft depends on time of pressure drop and pressure changes rate. Concentration of CO{sub 2} in mine gases out flowing from abandoned mine shafts located at the slope of Zabrze Dome exceeded 10%. Concentration of CO{sub 2} depends on time of pressure drop, too. The model could be a useful and very simple tool to perform predictions for gas hazard estimations. (orig.)

  11. Gender, Migration, and Exclusionary Citizenship Regimes: Conceptualizing Transnational Abandonment of Wives as a Form of Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Sundari; Roy, Anupama; Yalamarty, Harshita

    2017-08-01

    Based on life history narratives of 57 women in India and interviews with 21 practitioners, we document the neglect, abuse, and instrumental deprivation of women's rights through the process of transnational abandonment. While gendered local sociocultural milieus and economic norms contribute to these harms, they are crucially enabled and sustained by transnational formal-legal frameworks. Widening the explanatory lens for understanding domestic violence beyond the family and community, we argue that in a globalized world, (inter)state policies serve to construct these women as a subordinate category of citizens-"disposable women"-who can be abused and abandoned with impunity.

  12. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  13. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  14. Use of modflow drain package for simulating inter-basin transfer in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation of groundwater flow in abandoned mines is difficult, especially where flux to and from mines is unknown or poorly quantified, and inter-basin transfer of groundwater occurs. A 3-year study was conducted in the Elkhorn area, West Virginia to better understand groundwater-flow processes and inter-basin transfer in above drainage abandoned coal mines. The study area was specifically selected, as all mines are located above the elevation of tributary receiving streams, to allow accurate measurements of discharge from mine portals and tributaries for groundwater model calibration. Abandoned mine workings were simulated in several ways, initially as a layer of high hydraulic conductivity bounded by lower permeability rock in adjacent strata, and secondly as rows of higher hydraulic conductivity embedded within a lower hydraulic conductivity coal aquifer matrix. Regardless of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to mine workings, neither approach to simulate mine workings could accurately reproduce the inter-basin transfer of groundwater from adjacent watersheds. To resolve the problem, a third approach was developed. The MODFLOW DRAIN package was used to simulate seepage into and through mine workings discharging water under unconfined conditions to Elkhorn Creek, North Fork, and tributaries of the Bluestone River. Drain nodes were embedded in a matrix of uniform hydraulic conductivity cells that represented the coal mine aquifer. Drain heads were empirically defined from well observations, and elevations were based on structure contours for the Pocahontas No. 3 mine workings. Use of the DRAIN package to simulate mine workings as an internal boundary condition resolved the inter-basin transfer problem, and effectively simulated a shift from a topographic- dominated to a dip-dominated flow system, by dewatering overlying unmined strata and shifting the groundwater drainage divide up dip within the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam several kilometers into the adjacent

  15. Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools in a chronosequence of land abandonment in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment is the dominant land use change in the Mediterranean, and determines the soil organic carbon (SOC) as the vegetation recovers during secondary succession. The rate of SOC recovery is influenced by environmental factors such as precipitation, soil properties or other local factors. Using aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001 and 2009, a chronosequence of crop land abandonment was designed and topsoil samples were taken at each stage of recovery in a region North of Málaga. As SOC is a mixture of functional pools, it is important to isolate organic carbon with distinct functional properties to better understand the overall dynamic over decades. Using fractionation scheme introduced by Zimmermann et al. (2007), five fractions were isolated based on particle size, density and resistance: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC linked to silt and clay (s & c), SOC attached to sand particles or occluded in aggregates (S+A) and a chemically resistant fraction obtained by NaOCl oxidation (rSOC). Although there were no significant changes in particle-size distribution between the recovery stages (except for the croplands), there was a significant increase of S+A fraction over time (16 to 38%) at the expense of the s & c fraction (84 to 58%), indicating aggregation processes. Carbon concentrations within fractions S+A or rSOC did not change over time. Rather, carbon associated with silt and clay particles (s &c) was significantly affected after a few decades of abandonment. It increased from 5.7 gC.kg-1 in croplands to 10.3 gC.kg-1 in semi-natural plots. The chronosequence showed that carbon can be stored in more stable fractions. Taking into account active carbon (DOC + POM) and intermediate carbon (s & c, S+A) as indicators for carbon dynamics, we showed that the proportion of active carbon increased from 11% to 34% within the chronosequence. On the other hand, the proportion of slow cycling carbon

  16. Mass movements and infiltration on abandoned terraces in the Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáez, José; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Pascual, Nuria; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Terraced slopes were one of the most common agricultural landscapes in mountain areas of the Mediterranean region. Built to ensure agricultural production, terraces have acted as an effective soil conservation system at both slope and catchment scale. Demographic and socioeconomic changes in the last 60 years in the Mediterranean mountains have led to the abandonment of terraces. The consequent lack of maintenance of such agricultural structures has triggered diverse erosion processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the upper valleys of the Leza, Jubera and Cidacos rivers, in the Iberian range (northern Spain), held more than 10,000 inhabitants and a cultivated area of 21,021 ha, of which 13,274 ha were farming terraces (63% of the agricultural space). At present, these terraces are abandoned. The most common erosion processes on the walls of abandoned terraces are stone collapses, which leave the riser completely unprotected, and small mass movements. A total amount of 240 terrace failures with mass movement were identified in the 53 studied plots, which means an average number of 4.5 per plot and 10.6 per 100 m of wall. At plot scale, the average volume of debris was 15.1 m3 (33.1 m3 for every 100 m of wall). Soil infiltration capacity and the way the water flows downslope may be the main triggers for mass movements. Rainfall simulations carried out in the study area showed an average infiltration coefficient above 75%. Infiltration coefficients were higher on concave hillslopes (above 85%), probably because the plots in these sectors were intensively tilled in the past, with plowed and permeable anthropogenic soils. The infiltrated water becomes a destabilizing factor for the terrace wall. The lack of deep percolation due to a more impermeable substrate (e.g., the original soil of the slope) favours the accumulation of water within the artificial soil, behind the stone wall. The increasing weight of the material can cause the activation of mass movements

  17. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  18. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  19. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Contributions of increased agricultural abandonment area to recent surface warming trend in Shikoku Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, R.; Nishimori, M.; Iizumi, T.; Osawa, T.

    2012-04-01

    A remarkable increasing trend in abandoned cropland has already been observed in hilly and mountainous areas, Japan. Changes to abandoned areas from cropland (typically, paddy fields) could have impacts on surface air temperatures and their trends. We evaluated contributions of land surface change, specifically, the recently reported increases in abandoned cropland on daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature with Shikoku Island, Japan where croplands have been significantly decreasing taken as an example. Land use change was expressed by the modifications of physical land surface parameters, i.e., surface albedo, evaporative efficiency, roughness length, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The sensitivity of the air temperatures to each land surface parameter was then derived from the numerical experiments using three-dimensional regional atmospheric model (JMA-NHM) and artificially modified land surface conditions. An accurate estimation of the contributions is expected as the JMA-NHM model allows us to consider three-dimensional land-atmosphere interactions that are impossible for one-dimensional land surface model alone. We set the five land surface parameters and calculated a sensitivity of temperatures in regard to each land surface parameter change for the periods of 15th June to 15th August 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005 when cropland area are presented in Japan. The experiment result showed that surface albedo and evaporative efficiency had significant sensitivity on the daily maximum and mean temperatures whereas heat capacity and thermal conductivity were impactful on the daily minimum temperature. Roughness length was less impactful for any temperatures. Parameter sensitivity showed geographical distribution, such as significant impact in inland area rather than coastal area for the response of daily mean temperature by surface albedo and evaporative efficiency changes. Lower sensitivity in coastal area was attributed to thermal advection from