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Sample records for abandoned metal mines

  1. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  2. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim; Kwang-Suk You

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching c...

  3. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Seok Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT, leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L: 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L: 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].

  4. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  5. Risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Chon, H. T.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to toxic heavy metals influenced by past mining activities. Environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). After appropriate sample preparation, tailings, soils, crop plants and groundwaters were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Health risk assessment of toxic heavy metals has been performed with chemical analytical data for environmental media. Arsenic and other heavy metals are highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg), but heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (72 As mg/kg, 53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and only As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg). These significant concentrations can impact on soils and waters around the tailing files. Also, elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. Risk assessment modeling is subdivided into main four stages, i.e. hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity (dose-response) assessment and risk characterization. In order to assess exposure it is necessary to calculate the average daily dose (ADD) of contaminant via the three identified pathways (soil, groundwater and food (rice grain) pathways). In dose-response assessment for non-carcinogens, reference doses (RfD) are calculated and that for carcinogens, slope factors (SF) are obtained by US-EPA IRIS database. In risk characterization, the results of toxicity assessment and exposure assessment are integrated to arrive at quantitative estimates of cancer risks and hazard quotients. Toxic (non-cancer) risks are indicated in terms of a hazard quotient (H.Q.) and this risk exists for H.Q.>1. The H.Q. values for only As from the Dongil and Myungbong mine areas are 2.1 and

  6. Exposure assessment of heavy metals on abandoned metal mine areas by ingestion of soil, crop plant and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-S.; Chon, H.-T.

    2003-05-01

    In order to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to arsenic and heavy metals influence by past mining activities, environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). Arsenic and other heavy metals were highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg). Heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg) were also elevated. Elevated levels of As, Cd and Zn were also found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. The H.I. (hazard index) values of As and Cd from the Dongil, the Okdong and Myungbong mine areas are higher than 1.0. Therefore, toxic risk for As and Cd exist via exposure (ingestion) of contaminated soil, groundwater and rice grain in these mine areas.

  7. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail: fortincl@ete.inrs.ca

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  8. Heavy Metal Behavior in Lichen-Mine Waste Interactions at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lichen, Stereocaulon exutum Nylander, occurring in a contaminated abandoned mine site was investigated to clarify (1 the behavior of heavy metals and As during the slag weathering processes mediated by the lichen; and (2 the distribution of these elements in the lichen thallus on slag. The heavy metals and As in the slag are dissolved from their original phases during the weathering process by lichen substances (organic acids and hypha penetration, in addition to non-biological weathering. The dissolved elements are absorbed into the lichen thallus. Some of these dissolved elements are distributed in the cells of the hyphae. The others are distributed on the surface of the hyphae as formless particles and show lateral distribution inside the cortex of the thallus. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the thalli are positively correlated with the concentrations in the corresponding substrata and a positive intercept in the regression curve obtained using a linear function. These chemical characteristics make this lichen a good biomarker for Cu and Zn contamination of the substrata of the lichen. Therefore, the present study supposes that Stereocaulon exutum has a possible practical application in biomonitoring or risk assessment of heavy metal pollution at abandoned mine sites.

  9. Fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering of data from abandoned mine site contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourjabbar, A.; Sârbu, C.; Kostarelos, K.; Einax, J. W.; Büchel, G.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of pore water and slate samples are critically analyzed using fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering statistical techniques. The main aim of this study was to investigate the source of contamination near an abandoned uranium mine in Germany. The mining activities were abandoned in 1990 the site was closed, and the surrounding area was remediated. However, heavy metal contamination is still detectable in water, soil and plants today. Hence, investigating the source of the current contamination is an important task. In order to achieve the goal, results from chemical analysis of both pore water samples and leachates from slate samples were initially analyzed using hard (classical) hierarchical clustering algorithms that did not provide meaningful results. By using two fuzzy clustering algorithms, Fuzzy Divisive Hierarchical Clustering (FDHC) and Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering (FHCC), a relationship between the leachate from Ordovician-Silurian slate samples (10 samples collected from the test site and the surrounding area) and pore water samples (53 samples collected from 3 locations within the test site at 3 depths over the course of 4 years) was identified. The leachate data formed a cluster which was statistically similar to the cluster formed by the pore water samples collected from two of three locations. In addition, the fuzzy cross-clustering approach allowed for the identification of the characteristics (qualitative and quantitative) responsible for the observed similarities between all the samples. We conclude that the fuzzy algorithms were a better tool for the analysis and interpretation of geological/hydrogeological data where the data sets have an inherent vagueness/uncertainty.

  10. Deinococcus metalli sp. nov., isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guang-Da; Wang, Yong-Hong; Li, Yan-Xuan; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2015-10-01

    An aerobic, non-motile and Gram-staining-positive bacterial strain (1PNM-19T) was isolated from a lead-zinc ore in an abandoned mine and was investigated in a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 1PNM-19T was affiliated to the genus Deinococcus and most closely related to Deinococcus aquatilis DSM 23025T and Deinococcus ficus DSM 19119T. The major respiratory quinone was determined to be menaquinone 8 (MK-8) and the major fatty acids contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. A complex polar lipid profile consisted of different unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids, two unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, phospholipid and aminophospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 1PNM-19T was 71.7 ± 0.1 mol%. Based on data from this taxonomic study, strain 1PNM-19T represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus metalli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1PNM-19T ( = GIMCC 1.654T = CCTCC AB 2014198T = DSM 27521T).

  11. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in river sediments of an abandoned pyrite mining area: pollution detection and affinity series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper heavy metal pollution at an abandoned Italian pyrite mine has been investigated by comparing total concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and As) in a red mud sample and a river sediment. Acid digestions show that all the investigated heavy metals present larger concentrations in the sediment than in the tailing. A modified Tessier's procedure has been used to discriminate heavy metal bound to organic fraction from those originally present in the mineral sulphide matrix and to detect a possible trend of metal mobilisation from red mud to river sediment. Sequential extractions on bulk and size fractionated samples denote that sediment samples present larger percent concentrations of the investigated heavy metals in the first extractive steps (I-IV) especially in lower dimension size fractionated samples suggesting that heavy metals in the sediment are significantly bound by superficial adsorption mechanisms. - Capsule: A modified Tessier's procedure, discriminating organic and sulphide bound metals, was used to detect pollutant mobilisation from red mud to river sediment in an abandoned pyrite mine

  12. Heavy metal accumulation by panicled goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) in abandoned mine soils in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Dalun; ZHU Fan; YAN Wende; Fang Xi; XIANG Wenhua; DENG Xiangwen; WANG Guanjun; PENG Changhui

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation can be used as a sustainable technology for mine spoil remediation to remove heavy metals. This study investigated the concentrations of 7 heavy metal contaminations in soil and plant samples at an abandoned mine site. We found that, after vegetation remediation at the abandoned mine site, reduction rate for 7 heavy metals was in the range of 4.2%-86% and an over 50% reduction rate in four heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni) was achieved. Transfer coefficients of the panicled goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and the common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) for Zn, Mn, Ni, and Co were more than 1. Enrichment coefficients of both trees for Mn were higher than 1. Our results suggest that the panicled goldenrain tree and the common elaeocarpus tree may act as accumulators in remediation. Moreover, the wood vegetation remediation in abandoned mining areas play an important role in improving environmental conditions and removing heavy metal from contaminated soil.

  13. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  14. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.T. [National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington (Canada); Gauthier, A. [Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nriagu, J.O. [Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-03-22

    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km{sup 2}. There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Variations in heavy metal contamination of stream water and groundwater affected by an abandoned lead-zinc mine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Choi, Jung-Chan; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2005-09-01

    This study evaluated variations in heavy metal contamination of stream waters and groundwaters affected by an abandoned lead-zinc mine, where a rockfill dam for water storage will be built 11 km downstream. For these purposes, a total of 10 rounds of stream and groundwater samplings and subsequent chemical analyses were performed during 2002-2003. Results of an exploratory investigation of stream waters in 2000 indicated substantial contamination with heavy metals including zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) for at least 6 km downstream from the mine. Stream waters near the mine showed metal contamination as high as arsenic (As) 8,923 microg L(-1), copper (Cu) 616 microg L(-1), cadmium (Cd) 223 microg L(-1) and lead (Pb) 10,590 microg L(-1), which greatly exceeded the Korean stream water guidelines. Remediation focused on the mine tailing piles largely improved the stream water qualities. However, there have still been quality problems for the waters containing relatively high concentrations of As (6-174 microg L(-1)), Cd (1-46 microg L(-1)) and Pb (2-26 microg L(-1)). Rainfall infiltration into the mine tailing piles resulted in an increase of heavy metals in the stream waters due to direct discharge of waste effluent, while dilution of the contaminated stream waters improved the water quality due to mixing with metal free rain waters. Levels of As, Cu and chromium (Cr) largely decreased after heavy rain but that of Pb was rather elevated. The stream waters were characterized by high concentrations of calcium (Ca) and sulfate (SO(4)), which were derived from dissolution and leaching of carbonate and sulfide minerals. It was observed that the proportions of Ca and SO(4) increased while those of bicarbonate (HCO(3)) and sodium and potassium (Na+K) decreased after a light rainfall event. Most interestingly, the reverse was generally detected for the groundwaters. The zinc, being the metal mined, was the most dominant heavy metal in the groundwaters (1758

  16. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  17. Environmental impact of active and abandoned mines and metal smelters in Slovenia

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    Tomaž Budkovič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia has long been known for its numerous mines and ore processing. From the times of the Roman Empire to now, 49 mines and open pits were opened, four of them were large (Idrija, Mežica – Topla, Litija and Žirovski vrh. There were also 25 oreprocessing plants and smelters, which were operating mostly in the vicinity of larger mines (Idrija, Žerjav, Celje. Due to the lack of written sources, we probably haven succeeded in making a complete list of them. There were 33 iron works operating in the vicinity ofmines and open pits, three large ones have further developed and are still operating (Jesenice, Ravne na Koroškem and Štore. As the ore processing capacities have far exceeded the capacities of the Slovenian mining, ore has long been imported and only processed in Slovenia. On the basis of the results of our investigations in the vicinity of larger mines and smelters we estimated that in Slovenia the areas in which critical limit for heavy metal content is exceeded sums up to about 80 km2.

  18. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuhanics, Balazs; Jordan, G.; Foldessy, J.; Szakall, S.

    2010-05-01

    The accurate survey of the home mineral raw material resources in Hungary has been an emphasised research achievement since the early 1950's. In the early 1960's, the ore deposit explorations have begun in the Mátra Mountains which area had a long history of ore mining and the scientific attendance focused on this area such as the polimetallic veins of Parádsasvár. During the field works and in situ surveys , explorers used trenches and exploration adits to heading through the supposed ore veins. The problem is that the exploration areas' land reclamation has not befallen yet. This plight can characterize as mining-related environmental contamination which is a global problem. The associated mining waste is known to be among the largest waste streams in, for example, the European Union, where it is estimated to be 400 Mt, which amounts to about 29% of total waste generated in the European Union (EU) (Jordan, 2004a). Mine site (including exploration areas, as well) remediation have become the major activities of the mining industry according to EU standards by improving environmental and waste legislation (Charbonnier, 2001; Jordan, 2004; Jordan and D'Alessandro, 2004), which gave actuality of this thesis. The disarrayed metallic tailings were deposed onsite without proper pretreatment. These tailings mean not only the anthropogenic effect on natural environment to this day but also a particular environmental danger because they are characterized by a lack of control and a lack of data and information. The objective of this thesis is to define the heavy metal anomalies of the exploration area (Tulk and Tucker, 1998), characterize the connection between the background geochemical values with the tailings' values, evaluate the correlations and give solution to mitigate the undesirable effects. By the recent explorations it can be noticeable that the tailings from the last century's surveys have direct toxic affects on the ecosystems adding to naturally high

  19. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2001-06-01

    The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

  20. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  1. Assessment of metals contamination and ecological risk in ait Ammar abandoned iron mine soil, Morocco

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    Nouri Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of phosphorus and metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe using various indices like geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution and ecological risk index. In all, 20 surface soil samples were collected from the Ait Ammar iron mine of Oued Zem city, province of Khouribga, in central Morocco. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were used to assess their potential ecological risks. According to the results of potential ecological risk index (RI, pollution index (PI, geo-accumulation index (Igeo, enrichment factor (EF, potential contamination index (Cp, contaminant factor (Cf and degree of contamination (Cd, based on the averages, considerable pollution of metals in soils of study area was observed. The consequence of the correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and P mainly originated from natural sources and Cd and Pb are mostly derived from anthropogenic sources. The results showed that these metals in soil were ranked by severity of ecological risk as Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Zn, based on their single-element indexes. In view of the potential ecological risk (RI, soils from all soil samples showed a potential ecological risk. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention in Ait Ammar.

  2. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans.

  3. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  4. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-??m pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn. The ochre samples collected at a subset of 10 sites in 2003 were dominantly goethite with minor ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite. None of the samples for this subset contained schwertmannite or was Al rich, but most contained minor aluminosilicate detritus. Compared to concentrations in global average shale, the ochres were rich in Fe, Ag, As and Au, but were poor in most other metals and rare earths. The ochres were not enriched compared to commercial ore deposits mined for Au or other valuable metals. Although similar to commercial Fe ores in composition, the ochres are dispersed and

  5. Phytoremedial assessment of flora tolerant to heavy metals in the contaminated soils of an abandoned Pb mine in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; D'Souza, Rohan; Varun, Mayank; Paul, Manoj S

    2013-02-01

    Significant accumulation of heavy metals in soils and flora exists around the abandoned Barbadalhos Pb mine in Central Portugal. Soil and plant samples [49 species] were collected from two line transects, LT 1 and LT 2, in the mineralized and non-mineralized area, respectively to gain a comprehensive picture of heavy metals in soils and flora to assess its potential for phytoremediation. Phytosociological inventories of the vegetation were made using the Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale. Metal concentrations in soil ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 98-9330 [Pb], 110-517 [Zn], 7.1-50 [Co], 69-123 [Cr], 31-193 [Cu], 33400-98500 [Fe], 7.7-51 [Ni], 0.95-13 [Ag], 2.8-208 [As], and 71-2220 [Mn] along LT 1; and 24-93 [Pb], 30-162 [Zn], 3.7-34 [Co], 61-196 [Cr], 21-46 [Cu], 24100-59400 [Fe], 17-87 [Ni], 0.71-1.9 [Ag], 4.3-12 [As], and 44-1800 [Mn] along LT 2. Plant metal content ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 1.11-548 [Pb], 7.06-1020 [Zn], 0.08-2.09 [Co], 0.09-2.03 [Cr], 2.63-38.5 [Cu], 10.4-4450 [Fe], 0.38-8.9 [Ni], and 0.03-1.9 [Ag] along LT 1; and 0.94-11.58 [Pb], 2.83-96.5 [Zn], 0.12-1.44 [Co], 0.21-1.49 [Cr], 1.61-22.7 [Cu], 4.6-2050 [Fe], 0.51-4.81 [Ni], and 0.02-0.31 [Ag] along LT 2. Plants with highest uptake of metals were: Cistus salvifolius (548 mg Pb kg(-1)), Digitalis purpurea (1017 mg Zn kg(-1) and 4450 mg Fe kg(-1)). Mentha suavolens and Ruscus ulmifolius were seen to hyperaccumulate Ag (1.9 and 1 mg Ag kg(-1), respectively). More metals and higher concentrations were traced in plants from LT 1, especially for Pb and Zn. PMID:23098582

  6. Transfer of sediment-associated metals downstream of abandoned and active mining sites in the Quesnel River catchment, British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, M. van der; Lipzig, M.L.H.M. van; Karimlou, G.; Owens, P.N.; Petticrew, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Metal mining may have considerable impact on downstream water and sediment composition. The rate and extent that metals move downstream determine the magnitude and time scale of downstream sediment contamination. Conversely, the downstream metal content of sediments provide important clues of sedime

  7. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-μm pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B (-1), Ge (-1), and As (-1). The most abundant trace metals, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Zn (0.6-10,000), Ni (2.6-3200), Co (0.27-3100), Ti (0.65-28), Cu (0.4-190), Cr (-1 in 97% of the samples, with a maximum of 0.0175 μg L-1. No samples had detectable concentrations of Hg, Os or Pt, and less than half of the samples had detectable Pd, Ag, Ru, Ta, Nb, Re or Sn. Predominant rare-earth elements, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Y (0.11-530), Ce (0.01-370), Sc (1.0-36), Nd (0.006-260), La (0.005-140), Gd (0.005-110), Dy (0.002-99) and Sm ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn

  8. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  9. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  10. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  11. Electrical resistivity and Seismic Refraction Tomography to Detect Heavy Metals Pathways in the Tailings of the Abandoned Mine of Zeïda, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekayir, A.; Lachhab, A.; Rouai, M.; Benyassine, E. M.; Boujamaoui, M.; Parisot, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The abandoned mine Zeïda (Pb) located at the center of the High Moulouya watershed is believed to have produced a total of 640,000 tons of concentrated Pb within 14 years of activities (1972-1985). Today, the mine has been abandoned with one of the largest tailings pits in Morocco without supervision and concern of environmental impacts. Several studies have shown the existence of high levels of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd and Ni) in samples (water and soil) taken from and around the tailings (Laghlimi et al, 2014, Benyassine et al, 2013, Iavarzzo, 2012, Makhoukh et al, 2011, Baghdad et al, 2008, Bouabdli et al, 2005). In this study, several electrical and seismic tomography profiles were taken to explore the thickness of the tailings and the potential pathways of contaminants to the aquifer. Because heavy metals were found in the surrounding areas of the tailings, there are concerns about their seepage into the groundwater aquifer. A total of 6 electric resistivity profiles together with another 16 seismic refraction profiles were completed over the 3 major mining waste piles to study this contamination. Analysis of both electric and seismic tomography profiles showed: 1) the thickness of tailings range from few cm to above 20m depending on where the survey was performed, 2) the contamination pathways of heavy metal pollutants occur predominantly right above the thickest areas of sandstone formation, and 3) water ponds at the surface of the tailing piles forms directly above the thickest part of the sandstone layer

  12. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  13. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine

    OpenAIRE

    Bori Dols, Jaume; Valles Malet, Bettina; Navarro Flores, Andrés Francisco; Riva Juan, Mª del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters...

  14. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2003-05-15

    A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met

  15. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  16. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical controls on the release of trace elements from slag produced by base- and precious-metal smelting at abandoned mine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    toxicity guideline. Geochemical modeling of the leachate chemistry suggests that leachates from the Vermont, Tennessee and Clayton slags are saturated with amorphous silica and Al hydroxide. Therefore, the dissolution of silicate and oxide phases, the oxidation of sulfide phases, as well as the precipitation of secondary phases may control the composition of leachate from slags. The presence of secondary minerals on slag deposits in the field is evidence that these materials are reactive. The petrographic data and results of leaching tests from this study indicate slag may be a source of potentially toxic metals at abandoned mine sites.

  18. 潼关县废弃金矿周围土壤重金属研究%Research of Heavy Metal on Abandoned Mine Soil around Tongguan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]确定吸收各种重金属的植物种类,建立人工湿地生态系统.[方法]以潼关县废弃金矿周围土壤为研究对象,测定土壤受重金属污染的种类、程度.[结果]不同距离不同深度的土壤样品中As、Hg、Cd等3种重金属含量均超过国家土壤重金属含量的最高限值;重金属Pb在土壤表层中的含量较高,而在深层土壤中含量较低;金属元素Zn和Cr的含量均在国家土壤重金属含量的允许范围内;在不同距离不同深度的土壤样品中均检测到放射性元素Rb,其含量在78 ~ 88 mg/kg波动.[结论]在进行矿区的植物修复时,As、Hg、Cd是需要重点考虑的重金属元素,主要考虑土壤表层Pb的吸收,不需要重点考虑Zn、Cr.%[Objective] The research aimed to determine the plant species that could absorb all sorts of heavy metal and establish the man-made wetland ecosystem. [Method]The soil of abandoned gold mine around Tongguan County was chosen as the research object,and the type and the degree of the heavy metal in polluted soil were determined. [Result]For the soil samples with different distance and different depth,the content of heavy metal As Hg, Cd were more than the highest value of content standard of the heavy metal in the soil. The content of the heavy metal Pb in the surface soil was higher,and lower in deep soil. Metal elements of Zn and Cr were within the permitted content of the heavy metal in the soil. The radioactive elements Rb in the soil samples with different distance and different depth was detected,whose content was 78 -88 mg/kg. [ Conclusion ] The heavy metal element must be considered for the ecological restoration in mining area. The absorption of Pb in surface soil should be mainly focused on. The influence of Zn and Cr could be neglected.

  19. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1) Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2) Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  20. Potential for mine water reuse in an abandoned coal mine in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A.; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Loredo, J. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated the potential re-utilization of mine water in industrial activities. Mine water characterization studies were conducted to evaluate mine waters from the abandoned La Camocha Mine in northwestern Spain. Hydrochemical studies have indicated that the water is bicarbonated with a low sulphate and iron content, and a neutral pH. The concentrations of trace metals are below water legislation for human consumption levels. The water can economically be transported for use in the irrigation of a botanical garden and sports centre located in the same region as the mine. Use of the water will help to preserve rivers and other waterways in the region, and may also minimize the environmental impacts of pumping activities at the mine. Fluid properties for various water samples were provided. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  2. 广西矿区植物重金属富集特征%Accumulation of heavy metals in plants grown in abandoned mines in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧; 范稚莲; 莫良玉; 张秀玲

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为寻找广西矿区潜在的对重金属元素的超富集植物.[方法]根据矿区的地貌和植被分布特征,对广西矿区土壤和植物的重金属含量进行调查,通过测定土壤和植物中的Cu、Zn、Cd、As等重金属含量,并分析其富集特征.[结果]矿区土壤中的重金属含量均超过国家一级标准(GB 15618-1995),其中As含量超国家三级标准;植物中的Cu、Zn、Cd和As含量分别为54.2~148.4、91.7~3199、4.1~132和353.0~5123.7 mg/kg;蜈蚣草、山菅兰、五节芒、葡萄属、壳斗科和杜茎山等植物中的As含量较高,分别为5123.7、3132.7、1046.6~3012.3、2411.4、1507.9和1056.1~1258.9mg/kg,其相应的富集系数分别为25.2、6.6、2.2~14.8、5.1、3.2和5.2~6.2,表现出地上部大于地下部的富集特征.[结论]蜈蚣草、山菅兰、五节芒、葡萄属、壳斗科、杜茎山均达到As超富集植物的标准,是潜在对的As超富集植物.%[ Objective ]In order to screen the potential heavy metal hyperaccumulators,the concentrations of heavy metals in plants grown in abandoned mines in Cuangxi were investigated. [Method]The samples of soil and plants from abandoned mines were collected and Cu, Zn, Cd and As contents in the soils and plants were measured. [ Result ]The contents of all the four heavy metals in the soil were found higher than the first grade of environmental quality standard for soils (GB15618-1995), and the As contents was higher than the third grade of the national standard. The plants investigated contained higher Cu(54.2-148.4 mg/kg), Zn (91.7-319.9 mg/kg), Cd (4.1-13.2 mg/kg) and As (353.0-3875.7 mg/kg) compared to normal plants. The plants of Pteris rittata Linn, Dianella ensifol, Miscanthus floridulus, Ampelopsis sp, Castabal-anopsis sp and Maesa japonica (Thb.)accumulated 5123.7, 3132.7, 1046.6-3012.3, 2411.4, 1507.9 and 1056.1-1258.9 mg/kg As, respectively, which were higher than the control, and their bioconcentration factors

  3. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHhealth hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine

  4. Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

  5. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  6. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  7. Ecological indicators for abandoned mines, Phase 1: Review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tipping, E.; Jarvis, A. P.; Kelly, M. G.; Lofts, S.; Merrix, F. L.; Ormerod, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mine waters have been identified as a significant issue in the majority of Environment Agency draft River Basin Management Plans. They are one of the largest drivers for chemical pollution in the draft Impact Assessment for the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with significant failures of environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals (particularly Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) in many rivers linked to abandoned mines. Existing EQS may be overprotective of aquatic life which may have adapted over ce...

  8. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  9. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct punctuation... revise substantial portions of their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, and add citations. The proposed amendment consists...

  10. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  11. GIS-based environmental database for assessing the mine pollution : a case study of an abandoned mine site in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, A.; Hanich, L.; Hakkou, R.; Lepage, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Morocco with important mining activities is increasingly concerned about impacts of mining on the environment. In Morocco, there are approximately 200 abandoned mine sites which vary from small scale underground mines to large scale open-pit mines. Some of these mines, with reactive tailings and waste rocks, are problematic. Indeed, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) pollution from abandoned mines is responsible for soil and water contamination, land resources degradation, changes in landscapes, habita...

  12. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. PMID:27179321

  13. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  14. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  15. Metal and Phosphorus Uptake by Spontaneous Vegetation in an abandoned iron mine from a Semiarid Area in Center Morocco: Implications for Phytoextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nouri; Fernando Gonçalves; Jausé Paulo Sousa; Jörg Jörg Römbke; Mohamed Ksibi; Ruth Pereira; Abdelmajid Haddioui

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 12 species, 10 genera, and 3 families) were analyzed to study the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and P in shoots and roots. The different plant species collected in Ait Amar iron mining site exhibited large differences in shoot and root accumulation of metals. Among the grass species (Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae), the highest shoot Cd, Cu, Zn concentrations were found in Echinops spinosus L (0.989, 29.190 and 175.347 mg Kg-1 respe...

  16. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  18. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  19. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  20. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  1. Assessment o f Heavy Metal Contamination i n t he Abandoned Coal Wastes a t Okpara Mines i n Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezemokwe, D. E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 samples taken from four large coal dumps from Okpara coal mines and twenty four (24 Soil samples from coal mine surroundings were used for this research. Impact of the coal dumps on soils and the environment were assessed by determination of the heavy metal concentrations such as Cadmium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, nickel, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt and manganese. Results revealed that all the heavy metals analyzed were present in all the samples. The heavy metal concentration sequence in coal wastes follows the order Fe > Ni > Cu> Mn > Cd > Pb > Co > Cr > Zn> As whereas the Enrichment Factor (EF shows Cd> Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Co > Zn > Cr> Fe > Mn. Results in this medium indicate high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with Health Risk Level (HRL of 3. Ni, Cu, Co and As moderately contaminated the environment. In the underlying Soil medium, the heavy metal concentration trend is in order Fe > Ni > Zn> Cd > Pb > Cr> Cu> Mn > Co > As and the (EF equivalent is in the order Cd > Pb > Ni > As > Zn > Co > Cr > Fe > Mn. Soil medium indicted high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with HRL of 5 and 4 respectively. Ni, As, Cu and Zn moderately polluted the environment. Co and Cu showed low level of pollution with HRL of 2.Soil PH ranged from 4.5 – 6.5 and averaged 5.01 indicating an acid nature. Generally, crops cannot grow or flourish in a polluted soil. Where some manage to grow, they may be poisonous enough to cause health problems to people consuming them.

  2. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  3. Biological Cycles of Mineral Elements in a Young Mixed Stand in Abandoned Mining Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Lun Tian; Wen-Hua Xiang; Wen-De Yan; Wen-Xing Kang; Xiang-Wen Deng; Zhu Fan

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. In this study, biological cycles of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) and eight heavy metal elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Co) were examined in young paniculed goldraintree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) mixed stands in an abandoned mining area. We found that after vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas, the organic matter and concentrations of nutrient elements were significantly increased and the heavy metal elements were significantly decreased, the annual retention, uptake and return were 75.0, 115.4, and 40.3 kg/hm2 for nutrient elements, and 1 878.0,3 231.0 and 1 353.0 g/hm2 for heavy metal elements, respectively, with the utilization coefficient, cycling coefficient and turnover rate of 0.92, 0.35 and 0.32 for nutrient elements, and 1.24, 0.42 and 1.92 for heavy metal elements, respectively.Our results suggested that the vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas had significant effects in improving environmental conditions, enhancing soil available nutrients, and ensuring human health.

  4. The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals and arsenic contamination in the sediments of the Moulouya River and the Hassan II Dam downstream of the abandoned mine Zeïda (High Moulouya, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Abdellah; Rhoujjati, Ali; EL Hachimi, Moulay Laârabi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sediment contamination level near the abandoned (PbZn) mine Zeïda, heavy metal concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the Moulouya River, the Ansegmir tributary and the Hassan II Dam located downstream of the abandoned mine. These samples were analysed for their geochemical properties: mineralogy by XRD, carbonate content, pH, particle size and the total concentrations of Pb, Zn, As and Cu elements by ICP-AES. The assessment of the sediment pollution extent was performed by using the multiple pollution indices: contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The Highest CF values (>6) of Pb that have been observed downstream of the tailings promote a high Pb contamination in that specific area. The PLIs results showed that all stations, except for those upstream of the tailings and on the Hassan II Dam, have been found moderately to highly contaminated. The Igeo results confirmed the Pb high contamination but also the extreme As contamination. The potential ecological risk factor results and the comparison with the sediment quality guidelines revealed that the Pb and As levels are potentially toxic to the sediment-dwelling organisms. Based on the multivariate statistical analysis results and the spatial distribution of the sediment contamination level, the pollution of Pb and As have different sources. Pb contamination is located exclusively near and downstream of the tailings. These latter's may be considered as an important point source of Pb into the Moulouya River. The As contamination is derived from a larger scale input sources which can be related to anthropogenic and/or lithogenic effects.

  6. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  7. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  8. 麻阳铜矿废弃地土壤重金属污染现状及修复研究%Study on Present Situation and Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Abandoned Copper Mine Lands in Mayang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶漪; 刘浩; 梁娟

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the current situation of heavy metal pollution in old and new tailings ,waste rock piles , copper - outcropping ores ,artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles of Mayang copper mine .The pH value ,soil organic matter content and vegetation composition of each land were also investigated . Results showed that : most of abandoned copper mine lands had different degrees of copper pollution .New tailings and copper - outcropping ores reached heavy pollution , old tailings moderate pollution ,waste rock piles light pollution ,while the artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles had no pollution .The pH value of all the abandoned copper mine lands was greater than 8 ,and the soil fertility of each land was poor with the organic content from 0.12% to 0.86% .But the fertility of artificial restoration area was significantly higher than that of tailings and waste rock piles .Contrastive analysis of vegetation composition in old tailings and artificial restoration areas of old tailings indicated that there were several plants in the former land ,while the latter land distributed 44 kinds of plants which mainly belonged to Compositae , Polygonaceae , Gramineae , Legume and Rosaceae , etc . There was no metal pollution in artificial restoration areas and soil fertility was improved ,which indicated that phytoremediation was an effective way for soil remediation in abandoned copper mine lands .%本研究分析了麻阳铜矿旧尾砂库、新尾砂库、废石场、矿脉地表露头区、尾砂库人工修复区以及废石场人工修复区等6个地类的土壤重金属污染现状,以及各地类土壤 pH 值、有机质含量以及植被组成情况.结果表明:麻阳铜矿废弃大部分地类均存在不同程度的 Cu 污染,新尾砂库和矿脉地表露头区达到重度污染,旧尾砂库达到中度污染,废石场达到轻度污染,而尾砂库人工修复区和废石场人工修复区基本

  9. Lichens of abandoned zinc-lead mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Bielczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of lichens from areas of zinc-lead ores in Southern Poland and a review of the characteristic lichen biota of these sites is provided. In spite of the devastated and heavy metal contaminated environment, a highly diverse epigeic and epilithic lichen biota was found, including species characteristic of various anthropogenic habitats, particularly zinc and lead enriched substrates (Diploschistes muscorum, Steinia geophana, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis and V. leprosa. Also, the high-mountain species Leucocarpia biatorella, as well as very rare in Europe Thelocarpon imperceptum, and several species categorized as very rare, endangered and protected in Poland were recorded. Crustose lichens are the most abundant; among fruticose forms Cladonia spp. predominate and Stereocaulon incrustatum is common.

  10. Effluent water quality and the ochre deposit characteristics of the abandoned Smolnik mine, East Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a 20-year survey of selected physical and chemical parameters of mine drainage and associated stream sediments at the abandoned Smolnik deposit (East Slovakia). The Smolnik mine was in operation intermittently from the 14th century for Au, Ag, Cu, Fe and pyrite (FeS2). In 1990 - 1994 the mine was finally closed and flooded. In 1997 a remediation effort was initiated in an attempt to improve the quality of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the mine site. Monitoring of the AMD water parameters has continued since 2000 in quarterly intervals. Considering the concentration of dissolved constituents and the flow rate of the AMD, the abandoned Smolnik deposit brings about continuous loading of more than 500 kg of dissolved metals per day to the adjacent Smolnik stream. The ochreous precipitates formed from AMD stream were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Schwertmannite was the dominant solid phase in the precipitates. The chemical analysis of AMD and the elemental composition of related sediments indicated selective scavenging potential of the precipitates for arsenic and other metal species. (authors)

  11. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended. PMID:26996905

  12. Using indicator kriging for the evaluation of arsenic potential contamination in an abandoned mining area (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Albuquerque, M T D

    2013-01-01

    Mining and mineral-processing activities can modify the environment in a variety of ways. Sulfide mineralization is notorious for producing waters with high metal contents. Arsenic is commonly associated with sulfide mineralization and is considered to be toxic in the environment at low levels. The studied abandoned mining area is located in central Portugal and the resulting tailings and rejected materials were deposited and exposed to the air and water for the last 50 years. Sixteen water sample-points were collected. One of these was collected outside the mining influence, with the aim of obtaining a reference background. The risk assessment, concerning the proximity to abandoned mineralized deposits, needs the evaluation of intrinsic and specific vulnerabilities aiming the quantification of the anthropogenic activities. In this study, two indicator variables were constructed. The first one (I(1)), a specific vulnerability, considers the arsenic water supply standard value (0.05 mg/L), and the probability of it being exceeded is dependent on the geologic and hydrological characteristics of the studied area and also on the anthropogenic activities. The second one (I(2)), an intrinsic vulnerability, considers arsenic background limit as cut-off value, and depends only on the geologic and hydro-geological characteristics of the studied area. At Segura, the arsenic water content found during December 2006 (1.190 mg/L) was higher than the arsenic water content detected in October 2006 (0.636 mg/L) which could be associated to the arsenic released from Fe oxy-hydroxide. At Segura abandoned mining area, the iso-probability maps of October 2006 and December 2006, show strong anomalies associated with the water drainage from abandoned mining activities. Near the village, the probability of exceeding the arsenic background value is high but lower than the probability of exceeding the arsenic water supply value. The arsenic anomalies indicate a high probability for water

  13. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine

  14. Research on mechanism of groundwater pollution from mine water in abandoned mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lai-gui; LI Xi-lin; LIU Ling; HAN Liang

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism and regularity of the groundwater contamination from mine water of abandoned mines, experiments were conducted on an abandoned coal mine in Fuxin, a representative city with lots of mine water in northeast China. The groundwater pollution from different contaminants of coal-mining voids (total hardness, SO2-4, Cl and total Fe) and pollution factors transportation situation in the coal rock were simulated by soil column experiment under the conditions of mine water leaching and main water leaching (similar to rainwater leaching), and the water-rock interaction mechanism was discussed during mine water infiltration through saturated coal rock by application of principle of mass conservation, based on physical properties of coal rock, as well as monitored chemical composition. The results show that, compared with the clear water leaching process, trends of change in pollutant concentrations presented different characteristics in the mine water leaching process. Groundwater is contaminated by the water rock interactions such as migration & accumulation, adsorption & transformation,dissolution & desorption and ion exchange during the mine water permeation. The experiments also suggest that at first dissolution rate of some kinds of dissoluble salts is high,but it decreases with leaching time, even to zero during both the mine water leaching and main water leaching.

  15. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  16. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  18. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure γ radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  19. Analysis and Application of Coal Seam Seismic Waves for detection of Abandoned Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Yancey, Daniel Jackson

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon for underground coal mining to be conducted in the proximity of abandoned underground mines that are prone to accumulate water, methane or other toxic gases, and are often either poorly mapped or without good surface survey control. Mining into such abandoned voids poses a great safety risk to personnel, equipment, and production from inundation or toxic/explosive gas release. Often, surface or underground drilling is employed to detect the mine void and e...

  20. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  1. Reclaiming abandoned mining sites: Reurbanization concepts and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ruhr District in Germany, one of the oldest and largest hard coal mining regions in Europe, has been in a process of constant change over the last 40 years. Since the end of the World War II, the coal industry has been declining. There have been a number of successful attempts to establish new industries in the Ruhr District. However, the initiation of new industries depends strongly on the availability of space. Since the Ruhr District is a rather populated region, the only chance to gain space is to reclaim the areas formerly used by now obsolete industries. The remediation of former mining sites in the ruhr District and the reestablishment of alternative industries have now become both a challenge for city planners and a prestigious attribute for ambitious politicians. It has become the declared goal of the German government to convert the Ruhr District into the greenest industrial region in the world. This paper discusses geotechnical techniques, as well as economical risks involved, in the recycling of abandoned mining sites. To demonstrate remediation techniques used in Germany, a recent remediation project is described and analyzed

  2. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (US). Wildlife & Fisheries Resources Programme

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  3. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  4. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  5. Removal of zinc by live, dead, and dried biomass of Fusarium spp. isolated from the abandoned-metal mine in South Korea and its perspective of producing nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Choi, Songho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Lee, Kui-Jae [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Environmental Research, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Bioremediation is an innovative and alternative technology to remove heavy metal pollutants from aqueous solution using biomass from various microorganisms like algae, fungi and bacteria. In this study biosorption of zinc onto live, dead and dried biomass of Fusarium spp. was investigated as a function of initial zinc(II) concentration, pH, temperature, agitation and inoculum volume. It was observed that dried, dead and live biomass efficiently removed zinc at 60 min at an initial pH of 6.0 {+-} 0.3. Temperature of 40 deg. C was optimum at agitation speed of 150 or 200 rpm. The initial metal concentration (10-320 mg L{sup -1}) significantly influenced the biosorption of the fungi. Overall, biosorption was high with 30-60% by dried, live and dead biomass. In addition to this, the potential of Fusarium spp. to produce zinc nanocrystals was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which showed that dead biomass was not significantly involved in production of zinc nanocrystals.

  6. Biological activity of the metal-rich post-flotation tailings at an abandoned mine tailings pond (four decades after experimental afforestation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Hulejová Sládkovičová, Veronika; Mangová, Barbara; Šimkovic, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    In the spring 2012, post-flotation tailings of the inactive impoundment Lintich (Slovakia) were sampled. In the impoundment sediment and also in its surrounding, we detected concentration of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ba exceeding limiting values. We detected low values of the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity in the impoundment sediment (LiS) and its dam (DAM) along with potential respiration stayed relatively low and therefore also substrate availability index and metabolic quotient (qCO2) were higher in the control sample (REF) than in the LiS and the DAM. The low qCO2 level indicates that microbial community, despite of dangerously high levels of heavy metals in sediment, is still able to sufficiently utilize sources of available organic carbon. Anyway, we could doubt function of the metabolic index as universal indicator of environment conditions, regarding the anthropogenic substrates. We confirmed changes in composition of the mite communities along gradient dam-impoundment. The percentage of eudominant, recendent, and subrecendent species increased at the expense of dominants and subdominants, all together with decreasing diversity and equitability of the community. We identified species Chamobates borealis, Carabodes rugosior, Metabelba propexa, and Pergalumna nervosa with negative respond under the heavy metal stress. Species Adoristes ovatus was indifferent and Dissorhina sp., Hafenrefferia gilvipes, and Oppiella nova prospered under the loaded conditions. Forty years after experimental afforestation, we expect specific community of actively surviving microorganisms and Oribatida species detected in the DAM are usual in the greatly degraded habitats or on sites in the early succession. PMID:25893624

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  8. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  9. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  10. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  11. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  12. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  13. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Site Screening Map, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  14. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  15. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal Contaminated Mine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contami...

  16. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCparks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, accumulator plants, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  17. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  18. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  19. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  1. The reuse of abandoned Acquaresi mine voids for storage of the Masua flotation tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Paolo Manca; Paolo Desogus; Giampaolo Orru`

    2014-01-01

    Often in abandoned mine sites are present both underground voids produced by mining and the tailings of treatment plant. An interesting solution for the rehabilitation of the sites would be to place the tailings of the process in the underground mining voids, thus obtaining the reclamation of surface areas and the stabilization of abandoned voids to prevent the dangerous phenomena of subsidence. However, these operations require inert waste, which must not be source of pollution, and the choice of a water/solid optimum to ensure good conditions of pumpability.

  2. Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

    Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

  3. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  4. Nonferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes nonferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  5. Ferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  6. THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE ABANDONED URANIUM MINING EXPLOITATIONS ON ROCKS AND SOILS - ZIMBRU PERIMETER, ARAD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA M. BANU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mining exploration and exploitation, especially the activity of uranium mineralization exploration and exploitation has a negative impact on the environment by the alterations of the landscape and the degradation of the environmental factors' quality. The principal environmental factors that could be affected by mining operations resulting from uranium exploitation are: water, air, soil, population, fauna, and flora. The aim of this study is, first, to identify the sources of pollution (natural radionuclides - natural radioactive series of uranium, radium, thorium, potassium and heavy metals that are accompanying the mineralizations for two of the most important environmental factors: rocks and soils: and, second, to assess the pollution impact on those two environmental factors. In order to identify this pollutants and their impact assessment it was selected as a study case an abandoned uranium mining perimeter named the Zimbru perimeter located in Arad County, Romania.

  7. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  8. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, D. [Indiana Geologic Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States); Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  9. Source and fate of inorganic soil contamination around the abandoned Phillips sulfide mine, hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Elzinga, E.; Gorring, M.; Szabo, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r= 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and ?? -SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant. ??-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination ?? 0.5 km from the source. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  10. 城市污泥在矿山废弃地复垦的应用探讨%Application of Sewage Sludge to the Abandoned Mining Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫测辉; 蔡全英; 王江海; 吴启堂

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the existing problems in reclaimingabandoned mining land and their negative effect on the ecological environment,and in view of the limited factors to reclaim abandoned mining land,this paper puts forward the suggestions of using sewage sludge as an alternative in mining land reclamation.Application of sewage sludge in reclamation has beneficial effects, such as increasing organic matter content, preventing soil erosion,recovering vegetation,and promoting microbial population and its activities.Unfavorable factors including heavy metal and organic pollutant for applications of sewage sludge and their countermeasures are also discussed.

  11. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  12. 广西水岩坝钨锡矿废弃地重金属污染与生态修复%Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Ecological Restoration in the Abandoned Land of Tungsten/Stannum Mine in Shuiyanba, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂容; 解庆林; 曲芬霞; 周惟艇; 谢佳乐

    2012-01-01

    The soil heavy metal pollution in the abandoned land of tungsten/stannum mines was determined by surveying the abandoned land, surrounding soil and plants in the tailing pond to explore the suitable biological restoration method. The results showed that the soil in the tailing pond became a potential pollution source because Cd and As content in the abandoned land and surrounding soil was serious excessive, which insulted in transferring and diffusing of heavy metals towards surrounding soils continuously. The mustard-like plants with a high biological concentration coefficient could be used as the suitable plants for land reclamation but maize with a low biological concentration coefficient could be used as the suitable plant for land reclamation with relative little pollution. As the heavy metal content in crops planted in the soils of the tailing pond with serious heavy metal pollution was so high, the vegetation restoration and project measures should be used to control soil erosion, transferring and diffusing of heavy metals in the tailing pond.%为探明广西水岩坝钨锡矿废弃地重金属污染的基本情况,寻求合适的生态修复方法,对尾矿库区废弃地、周边土壤以及植物进行大面积的抽样调查.结果表明:尾矿库区废弃地和周边土壤重金属镉和砷严重超标,尾矿库区土壤成为一个潜在的污染源,重金属不断向周边土壤迁移扩散.芥菜的生物富集系数较大,类似的植物不适宜作为土地复垦植物,玉米的生物富集系数最小,适宜在污染相对较小的土地复垦中选用.尾矿库区土壤重金属污染相当严重,农作物的重金属含量高,不适宜进行简单的土地复垦而应该进行植物恢复或采取工程措施防止水土流失和重金属迁移扩散.

  13. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  14. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  15. Natural decrease of dissolved arsenic in a small stream receiving drainages of abandoned silver mines in Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Yann Rene Ramos; Muñoz, Alma Hortensia Serafín; Barrientos, Eunice Yanez; Huerta, Irais Rodriguez; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical parameters, metals/metalloids and arsenic species were determined. One of the mine drainages was found as a point source of contamination with 309 μg L(-1) of dissolved arsenic; this concentration declined rapidly to 10.5 μg L(-1) about 2 km downstream. Data analysis confirmed that oxidation of As(III) released from the primary sulfide minerals was favored by the increase of pH and oxidation reduction potential; the results obtained in multivariate approach indicated that self-purification of water was due to association of As(V) with secondary solid phase containing Fe, Mn, Ca.

  16. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg‑1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  17. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Health impact of living near an abandoned mine--case study: Jales mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, P; Silva, S; Roma-Torres, J; Costa, C; Henriques, A; Teixeira, J; Gomes, M; Mayan, O

    2007-05-01

    The activities of mining exploitation in Campo de Jales were performed in an uncontrolled way and gave rise to serious environmental contamination: rubbish depositories have been accumulated with no treatment or maintenance. An investigation developed around Jales Mine showed the existence of some chemical impact originated from the waste produced during mining activities. Some "black spots" for a wide suite of heavy metals were determined in stream sediments and alluvium drained from Jales tailings, which could constitute hazard factors for the area and potential danger for public health. The main objective of this study is to know the effects on health caused by this environmental contamination. It is a case-control study, where two populations--from Campo de Jales and Vilar de Maçada--were compared. They both have very similar living conditions, and were inquired about health issues and screening for lead and cadmium exposure. The results point out to higher prevalence of irritating symptomatology in the mucous of the eyes and respiratory system as well as higher lead and cadmium exposure in the Campo de Jales population. PMID:17321206

  19. A WebGIS Decision Support System for Management of Abandoned Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Stanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a WebGIS application aimed at providing safe and reliable data needed for reclamation of abandoned mines in national parks and other protected areas in Vojvodina in compliance with existing legal regulations. The geodatabase model for this application has been developed using UML and the CASE tool Microsoft Visio featuring an interface with ArcGIS. The WebGIS application was developed using GeoServer, an open source tool in the Java programming language, with integrated PostgreSQL DB and the possibility of generating and publishing WMS, WFS and KML services. The WebGIS application is publicly available, based on an appropriate central database, which for the first time encompasses all available data on abandoned mines in Vojvodina, and as such may serve as a model for similar databases on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  20. Use of risk assessment to evaluate effects and plan remediation of abandoned mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    A framework of risk assessment is elaborated for the evaluation of the effects of abandoned mines and mills. Steps in this process include environmental description, identification and characterization of sources, assessment of exposure, assessment of effects, risk characterization, and risk management of remediation. The development and use of ecological end-points for remediation is discussed in terms of the chemical constituents, toxicity tests and the biological community.

  1. Numerical modelling and prediction of abandoned mine methane recovery: field application at the Saar coalfield, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevket Durucan; Ji Quan Shi; Anna Korre [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). T H Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In a recently completed EC- Thermie research project, jointly carried out by Imperial College and Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft (DSK), an in house gas-water two-phase CBM simulator developed at Imperial College London was modified to simulate abandoned mine methane recovery in the Saar Coalfield. Historical data on mining and methane emissions, as well as the long-term methane production data monitored from the Hangard shaft was used to validate the model developed. A satisfactory match to the historical and current field data was achieved, and predictions for future production opportunities were made. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority-Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 9 mines that are Tronox enforcement actions and are classified as priority mines. USEPA and NNEPA prioritized 46 mines based on gamma radiation levels,...

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Trust Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent mines included in the Navajo Environmental Response Trust. This mine category also includes Priority mines....

  4. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mines with Enforcement Actions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 13 mines total that have enforcement actions and are classified as priority mines. USEPA and NNEPA prioritized 46 mines based on gamma radiation levels,...

  5. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  6. USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kate; Church, Stan

    2006-01-01

    The following talk was an invited presentation given at the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs meeting in Billings, Montana on Sept. 25, 2006. The objective of the talk was to outline the scope of the U.S. Geological Survey research, past, present and future, in the area of abandoned mine research. Two large Professional Papers have come out of our AML studies: Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 524 p., 2 plates, 1 DVD, URL: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1652 Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2006, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p., 6 plates, 1 DVD (in press). Additional publications and links can be found on the USGS AML website at URL: http://amli.usgs.gov/ or are accessible from the USGS Mineral Resource Program website at URL: http://minerals.usgs.gov/.

  7. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  8. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoni Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  9. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stanley E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  10. Community-level effects in edaphic fauna from an abandoned mining area: integration with chemical and toxicological lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara C; Castro, Bruno B; Moreira, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    As a part of the Ecological Risk Assessment of a deactivated uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa), the aim of this study was to assess the drivers of litter arthropod community (ecological line of evidence) inhabiting soils with different degrees of contamination. Litter arthropods were collected in the mining area using a total of 70 pitfall traps, in the spring and autumn of 2004. Unlike information previously collected in the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we found no clear evidence of impacts of soil contamination on the edaphic arthropod assemblage. Multivariate analyses were unable to extract relevant environmental gradients related to contamination, as most of the sites shared the same taxa overall. Given the consistency of the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we must conclude that the litter arthropod assemblage underestimated the impacts of contamination in this abandoned mining area. In part, this could be due to the uncertainty caused by confounding factors that affect the litter arthropod community in the area. Nevertheless, despite the overall lack of responsiveness of the epigeic arthropod community data, a few taxa were negatively correlated with metal concentrations (Clubionidae and Staphylinidae), while Pseudoscorpionida were associated with the toxicological profile of the sites. These evidences suggest that community-level approaches with other animal and plant assemblages are necessary to reduce uncertainty relatively to the assessment of risks in higher evaluation tiers in the Cunha Baixa mine area. PMID:23174268

  11. Could an abandoned mercury mine area be cropped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio, Millán; Elvira, Esteban; Pilar, Zornoza; María-José, Sierra

    2013-08-01

    The Almadén area (Spain) is known for its high natural mercury background as well as for the anthropogenic impact due to mining activities. After the end of these activities, appropriate alternative use of the soil has to be found, and agricultural activities stand out as an environmentally-friendly and potentially profitable alternative, giving to the soil a sustainable use without risks for human or animal health according to current legislation. Experiments performed at different scales (involving hydroponics, growth in pots and lysimeters) allow recommendations to be made regarding the adequacy of cultivation of different crops for animal or human consumption before they are sown in the field. Regarding crops for animal feeding, mercury accumulation in vegetative organs represents a higher potential risk for animals. Nevertheless, seeds and fruits can be used, both for human and animal consumption. Finally, this work will lead the way to obtain a scientific basis for elaborating a list of recommendations on sustainable and safe alternative land use, according to current international legislation. PMID:23489985

  12. Could an abandoned mercury mine area be cropped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio, Millán; Elvira, Esteban; Pilar, Zornoza; María-José, Sierra

    2013-08-01

    The Almadén area (Spain) is known for its high natural mercury background as well as for the anthropogenic impact due to mining activities. After the end of these activities, appropriate alternative use of the soil has to be found, and agricultural activities stand out as an environmentally-friendly and potentially profitable alternative, giving to the soil a sustainable use without risks for human or animal health according to current legislation. Experiments performed at different scales (involving hydroponics, growth in pots and lysimeters) allow recommendations to be made regarding the adequacy of cultivation of different crops for animal or human consumption before they are sown in the field. Regarding crops for animal feeding, mercury accumulation in vegetative organs represents a higher potential risk for animals. Nevertheless, seeds and fruits can be used, both for human and animal consumption. Finally, this work will lead the way to obtain a scientific basis for elaborating a list of recommendations on sustainable and safe alternative land use, according to current international legislation.

  13. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  14. Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gillmore

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m−3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

  15. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  17. Impact of heavy metals on forest trees from mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truby, P. [Albert-Ludwigs Univ., Freiburg Bertoldstr (Germany). Inst. of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition

    2003-07-01

    Abandoned ore mines from the early Middle Ages in Germany are covered with vegetation and forest trees. A study was conducted in old mining areas of the southern Black Forest and in recent mining areas in the Northern Eifel Mountain to investigate the uptake and distribution of heavy metals by forest trees in heavily contaminated sites. The objective was to quantify the total uptake, trace the pathways of internal distribution, and examine the role of uptake by leafs. It was shown that medieval ore mine spoils from the Black Forest Silver fir and Douglas fir have taken up relatively high amounts of heavy metals. Lead content in the stemwood of a 120 year old tree was found to be 120 {mu}g/g d.m, but there was no apparent negative effect on tree growth and vitality. The trees from the Eifel site had individual heavy metal distribution patterns resulting from soils that are contaminated with zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper. Heavy metals were taken up mostly by the roots, with no significant leaf uptake. At all sites, the roots were mycorrhized but the number of species was reduced with the most abundant species being cenococcum. There was no evidence of specific damage to trees caused by heavy metal toxicity, even in highly contaminated soils and areas of high atmospheric input. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 μm and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 μm as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  19. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing

  20. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority and Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mines with Tronox enforcement actions as of March 2016 that are also classified as priority mines. USEPA...

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Trust Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mine areas included in the Navajo Environmental Response Trust. This mine category also includes Priority...

  2. Assessment of Trace Metals in Soil, Vegetation and Rodents in Relation to Metal Mining Activities in an Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Alvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul

    2016-07-01

    Areas where abandoned metal-extraction mines are located contain large quantities of mineral wastes derived from environmentally unsafe mining practices. These wastes contain many pollutants, such as heavy metals, which could be released to the environment through weathering and leaching, hence becoming an important source of environmental metal pollution. This study evaluates differences in the levels of lead, iron, nickel, manganese, copper and cadmium in rodents sharing the same type of diet under different microhabitat use in arid areas with past mining activities. Samples of soil, roots, branches and seeds of Palo Adán (Fouquieria diguetii) and specimens of two rodent species (Chaetodipus arenarius and C. spinatus) were collected in areas with impact from past metal mining activities as well as from areas with no mining impact. Both rodent species mirrored nickel and iron levels in soil and seeds, as well as lead levels in soil; however, C. arenarius accumulated higher levels of manganese, copper and cadmium.

  3. Assessment of Trace Metals in Soil, Vegetation and Rodents in Relation to Metal Mining Activities in an Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Alvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul

    2016-07-01

    Areas where abandoned metal-extraction mines are located contain large quantities of mineral wastes derived from environmentally unsafe mining practices. These wastes contain many pollutants, such as heavy metals, which could be released to the environment through weathering and leaching, hence becoming an important source of environmental metal pollution. This study evaluates differences in the levels of lead, iron, nickel, manganese, copper and cadmium in rodents sharing the same type of diet under different microhabitat use in arid areas with past mining activities. Samples of soil, roots, branches and seeds of Palo Adán (Fouquieria diguetii) and specimens of two rodent species (Chaetodipus arenarius and C. spinatus) were collected in areas with impact from past metal mining activities as well as from areas with no mining impact. Both rodent species mirrored nickel and iron levels in soil and seeds, as well as lead levels in soil; however, C. arenarius accumulated higher levels of manganese, copper and cadmium. PMID:27207229

  4. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  5. A science-based, watershed strategy to support effective remediation of abandoned mine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Nimick, David A.; Von Guerard, Paul; Church, Stanley E.; Frazier, Ann G.; Gray, John R.; Lipin, Bruce R.; Marsh, Sherman P.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Finger, Susan E.; Ischinger, Lee S.; Fordham, John C.; Power, Martha S.; Bunch, Christine M.; Jones, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative will develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of abandoned mine lands. A watershed approach will identify, characterize, and remediate contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within a watershed. The Initiative will be conducted during 1997 through 2001 in two pilot watersheds, the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in Montana. Initiative efforts are being coordinated with the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and other stakeholders which are using the resulting scientific information to design and implement remediation activities. The Initiative has the following eight objective-oriented components: estimate background (pre-mining) conditions; define baseline (current) conditions; identify target sites (major contaminant sources); characterize target sites and processes affecting contaminant dispersal; characterize ecosystem health and controlling processes at target sites; develop remediation goals and monitoring network; provide an integrated, quality-assured and accessible data network; and document lessons learned for future applications of the watershed approach.

  6. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  8. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  9. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg-1 with the mean value of 129 mg kg-1. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 μg L-1 in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg-1 for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg-1 and 164 μg L-1, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  10. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chuanping [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Gao Yun [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Fangbai, E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.c [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Lin Lanwen; Wu Changan [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-15

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg{sup -1} with the mean value of 129 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 mug L{sup -1} in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg{sup -1} for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg{sup -1} and 164 mug L{sup -1}, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  11. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  12. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — List of mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S. government (also known as the Tronox settlement)

  13. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Tronox Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent mines operated by the Kerr McGee Corp. in the settlement between Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and the U.S....

  14. SSH gene expression profile of Eisenia andrei exposed in situ to a naturally contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the exposure of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine, were assessed through gene expression profile evaluation by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Organisms were exposed in situ for 56 days, in containers placed both in a contaminated and in a non-contaminated site (reference). Organisms were sampled after 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results showed that the main physiological functions affected by the exposure to metals and radionuclides were: metabolism, oxireductase activity, redox homeostasis and response to chemical stimulus and stress. The relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and elongation factor 1 alpha was also affected, since the genes encoding these enzymes were significantly up and down-regulated, after 14 and 56 days of exposure, respectively. Also, an EST with homology for SET oncogene was found to be up-regulated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this gene was identified in earthworms and thus, further studies are required, to clarify its involvement in the toxicity of metals and radionuclides. Considering the results herein presented, gene expression profiling proved to be a very useful tool to detect earthworms underlying responses to metals and radionuclides exposure, pointing out for the detection and development of potential new biomarkers. PMID:23164450

  15. 75 years after mining ends stream insect diversity is still affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcort, Hugh; Vancura, James; Lider, Edward L

    2010-11-01

    A century of heavy metal mining in the western United States has left a legacy of abandoned mines. While large operations have left a visible reminder, smaller one and two-man operations have been overgrown and largely forgotten. We revisited an area of northern Idaho that has not had active mining since at least 1932 and probably since 1910. At three sites along each of 10 mountain streams we sampled larval stream insects and correlated their community diversity to stream levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, zinc, pH, temperature, oxygen content, and conductivity. Although the streams appear pristine, multivariate statistics indicated that cadmium and zinc levels were significantly correlated with fewer animals, fewer families, a smaller percentage of plecopterans (stoneflies), and lower Shannon H diversity values. After at least 75 years, abandoned mines appear to be still influencing stream communities. PMID:20680454

  16. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: Implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Ashley, Paul M. [Earth Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: > In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. > Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. > Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. > Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.

  17. Geochemical behavior and environmental risks related to the use of abandoned base-metal tailings as construction material in the upper-Moulouya district, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argane, R; El Adnani, M; Benzaazoua, M; Bouzahzah, H; Khalil, A; Hakkou, R; Taha, Y

    2016-01-01

    In some developing countries, base-metal residues that were abandoned in tailing ponds or impoundments are increasingly used as construction material without any control, engineering basis, or environmental concern. This uncontrolled reuse of mine tailings may constitute a new form of pollution risks for humans and ecosystems through metal leaching. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess mine drainage, metal mobility, and geochemical behavior of two abandoned mine tailings commonly used in the upper-Moulouya region (eastern Morocco) as fine aggregates for mortar preparation. Their detailed physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were subsequently evaluated in the context of developing appropriate alternative reuses to replace their conventional disposal and limit their weathering exposure. The obtained results showed that both tailings contain relatively high quantities of residual metals and metalloids with lead (ranging between 3610 and 5940 mg/kg) being the major pollutant. However, the mineralogical investigations revealed the presence of abundant neutralizing minerals and low sulfide content which influence mine drainage geochemistry and subsequently lower metals mobility. In fact, leachate analyses from weathering cell kinetic tests showed neutral conditions and low sulfide oxidation rates. According to these results, the tailings used as construction material in the upper-Moulouya region have very low generating potential of contaminated effluents and their reuse as aggregates may constitute a sustainable alternative method for efficient tailing management. PMID:26330319

  18. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in sulphide mine affected-soils of madrid, central spain

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, M.; Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana María

    2011-01-01

    The uncontrolled extraction of mineral resources is considered one of the major anthropogenic sources of soil pollution. In Spain, exploitation of metallic mineral deposits and its subsequent abandonment in last decades has lead to significant environmental hazard for natural systems. In this research, potentially contaminated soils surrounding an old chalcopyrite mine district in Madrid (Central Spain) have been studied. The focus is to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metals and othe...

  20. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  1. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  2. Glionitrin A, an antibiotic-antitumor metabolite derived from competitive interaction between abandoned mine microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.B.; Kown, H.C.; Lee, C.H.; Yang, H.O. [Korean Institute of Science & Technology KIST, Kangnung (Republic of Korea)

    2009-02-15

    The nutrient conditions present in abandoned coal mine drainages create an extreme environment where defensive and offensive microbial interactions could be critical for survival and fitness. Coculture of a mine drainage-derived Sphingomonas bacterial strain, KMK-001, and a mine drainage-derived Aspergillus fumigatus fungal strain, KMC-901, resulted in isolation of a new diketopiperazine disulfide, glionitrin A (1). Compound 1 was not detected in monoculture broths of KMK-001 or KMC-901. The structure of 1, a (3S,10aS) diketopiperazine disulfide containing a nitro aromatic ring, was based on analysis of MS, NMR, and circular dichroism spectra and confirmed by X-ray crystal data. Glionitrin A displayed significant antibiotic activity against a series of microbes including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An in vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay revealed that 1 had potent submicromolar cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, A549, AGS, and DU145. The results provide further evidence that microbial coculture can produce novel biologically relevant molecules.

  3. Spatial distribution of environmental risk associated to a uranium abandoned mine (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I. M.; Ribeiro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar is located at Arcozelo da Serra, central Portugal. The mine was exploited in an open pit and produced about 12430Kg of uranium oxide (U3O8), between 1987 and 1988. The dominant geological unit is the porphyritic coarse-grained two-mica granite, with biotite>muscovite. The uranium deposit consists of two gaps crushing, parallel to the coarse-grained porphyritic granite, with average direction N30°E, silicified, sericitized and reddish jasperized, with a width of approximately 10 meters. These gaps are accompanied by two thin veins of white quartz, 70°-80° WNW, ferruginous and jasperized with chalcedony, red jasper and opal. These veins are about 6 meters away from each other. They contain secondary U-phosphates phases such as autunite and torbernite. Rejected materials (1000000ton) were deposited on two dumps and a lake was formed in the open pit. To assess the environmental risk of the abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar, were collected and analysed 70 samples on stream sediments, soils and mine tailings materials. The relation between samples composition were tested using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) (multivariate analysis) and spatial distribution using Kriging Indicator. The spatial distribution of stream sediments shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Th and U contents), decreases along SE-NW direction. This component is explained by the samples located inside mine influence. The probability of expression for principal component 2 (explaining Be, Na, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, Ba, Tl and Bi contents), increases to middle stream line. This component is explained by the samples located outside mine influence. The spatial distribution of soils, shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Mg, P, Ca, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr

  4. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  6. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  8. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  9. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, el Boléo, Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Fyodor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14-0.18 mg kg(-1)). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg(-1), forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coastal marine sediments, particularly those close to the copper smelter in the town of Santa Rosalía, also display some mercury enrichment. PMID:18800200

  10. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, El Boléo, Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Kot, Fydor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14–0.18 mg kg-1). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg-1, forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coa...

  11. Prediction of the long-term perfomance of abandoned lead zinc mine tailings in a Welsh catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Klinck, Ben; Banks, Vanessa; Quigley, Sean

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the sulphidic mine tailings from Frongoch and Grogwynion, two abandoned lead zinc mines in mid-Wales, UK. Despite falling within the same ore field the mine waste characterisation has identified differences in the tailings from the two sites. Bulk concentrations range from 10 to 52 g kg− 1 for Pb, 1.1 to 2.9 g kg− 1 for Zn in Grogwynion and from 1.0 to 130 g kg− 1 for Pb, 11 to 110 g kg− 1 for Zn in Frongoch. An experimental (European standard leaching tests TS 1...

  12. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p < 0.05). Toxicity identification results of the final effluent collected in January 2010 showed that Al and Zn were key toxicants in addition to acidic pH. Unlike the Samma effluent, both Hwangji and Hamtae effluent had pH values that were near neutrality and showed either no acute toxicity or toxicity values less than 1 TU. However, the feeding rates of D. magna and M. macrocopa were significantly reduced when compared to the control (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the Hamtae and Hwangji effluent likely have a sublethal effect on aquatic organisms in receiving water bodies. PMID:22415647

  13. Rehabilitation proposal for the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle Creek South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abandoned uranium mine Rum Jungle Creek South was not rehabilitated after the Rum Jungle uranium project ceased operation in 1971. The mine area is characterised by high external gamma-ray levels, radioactive dust concentrations and radon daughters levels in the air. This implies that annual doses of some individuals are about 5mSv which is the present Australian public limit. The present annual collective dose equivalent to members of the public visiting the area was evaluated about 0.42 man Sv, and the 100 years collective dose commitment is calculated to be about 260 man Sv. Since the new Australian public limit is going to be 1mSv/y, for exposures extending over many years, more members of the public will be exposed above the limit in the future. Four rehabilitation options ranged from a general clean-up burial and stabilisation to full rehabilitation and revegetation have been considered. The ALARA/cost benefit analysis was used to find the optimum rehabilitation option which has an associated cost of A$2.13 million. The present collective dose commitment is going to be reduced by a factor of 7 provided the rehabilitation takes place. There also will be no likelyhood that individuals will be exposed above the new public limit of 1mSv/y in the future

  14. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  15. Detection and control of fires and heatings in shallow, abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatings and fires in shallow, abandoned coal mines create an environmentally undesirable hazard in the Witbank area in South Africa, as well as locations in Europe and North America. A research program was set up in South Africa to detect and control the occurrence and extent of subsurface heatings and fires. Prior to any remedial action being taken to control or extinguish a heating or fire, it is essential to evaluate underground conditions in order to determine the most effective control method. Normally, such workings cannot physically be entered due to poor ground conditions and the presence of heat and toxic gases. Two novel detection methods have been developed by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization (COMRO) for the purpose of identifying the nature and extent of such heatings remotely, via surface boreholes. Temperature monitoring allows for the detection of heating intensity and location. To determine areas of uncontrolled air infiltration into the workings, tracer gas technology is used. In addition, a method for controlling a fire which has been successfully used in South Africa is described

  16. Mercury in soils and plants in an abandoned cinnabar mining area (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Murciego, A; Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Regina, I Santa; Rodríguez-González, M A

    2009-09-15

    An abandoned cinnabar mining area located in the South-West of Spain has been studied with the aim of assessing its mercury pollution level and enhancing the knowledge about the Hg soil/plant relationship. To do so, soils and plants were sampled near an inactive smelter and around two mining sites present in this area. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the close environs of pollutant sources. These also show high levels of elemental Hg (up to 8 mg kg(-1)), but quite low exchangeable Hg contents (0.008-0.038 mg kg(-1)). Most plant specimens display in their aboveground tissues Hg concentrations comprised in the range 0.1-10 mg kg(-1), with a great proportion (50%) showing critical levels. Greater Hg contents were found in plant specimens growing in soils with higher elemental Hg concentrations. The plant species displaying the greatest Hg levels are either perennial species of small-medium size and/or showing medium-highly corrugated leaves, or annual plants of small size. Marrubium vulgare L., Bromus madritensis L. and Trifolium angustifolium L. are the plant species with the highest Hg contents (37.6, 12.7 and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Leaf specific surface seems an important feature in the atmospheric Hg uptake by plants. PMID:19345007

  17. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg-1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to <1 Bq g-1 for the dressing floor and waste heap and 18 to <1 Bq g-1 for the grazing land. Estimates of the bioaccessible fractions (BAFs) of 238U in the most contaminated samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the respective

  18. Microbial Methane Formation from Coal and Wood in Abandoned Coal Mines - Analogues for biogenic methane formation in Black Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-04-01

    About seven percent of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines. Overall, our new results support the assumption that abandoned coal reservoirs have a potential to supply methane gas for energy production over extended time scales. The worldwide increased mining activity will go along with an increased coal weathering and the formation of biogenic methane. Currently, our research is focussing on the question to which extent and for how long recent biogenic methane production is contributing to shale gas formation as another important future energy resource.

  19. Leach-SX-EW copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned copper mine Cerovo, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrometallurgical processes for copper revalorization from overburden of abandoned mine Cerovo in Eastern Serbia were studied. Paper contain results of percolation leaching tests, performed with acidic mine waters accumulated in the bottom of the former open pit, followed by solvent extraction (SX and electrowinning (EW processes on achieved copper pregnant leach solutions. Usage of accumulated waste waters was objected to minimizing the environmental hazard due to uncontrolled leaking of these waters in nearby creeks and rivers. Chemical composition of acidic mine waters used for leaching tests was: (g/dm3: Cu - 0.201; Fe - 0.095; Mn - 0.041; Zn - 0.026; Ni - 0.0004; pH value - 3.3. Copper content in overburden sample used for leaching tests was 0.21% from which 64% were oxide copper minerals. In scope of leaching tests were examined influence of leaching solution pH values and iron (III concentration on copper recovery. It was established that for 120 hours of leaching on pH=1.5 without oxidant agents, copper concentration in pregnant leach solutions enriched up to 1.08g/dm3 which was enough for copper extraction from solution with SX-EW treatment. As extraction reagent in SX circuit was used LIX-984N in a kerosene diluent. Cathode current density in electrowinning cell was 220Am-2 while electrolyte temperature was kept on 50±2oC. Produced cathode copper at the end of SX-EW process has purity of 99.95% Cu.

  20. Pesticide mobility and leachate toxicity in two abandoned mine soils. Effect of organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liébana, José Antonio; Mingorance, M Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

    2014-11-01

    Abandoned mine areas, used in the past for the extraction of minerals, constitute a degraded landscape which needs to be reintegrated to productive or leisure activities. However these soils, mainly composed by silt or sand and with low organic matter content, are vulnerable to organic and inorganic pollutants posing a risk to the surrounding ecosystems and groundwater. Soils from two mining areas from Andalusia were evaluated: one from Nerva (NCL) in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Andalusia) and another one from the iron Alquife mine (ALQ) (SE Andalusia). To improve soil properties and fertility two amendments, stabilised sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CSL), were selected. The effect of amendment addition on the mobility of two model pesticides, thiacloprid and fenarimol, was assessed using soil columns under non-equilibrium conditions. Fenarimol, more hydrophobic than thiacloprid, only leached from native ALQ, a soil with lower organic carbon (OC) content than NCL (0.21 and 1.4%, respectively). Addition of amendments affected differently pesticide mobility: thiacloprid in the leachates was reduced by 14% in NCL-SSL and by 4% in ALQ-CSL. Soil OC and dissolved OC were the parameters which explained pesticide residues in soil. Chemical analysis revealed that leachates from the different soil columns did not contain toxic element levels, except As in NCL soil. Finally ecotoxicological data showed moderate toxicity in the initial leachates, with an increase coinciding with pesticide maximum concentration. The addition of SSL slightly reduced the toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri, likely due to enhanced retention of pesticides by amended soils.

  1. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  2. The stability of structure's foundation rockmass over shallow abandoned mine goafs and its treatment - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy coal dressing plant is constructed on an area seriously damaged by underground longwall mining in one of China's collieries. The Southwest of the main dressing plant stands on the ground over shallow abandoned mine goafs. Using the methods of boring and geophysical exploration and mining subsidence analysis, this paper studies the 3D distribution of fracture zones caused by mining's influence. Combined with the result of FEM, the paper analyses the stability of the main building's foundation rock mass, advances and adopts some safety measures, such as grouting the mining the fractured rockmass to consolidate it, appropriately designing the building to improve its anti-deformation ability, etc. The inspection results of geophysical prospecting show that consolidation grouting has attained the expected results. The settlement observation indicates that the settlement of the main building is smooth. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  4. Cadmium Accumulation in Periphyton from an Abandoned Mining District in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jacob R; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Rush Mining District along the Buffalo River in Arkansas has a significant history of zinc and lead mining operations. The tails and spoils of these operations deposit heavy amounts of raw ore into streams. One element commonly found in the earth's crust that becomes a minor constituent of the deposition is cadmium. Periphyton samples from Rush Creek and Clabber Creek, two creeks within the Rush Mining District were measured for cadmium as well as two creeks with no history of mining, Spring Creek and Water Creek. Periphyton samples from Rush and Clabber Creek contained mean cadmium concentrations of 436.6 ± 67.3 and 93.38 ± 8.67 µg/kg, respectively. Spring Creek and Water Creek had a mean cadmium concentration of 40.49 ± 3.40 and 41.78 ± 3.99 µg/kg within periphyton. The results indicate increased metal concentrations in algal communities from mined areas. As periphyton is the base of the aquatic food chain, it acts as a conduit for movement of cadmium in the food web. PMID:27130541

  5. Leaching of elements from coal fly ash: Assessment of its potential for use in filling abandoned coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binay K. Dutta; Swapan Khanra; Durjoy Mallick [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    2009-07-15

    Leaching of ten elements - namely, Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, Cu, Cr, Zn, As and Pb - from four fly ash samples collected from four different coal-fired thermal power plants in West Bengal, India, has been reported. The leaching conditions were selected to broadly simulate that of surface coal mines in order to estimate the usefulness of the materials for back-filling of abandoned mines and to assess the possibility of contamination of the sites by release of heavy metal ions. Sequential batch leaching consisted of four cycles each of seven days duration; the long-term leaching continued over a period of 180 days. The starting pH of the leaching solutions ranged from strongly acidic to strongly basic. The leaching pattern and its dependence on the pH as well as the solid-liquid ratio have been critically analyzed. A much higher mobility of the elements have been expectedly observed at a low pH. Less leaching is found at a high pH except for arsenic. The mobilization pattern is strongly governed by the well-known phenomenon of dissolution and re-precipitation of iron with co-precipitation of a series of elements depending upon the pH of the medium. Extraction equilibrium was reached for Ca, Fe, Na and Zn at certain pH values. A monotonic trend of release for the elements Mn, K, Cu, Pb, Cr and As persisted over the long-term leaching period of 180 days. The alkalinity or the calcium content of an ash sample greatly determines the leaching pattern if the solution pH is neutral or mildly acidic. It appears that the risk pollution of ground water as well as of surface water may not be avoidable if fly ash alone is used for mine back-filling in an environment where acid mine drainage is prominent. Nevertheless blending with lime to enhance the alkalinity appears to offer a practical solution to the problem. 45 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of soil metal contamination around a derelict mine site in the Blue Mountains, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsoddini, A.; Raval, S.; R. Taplin

    2014-01-01

    Abandoned mine sites pose the potential threat of the heavy metal pollution spread through streams and via runoff leading to contamination of soil and water in their surrounding areas. Regular monitoring of these areas is critical to minimise impacts on water resources, flora and fauna. Conventional ground based monitoring is expensive and sometimes impractical; spectroscopic methods have been emerged as a reliable alternative for this purpose. In this study, the capabilities of the ...

  7. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba

  8. Bioassessment of an Appalachian headwater stream influenced by an abandoned arsenic mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Theodore W; Chaffin, Jake L; Cherry, Donald S; Schreiber, Madeline E; Valett, H Maurice; Charles, Megan

    2005-11-01

    Recent debate concerning the modification of safe drinking water standards for arsenic (As) has led to increased awareness of the risks As poses to both humans and the environment. However, few studies have examined the effects of As on the diversity and composition of aquatic assemblages in streams. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys, chemical analysis of water column and sediment, and laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to assess effects of an abandoned As mine on a headwater stream, and to determine the primary component of toxicity. The average 48-hr LC50 value for Daphnia magna was 4316 microg As/L, and the average 96-hr LC50 value for Lepidostoma spp. was 2138 microg As/L. Reproduction was significantly reduced for D. magna at concentrations > or =312 microg As/L in water column laboratory bioassays, and for treatments in bioassays with sediments containing elevated As (> or =2630 mg/kg). These results support the findings of the in-stream benthic macroinvertebrate survey as the density and percent Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera, + Trichoptera (EPT) were substantially lower at sites downstream of the mine compared to upstream reference sites. Results of bioassays comparing the toxicity of As-contaminated site water and upstream reference water spiked with As salts suggest that As is the primary component of toxicity impacting the stream. Measured As concentrations at downstream sites were above the recommended Criterion Maximum Concentration of 340 microg As/L and Criterion Continuous Concentration of 150 microg As/L for protection of aquatic life published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. At the study site, elevated As concentrations likely prevent recruitment of benthic macroinvertebrates and recovery of the perturbed headwater stream. PMID:16205987

  9. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-ping; Luo, Chun-ling; Gao, Yun; Li, Fang-bai; Lin, Lan-wen; Wu, Chang-an; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-03-01

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg(-1) with the mean value of 129 mg kg(-1). In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 microg L(-1) in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg(-1) for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg(-1) and 164 microg L(-1), respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. PMID:19910093

  10. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p water or sewage effluent can further increase pH as indicated by geochemical modeling, but will not totally achieve water-quality goals because of limited discharges. A combination of treatments including settling ponds, oxic or anoxic limestone drains, and possibly successive alkalinity producing systems to remediate AMD will likely be required in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin to consistently meet Missouri's Water Quality Standards.

  11. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  12. Lead distribution and its potential risk to the environment: lesson learned from environmental monitoring of abandon mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuntou, Wanida; Parkpian, Preeda; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Noomhorm, Athapol; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2010-11-01

    There are many abandon and existing mines (tin, lead and zinc) in the mountainous areas of Thailand. Toxic elements including heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) have been released and transported from the mining sites to the adjacent landscape. In Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand Pb contamination in the vicinity of the mine has occurred which could lead to potential health problems in downstream communities. To better understand current status of Pb contamination and accumulation in the surrounding environment and potential health impact, surface sediment, soil and plant samples were collected seasonally from representative monitoring sites along the aquatic track or flow regime. Potential health risk was determined using hazard quotient (HQ) as an index for local inhabitants who consume rice. Environmental monitoring illustrated that Pb concentrations in the surface sediment was as high as 869.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight and varied differently among stations sampled. Lead content in agricultural soil ranged between 137.8 to 613.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight and was inversely proportion to the distance from the point source. Moreover Pb was transported from the point source to down hill areas. At the highly polluted monitoring stations (S1, S2, and S3), concentrations of Pb exceeded the maximum allowable concentration for Pb in agricultural soil (300 mg kg(-1)) by 1.7-2 times. The Pb in soil was primarily associated with Fe/Mn oxides bound fraction (46-56%) followed by the organic bound fraction (25-30%). Lead uptake by plant varied and was species dependent. However root and tuber crops like cassava (19.92 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) and curcumin (3.25 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) could have removed Pb from the soil which suggest growing root crops in Pb contaminated soils should be avoided. However Cd, a co-contaminant at one of monitored stations (S4) yielded rice grain with Cd exceeding the maximum allowable concentration

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  14. Primary Phases and Natural Weathering of Smelting Slag at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal metallurgical slag produced more than 50 years ago at a mine site in southwest Japan is rich in toxic metals and metalloids. Some of the slag remains on a waste dump and could contaminate the surrounding area through the dissolution of heavy metals and metalloids during weathering. To assess this risk, this study has investigated the behavior of the toxic elements in the smelting slag during weathering. Most of the potentially toxic elements are contained in willemite and/or matte drops. Maximum metal and metalloid concentrations in the slag are 28.1 wt % Fe, 22.7 wt % Zn, 1.63 wt % Cu, 3450 mg/kg Sn, 826 mg/kg Pb, 780 mg/kg As, and 116 mg/kg Cd. Zn is mainly contained in willemite, whereas other metals and metalloids are mainly concentrated in matte drops. The willemite and matte drops are converted to Fe-hydroxides during weathering, indicating that potentially toxic metals and metalloids contained in these phases are released by weathering processes. Therefore, weathering of the artisanal metallurgical slag, containing large amounts of willemite and matte drops, may pollute the surrounding environment.

  15. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  16. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  17. Heavy metal ions adsorption from mine waters by sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogdanović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results on the batch and column adsorption of copper and some associated ions by employing linden and poplar sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent are presented. The mine water from a local abandoned copper mine, as well as synthetic solutions of those ions which are the main constituents of the mine water were both used as a model-system in this study. The adsorption ability of the chosen sawdust to adsorb heavy metal ions is considered as a function of the initial pH of the solution and kind of metal ions. At lower pH of solutions the adsorption percentage (AD % decreases leading to a zero AD % at pH < 1.1. Maximum AD % is achieved at 3.5 < pH < 5. It was found that poplar and linden sawdust have both almost equal adsorption capacities against copper ions. The highest AD % ( ≈80% was achieved for Cu2+, while for Fe2+ it was slightly above 10%. The other considered ions (Zn2+ and Mn2+ were within this interval. The results obtained in the batch mode were verified through the column test by using the real mine water originating from an acid mine drainage (AMD of the copper mine „Cerovo“, RTB Bor. The breakthrough curves are presented as a function of the aqueous phase volume passed through the column allowing having an insight into the column adsorption features. Breakthrough points were determined for copper, manganese and zinc ions. A very high adsorption degree – higher than 99% was achieved in these experiments for all mentioned ions. After completing the adsorption, instead of desorption, the loaded sawdust was drained, dried and burned; the copper bearing ash was then leached with a controlled volume of sulphuric acid solution to concentrate copper therein. The obtained leach solution had the concentration of copper higher than 15 g dm-3 and the amount of H2SO4 high enough to serve as a supporting electrolyte suitable to be treated by the electrowinning for recovery of copper. The technology process based on the column

  18. Statistical evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of abandoned underground coal mines around Cannelburg, Indiana. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (USA))

    1993-06-01

    A statistical analysis of daily water-level changes in an abandoned coal mine indicates that precipitation affects the potentiometric level of the mine, independent of associated atmospheric pressure changes and changes in the water level of an overlying aquifer. The independent statistical effect of precipitation (0.99 cm of water-level change per centimeter of rainfall) is interpreted to reflect either lateral percolation from the coalbed's subcrop (1.2 km from the mine) or rapid recharge through mine-associated pathways, such as poorly plugged shafts, boreholes, or subsidence fractures. The relationship between water-level changes in the mine's voids and changes in the overlying aquifer are also statistically significant, but the regression coefficient (0.04) is an order of magnitude smaller than that for precipitation, indicating that vertical percolation (which is represented by convariance of the two aquifers) through undisturbed overburden may be less effective than the recharge associated with precipitation that bypasses the overburden. An equivalent analysis of water-level changes in an underlying unmined coalbed indicated that precipitation had a weaker direct effect (regression coefficient of 0.34, compared with 0.99), although it was still the dominant indepedent variable. In contrast, the effect of water-level changes in an overlying aquifer (the flooded mine itself) was relatively strong (regression coefficient of 0.15, compared with 0.04), indicating that vertical percolation through interburden is more important at depth.

  19. Chemical Interactions of Uranium in Water, Sediments, and Plants Along a Watershed Adjacent to the Abandoned Jackpile Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J.; De Vore, C. L.; Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Roldan, C.; Bowers, F.; Spilde, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical interactions, mobility, and plant uptake of uranium (U) near abandoned mine wastes was investigated along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, located in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico. Elevated U concentrations in surface water adjacent to mine waste range from 30 to 710 μg/L seasonally and decrease to 5.77 to 10.0 μg/L at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine. Although U concentrations in stream water are elevated, aqua regia acid digestions performed on co-located stream bed and stream bank sediments reveal that there is limited U accumulation on sediments along the reach between the mine and wetland, with most sediment concentrations being near the 3 mg/kg crustal average. However, U concentrations in sediments in the wetland are 4 times the background concentrations in the area. Individual results from salt cedar roots, stems, and leaves collected along the river transect show higher U concentrations in the roots adjacent to the mine waste (20 and 55 mg/kg) and lower in the stems and leaves. Translocation values calculated below 1 are evident in many of the plant samples, suggesting that U root to shoot translocation is minimal and U is accumulating in the roots. Concentrations of U in salt cedar roots from downstream of the mine waste decrease to 15 mg/kg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on sediment samples adjacent to the mine waste show a 75:25% ratio of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can have an effect on adsorption properties. Electron microprobe results suggest that the ore in this area is present as a uranium-phosphate phase. Our results suggest that dilution, uptake by plants, and U sorption to wetland sediments are the dominant factors that help to decrease the U concentrations downstream of the mine.

  20. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production : a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Nils; Krook, Joakim; Eklund, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is...

  1. Metal(loid) levels in biological matrices from human populations exposed to mining contamination--Panasqueira Mine (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Solange; Silva, Susana; Walter, Alan; Ranville, James; Sousa, Ana C A; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Marta; García-Lestón, Julia; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Harrington, Chris; Taylor, Andrew; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities may affect the health of miners and communities living near mining sites, and these health effects may persist even when the mine is abandoned. During mining processes various toxic wastes are produced and released into the surrounding environment, resulting in contamination of air, drinking water, rivers, plants, and soils. In a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the Panasqueira Mine area of central Portugal, an anomalous distribution of several metals and arsenic (As) was identified in various environmental media. Several potentially harmful elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se), were quantified in blood, urine, hair, and nails (toe and finger) from a group of individuals living near the Panasqueira Mine who were environmentally and occupationally exposed. A group with similar demographic characteristics without known exposure to mining activities was also compared. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and percentages of different lymphocyte subsets were selected as immunotoxicity biomarkers. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis showed elevated levels of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb in all biological samples taken from populations living close to the mine compared to controls. Genotoxic and immunotoxic differences were also observed. The results provide evidence of an elevated potential risk to the health of populations, with environmental and occupational exposures resulting from mining activities. Further, the results emphasize the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans for the region. PMID:22788375

  2. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  3. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyoengyoesoroszi, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamas, J.; Kovacs, E. [Dept. of Water and Environmental Management, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots. (orig.)

  4. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered. PMID:26832863

  5. A descriptive and quantitative approach regarding erosion and development of landforms on abandoned mine tailings: New insights and environmental implications from SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Duque, J. F.; Zapico, I.; Oyarzun, R.; López García, J. A.; Cubas, P.

    2015-06-01

    The San Cristóbal-Perules mining site in Mazarrón in southeast Spain was subjected to about a hundred years of intense mining activity for lead, silver, and zinc. Metallurgical operations (smelting, calcination, gravity concentration) carried out during the late nineteenth century-early twentieth century induced significant land transformation, and the most conspicuous wastes of this period consist of a chaotic piling of 'old' tailing deposits. Later on, during the mid-twentieth century, 'modern' tailings resulting from froth flotation were accumulated filling small valleys; these latter valley-fill tailings rose sequentially according to the upstream construction method, progressively raising the level of the dam during the process. Once abandoned, both types of tailing deposits underwent severe erosion, resulting in a mosaic of erosional and sedimentary landforms developed upon (e.g., gully formation) and within them (e.g., piping). We made an inventory and classification of these landforms. Our study shows the geomorphic work to reestablish a new steady state between the tailings deposits and the local erosive conditions. This scenario implies several hazards related to the extremely high heavy metal contents of these tailings and the geomorphic instability of the deposits. We also quantified the tailings tonnage and erosion that occurred at one of the tailings dams (El Roble). As shown by an oblique aerial photograph taken in 1968, this dam had a terraced topography, whereas in 2013 this morphology had evolved into a badland-type relief with deep parallel gullies. By recognizing and surveying specific, remnant points along the benches and outslopes of the older terraced topography, we were able to build up a first digital elevation model (DEM1) reflecting the initial topography. A second DEM, this time showing the present topography, allowed quantification of erosion via Material Loss = DEM1 - DEM2. This yields an erosion rate (1968-2009) of 151.8 Mg (MT) ha

  6. Origin and subsurface migration of radionuclides from waste rock at an abandoned uranium mine near Bancroft, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-mine waste rock dump sites may require long-term surveillance because of the potential contamination of radionuclides from waste rock to the subsurface environment. In order to assess the conditions and controls on the migration in groundwater of waste-rock-derived contaminants, an area of old waste rock of a sand aquifer at the abandoned Greyhawk uranium mine near Bancroft, Ontario, was monitored. The waste rock has been abandoned for more than two decades. The results of a four-year hydrological and radiological investigation at the Greyhawk site indicated the presence of contaminant plumes of sup(238)U, sup(234)U, sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb, sup(230)Th, sup(232)Th, sulphate, bicarbonate and dissolved inorganic carbon in the sand aquifer originating from the waste rock. Laboratory-determined parameters were applied in two contaminant migration models for simulating the observed frontal positions of the waste-rock-derived radionuclides in the sand aquifer and also for predicting the spread of radionuclide contamination in the future. With the possible exception of sup(238)U, reasonable results were obtained for the simulations of the sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb and sup(230)Th mobilities in the sand aquifer

  7. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites, BLM lands, upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Upper Animas River watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and metal concentrations below mines or dumps. Information on sites previously identified as needing reclamation is reviewed and available geochemical information is used to rank 26 sites into four classes of priority for reclamation. Although there are more than a thousand mining sites (productive mines and prospects) on BLM lands in the Upper Animas River watershed study area, the majority are very small (less than about 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. In the summers of 1997 and 1998 approximately 200 sites were observed and more than 100 of these that appeared to have the potential to geochemically impact the watershed were examined more carefully and sampled. Building upon the prior work of the BLM and associated agencies, this work attempted to identify the most significant sources of mine-related contamination and to rank those sites as to priority for reclamation. These most significant mining areas have been examined within a geologic framework and were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid and release toxic metals, observed damage to vegetation, potential to release metals based on leach tests, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. No single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, can be used to rank the sites. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations or interactions among several parameters. The most subjective estimate, while ranking

  8. Ecological assessment of coal mine and metal mine drainage in South Korea using Daphnia magna bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the ecological effect of acid mine drainage, metal mine (Dalsung) and coal mine (Samtan) drainage in South Korea were collected. The each mine drainage then investigated by whole effluent toxicity test (WET) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). WET results demonstrated that DS leachate and ST mine water is more toxic than other mine drainage due to the presence of cationic metals and acidic pH. TIE results revealed that the acidic pH and copper (Cu) could be the main toxicants in both mine drainage. The strong acidic pH (pH toxicity by increase of metal activity and bioavailability. The toxicity of most mine drainage revealed that the positive correlation between metal concentration and toxicity unit (TU). The regression data between TU and sum of cumulative criterion unit (CCU) demonstrated the reasonable statistical significance (R = 0.89; p toxicity by the effect of amorphous iron precipitate. PMID:26405638

  9. Laboratory determination of signature criteria for locating and monitoring abandoned mine fires, 1991. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines mine fire diagnostic methodology to locate and monitor fires in abandoned mines and waste banks is based on the controlled sampling of the mine atmosphere to determine changes in the concentration of hydrocarbons desorbed from heated coal. To provide background data for the methodology, a laboratory study was conducted in which samples of coal and coal waste were heated under controlled conditions. Gas samples from the combustion furnace were analyzed for standard gases CO2 and CO and for the C1 to C5 hydrocarbons. In all tests, the concentration of desorbed hydrocarbons increased during heating and decreased during cooling. A dimensionless hydrocarbon ratio, R1, was developed as the signature for heated coal. For bituminous coals, the value of R1 increases during heating of coal samples and decreases during cooling of the same samples. Generally, R1 values of 100 or more indicate coal sample temperatures of at least 100 C. The emission of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons from anthracite samples was very low, resulting in relatively low R1 values at all temperatures. Data from field projects confirmed these results

  10. Ecological assessment of coal mine and metal mine drainage in South Korea using Daphnia magna bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the ecological effect of acid mine drainage, metal mine (Dalsung) and coal mine (Samtan) drainage in South Korea were collected. The each mine drainage then investigated by whole effluent toxicity test (WET) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). WET results demonstrated that DS leachate and ST mine water is more toxic than other mine drainage due to the presence of cationic metals and acidic pH. TIE results revealed that the acidic pH and copper (Cu) could be the ma...

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of soil metal contamination around a derelict mine site in the Blue Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Raval, S.; Taplin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Abandoned mine sites pose the potential threat of the heavy metal pollution spread through streams and via runoff leading to contamination of soil and water in their surrounding areas. Regular monitoring of these areas is critical to minimise impacts on water resources, flora and fauna. Conventional ground based monitoring is expensive and sometimes impractical; spectroscopic methods have been emerged as a reliable alternative for this purpose. In this study, the capabilities of the spectroscopy method were examined for modelling soil contamination from around the abandoned silver-zinc mine located at Yerranderie, NSW Australia. The diagnostic characteristics of the original reflectance data were compared with models derived from first and second derivatives of the reflectance data. The results indicate that the models derived from the first derivative of the reflectance data estimate heavy metals significantly more accurately than model derived from the original reflectance. It was also found in this study that there is no need to use second derivative for modelling heavy metal soil contamination. Finally, the results indicate that estimates were of greater accuracy for arsenic and lead compared to other heavy metals, while the estimation for silver was found to be the most erroneous.

  12. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  13. Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

    2010-05-01

    The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or

  14. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  15. Investigations of microbial regeneration of abandoned mining land. Project 1: Leachate reduction in ore mining regions with high levels of heavy metal sulfides. Final report 2000; Untersuchungen zur mikrobiellen Sicherung von Bergbaualtlasten. Teilvorhaben 1: Laugungsreduzierung in Schwermetallsulfid-belasteten Erzbergbauregionen. Abschlussbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, W.; Jozsa, P.G.; Schippers, A.

    2001-02-01

    The project was aimed at the development of an optimized catalogue of measures for regeneration and reclamation of polluted mining land. Reports were published in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998. This report summarizes the work of 1999 and 2000. A catalogue of measures is proposed on the basis of the results. [German] Ziel des Projektes ist die Erarbeitung eines optimierten Massnahmenpaketes zur Sicherung und Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten, die durch mikrobiologische Sauerwasserbildung und Schwermetallmobilisierung Boeden und Gewaesser kontaminieren. Die Problematik und der Stand der Kenntnisse sowie erste Ergebnisse der Bestandsaufnahmen wurden in den Jahresberichten 1995 und 1996 sowie im Fortsetzungsantrag ausfuehrlich dargestellt. Ueber die Versuchsergebnisse der Jahre 1997 und 1998 wurde bereits berichtet. Im Folgenden werden die in den Jahren 1999 und 2000 erzielten Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und eine Bewertung der Projektarbeit vorgenommen. Abschliessend wird ein Massnahmenkatalog vorgeschlagen, der bei der Planung und Durchfuehrung von Sanierungsaufgaben an Bergbaualtlasten den Anwendern die aus mikrobiologischer Sicht zu beruecksichtigenden Aspekte mit Loesungsmoeglichkeiten gebuendelt zur Verfuegung stellt. (orig.)

  16. Environmental and toenail metals concentrations in copper mining and non mining communities in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilila, Wesu; Callan, Anna Carita; McGregor, Laura A; Kalin, Robert M; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Copper mining contributes to increased concentrations of metals in the environment, thereby increasing the risk of metals exposure to populations living in and around mining areas. This study investigated environmental and toenail metals concentrations of non-occupational human exposure to metals in 39 copper-mining town residents and 47 non-mining town residents in Zambia. Elevated environmental concentrations were found in samples collected from the mining town residents. Toenail concentrations of cobalt (GM 1.39 mg/kg), copper (GM 132 mg/kg), lead (21.41 mg/kg) selenium (GM 0.38 mg/kg) and zinc (GM 113 mg/kg) were significantly higher in the mining area and these metals have previously been associated with copper mining. Residence in the mining area, drinking water, dust and soil metals concentrations were the most important contributors to toenail metals concentrations. Further work is required to establish the specific pathways of exposure and the health risks of elevated metals concentrations in the copper mining area.

  17. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Clinton D; Wilkin, Richard T; Alpers, Charles N; Rye, Robert O; McCleskey, R Blaine

    2007-01-01

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1) preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2) stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2-3 per thousand heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3) reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures. PMID:17956615

  18. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%. PMID:23437664

  19. Distribution of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings dams at Obuasi Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study investigated the issue of gold mine tailings dams as a potential source of arsenic and other trace elements contamination and their dissolution into the adjoining environmental media in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana. One active (Sanso tailings dam and two abandoned (Pompora and Dokyiwa mine tailings dams in Obuasi gold mine site, were selected for the collection and analysis of the tailings. The concentrations of As, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS, Varian Models 240FS. The total concentrations of elements in the mine tailings were up to 1752 mg/kg As, 75.16 wt.% Fe, 1848.12 mg/kg Mn, 92.17 mg/kg Cu and 7850 177.56 mg/kg Zn. Sulfate was the dominant anion throughout the leachate, reaching a maximum dissolved concentration of 58.43 mg/L. The mine tailings were contaminated with much higher concentrations of As and heavy metals than the Netherlands soil protection guideline values. Leaching levels of As were in the range of 0.04–0.56 %, presenting high proportions for the total arsenic content in the mine tailings

  20. Influence of hydrology on heavy metal speciation and mobility in a Pb-Zn mine tailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Elza [Department of Water and Environmental Management, Center of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 10 (Hungary)]. E-mail: ekovacs@gisserver1.date.hu; Dubbin, William E. [Department of Mineralogy, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Tamas, Janos [Department of Water and Environmental Management, Center of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 10 (Hungary)

    2006-05-15

    Among the inorganic toxicants of greatest concern in mine tailings, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and As figure prominently due to their abundance and potential toxicity. Here we report on their biolability and solid-phase speciation in two sediment cores subject to variable hydrological regimes at an abandoned pyritic mine tailing. The oxic conditions of well-drained sediments induced pyrite oxidation and the subsequent liberation of H{sup +}, SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} and considerable quantities of Fe(III), which precipitated as goethite. Solubility of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was closely coupled to pH and goethite presence. Metal lability was particularly low in zones of neutralization, formed by the accumulation of calcite, first carried then deposited by percolating waters in both saturated and unsaturated cores. We conclude that differential hydrology induces variable heavy metal speciation and biolability in Pb-Zn mine tailings, and suggest that site-specific risk assessments must account for past and present hydrological regimes. - Variable hydrology influences heavy metal speciation and mobility, and the formation of neutralization zones, in a Pb-Zn mine tailing.

  1. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct

  2. Mobilization of Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Manganese Mine in the Arid Metropolitan Las Vegas (NV, USA Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Active and abandoned mines may present health risks, especially to children, from environmental exposure to airborne chemical elements, such as Pb, As, and Mn. X-ray fluorescence analysis of tailings at the Three Kids Mine show they contain high levels of: Pb (15,300 mg/kg, As (3690 mg/kg, and Mn (153,000 mg/kg. Soil was sampled along eight transects, radiating from the dried tailings ponds. Concentrations of Mn and Pb to the NE are at background concentrations at 4.8 km, and, As and Sr at 3.2 km from the mine. Going SW to the City of Henderson, all elements are at background at 1.6 cm, with the closest houses at 1.8 km. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn at 0.8 km on all transects except one. The RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn on the NE transects at 1.6 km. Future home sites are on a NE transect between 0.4 km and 2.3 km downwind from the tailings ponds, in an area highly impacted by tailings which exceed the USEPA RSLs. This research demonstrates that there has been the farthest transport of tailings offsite by the prevailing winds to the NE; the closest currently-built homes have not received measurable tailings dust because they are upwind; and that precautions must be taken during the proposed remediation of the mine to restrict dust-transport of Pb, As, and Mn to avoid human exposure and ecological damage.

  3. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

    2012-03-16

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

  4. Development of a low-cost cableless geophone and its application in a micro-seismic survey at an abandoned underground coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-04-01

    Due to the urbanization in China, some building construction sites are planned on areas above abandoned underground mines, which pose a concern for the stability of these sites and a critical need for the use of reliable site investigations. The array-based surface wave method has the potential for conducting large-scale field surveys at areas above underground mines. However, the dense deployment of conventional geophones requires heavy digital cables. On the other hand, the bulky and expensive standard stand-alone seismometers limit the number of stations for the array-based surface wave measurements. Therefore, this study developed a low-cost cableless geophone system for the array-based surface wave survey. A field case study using this novel cableless geophone system was conducted at an abandoned underground mine site in China to validate its functionality.

  5. Field study on the accumulation of trace elements by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Simões, Isabel; Palma, Patrícia; Amaral, Olga; Matos, João Xavier

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of trace elements (TE) by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines, eighteen different small farms were selected near three mines from the Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (São Domingos, Aljustrel and Lousal). Total and bioavailable As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were analyzed in the soils, and the same TE were analyzed in three different vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), collected at the same locations. The soils were contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, since their total concentrations exceeded the considered soil quality guideline values for plant production in the majority of the sampling sites. The maximum total concentrations for those TE were extremely high in some of the sampling sites (e.g. 1,851 mg As kg(-1) in São Domingos, 1,126 mg Cu kg(-1) in Aljustrel, 4,946 mg Pb kg(-1) in São Domingos, and 1,224 mg Zn kg(-1) in Aljustrel). However, the soils were mainly circumneutral, a factor that contributes to their low bioavailable fractions. As a result, generally, the plants contained levels of these elements characteristic of uncontaminated plants, and accumulation factors for all elements risk of Zn entering the human food chain via the consumption of crops produced on those soils. PMID:24252198

  6. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  7. Characterization of a Bacterial Community in an Abandoned Semiarid Lead-Zinc Mine Tailing Site▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Monica O.; Neilson, Julia W; Maier, Raina M.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc mine tailing samples from a semiarid environment with those from a v...

  8. Recent Developments in Microbiological Approaches for Securing Mine Wastes and for Recovering Metals from Mine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barrie Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining of metals and coals generates solid and liquid wastes that are potentially hazardous to the environment. Traditional methods to reduce the production of pollutants from mining and to treat impacted water courses are mostly physico-chemical in nature, though passive remediation of mine waters utilizes reactions that are catalysed by microorganisms. This paper reviews recent advances in biotechnologies that have been proposed both to secure reactive mine tailings and to remediate mine waters. Empirical management of tailings ponds to promote the growth of micro-algae that sustain populations of bacteria that essentially reverse the processes involved in the formation of acid mine drainage has been proposed. Elsewhere, targeted biomineralization has been demonstrated to produce solid products that allow metals present in mine waters to be recovered and recycled, rather than to be disposed of in landfill.

  9. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  10. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  11. 30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH... of final publication Citation/description March 4, 1983 June 24, 1983 Definition of reclamation terms; right of entry; land acquisition, management, and disposition; other policies and procedures....

  12. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH... acquisition, management and disposal of property, and reclamation on private lands. April 25, 1990 August 31..., 1993 June 30, 1994 Eligibility and definition of AML. December 5, 1994 August 15, 1995 Ranking...

  13. Environmental problems in areas contaminated by abandoned mine tailings. Geochemical and mineralogical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanfani, L. [Cagliari Univ., Cagliari (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2000-07-01

    A brochure advertising a recent report on environmental management in the mining sector, devoted to industry operators, relates: Managing the relationships between mining and the environment is an issue that creates a range of technical and social challenges extending far beyond the environmental management requirements of many other industry sectors. The complexity of mining operations and the effect of developments on natural ecosystems and human societies demand increasingly sophisticated procedures to achieve acceptable environmental protection. The environmental impact of mining activity concerns different aspects which can be grouped in two main categories: modifications of the morphology and changes in the chemistry of the environment. They can be considered separately in a methodological study, but when dealing with the generality of the problem at a specific site one must consider carefully their mutual influence in a system that is usually more complex than could appear at a first glance. Only a combined analysis of the two aspects may lead to an evaluation of the present and future impact on quality of life in the surrounding area.

  14. Metals mobility in tailings coming from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of different tailings from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico were carried out, including a tailing from an abandoned dam 20 years ago, a dam in operation and another coming from the mixture of different companies. The three tailings presented alkaline conditions, normal salinity, aerobic environment with oxidative tendency, low humidity, very low capacity of cationic exchange, and absence of organic matter. These conditions restrict the metal mobility. The mineralogical analysis showed that the tailings contained mainly quartz, calcite and magnetite. Tailings coming from the mixture of different companies had greater total concentrations (mg/kg) of Mn (1042.8), Al (12919.8), Fe (23911.3), Cr (71.3), Pb (24.6) and Cu (19.8). The highest concentration of Zn was observed at the abandoned tailing (53.3 mg/kg). No significant concentrations of Cd and Hg were observed, although Pb (24.6 mg/kg) and Cr (71.4 mg/kg) were detected. Leaching tests indicated that metals cannot be leached in percentages higher than 0.1%, and so these tailings do not represent an environmental risk. The low leaching of metals in the studied tailings was consistent with the mineralogical and physicochemical prevailing conditions, the low acid drainage generation potential and the high degree of stability observed in the tests of metals fractionation. The mineralogical characteristics were determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  15. On the metal tolerance and resilience capacity of Helichrysum italicum G. Don growing on mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleci, Laura; Tani, Corrado; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effects of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of Helichrysum italicum growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; to highlight morphological modifications at anatomical and cytological level; to ascertain the plant tolerance to heavy metals, and their resilience capacity. Wild specimens of Helichrysum italicum, with their soil clod, were gathered from sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Niccioleta mine (Tuscany, Italy). Plants were brought to the botanical laboratory of the University of Florence, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. In particular, the secreting trichomes, which are responsible for the characteristic flavour of the plant, present a different morphology in the polluted specimens with respect to the not-polluted ones. Indeed, the latter present the typical trichomes of the Asteraceae family, with two lines of cells bearing the secretion accumulated on the apical cuticular space. Trichomes of the polluted plants, instead, present a completely different morphology, with a stalk of 3-4 cells and a large secreting apical cell (i.e. they are capitate hairs). Samples from contaminated sites, moreover, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor

  16. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc

  17. Hydrogeochemical observations to improve site characterisation and remediation of Frongoch Mine, Wales

    OpenAIRE

    B. Palumbo-Roe; Bearcock, J.; Banks, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report, commissioned by the Environmental Agency, presents a review of the hydrogeochemistry of the Frongoch Mine, an abandoned metal mine 17 km south east of Aberystwyth, Ceridigion, mid Wales. The mine produced lead and zinc ore from 1798 until its closure in 1904. The abandoned mine spoils and mine adit discharges cause severe adverse impacts on the receiving watercourses, the major contaminants being Zn and Pb. The main objectives of the study were to: 1. Present EA...

  18. 对某废弃铀矿山辐射环境的调查分析%Investigation of the Radiation Environment in an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中平; 李雯; 吴振宇; 牛君宇

    2012-01-01

    Through measurement of surface radiation dose rate, and exhalation rate of 222Rn,concentrations of radon and its daughters in the air and natural radionuclides contents in the soil and waterbody aimed at an abandoned uranium mine in our country,this paper investigated and analyzed the current situation of the radiation environment of the mine. The results showed that the abandoned uranium mine has been exposed to radioactive contamination. Among these mine, high-level radioactive 1# mine sites and tailing piles have been the main radioactive pollution sources of mining area and we should take remediation measures. Other regional radioactivity was lower and did not exceed the national limits.%通过对我国某废弃铀矿山地表贯穿辐射剂量率、222Rn析出率、空气中氡及其子体浓度、土壤和水体中天然放射性核素含量的监测,调查和分析了矿山辐射环境现状.结果表明,该废弃铀矿山已受到放射性污染.其中,1#矿点和尾矿堆放射性水平较高,是矿区主要放射性污染源项,应采取整治措施.其他区域放射性较低,未超过国家基本限值.

  19. Characterization of a bacterial community in an abandoned semiarid lead-zinc mine tailing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Monica O; Neilson, Julia W; Maier, Raina M

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc mine tailing samples from a semiarid environment with those from a vegetated off-site (OS) control sample (pH 8). Phylotype richness in these communities decreased from 42 in the OS control to 24 in the moderately acidic samples and 8 in the extremely acidic tailing samples. The clones in the extremely acidic tailing sample were most closely related to acidophiles, none of which were detected in the OS control sample. The comparison generated by this study between the bacteria present in extremely acidic tailing and that in moderately acidic tailing communities with those in an OS control soil provides a reference point from which to evaluate the successful restoration of mine tailing disposal sites by phytostabilization.

  20. Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metal Pollution from Solid Waste in the Tongling Mines, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaochun; XIE Qiaoqin; CHEN Fang; WANG Jun; WU Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Based on investigation of the characteristics of solid waste of two different mines, the Fenghuangshan copper mine and the Xinqiao pyrite mine in Tongling, Anhui province in central-east China, the possibility and the differences of acid mine drainage (AMD) of the tailings and the waste rocks are discussed, and the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the mine solid waste are also studied. The Fenghuangshan copper mine hardly produces AMD, whereas the Xinqiao pyrite mine does and there are also differences in the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the tailings. For the former, toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg exist mostly in the slag mode, as compared to the latter, where the dcoxidization mode has a much higher content, indicating that large amounts minerals in the waste rocks have begun to oxidize at the earth surface. AMD is proved to promote the migration and spread of the heavy metals in mining waste rocks and lead to environmental pollution of the surroundings of the mine area.

  1. Unexpected Consequences: Gold Mining in Peru and Trace Metal Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. Z.; Pinedo-Gonzalez, P.; Clark, K. E.; West, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal miners in the Peruvian Amazon, especially in the Madre de Dios region, are targeting fluvial deposits along riverbanks as part of a modern-day gold rush. These miners often use mercury, causing Hg pollution and ecological damage. Research on the environmental consequences of these mines has focused primarily on the fate of Hg, and to date little work has considered whether mining river sediments affects the release and cycling of other trace metals. This project measures trace metal concentrations in soil and vegetation samples developed on fluvial sediments at one mine site and two non-mine (control) sites across gradients in natural plant succession and riverbank composition. Some metals, including Pb and Mo, showed leachable metal concentrations (determined using EPA Method 2050B and ICP-MS analysis) that were lower in mine site soils than control site soils, but higher in mine site vegetation than control site vegetation. These results held across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. This suggests that metals may be preferentially mobilized from the soil and taken up by surrounding vegetation as a result of mining activities. Soils were also treated with a sequential leach to separate metals that are exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe and Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and in the residual phase. Initial data shows that trace metal concentrations are generally lower in all phases from mine soils vs. control soils, across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. Trace metal mobilization due to mining is facilitated by changing pH or redox conditions - e.g., by exposing buried minerals to water and oxygen. Fluvial sediments at these studied sites were already exposed during their erosion and transport, but anoxic conditions following deposition may allow a build-up of metals that are mobilized once sediments are re-worked by mining. It is also possible that Hg affects the mobility of other

  2. [Human health risk assessment of an abandoned metal smelter site in Shenyang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lei; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Chen, Su; Cui, Shuang

    2007-08-01

    Based on the investigation of heavy metal pollutions on an abandoned metal smelter site in Shenyang, and by using the United States Environmental Protection Agency methodologies for human health risk assessment, the human health risk of the polluted soil on the study site was assessed. For the defined future land use patterns, the industrial (I) and recreational (II) exposure scenarios were assumed and evaluated. The combined hazard index for all the contaminants of potential concern was 2.65 x 10(-2) for Scenario I and 3.67 x 10(-2) for Scenario II. Regarding the potential carcinogenic risk associated with inhalation route, only cadmium was a contributor, with the risk of 4.48 x 10(-9) and 7.30 x 10(-10) for Scenario I and Scenario II, respectively. The hazard indices were less than a unit, and the carcinogenic health risk was negligible. The potential health risks of the study site (for both industrial and recreational scenarios) were mainly associated with the exposure to copper. The risk-based remedial goals calculated for the industrial scenario were lower than the environment quality risk assessment criteria for soil at the manufacturing facilities of China. PMID:17974249

  3. Landfill mining: Case study of a successful metals recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P; Raymond, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing and landfills continue to be the dominant method for managing solid waste. Because of inadequate diversion of reusable and recoverable materials, MSW landfills continue to receive significant quantities of recyclable materials, especially metals. The economic value of landfilled metals is significant, fostering interest worldwide in recovering the landfilled metals through mining. However, economically viable landfill mining for metals has been elusive due to multiple barriers including technological challenges and high costs of processing waste. The objective of this article is to present a case study of an economically successful landfill mining operation specifically to recover metals. The mining operation was at an ashfill, which serves a MSW waste-to-energy facility. Landfill mining operations began in November 2011. Between December 2011 and March 2015, 34,352 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metals were recovered and shipped for recycling, which consisted of metals >125 mm (5.2%), 50-125 mm (85.9%), <50mm (3.4%), zorba (4.6%), and mixed products (0.8%). The conservative estimated value of the recovered metal was $7.42 million. Mining also increased the landfill's airspace by 10,194 m(3) extending the life of the ashfill with an estimated economic value of $267,000. The estimated per-Mt cost for the extraction of metal was $158. This case study demonstrates that ashfills can be profitably mined for metals without financial support from government. Although there are comparatively few ashfills, the results and experience obtained from this case study can help foster further research into the potential recovery of metals from raw, landfilled MSW. PMID:26152366

  4. Assessment of radiation exposure around abandoned uranium mining area of Stara planina Mt., Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the health and radiation hazard due to external irradiation from terrestrial radionuclides in the Stara planina Mt. region, which is important because of past uranium mining activities on the mountain. Soil samples were collected inside the flotation processing facilities, their surroundings and more distant locations, i.e. from areas considered certainly affected, potentially affected, and unaffected by former mining and uranium ore processing activities. The radiological and health risk assessments were done by calculating the six main parameters, based on the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Increased values of the risk parameters were observed only for sites where uranium ore was processed, while the location surrounding these compounds showed values that are usual for this mountain or slightly above them. Calculations of the risk parameters for the background area showed no radiation risk for the local and seasonal population. The presence of U and Th was detected in all water samples from creeks surrounding the facilities, but only in the water from the facility drainage pipe did their concentration exceed the limits given for the uranium content in drinking water. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study fall within the range of values in similar studies conducted worldwide and are below the values which can cause a significant radiation hazard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009 i br. III41005

  5. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeongyu Lee; Yosoon Choi; Jangwon Suh; Seung-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such st...

  6. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  7. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  8. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  9. Diversity of arsenite transporters of the abandoned Uranium mine in Urgeiriça

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, Rui

    2013-01-01

    O arsénio é um metal amplamente disseminado na crusta terrestre. Os microrganismos coexistem com este metal há milhões de anos. Este facto motivou o aparecimento de determinantes de resistência a arsénio que estão agora disseminados nas populações microbianas. Estes determinantes podem estar inseridos no DNA cromossómico ou em plasmídeos. Para estudar a existência e diversidade de determinantes genéticos de resistência ao arsénio na população microbiana de 8 locais diferentes nas minas abando...

  10. Characterization and resource recovery potential of precipitates associated with abandoned coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairies, C.L.; Watzlaf, G.R.; Hedin, R.S.; Capo, R.C. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science

    2001-07-01

    Sludge samples from untreated and passively treated coal mine drainage discharges were characterized using NAA, ICP-AES, XRD and SEM. Iron content ranges from 25 to 68 dry wt%, and goethite is the dominant mineral (40-90 dry wt%). The majority of particles have a spiky spherical morphology (0.5-2.0 {mu}m diameter). Within several passive treatment systems, iron content remains relatively constant, and concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni and Zn increase, while As concentration decrease. Initial findings indicate that some sludges are suitable for industrial and manufacturing uses although high concentrations of trace elements such as As may prevent use in cosmetics or foods. These associations could be related to the depositional environment of the coal seam from which the discharge originates. Subsurface cation exchange and sorption processes can influence the trace elements that accumulate in the sludge. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of arsenic in an abandoned mine tailings of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joo Sung; Park, Young Seog; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-04-01

    The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of As solid phases in arsenic-rich mine tailings from the Nakdong As-Bi mine in Korea was investigated. The tailings generated from the ore roasting process contained 4.36% of As whereas the concentration was up to 20.2% in some tailings from the cyanidation process for the Au extraction. Thin indurated layers and other secondary precipitates had formed at the surfaces of the tailings piles and the As contents of the hardened layers varied from 2.87 to 16.0%. Scorodite and iron arsenate (Fe3AsO7) were the primary As-bearing crystalline minerals. Others such as arsenolamprite, bernardite and titanium oxide arsenate were also found. The amorphous As-Fe phases often showed framboidal aggregates and gel type textures with desiccation cracks. Sequential extraction results also showed that 55.7-91.1% of the As in tailings were NH(4)-oxalate extractable As, further confirmed the predominance of amorphous As-Fe solid phases. When the tailings were equilibrated with de-ionized water, the solution exhibited extremely acidic conditions (pH 2.01-3.10) and high concentrations of dissolved As (up to 29.5 mg L(-1)), indicating high potentials for As to be released during rainfall events. The downstream water was affected by drainage from tailings and contained 12.7-522 microg L(-1) of As. The amorphous As-Fe phases in tailings have not entirely been stabilized through the long term natural weathering processes. To remediate the environmental harms they had caused, anthropogenic interventions to stabilize or immobilize As in the tailings pile should be explored. PMID:16003582

  12. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM MINE SOILS USING HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Ruiz Fernández, Juan; Masaguer Rodríguez, Alberto; Moliner Aramendia, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmental-friendly and cost-effective technology that uses metal hyperaccumulator plants to remove heavy metals from soils. The metals are absorbed by the roots, transported and accumulated in the aerial parts of the plants, which can be harvested and eliminated. The aim of this work was to study some hyperaccumulator species that could be useful to decontaminate mine soils and also to investigate the bioavailability and uptake of these metals by plants with the addi...

  13. EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Williams Grimes

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a

  14. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  15. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Abandoned Uranium Mines in the Navajo Nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial radiological surveys of forty-one geographical areas in the Navajo Nation were conducted during the period of October 1994 through October 1999. The surveys were conducted at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 and were performed by personnel of the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) located in Las Vegas, Nevada, a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office. The aerial survey and subsequent processing characterized the overall radioactivity levels and excess bismuth 214 activity (indicator of uranium ore deposits and/or uranium mines) within the surveyed areas. A total of 772,000 aerial gamma spectra and associated position parameters were obtained and analyzed during the multi-year operation. The survey determined that only 15 square miles (39 square kilometers) of the 1,144 square miles (2,963 square kilometers) surveyed (approximately 1.3 %) had excess bismuth indications above the minimum reportable activity, thus reducing the area requiring further investigation by a nominal factor of 76. Radiation contour data files, produced by RSL, were converted to Geographic Information System-compatible digital files and provided to EPA and EPA contractors for inclusion in numerous reports and graphics products

  16. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Plants on Mn Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-Guo; ZHANG Hui-Zhi; ZENG Guang-Ming; HUANG Bao-Rong; LI Xin

    2006-01-01

    The Xiangtan Manganese (Mn) Mine in the middle of Hunan Province, China, has been mined since 1913 with mine tailings including excavated wastes, wastewater, and smelting wastes. A survey was conducted on the Mn mine tailing soils and eight plants on the Mn mine tailings. The concentrations of soil Mn, Pb, and Cd and the metal-enrichment traits of these eight plants were analyzed simultaneously. Exceptionally high concentrations of these three metals were found in the soils, especially on the tailing dam. Each plant investigated in this study accumulated the three heavy metals, but no hyperaccumulator of these metals was found. However, analysis indicated that Poa pratensis Linn., Gnaphalium affine D. Don, Pteris vittata L., CoRyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. possessed specially good metalenrichment and metal-tolerant traits. P. pratensis, G. affine, and P. vittata were Pb-tolerant plants; and C. canadensis,P. pratensis, and G. affine were Cd-tolerant plants. P. acinosa had a great tolerance to Mn, and it was a valuable plant for on-site phytoremediation. Phragmites communis Trin. was found to have high metal tolerance and economic benefit as a raw material for paper and should be considered for soil remediation. G. affine and C. canadensis had excessive accumulation of Mn and could be useful in phytoremediation. However, although P. pratensis was a good accumulator,it was not a suitable plant for soil remediation because its biomass was too little.

  17. 铜陵重金属富集的尾矿废弃地酸性废水中细菌及古菌的多样性%Archaeal and bacterial communities in acid mine drainage from metal-rich abandoned tailing ponds, Tongling, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 李杨; 孙庆业

    2014-01-01

    To expand knowledge on microbial communities of various metal-rich levels of mine drainage environments in Anhui province, China, the archaeal and bacterial diversities were examined using a PCR-based cloning approach. Eight acid mine water samples were collected from five areas in Tongling. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacteria mainly fell into ten divisions, which wereBetaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Nitrospira, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi.Archaea fell into three phylogenetic divisions,Thermoplasma, FerroplasmaandThermogymnomonas. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on the microbial communities’ compositions revealed that five samples shared similarity with the dominance ofMeiothermus and Thermomonas. Two samples had the preponderant existence ofAcidithiobacillus andLeptospirillum. The remaining sample owned higher microbial communities’ diversity with the Shannon-WeaverH up to 2.91. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that microbial community structures had great association with pH and the concentration of Hg2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cl-, SO42-in water.%为了加深对安徽省铜陵市不同重金属富集程度的尾矿附近酸性废水中微生物多样性的了解,运用PCR-16S rDNA克隆文库技术对酸性废水中细菌及古菌的群落结构进行研究。在铜陵的5个样点采集了8个水样。系统发育分析结果表明,酸性废水中的细菌主要是Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Nitrospira, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi,古菌是Thermoplasma, Ferroplasma 以及Thermogymnomonas。根据细菌和古菌的组成对样品进行聚类分析,结果表明,5个样品由于优势菌株 Thermomonas 和 Meiothermus 拥有较高的相似度。2个样品由于 Acidithiobacillus

  18. Mercury dispersion in soils of an abandoned lead-zinc-silver mine, San Quintín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José Maria; Martín-Crespo, T.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Monescillo, C. I.; Lorenzo, S.; Higueras, P.

    2010-05-01

    The mine considered on this work, namely San Quintín, is a filonian field with hydrothermal ores exploited during almost fifty years (1887-1934), producing 550.000Tm of galena, 550Tm of silver and 5.000 of sphalerite. Some rewashing works of tailings muds was achieved in recent times (1973-1985), including flotation tests of cinnabar ore from Almadén mines. The main problems remaining on the site are an active acid mine drainage (with pH ~ 2) and heavy metal dispersion on soils including gaseous mercury emissions. We present here results of a survey including soils sampling with mercury analysis and other pedological parameters, as well as determinations of mercury inmission in the atmosphere, using a common sampling grid. Analysis of soils samples has been carried out using an atomic absorption spectrometer AMA254, while air determinations were made by the same technique, using a Lumex RA-915+. The maps have been obtained by means of SURFER 8 software, as well as by ArcGIS software, and puts forward dispersion of mercury from cinnabar ore dump (108 ?g×g-1) to nearby soils (0.3 ?g×g-1 at 700 m of distance). The dispersion of mercury vapor exceed WHO level for chronic exposure (200 ng×m-3) in a small area (250 meters from cinnabar dump).

  19. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Potential risk assessment in stream sediments, soils and waters after remediation in an abandoned W>Sn mine (NE Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Gomes, M E P; Neiva, A M R; Carvalho, P C S; Santos, A C T

    2016-11-01

    The mining complex of Murçós belongs to the Terras de Cavaleiros Geopark, located in Trás-os-Montes region, northeast Portugal. A stockwork of NW-SE-trending W>Sn quartz veins intruded Silurian metamorphic rocks and a Variscan biotite granite. The mineralized veins contain mainly quartz, cassiterite, wolframite, scheelite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, rare pyrrhotite, stannite, native bismuth and also later bismuthinite, matildite, joseite, roosveltite, anglesite, scorodite, zavaritskite and covellite. The exploitation produced 335t of a concentrate with 70% of W and 150t of another concentrate with 70% of Sn between 1948 and 1976. The exploitation took place mainly in four open pit mines as well as underground. Three lakes were left in the area. Remediation processes of confination and control of tailings and rejected materials and phytoremediation with macrophytes from three lakes were carried out between 2005 and 2007. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected in 2008 and 2009, after the remediation process. Most stream sediments showed deficiency or minimum enrichment for metals. The sequential enrichment factor in stream sediments W>Bi>As>U>Cd>Sn=Ag>Cu>Sb>Pb>Be>Zn is mainly associated with the W>Sn mineralizations. Stream sediments receiving drainage of a mine dump were found to be significantly to extremely enriched with W, while stream sediments and soils were found to be contaminated with As. Two soil samples collected around mine dumps and an open pit lake were also found to be contaminated with U. The waters from the Murçós W>Sn mine area were acidic to neutral. After the remediation, the surface waters were contaminated with F(-), Al, As, Mn and Ni and must not be used for human consumption, while open pit lake waters must also not be used for agriculture because of contamination with F(-), Al, Mn and Ni. In most waters, the As occurred as As (III), which is toxic and is easily mobilized in the drainage

  1. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  2. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  3. Mining Critical Metals and Elements from Seawater: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S; Kotte, Madhusudhana Rao; Cho, Manki

    2015-08-18

    The availability and sustainable supply of technology metals and valuable elements is critical to the global economy. There is a growing realization that the development and deployment of the clean energy technologies and sustainable products and manufacturing industries of the 21st century will require large amounts of critical metals and valuable elements including rare-earth elements (REEs), platinum group metals (PGMs), lithium, copper, cobalt, silver, and gold. Advances in industrial ecology, water purification, and resource recovery have established that seawater is an important and largely untapped source of technology metals and valuable elements. This feature article discusses the opportunities and challenges of mining critical metals and elements from seawater. We highlight recent advances and provide an outlook of the future of metal mining and resource recovery from seawater. PMID:25894365

  4. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  5. Use of Strontium Isotopes to Quantify Interaction of Water With Coal Combustion Byproducts in an Abandoned, Partially Grouted Coal Mine, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, B. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Kim, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia, was actively mined until the late 1980s. Subsequently, water filled the mine void and acid discharges developed along the mine perimeter. The mine was partially grouted in 1998 by injecting coal combustion byproducts (CCB) mixed with cement in an attempt to reduce the acid discharge and stabilize the ground surface. Discharge continued after grouting, including from the grouted portions of the mine. In this study, discharge chemistry and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CCB material used to grout the abandoned mine. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. In general, the major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include potassium and arsenic, both of which were elevated in the waters that interacted with CCB grout. In contrast, strontium isotope ratios were capable of delineating discharges that were clearly from grouted portions of the mine vs. those that were derived from non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7151 to 0.7159, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.7140 to 0.7146. The water treatment system inlet, which receives both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotope ratios. Leaching experiments on CCB grout, coal, and surrounding floor and roof rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their strontium from the CCB grout material, suggesting that leaching of CCB is a significant contributor to discharge chemistry.

  6. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M

  7. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undistributed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (> 4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine

  8. Heavy metal pollution at mine sites: Rehabilitation of Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects from release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment are briefly described. The importance of bacterial leaching in pyritic waste heaps is noted, together with current research at a mine site in Australia. The operational history and waste management practices at the former uranium mine site at Rum Jungle leading to a sustained annual input of heavy metals into the Finniss River are discussed. The objectives and measures adopted for physical rehabilitation of the Rum Jungle site, completed in June 1986 at a cost of about $A16 million (1982 $), are outlined. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Selected Metals in Sediments and Streams in the Oklahoma Part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2009-01-01

    The abandoned Tri-State mining district includes 1,188 square miles in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri. The most productive part of the Tri-State mining district was the 40-square mile part in Oklahoma, commonly referred to as 'the Picher mining district' in north-central Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district was a primary producing area of lead and zinc in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sulfide minerals of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that remained in flooded underground mine workings and in mine tailings on the land surface oxidized and dissolved with time, forming a variety of oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate metallic minerals on the land surface and in streams that drain the district. Metals in water and sediments in streams draining the mining district can potentially impair the habitat and health of many forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Lakebed, streambed and floodplain sediments and/or stream water were sampled at 30 sites in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality from 2000 to 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Quapaw and Seneca-Cayuga Tribes of Oklahoma. Aluminum and iron concentrations of several thousand milligrams per kilogram were measured in sediments collected from the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. Manganese and zinc concentrations in those sediments were several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Lead and cadmium concentrations in those sediments were about 10 percent and 0.1 percent of zinc concentrations, respectively. Sediment cores collected in a transect across the floodplain of Tar Creek near Miami, Oklahoma, in 2004 had similar or greater concentrations of those metals than sediment cores collected at the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. The greatest concentrations of

  10. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  11. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-03-30

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data.

  12. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  13. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongyu Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable. Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data.

  14. Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned mining sites contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals. The form in which a metal exists strongly influences its mobility and, thus, the effects on the environment. Operational methods of speciation analysis, such as the use of sequential extraction procedures, are commonly applied. In this work, the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR (now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in mining wastes from old Pb-Zn mining areas located in the Val d'Aran (NE Spain) and Cartagena (SE Spain). Analyses of the extracts were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material, BCR-701. The results of the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilised forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, particularly in the sample from Cartagena. In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions. On the other hand, the applicability of lixiviation tests commonly used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from landfill disposal (US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and DIN 38414-S4) to mining wastes was also investigated and the obtained results compared with the information on metal mobility derivable from the application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure

  15. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    [1]Gillmore, G. K., Grattan, J., Pyatt, F. B. et al., Radon, water and abandoned metalliferous mines in the UK: Environmental and Human Health Implications, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 65-76.[2]GB/T 16146-1995, Standards for Controlling Radon Concentration in Dwellings (in Chinese).[3]Kinze, M., Dose limits and maximum concentration limits (MCL's) for radionuclides--Implication on remediation of uranium mining and milling facilities in Saxony Germany, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 1-7.[4]Xu, L. C., Wang, Y. X., Environmental issues and remedial actions of the abandoned Lincang uranium mine in China, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 709-718.[5]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 70.[6]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 23-26.[7]Xu, L. C., Dai, X., Tan, T. et al., Environment Impact Report on Environmental Treatment Engineering of Decommissioning Lincang Uranium Mine (Feasibility studies stages) ( in Chinese), 1999.[8]Zhang Zhihui, Measurement Methods of Radon and Its Daughters in

  16. Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Enio, E-mail: enniobg@gmail.com [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Fontúrbel, Francisco E. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Herbas, Cristian [Instituto IGEMA, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L. [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Berlin School of Public Health, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Gardon, Jacques [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, HSM, Montpellier (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mining industries are known for causing strong environmental contamination. In most developing countries, the management of mining wastes is not adequate, usually contaminating soil, water and air. This situation is a source of concern for human settlements located near mining centers, especially for vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of the metallic concentrations between household dust and children hair, comparing these associations in two different contamination contexts: a mining district and a suburban non-mining area. We collected 113 hair samples from children between 7 and 12 years of age in elementary schools in the mining city of Oruro, Bolivia. We collected 97 indoor dust samples from their households, as well as information about the children's behavior. Analyses of hair and dust samples were conducted to measure As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Cu and Zn contents. In the mining district, there were significant correlations between non-essential metallic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn) in dust and hair, but not for essential elements (Cu and Zn), which remained after adjusting for children habits. Children who played with dirt had higher dust-hair correlations for Pb, Sb, and Cu (P = 0.006; 0.022 and 0.001 respectively) and children who put hands or toys in their mouths had higher dust-hair correlations of Cd (P = 0.011). On the contrary, in the suburban area, no significant correlations were found between metallic elements in dust and children hair and neither children behavior nor gender modified this lack of associations. Our results suggest that, in a context of high metallic contamination, indoor dust becomes an important exposure pathway for children, modulated by their playing behavior. - Highlights: • Mining activities are an important source of environmental pollution. • Mining pollution contaminated also indoor homes, creating a risk to population. • Indoor dust and hair concentrations

  17. Mining for metals in society's waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals are crucial to society and enable our modern standard of living. Look around and you can't help but see products made of metals. For instance, a typical gasoline-powered automobile contains over a ton of iron and steel, 240 pounds of aluminum, 42 pounds of copper, 41 pounds of silicon, 22 pounds of zinc and more than 30 other mineral commodities including titanium, platinum and gold.

  18. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten Leopold; Boguslaw Michalik; Jens Wiegand [University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial 226Ra content, 228Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4}) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  19. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, Karsten [University Duisburg-Essen, Geology Department, Universitaetsstrasse 5, D-45117 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: karsten.leopold@uni-due.de; Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Laboratory of Radiometry, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: b.michalik@gig.katowice.pl; Wiegand, Jens [University of Wuerzburg, Geological Institute, Pleicherwall 1, D-97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)]. E-mail: jens.wiegand@geologie.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2007-05-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial {sup 226}Ra content, {sup 228}Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO{sub 4}) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  20. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten Leopold; Boguslaw Michalik; Jens Wiegand [University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Geology Department

    2007-05-15

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial {sup 226}Ra content, {sup 228}Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  1. Metals mobility in tailings coming from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico; Movilidad de metales en jales procedentes del distrito minero de Guanajuato, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos G, M.; Avelar, J.; Yamamoto, L.; Ramirez, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Departamento de Fisiologia y Farmacologia, Laboratorio de Estudios Ambientales, Av. Universidad No. 904, Ciudad Universitaria, 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Medel R, A.; Godinez, L.; Rodriguez, F. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Subdireccion de Investigacion, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfadila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Guerra, R., E-mail: frodriguez@cideteq.mx [Centro de Innovacion Aplicada en Tecnologias Competitivas, A. C., Direccion de Investigacion, Omega No. 201, Fracc. Industrial Delta, 37545 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of different tailings from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico were carried out, including a tailing from an abandoned dam 20 years ago, a dam in operation and another coming from the mixture of different companies. The three tailings presented alkaline conditions, normal salinity, aerobic environment with oxidative tendency, low humidity, very low capacity of cationic exchange, and absence of organic matter. These conditions restrict the metal mobility. The mineralogical analysis showed that the tailings contained mainly quartz, calcite and magnetite. Tailings coming from the mixture of different companies had greater total concentrations (mg/kg) of Mn (1042.8), Al (12919.8), Fe (23911.3), Cr (71.3), Pb (24.6) and Cu (19.8). The highest concentration of Zn was observed at the abandoned tailing (53.3 mg/kg). No significant concentrations of Cd and Hg were observed, although Pb (24.6 mg/kg) and Cr (71.4 mg/kg) were detected. Leaching tests indicated that metals cannot be leached in percentages higher than 0.1%, and so these tailings do not represent an environmental risk. The low leaching of metals in the studied tailings was consistent with the mineralogical and physicochemical prevailing conditions, the low acid drainage generation potential and the high degree of stability observed in the tests of metals fractionation. The mineralogical characteristics were determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  2. Instability identification on large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine based on the improved FRBFNN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhouquan; Zuo Hongyan; Jia Nan; Wang Yiwei

    2013-01-01

    To identify the instability on large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine effectively, the parameters of radial basis function were determined through clustering method and the improved fuzzy radial basis function neural network (FRBFNN) model of instability identification model about large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine was built. The improved FRBFNN model was trained and tested. The results show that the improved FRBFNN model has high training accuracy and generalization ability. Parameters such as pillar area ratio, filling level and the value of rock quality designation have strong influence on instability of large scale underground mined-out area. Correctness of analysis about the improved FRBFNN model was proved by the practical application results about instability discrimi-nation of surrounding rock in large-scale underground mined-out area of a metal mine in south China.

  3. Metals in boat paint fragments from slipways, repair facilities and abandoned vessels: an evaluation using field portable XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Rees, Aldous B; Gkiokas, Dimitrios; Solman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Paint flaking off abandoned vessels or generated during boat repair is hazardous to human health and wildlife. In this study, a means of screening paint fragments using a field portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer is described. The technique is capable of delivering rapid, surficial measurements of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn down to concentrations less than 150 μg g(-1), and Sn and Cr to concentrations of a few hundred μg g(-1). Application of the technique to fragments collected from slipways, yards, hardstandings, abandoned boats and ships undergoing maintenance throughout the EU reveal highly variable concentrations of metals among samples from the same environment or from the same region of a given boat; in many cases, variability is also evident in different areas or on different surfaces of the same fragment. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of substances that have been restricted or banned (e.g. Sn, an indicator of organotin, and up to concentrations of 40,000 μg g(-1), and Pb up to concentrations of 200,000 μg g(-1)). Although FP-XRF can rapidly screen samples whose composition and origin are unknown and can assist in instantaneous decision making, a full risk assessment will rely on additional analyses of the precise species (including organo-forms) of the metals present. PMID:25281117

  4. 3D numerical analyses for the quantitative risk assessment of subsidence and water flood due to the partial collapse of an abandoned gypsum mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanza, R.; Orlandi, G. M.; di Prisco, C.; Frigerio, G.; Flessati, L.; Fernandez Merodo, J. A.; Agliardi, F.; Grisi, S.; Crosta, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    After the abandonment occurred in the '70s, the mining system (rooms and pillars) located in S. Lazzaro di Savena (BO, Italy), grown on three levels with the method rooms and pillars, has been progressively more and more affected by degradation processes due to water infiltration. The mine is located underneath a residential area causing significant concern to the local municipality. On the basis of in situ surveys, laboratory and in situ geomechanical tests, some critical scenarios were adopted in the analyses to simulate the progressive collapse of pillars and of roofs in the most critical sectors of the mine. A first set of numerical analyses using 3D geotechnical FEM codes were performed to predict the extension of the subsidence area and its interaction with buildings. Secondly 3D CFD analyses were used to evaluated the amount of water that could be eventually ejected outside the mine and eventually flooding the downstream village. The predicted extension of the subsidence area together with the predicted amount of the ejected water have been used to design possible remedial measurements.

  5. Multivariate analysis combined with GIS to source identification of heavy metals in soils around an abandoned industrial area, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Feng, Ke; Pei, Zongping; Meng, Fang; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metals in soils polluted by industrial production are a meaningful topic worldwide. The purpose of this study is to understand the pollution status and spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils. The result can help decision-makers apportion possible soil heavy metals sources and formulate effective pollution control policies. In this paper, 155 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni) from an abandoned industrial area of Tong County, located in Jiangsu Province of Eastern China. The multivariate analysis (including I(geo), Ei/RI, EF, PCA, and CA) and geostatistics (GIS) were used to assess the enrichment level and pollution level of soil heavy metals and identify their sources. The results indicated that eight heavy metals in soils had moderate variations, with CVs ranging from 19.63 to 63.34%. The pollution level of I(geo) of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd~Zn > Cu > Hg~As~Pb~Cr~Ni. The enrichment level of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd > Zn > Hg > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Cr. According to the Ei, except Cd and Hg were in the significant and moderate ecological risk levels respectively, other soil heavy metals were in the clean or light ecological risk levels, the level of potential ecological risk (RI) of the whole industrial area was moderate. Finally, the source identification of soil heavy metals indicated that Cd and Zn were primarily controlled by human activities, and Hg and Cu were controlled by natural and anthropogenic sources, and As, Pb, Cr, and Ni were mainly controlled by soil parent materials. PMID:26676236

  6. Mining Waste Classification and Quantity of Non-Metal Minesin Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Burger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is an important human activity that creates wealth and supplies materials for maintaining standard of living and further human development. However, mining has also negative impacts on the environment and society. One of them is the production of mining waste throughout the entire mining cycle, in particular in the mine development and operation /production stage.Due to the EU Directive 2006/21/EC on the management of waste from the extractive industries and its implementation in Member state, estimation on quality and quantity of mining waste from active non-metal mines in Slovenia was carried out. In the selected mines mining and processing was closely examined. With material flow analysis quantity and characteristics of mining waste were defined for several mines of different commodities.Data on mining waste were afterwards generalized in order to get an overall country evaluation on mining waste “production” of non-metal mines.Mining waste as a result of mining and beneficiation processes in non-metal mines of Slovenia is either inert or non-hazardous. Most of the mining waste is used for mine reclamation running simultaneously with the production phase. The largest amounts of mining waste per unit produced are created in dimension stone industry. Since the dimensionstone production is small, the waste amount is negligible. Large quantities of mining waste are produced in crushed stone and, sand and gravel operations, because aggregate production is pretty large with regard to other non-metals production in Slovenia. We can therefore conclude that large quantities of mining waste from non-metal mines, which are mostly used in reclamation and for side products, do not represent danger to the environment.

  7. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  8. Surface deformation induced by water influx in the abandoned coal mines in Limburg, The Netherlands observed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro Cuenca, Miguel; Hooper, Andrew J.; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2013-01-01

    The coal reserves of Limburg, The Netherlands, have been exploited until the mid-1970's, leading to significant land subsidence, a large part of which was due to ground water pumping associated with the mining activities. In 1994, when also the hydrologically-connected neighboring German mining activities ceased, all pumps were finally dismantled. This resulted in rising groundwater levels in the mining areas, continuing until today. Here we report the detection and analysis of heterogeneous surface displacements in the area using satellite radar interferometry. The lack of adequate terrestrial geodetic measurements emphasizes the value of such satellite observations, especially in terms of the temporal and spatial characterization of the signal. Since the lack of direct mine water level measurements hampers predictions on future consequences at the surface, we study the relationship between surface deformation and sub-surface water levels in an attempt to provide rough correlation estimates and map the mine water dynamics.

  9. Effects of a small-scale, abandoned gold mine on the geochemistry of fine stream-bed and floodplain sediments in the Horsefly River watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Deirdre E.; Vogels, Marjolein; van der Perk, Marcel; Owens, Philip N.; Petticrew, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Mining is known to be a major source of metal contamination for fluvial systems worldwide. Monitoring and understanding the effects on downstream water and sediment quality is essential for its management and to mitigate against detrimental environmental impacts. This study aimed to examine the effe

  10. Sequential chemical extraction of heavy metals in a study of the chemical alteration of mine tailings at Ticapampa (Huaraz, Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper reaches of the Rio Santa (Huaraz, Peru) are highly affected by the mining activities of generally small and very small mining companies located in two specific areas, Cordillera Blanca, and Cordillera Negra, with the largest mining claims located in the districts of Recuay and Ticapampa. To assess the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the abandoned tailings pond belonging to the Alianza mining company in the district of Ticapampa, and to identify the fractions to which they are associated we applied a sequential chemical extraction. The results were compared with studies into their mineralogical characterization, a quantitative chemical analysis and a determination of potential acidity and potential neutralization by the ABA (acid-base accounting) method applied to samples of tailings. The sequential extraction procedure confirmed the mode of general alteration observed in the area through mineralogical studies: a relatively easy mobility of Pb, and Cd, and considerable immobility with regard to Ag, Cr and Co, as well as an intermediate mobility of Cu, Zn, and As. Significant cadmium and lead contents found in the most mobile fractions of the tailings may represent an environmental threat, bearing in mind the toxic nature of these elements. Despite the low mobility of arsenic, the total quantities of this element are so high that the waters of the Rio Santa are being affected. (Author) 22 refs.

  11. Fate of Fe, As in Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was created Disused Metal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; So, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a natural reduction of Fe and As in AMD. AMD is produced by oxidation of pyrite, the iron, the sulfate mineral dissolution action. It is generated by the sulfide minerals, water, oxygen, the reaction of microorganisms in the underground. AMD is low pH due to dissolved minerals in the mine are different kinds of heavy metals will leach. If the flow out of mines and react with dissolved oxygen (DO) is increased, due to oxidation and microbiological activity of the Fe it is precipitated biomat is produced. This study area is Ilgwng disused mines in the Republic of Korea Busan Gijanggun. March to September 2010 taken by the AMD and biomat analyze Fe and As. The main mineral is Chalcopyrite (Cu2Fe2S4), Arsenopyrite (FeAsS), Pyrite (FeS2), Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS), Sphalerite (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Scheelite (CaWO4), Wolframite ((Fe, Mn)WO4) and the like. Analysis of the AMD of underground pH 2.4~2.8, DO 1.3~4.8mg/L, Fe 474.3~178.8mg/L, As 0~3.2mg/L. Analysis AMD of the flow out of mine pH 2.3~2.9, DO 6.7~9.5mg/L, Fe 81.9~438.7L, As 0~2.8mg/L. The content of Fe in the biomat is 244.242mg/kg, the content of As is 5647mg/kg in the adsorption reaction of the Fe. AMD of disused metal mine mineral leaching occur in a reducing environment, in an oxidizing environment it caused precipitation and adsorption reactions.

  12. Distribution, speciation, and transport of mercury in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected near abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Bailey, E.A.; Turner, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of total Hg, Hg (II), and methylmercury were measured in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected downstream from abandoned mercury mines in south-western Alaska to evaluate environmental effects to surrounding ecosystems. These mines are found in a broad belt covering several tens of thousands of square kilometers, primarily in the Kuskokwim River basin. Mercury ore is dominantly cinnabar (HgS), but elemental mercury (Hg(o)) is present in ore at one mine and near retorts and in streams at several mine sites. Approximately 1400 t of mercury have been produced from the region, which is approximately 99% of all mercury produced from Alaska. These mines are not presently operating because of low prices and low demand for mercury. Stream-sediment samples collected downstream from the mines contain as much as 5500 ??g/g Hg. Such high Hg concentrations are related to the abundance of cinnabar, which is highly resistant to physical and chemical weathering, and is visible in streams below mine sites. Although total Hg concentrations in the stream-sediment samples collected near mines are high, Hg speciation data indicate that concentrations of Hg (II) are generally less than 5%, and methylmercury concentrations are less than 1% of the total Hg. Stream waters below the mines are neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 6.8-8.4), which is a result of the insolubility of cinnabar and the lack of acid- generating minerals such as pyrite in the deposits. Unfiltered stream-water samples collected below the mines generally contain 500-2500 ng/l Hg; whereas, corresponding stream-water samples filtered through a 0.45-??m membrane contain less than 50 ng/l Hg. These stream-water results indicate that most of the Hg transported downstream from the mines is as finely- suspended material rather than dissolved Hg. Mercury speciation data show that concentrations of Hg (II) and methylmercury in stream-water samples are typically less than 22 ng/l, and generally less than

  13. Mercury fractionation in sediments downstream of the abandoned mine site of La Soterraña (Asturias, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva V.; Fernández-Martínez R.; Loredo J.; Ordoñez A.; Rucandio I.

    2013-01-01

    Asturias (Northern Spain) has been an important mercury mining area during the twentieth century. The mining and smelting of ore has been the responsible for the large release of mercury to the aquatic and terrestrial environments in the area. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of mercury in stream sediments from the Caudal River basin in central Asturias by using sequential extraction. A novel five-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess Hg partitioning. To...

  14. Geophysical and intrusive site investigations to detect an abandoned coal-mine access shaft, Apedale, Staffordshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, SG; Pringle, JK

    2011-01-01

    Derelict coal mine workings at Apedale in Staffordshire, United Kingdom were the focus for a multi-disciplinary geophysical and intrusive site investigation. Objectives were to: 1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, 2) determine the inclined shaft’s changing depth below present ground level, 3) determine if it was open, partly or fully filled, 4) locate it beneath a known shaft if (1) was unsuccessful and finally 5) compare geophysical mineshaft detection techniques in d...

  15. Gasified grass and wood biochars facilitate plant establishment in acid mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in exposed mine tailings threaten ecosystems that surround thousands of abandoned mines in the U.S. Biochars derived from the pyrolysis or gasification of biomass may serve as a valuable soil amendment to revegetate mine sites. We evaluated the ability of two biochar...

  16. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  17. In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to biomonitor metal pollution in rivers and to evaluate the efficiency of restoration measures in mine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluate the ability of an in situ bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, to biomonitor water quality and to assess the biological recovery of metal contaminated freshwater ecosystems of mine areas that are subject of restoration measures. The bioassay was carried out in streams located near an abandoned goldmine in North Portugal, throughout an environmental rehabilitation of the mine (2002-2004). During this period, a decrease in the inhibition of larval growth in the metal contaminated stream was observed. The bioassay was also performed in streams located near an active tungsten mine in Central Portugal. Larval growth and development were highly inhibited in the stream that receives acid drainage from the tungsten mine and treated water from the AMD treatment station. The results indicate that the bioassay can be used to evaluate the efficiency of environmental restoration measures in mining areas. - In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae can be a suitable tool to monitor restoration efficiency after a long time of metallic sediment contamination

  18. Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines. Preparatory project. Vol. 2. Annex; Schachtverschluesse fuer untertaegige Deponien in Salzbergwerken. Vorprojekt. Bd. 2. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Fruth, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Stockmann, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Birthler, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Boese, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Sitz, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Krausse, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Eulenberger, K.H. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Schleinig, J.P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Duddeck, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Ahrens, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Menzel, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Salzer, K. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Minkley, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Busche, H. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Lindloff, U. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Gierenz, S. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This preparatory study, ``Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines``, was to demonstrate the current scientific and technological know-how based on a comprehensive analysis of the barrier design concepts or established structures intended to serve as barriers in abandoned shafts of potash or rock salt mines. Taking as a basis the current regulatory regime and the available know-how on barrier systems in underground waste repositories taken into account so far in plan approval and licensing procedures, as well as the state of the art, concepts are developed as technical guides and models of barrier systems for mine shafts. The required research work for the various components of a shaft barrier is shown, particularly relating to aspects such as materials suitability and technical realisation. Immediate demand for research activities is shown with regard to the available potentials of mathematic and numeric geotechnical and hydrogeologic calculation models required in order to give proof of the long-term workability of shaft barriers. The authors are of the opinion that the following activities are required in order to meet the research demand quantified: (1) Laboratory and bench-scale experiments for determination of the efficiency of various sealing materials and backfilling materials, and (2) an in-situ, large-scale experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of low-consolidation shotter columns, or constructional technologies. The laboratory work can be done in the facilities of the GSF research mine of Asse, the Freiburg Mining Academy, and the Institut fuer Gebirgsmechanik in Leipzig, and the benchmark experiments also at the Asse site in the research mine. The Kali und Salz Beteiligungs AG is prepared to offer its mine Salzdetfurth II as a site for the large-scale experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Vorstudie ``Schachtverschluesse fuer Untertagedeponien in Salzbergwerken`` wird ausgehend von einer umfangreichen

  19. Influence of Heavy Metals on the Environmental from Tarnita Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucan Victor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects related to water pollution with heavy metals from the Tarnita mining area before and after the cessation of the mining activity. The impact of heavy metals on waters is important because these metals have a negative impact on both human health and aquatic ecosystems. All research data showed that, even the mining activities from this area were suspended, the sterile still pollutes the soil and water

  20. Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. Carrillo [Soil Chemistry, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crogelio@colpos.mx; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.A. [Soil Microbiology, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx

    2006-11-15

    Four sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted soil developed on tailings from Ag, Au, and Zn mines at the Zacatecas state in Mexico. Trace element concentrations varied between sites, the most polluted area was at El Bote mine near to Zacatecas city. The ranges of total concentration in soil were as follows: Cd 11-47, Ni 19-26, Pb 232-695, Mn 1132-2400, Cu 134-186 and Zn 116-827 mg kg{sup -1} air-dried soil weight. All soil samples had concentrations above typical values for non-polluted soils from the same soil types (Cd 0.6 {+-} 0.3, Ni 52 {+-} 4, Pb 41 {+-} 3 mg kg{sup -1}). However, for the majority of samples the DTPA-extractable element concentrations were less than 10% of the total. Some of the wild plants are potentially metal tolerant, because they were able to grow in highly polluted substrates. Plant metal analysis revealed that most species did not translocate metals to their aerial parts, therefore they behave as excluder plants. Polygonum aviculare accumulated Zn (9236 mg kg{sup -1}) at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants. Jatropha dioica also accumulated high Zn (6249 mg kg{sup -1}) concentrations. - Polygonum aviculare and Jatropha dioica accumulated Zn at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants.

  1. Radium and heavy metal transport beneath an abandoned uranium tailings dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abandoned uranium tailings dam at Moline in the Northern Territory of Australia was the site of a study to assess the movement of potentially toxic elements from tailings into subsoil. The tailings at Moline were first laid down in 1959 and have since been leached by prevailing rainfall. Sixteen sampling sites were selected to give a good representation of the dam. At each site, a trench was excavated through the tailings and into the subsoil, then samples of subsoil were taken at 10 cm intervals down to a depth of 50 cm. A sample of the tailings overlying the tailings-subsoil interface was also taken. Samples were analysed for radium, uranium, copper, zinc, and lead. At most sites there was only minor accumulation of these elements in the 0-10 cm subsoil layer immediately below the interface, with concentrations typically one or two orders of magnitude less than the concentrations in overlying tailings. Below 10 cm, the concentrations were typically at or close to background concentrations

  2. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  3. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination and their seasonal variation in the paddy field around the Daduk Au-Pb-Zn mine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Churl-Gyu [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul(Korea); Chon, Hyo-Taek [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Jung, Myung Chae [Semyung University, Jecheon(Korea)

    2000-02-28

    Arsenic and heavy metal contamination, seasonal variation of the metal contents in soils and plants and their migration characteristics from soils into plants in the vicinity of the abandoned Daduk Au-Pb-Zn mine were studied. Soils collected downstream from the mine show high contents of As and heavy metals due to surface erosion and wind blowing in the tailings. However, their contamination was limited around the old dressing plant and paddy field nearby the polluted stream. Enriched concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in various agricultural crops grown in the paddy fields nearby the mine site, and Zn was accumulated specially in soybean leaves. Elevated level of As was also found in rice stalks and leaves. Biological absorption coefficients of the crop plants for heavy metals decreased in the order of soybean leaves, red peppers, rice stalks and leaves, and rice grain, and were higher for Cd and Cu than Pb and Zn. Seasonal variation of As and heavy metals in paddy fields showed that relatively higher concentrations and biological absorption coefficients were found in rice stalks and leaves grown under oxidizing conditions in September rather than under reducing conditions in August, especially for As, Cd, Pb and Zn. It is suggested that the amount of As and heavy metals absorbed by rice crops might be changed under the different condition of paddy fields throughout the period of growing. (author). 26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  6. Enhancement of ecosystem services during endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization of metal contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Benito, Garazi; Artetxe, Unai; Becerril, José M; Garbisu, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (endophytes) were isolated from a variety of (pseudo)metallophytes growing in an abandoned Zn/Pb mine and then characterized according to their plant growth-promoting traits (i.e. ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, siderophore production, phosphate solubilising capacity, metal and salt tolerance and phenotypic characterization). Initially, under growth chamber conditions, an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization study was carried out with Festuca rubra plants (native vs. commercial variety) inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate and cow slurry as organic amendment. The effect of treatments on soil physicochemical and microbial indicators of soil quality, as well as plant physiological parameters and metal concentrations, was assessed. We performed a complementary interpretation of our data through their grouping within a set of ecosystem services. Although the application of cow slurry had the most pronounced effects on soil quality indicators and ecosystem services, the growth of native F. rubra plants reduced soil bioavailability of Cd and Zn by 19 and 22%, respectively, and enhanced several soil microbial parameters. On the other hand, endophyte (Pseudomonas sp.) inoculation improved the physiological status of F. rubra plants by increasing the content of carotenoids, chlorophylls and Fv/Fm by 69, 65 and 37%, respectively, while also increasing the values of several soil microbial parameters. Finally, a consortium of five endophyte isolates was used for an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization field experiment, where lower metal concentrations in native excluder plants were found. Nonetheless, the field inoculation of the endophyte consortium had no effect on the biomass of native plants. PMID:27107647

  7. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  8. Risk assessment of heavy metal contaminated soil in the vicinity of a lead/zinc mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; XIE Zheng-miao; ZHU Yong-guan; Ravi Naidu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils through anthropogenic activities is a widespread and serious problem confronting scientists and regulators throughout the world. In this study we investigated the distribution, chemical species and availability of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in nine surface(0 to 20 cm) soils from near an abandoned lead/zinc mine tailings located in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Total heavy metal contents ranged from 5271 to 16369 mg/kg for Pb, 387 to 1221 mg/kg for Zn, 3.0 to 9.3 mg/kg for Cd and 65 to 206 mg/kg for Cu. In general, all heavy metals exceeded China National Standards for Soil Environmental Quality of Heavy Metals by a factor of 3-65times. Comparison of the heavy metal concentrations( Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) with clay content revealed a strongly significant relationship while significant relationship( P organically complexed-Fe-Mn oxides occluded >carbonate bound > exchangeable > water soluble. In the organic matter fraction, the ratio of Pb(29.1% ) to its total concentration in the soils was higher than those of Zn(4.70% ), Cd(3.16%) and Cu(9.50% ). The percentages of the water soluble and the exchangeable fractions of Pb(1.80% ) and Cd(2.74% ) were markedly greater than those of Zn(0.10% ) and Cu(0.15 % ), suggesting that Pb and Cd are relatively more mobile and hence more toxic in the contaminated soils. Strongly significant relationships between H2O-Pb, H2O-Zn and H2O-Cu, strong positive correlations between H2 O-Pb, H2O-Zn, H2 O-Cu and organic matter in soil were found. The content of H2 O-Pb,H2O-Zn, H2O-Cu was negatively correlated with pH values. The similar negative relationships between pH values and exchangeable heavy metals were also recorded. It is suggested that increasing soil pH or liming the soil could decrease bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil.

  9. Mercury fractionation in sediments downstream of the abandoned mine site of La Soterraña (Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Asturias (Northern Spain has been an important mercury mining area during the twentieth century. The mining and smelting of ore has been the responsible for the large release of mercury to the aquatic and terrestrial environments in the area. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of mercury in stream sediments from the Caudal River basin in central Asturias by using sequential extraction. A novel five-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess Hg partitioning. Total mercury concentrations varied between 12 and 443 mg.Kg−1. Sequential extractions revealed that both Elemental Hg and bound to sulfide Hg constituted the major forms of mercury in the samples.

  10. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  11. Near-Surface Sensing of Vegetative Heavy Metal Stress: Method Development for an Accelerated Assessment of Mine Tailing Waste and Remediation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. T.; Gottfried, M.; Berglund, E.; Rodriguez, G.; Ceckanowicz, D. J.; Cutter, N.; Badgeley, J.

    2014-12-01

    The boom and bust history of mineral extraction in the American southwest is visible today in tens of thousands of abandoned and slowly decaying mine installations that scar the landscape. Mine tailing piles, mounds of crushed mineral ore, often contain significant quantities of heavy metal elements which may leach into surrounding soils, surface water and ground water. Chemical analysis of contaminated soils is a tedious and time-consuming process. Regional assessment of heavy metal contamination for treatment prioritization would be greatly accelerated by the development of near-surface imaging indices of heavy-metal vegetative stress in western grasslands. Further, the method would assist in measuring the ongoing effectiveness of phytoremedatian and phytostabilization efforts. To test feasibility we ground truthed nine phytoremediated and two control sites sites along the mine-impacted Kerber Creek watershed in Saguache County, Colorado. Total metal concentration was determined by XRF for both plant and soil samples. Leachable metals were extracted from soil samples following US EPA method 1312. Plants were identified, sorted into roots, shoots and leaves, and digested via microwave acid extraction. Metal concentrations were determined with high accuracy by ICP-OES analysis. Plants were found to contain significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals than surrounding soils, particularly for manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb). Plant species accumulated and distributed metals differently, yet most showed translocation of metals from roots to above ground structures. Ground analysis was followed by near surface imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with visible/near and shortwave infrared (0.7 to 1.5 μm) cameras. Images were assessed for spectral shifts indicative of plant stress and attempts made to correlate results with measured soil and plant metal concentrations.

  12. Characteristics of tailings from metal mines in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-guo; ZHANG Hui-zhi; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Bao-rong; LI Xin; XU Wei-hua

    2005-01-01

    The tailing soils were from 10 mining areas in Hunan Province. To predict the potential impact of tailings on nearby environments, the characteristics such as the pH value, loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity, and the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in the tailings were investigated. Based on these characteristics, the pollution index and danger index were calculated so as to evaluate the priorities of remediation. The results show that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn exceed the tolerable levels of the phytotoxicity in the most tailings. The large proportion of heavy metals exists in the form of residual fraction in most tailings, followed by sulfides/organic and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, and a little in the exchangeable and carbonate fraction. The calculated pollution indices for the tailing samples range from 1.41 to 83.42, which indicates that all the tailings contain heavy metals at a level that causes toxicity to the ecosystem. The danger indices for the tailing samples range from 0.06 to 387.00. The highest value of the danger indices is that of Yongzhou sample, reaching 387.00; the lowest one is that of Xikuangshan sample, only 0.06. Considering the results of pollution index and danger index in combination, the priority of remediation is determined to be Yongzhou, Baoshan, Xiangtan and Lengshuijiang.

  13. The dispersal of metal mining wastes in the catchment of the river Geul (Belgium - The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaers, H.

    1989-01-01

    The metal mining industry has caused large quantities of heavy metals to enter countless river systems. The consequent spread of heavy metals is determined largely by how these metals bind with silt and soil particles and the transport pathways of these particles in the alluvial parts of river syste

  14. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  15. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  16. Research on deformations which appear in within the metal structures of mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paraschiv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal structures of the mining equipment are made of a steel with good weldability and mechanical characteristics corresponding and namely St 52.3 steel that allows the use of these metal structures in heavy duty. Metal structures of the mining equipment are very large structures and strong requested mechanical, and in these conditions during exploitation can occur large deformations at these that may cause a decrease in the exploitation safety of mining equipment. Research has followed in principal the analyze of deformations appear in metallic structures, and for realizing the researches has been used both a dimensional analysis and one that is based on the finite element method.

  17. Decoding Metal Associations in an Arid Urban Environment with Active and Legacy Mining: the Case of Copiapó, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Moya, P.; Coquery, M.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vega, A.; Carkovic, A.; Calcagni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The urban and periurban area of Copiapó in the arid Atacama desert has more than 30 abandoned mine tailings, one active copper smelter, and 150,000 inhabitants. Fast development of the mining industry during the 19th century and unplanned growth has led to public concern about the presence of metals in soils and street dust. Recent floods and mud currents in the Copiapó watershed have introduced new solid material in about 40% of the urban area. We conducted a geochemical screening before and after the disaster in March 2015. We found concentrations as high as 1000 mg/kg of copper and 180 mg/kg of arsenic in urban soils. Since effective control measures require connecting sites of metal enrichment with the possible sources, we have performed a statistical analysis of metal association and complemented it with other analyses like x-ray diffraction. Cluster analyses of elemental compositions suggest that mud and tailing have different origins from the rest of the matrices, while soils and street dust have a similar one. Some clusters have a mix of matrices that suggest anthropogenic enrichment of some areas of Copiapó. Our initial results indicate that a correlation between observed enrichment and the copper smelter can be hypothesized for Cu, Pb, and Zn. Further spatial, statistical, and chemical analyses are needed to further confirm such findings, complemented with a thorough analysis of the baseline values that could be considered representative of the area. Future work include Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to test the link contaminant sources and metal occurrence, while scanning electron microscopy can be used to identify the presence of smelter-related particles. The information generated by this research will be a necessary input for defining urban planning strategies and land use guidelines, defining health risk assessment studies, and for future evaluation of intervention priorities. Acknowledgements: Proyecto

  18. Influence of water chemistry on the distribution of an acidophilic protozoan in an acid mine drainage system at the abandoned Green Valley coal mine, Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A.; Hasiotis, S.T. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography Geology & Anthropology

    2001-07-01

    Euglena mutabilis, a benthic photosynthetic protozoan that intracellularly sequesters Fe, is variably abundant in the main effluent channel that contains acid mine drainage (AMD) discharging from the Green Valley coal mine site in western Indiana. Samples of effluent (pH 3.0-4.6) taken from the main channel and samples of contaminated stream water (pH 3.3 to 8.0) collected from an adjacent stream were analyzed to evaluate the influence of water chemistry on E. mutabilis distribution. E. mutabilis communities were restricted to areas containing unmixed effluent with the thickest (up to 3 mm) benthic communities residing in effluent containing high concentrations of total Fe (up to 12110 mg/l), SO{sub 4}(up to 2940 mg/l), Al (up to 1846 mg/l), and Cl (up to 629 mg/l). Communities were also present, but much less abundant, in areas with effluent containing lower concentrations of these same constituents. In effluent where SO{sub 4} was most highly concentrated, E. mutabilis was largely absent, suggesting that extremely high concentrations of SO{sub 4} may have an adverse effect on this potentially beneficial Fe-mediating, acidophilic protozoan.

  19. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  20. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Fabio; Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu(2)(+) ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180mg.kg(-1), while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086mg.kg(-1), respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution.

  1. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieuwerts, J.S., E-mail: jrieuwerts@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mighanetara, K.; Braungardt, C.B. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rollinson, G.K. [Camborne School of Mines, CEMPS, University of Exeter, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ (United Kingdom); Pirrie, D. [Helford Geoscience LLP, Menallack Farm, Treverva, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9BP (United Kingdom); Azizi, F. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1–5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8 × 10{sup 5} mg kg{sup −1} As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5 × 10{sup 4} mg kg{sup −1} As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. - Highlights: • Stream sediments in a former mining area remain polluted with up to 25 g As per kg. • The main arsenic mineral in adjacent mine wastes appears to be scorodite. • Low solubility scorodite was inversely correlated with potentially mobile As. • Combining

  2. Responses of benthic insect communities to effluent from the abandoned Ferris-Haggarty copper mine in southeast Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayong Wu; David Legg

    2011-01-01

    Six criteria were used to evaluate 12 metrics for their sensitivity to effluent flowing from the Ferris-Haggarty copper mine into Haggarty Creek and then into Battle Creek West Fork.Through the evaluation process,we found that the Shannon-Wiener index,the random runs value,and Ephemeroptera taxa richness appeared to best reflect the impacts that have occurred in both Haggarty Creek and Battle Creek West Fork.In addition,Ephemeroptera/Plecoptera/Trichoptera taxa richness,total taxa richness,and Plecoptera taxa richness,were useful in reflecting those impacts.In contrast,we found that the abundance ratios,the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index,as well as Trichoptera taxa richness,did not reflect the impacts that occurred in Haggarty Creek and Battle Creek West Fork.Finally,this study provided information about the benthic insect communities that are present in the impacted reaches of Haggarty Creek.Such information is needed to assess the potential of those reaches as habitat for the Colorado River cutthroat trout,Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus,which is a species of special concern to the Wyoming Department of Game and Fish.

  3. Was it a mistake to abandon the revision clause? Assessment of entrepreneurial flexibility in the German coal mining industry on the basis of real options; War die Aufgabe der Revisionsklausel ein Fehler? Beurteilung unternehmerischer Flexibilitaet im deutschen Steinkohlebergbau auf Basis von Realoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendiek, Ansgar

    2012-07-15

    The author analyzes the decision to abandon the revision clause, i.e. to abandon entrepreneurial flexibility on the basis of the option price theory and the use of derivatives in coal trading. The focus is on subventionless continuation of coal mining. It is found that the abandoning of the revision clause will involve a loss of value of the real option of about 819 million Euros. Politicians and the coal industry are advised to revise the subventionless continuation of coal mining by the end of 2015.

  4. Uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in Sardinia, Italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, M; Dadea, C; Tassi, E; Bretzel, F; Fanfani, L

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb, and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil. The metal concentration values were high even in the mobile fractions evaluated by simplified sequential extraction (Zn 7485-103, Pb 1015-101, Cd 47-4 mg kg(-1)). Predominant native species were identified and analyzed for heavy metal content in various tissues. Among the plant species investigated Inula viscosa, Euphorbia dendroides, and Poa annua showed the highest metal concentration in aboveground biomass (mean average of Zn: 1680, 1020, 1400; Pb: 420, 240, 80; Cd: 28, 7, 19 mg kg(-1), respectively). The above mentioned species and A. donax could be good candidates for a phytoextraction procedure. Cistus salvifolius and Helichrysum italicus generally showed behavior more suitable for a phytostabilizer. PMID:21972566

  5. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of natural mineral phases and their weathering products inside an abandoned zinc/lead mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goienaga, N.; Arrieta, N.; Carrero, J. A.; Olivares, M.; Sarmiento, A.; Martinez-Arkarazo, I.; Fernández, L. A.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    Mining activities provide a good source of minerals of different nature. On the one hand, the primary minerals for whose formation a geological time-scale is required. On the other hand, secondary minerals, formed from removed products after the earlier weathering and alteration states. These are characteristic of the local geology and the environment context that commonly appears due to the low chemical stability of their original primary minerals. This work shows how quickly the reactions promoting secondary minerals may have taken place, due to the fact that these were found in newly formed solid materials called efflorescences. To achieve this purpose, the sampling is crucial. It was carried out in such a way that tried to guarantee that the samples collected consisted in the very top soil matter (first 2 cm depth). Thus, unlike the deeper soil, the material analysed may have been newly formed due to the interactions that they had with the place weathering agents (i.e. air oxygen, humidity, and microbial activities). Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a good and fast non-destructive technique that provides molecular information of the local mineralogy without the need of any pre-treatment of the samples. At the same time, the work looked for information on the variety of non-stable lead and-or zinc containing minerals due to the possible health and environmental risks they convey. Among the different minerals identified, 16 were of primary nature while 23 may be classified as secondary minerals, probably formed in the last decades as the result of the extractive activities.

  6. Mineralogical control on arsenic release during sediment-water interaction in abandoned mine wastes from the Argentina Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, N E; Borgnino, L; Locati, F; García, M G

    2016-04-15

    The sulfide-rich residues of La Concordia mine, Argentina Puna, are accumulated in tailing dams that remained exposed to the weathering agents for almost 30years. In such period of time, a complex sequence of redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions occurred, leading to the gradual oxidation of the wastes and the formation of weathering profiles. The sources of arsenic in the wastes were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDS analysis while a standardized sequential extraction procedure was followed to define solid As associations. In addition, the release of As during sediment-water interaction was analyzed in a period of 10months. The results indicate that primary As-bearing minerals are arsenian pyrite and polymetallic sulfides. As-jarosite and scarce arsenates are the only secondary As-bearing minerals identified by XRD and SEM/EDS. However, the rapid release (i.e., <1h) of arsenic from suspensions of the studied sediments in water, seems to be associated to the dissolution of highly soluble (hydrous)sulfates, as it was determined in samples of the efflorescences that cover the entire site. Contributions from the more abundant As-jarosite are also expected in longer periods of sediment-water interaction, due to its low rate of dissolution in acid and oxic conditions. Finally, near 30% of As remains adsorbed onto Fe (hydr)oxides thus representing a hazardous reservoir with the potential of mobilizing As into porewaters and streamwaters if the acidic and oxidizing conditions that predominate in the region are altered.

  7. Mineralogical control on arsenic release during sediment-water interaction in abandoned mine wastes from the Argentina Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, N E; Borgnino, L; Locati, F; García, M G

    2016-04-15

    The sulfide-rich residues of La Concordia mine, Argentina Puna, are accumulated in tailing dams that remained exposed to the weathering agents for almost 30years. In such period of time, a complex sequence of redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions occurred, leading to the gradual oxidation of the wastes and the formation of weathering profiles. The sources of arsenic in the wastes were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDS analysis while a standardized sequential extraction procedure was followed to define solid As associations. In addition, the release of As during sediment-water interaction was analyzed in a period of 10months. The results indicate that primary As-bearing minerals are arsenian pyrite and polymetallic sulfides. As-jarosite and scarce arsenates are the only secondary As-bearing minerals identified by XRD and SEM/EDS. However, the rapid release (i.e., <1h) of arsenic from suspensions of the studied sediments in water, seems to be associated to the dissolution of highly soluble (hydrous)sulfates, as it was determined in samples of the efflorescences that cover the entire site. Contributions from the more abundant As-jarosite are also expected in longer periods of sediment-water interaction, due to its low rate of dissolution in acid and oxic conditions. Finally, near 30% of As remains adsorbed onto Fe (hydr)oxides thus representing a hazardous reservoir with the potential of mobilizing As into porewaters and streamwaters if the acidic and oxidizing conditions that predominate in the region are altered. PMID:26889947

  8. Heavy metals in the surrounding water and sediments of tailing dam of Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows results of tests on water and sediments quality in the Sasa Mine, along the Kamenicka and Bregalnica rivers flows into the Vardar River. The investigation results showed high concentrations of certain heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in water and sediments that pass or derived from the vicinity of the mine Sasa. The concentrations of these metals are highest near tailing dam of SASA mine. Going to the inflow into the Lake Kalimanci concentration of these metals are reduced...

  9. The dispersal of metal mining wastes in the catchment of the river Geul (Belgium - The Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Leenaers, H.

    1989-01-01

    The metal mining industry has caused large quantities of heavy metals to enter countless river systems. The consequent spread of heavy metals is determined largely by how these metals bind with silt and soil particles and the transport pathways of these particles in the alluvial parts of river systems. Once the slib-bound metals have been taken up into one of the hydrological subsystems, such as the underwater soil and the banks, they continue to be subject to geomorphological, chemical and h...

  10. Removal of heavy metals from mine wastewater using zeolite bearing tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Blažev, Krsto; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the examination of the possibility of applying zeolite bearing tuff, as a natural material, for the removal of heavy metals (copper, zinc, manganese and lead) from mine water. The experiments were performed on wastewater taken from drainage water from Svinja River above horizont XV from The mine of lead and zinc "SASA" in Makedonska Kamenica and The copper mine "Bucim" in Radovis. From the analysis can be concluded that zeolite bearing tuff...

  11. The current environmental impact of base-metal mining at the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current environmental impact of base metal mining at the Tui Mine, Te Aroha and gold mining near Waihi, was investigated by analysis of local waters, stream sediments and aquatic vegetation. X-ray diffraction analysis of heavy metal fractions in stream sediments showed the presence of pyrite in the upper reaches of the Tunakohoia and Tui streams that drain the mineralised reefs and Tui tailings dam. Relatively immobile lead (galena) was retained close to the source, whereas copper and zinc minerals were more mobile and distributed further downstream from the areas of mineralisation. Gold was determined in sediments from the Ohinemuri and Waitekauri Rivers along with other heavy metals derived from sulphide mineralisation at Waihi and Waitekauri. Analysis of waters from the Tui and Tunakohoia streams showed concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc above recommended levels for potable water in the upper parts of these waterways. The discharge of these streams into the Waihou River (sampled upstream from Te Aroha and downstream past Paeroa) did not have any significant effect on heavy-metal concentrations in this river. Aquatic macrophytes sampled in the Waihou, Ohinemuri and Waitekauri Rivers had very high heavy-metal concentrations compared with the ambient water and should be considered as potentially useful for assessing the impact of low-metal fluxes into the waters. Gold was detected in aquatic marcophytes from streams draining both the Martha Mine at Waihi and the Golden Cross Mine at Waitekauri and indicated the possibility of prospecting for gold by analysis of these plants. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  12. The use of geosynthetics covers for the ecological rehabilitation of the abandoned dump sites and tailing dams for radioactive waste from the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The mining and the preparation of the uranium ore generate important quantities of waste which is deposited in dump sites and tailing dams. Consequently, important terrain surfaces are affected by the technological operations and the environmental impact is high. It is then important to cover and ecologically rehabilitate the areas where mining and ore preparation took place and to minimize the long-term effect. The actual technology for ecologic rehabilitation allows generally satisfactory solutions for the sealing and the stabilization of the polluted areas, using natural, synthetic materials or combination of these. Of a particular interest for the abandoned areas where activities of uranium ore extraction or preparation took place is the radioactivity, which generates effects on a long term. A technically acceptable solution for cover and ecological rehabilitation of these areas must not only prevent the infiltration of the rainfall water into the waste body, but also reduce the level of gamma radiation and eliminate the ex-filtration of any contaminated material, including radioactive gases. Also, as the mining areas and the dump-sites are in most cases in remote locations, with difficult access, limited technical possibilities and no reserves of clay that can be used as sealing barrier. This situation requires technical solutions, installation techniques and operations that can be carried out with limited equipment. The purpose of this article is to describe the main phases and some partial results of the research program, which was started more than one year ago in order to establish a solution for cover and rehabilitation of the abandoned dump sites and tailing dams which is applicable, guaranteed on long-term and independent of mineral sealing materials. The research programme was structured on both laboratory tests and large scale field tests that allowed the careful monitoring of the geosynthetic package used for sealing and cover concerning

  13. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this

  14. Biosorption Of Heavy Metals From Mining Influenced Water Onto Chitin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from mine sites poses a major environmental concern due to its impact on water contamination caused by low pH and the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals. Chitorem SC-20® (raw crushed crab shells containing 40% w/w C...

  15. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL REMOVAL FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING CHITIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) emanating from inactive or active mine sites contains elevated levels of toxic heavy metals, which can have an adverse impact to the surrounding environment. The major pathway involved in generation of AMD is weathering of pyritic mineral ores, where in s...

  16. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  17. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  18. Riparian shrub metal concentrations and growth in amended fluvial mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluvial mine tailing deposition has caused extensive riparian damage throughout the western United States. Willows are often used for fluvial mine tailing revegetation, but some species accumulate excessive metal concentrations which could be detrimental to browsers. In a greenhouse experiment, gr...

  19. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemiere, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-01-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring netw...

  20. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  1. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness

  2. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlatti, Fabio [Department of Environmental Technology, National Department of Mineral Production – DNPM, Rua Dr. José Lourenço, 90560115-280 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe [Department of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela – USC, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa, s/n. Campus sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ferreira, Tiago Osório, E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Department of Soil Science, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu{sup 2+} ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180 mg.kg{sup −1}, while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086 mg.kg{sup −1}, respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution. - Highlights: • The hazardous effects of mine waste rocks at

  3. Diminished Metal Accumulation in Riverine Fishes Exposed to Acid Mine Drainage over Five Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Ross A Jeffree; Markich, Scott J.; Twining, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and black catfish (Neosilurus ater) were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc) in surface water and sediment had the lowest...

  4. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  5. [Study on heavy metals in soils contaminated by acid mine drainage from Dabaoshan mine, Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Ming; Zhou, Yong-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Yan; Zeng, Feng; Gao, Quan-Zhou; Peng, Xian-Zhi; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Cheng-Bo; Yang, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Dou, Lei; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Ding, Jian

    2007-04-01

    Mining activities in the Dabaoshan area in the upper reach of the Hengshihe River have caused severe environmental changes, the waste water of milling and refining drained directly into the Hengshihe River, which contaminated the soils along the river severely. It is shown that Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu have contaminated the soil, the Cd contamination was more severe, and the contaminated level of Pb, Zn reached moderately to strongly polluted. The pH value of river and soil affected directly the heavy metals concentration of total and exchangeable ions, and presented negative pertinences. The levels of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the surface soil of Shangbacun village in the lower reach of the river were found as high as 257.762, 350.235, 5.083 and 186.901 mg x kg(-1) respectively, which were relatively higher than those of the background values of soil 1.03, 1.75, 16.9 and 3.7 times respectively, and the result on the soil profiles showed that the contaminations have infiltrated into lower layer soil, ecological environment was harmed severely.

  6. Genomic insights into a new acidophilic, copper-resistant Desulfosporosinus isolate from the oxidized tailings area of an abandoned gold mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Panova, Inna A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Antsiferov, Dmitry V; Banks, David; Frank, Yulia A; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Karnachuk, Olga V

    2016-08-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in acid mine drainage is still considered to be confined to anoxic conditions, although several reports have shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria occur under microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. We have measured sulfate reduction rates of up to 60 nmol S cm(-3) day(-1) in oxidized layers of gold mine tailings in Kuzbass (SW Siberia). A novel, acidophilic, copper-tolerant Desulfosporosinus sp. I2 was isolated from the same sample and its genome was sequenced. The genomic analysis and physiological data indicate the involvement of transporters and additional mechanisms to tolerate metals, such as sequestration by polyphosphates. Desulfosporinus sp. I2 encodes systems for a metabolically versatile life style. The genome possessed a complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Complete oxidation of organic substrates could be enabled by the complete TCA cycle. Genomic analysis found all major components of the electron transfer chain necessary for energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Autotrophic CO2 fixation could be performed through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Multiple oxygen detoxification systems were identified in the genome. Taking into account the metabolic activity and genomic analysis, the traits of the novel isolate broaden our understanding of active sulfate reduction and associated metabolism beyond strictly anaerobic niches. PMID:27222219

  7. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Kwon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study focused on the survey for environmental impacts and hazard occurred in the abandoned metallic mines and their countermeasures. Major issues in the inactive metal mines were mine drainage, tailings, waste rock dump, abandoned facilities, in which acid mine drainage was a principal factor to deteriorate the environment around the abandoned mines. Chemical analysis shown that mine drainage was very acidic and were very acidic and were contaminated by toxic elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Cu and S etc. In addition, soil near the tailings impoundment was contaminated by heavy metals such as As, Pb, Cd, and cyanide. An column test was carried out to develop the passive treatment system for amelioration of the acid mine drainage with heavy metals. The experimental results revealed that composite mixed with the saw dust and cow manure was evaluated as the best substrate to have good permeability and to have enough food necessary for sulfate reduction bacteria. Small scaled anoxic wetland had been operated to confirm the capabilities of acid mine drainage treatment. The demonstration of the system revealed that the system neutralized acid mine drainage and also eliminated some metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn etc up to by 98%. (author). 28 refs., 50 tabs., 115 figs.

  8. The application of landscape design in the geological environment control of abandoned opencast mines%景观设计在废弃露采矿山地质环境治理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敬军; 陈子玉; 蒋波; 缪世贤

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the landscape design rises as a thought in the country, the following works, appear in lots of large and small cities to provide for recreation, and also have certain cultural connotations. The landscape design which is often adopted in the geological environment control of abandoned opencast mines has become a great trend. In this paper, by the case analysis of the demonstration project of the geological environment control of abandoned opencast mines, we summarize some methods, such as the culture of the introduction, integration and transformation, occasional renovation, retention and development and so on. Only an objective assessment of mining activities in the status of urban development, attention to the value of mining heritage resources in tourism development, a correct understanding of the role of landscape design in the mine geological environment control, the landscape design could be in the best application in the geological environment control of abandoned opencast mines.%近年来,景观设计作为一种思潮在全国范围内兴起,随之而来的景观作品在国内大大小小的城市中出现,为现代人提供游憩场所,同时也具一定的文化内涵.废弃露采矿山地质环境治理中,采用景观设计也成为时常,并已成为一个不小的潮流.本文通过废弃露采矿山地质环境治理示范工程案例分析,总结出文化引入、融入与转型、应景改造、保留及开发等景观设计方法,提出只有客观评价矿业活动在城市发展中的地位、重视矿业遗迹资源在旅游开发中的价值、正确认识景观设计在矿山地质环境治理中作用等,才能使景观设计在废弃露采矿山地质环境治理中得到最好的应用.

  9. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  10. Effects of mining-derived metals on riffle-dwelling benthic fishes in Southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A.L.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Olson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the ecological effects of mining-derived metals on riffle-dwelling benthic fishes at 16 sites in the Viburnum Trend lead-zinc mining district of southeast Missouri. Fish community attributes were compared to watershed features and to physical and chemical variables including metal concentrations in sediment pore water and fish. Ozark sculpin (Cottus hypselurus), rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum), Ozark madtom (Noturus albater), and banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae) were the most abundant fishes collected. Species richness and density of riffle-dwelling benthic fishes were negatively correlated with metal concentrations in pore water and in fish. Sculpin densities were also negatively correlated with metal concentrations in pore water and in fish, but positively correlated with distance from mines and upstream watershed area. These findings indicate that metals associated with active lead-zinc mining adversely affect riffle-dwelling benthic fishes downstream of mining areas in the Viburnum Trend. Sculpins may be useful as a sentinel species for assessing mining-related impacts on fish communities.

  11. Effect of solids concentration on removal of heavy metals from mine tailings via bioleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)]. E-mail: axore@163.com; Zhou Ming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Xin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu Weihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Fan Ting [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2007-03-06

    Mining of mineral ore and disposal of resulting waste tailings pose a significant risk to the surrounding environment. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to remove heavy metals from mine tailings with the use of bioleaching and meanwhile to investigate the effect of solids concentration on removal of heavy metals from mine tailings by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the transformation of heavy metal forms after the bioleaching process. This work showed the laboratory results of bioleaching experiments on Pb-Zn-Cu mine tailings. The results showed that 98.08% Zn, 96.44% Cu, and 43.52% Pb could be removed from mine tailings by the bioleaching experiment after 13 days at 1% (w/v) solids concentration and the rates of pH reduction, ORP rise and sulfate production were reduced with the increase of solids concentration, due to the buffering capacity of mine tailing solids. The results also indicated that solid concentration 1% was found to be best to bacterial activity and metal solubilization of the five solids concentration tested (1%, 2%, 5%, 8% and 10%) under the chosen experimental conditions. In addition, the bioleaching had a significant impact on changes in partitioning of heavy metals.

  12. Effect of solids concentration on removal of heavy metals from mine tailings via bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of mineral ore and disposal of resulting waste tailings pose a significant risk to the surrounding environment. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to remove heavy metals from mine tailings with the use of bioleaching and meanwhile to investigate the effect of solids concentration on removal of heavy metals from mine tailings by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the transformation of heavy metal forms after the bioleaching process. This work showed the laboratory results of bioleaching experiments on Pb-Zn-Cu mine tailings. The results showed that 98.08% Zn, 96.44% Cu, and 43.52% Pb could be removed from mine tailings by the bioleaching experiment after 13 days at 1% (w/v) solids concentration and the rates of pH reduction, ORP rise and sulfate production were reduced with the increase of solids concentration, due to the buffering capacity of mine tailing solids. The results also indicated that solid concentration 1% was found to be best to bacterial activity and metal solubilization of the five solids concentration tested (1%, 2%, 5%, 8% and 10%) under the chosen experimental conditions. In addition, the bioleaching had a significant impact on changes in partitioning of heavy metals

  13. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  14. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Weijma, Jan; Gonzalez Contreras, Paula; Dijkman, Henk; Rozendal, Rene A; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-06-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typically about 99% of solid material hauled to, and ground at, the land surface currently ends up as waste (rock dumps and mineral tailings). Exposure of these to air and water frequently leads to the formation of acidic, metal-contaminated run-off waters, referred to as acid mine drainage, which constitutes a severe threat to the environment. Formation of acid drainage is a natural phenomenon involving various species of lithotrophic (literally 'rock-eating') bacteria and archaea, which oxidize reduced forms of iron and/or sulfur. However, other microorganisms that reduce inorganic sulfur compounds can essentially reverse this process. These microorganisms can be applied on industrial scale to precipitate metals from industrial mineral leachates and acid mine drainage streams, resulting in a net improvement in metal recovery, while minimizing the amounts of leachable metals to the tailings storage dams. Here, we advocate that more extensive exploitation of microorganisms in metal mining operations could be an important way to green up the industry, reducing environmental risks and improving the efficiency and the economy of metal recovery.

  15. Ancient Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Austin A.; Fawcett, Brett; Krispin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Given the strain on earth's supply of metal and the meteoritic content of meteorites, a prudent course would be to pursue in-situ asteroid mining of meteors for metal. There is a precedent for this going back to ancient Egypt; humans have always used the meteoritic content of meteorites to fashion everything from weapons to cosmetics.

  16. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Stams, A.J.M.; Weijma, J.; Gonzalez Contreras, P.A.; Dijkman, H.; Rozendal, R.A.; Johnson, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typicall

  17. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Weijma, Jan; Gonzalez Contreras, Paula; Dijkman, Henk; Rozendal, Rene A; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-06-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typically about 99% of solid material hauled to, and ground at, the land surface currently ends up as waste (rock dumps and mineral tailings). Exposure of these to air and water frequently leads to the formation of acidic, metal-contaminated run-off waters, referred to as acid mine drainage, which constitutes a severe threat to the environment. Formation of acid drainage is a natural phenomenon involving various species of lithotrophic (literally 'rock-eating') bacteria and archaea, which oxidize reduced forms of iron and/or sulfur. However, other microorganisms that reduce inorganic sulfur compounds can essentially reverse this process. These microorganisms can be applied on industrial scale to precipitate metals from industrial mineral leachates and acid mine drainage streams, resulting in a net improvement in metal recovery, while minimizing the amounts of leachable metals to the tailings storage dams. Here, we advocate that more extensive exploitation of microorganisms in metal mining operations could be an important way to green up the industry, reducing environmental risks and improving the efficiency and the economy of metal recovery. PMID:27190293

  18. Sequential chemical extraction of heavy metals in a study of the chemical alteration of mine tailings at Ticapampa (Huaraz, Peru); Extraccion quimica secuencial de metales pesados en el estudio de alteracion quimica de relaves de mina en Ticapampa (Huaraz, Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara Facundo, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The upper reaches of the Rio Santa (Huaraz, Peru) are highly affected by the mining activities of generally small and very small mining companies located in two specific areas, Cordillera Blanca, and Cordillera Negra, with the largest mining claims located in the districts of Recuay and Ticapampa. To assess the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the abandoned tailings pond belonging to the Alianza mining company in the district of Ticapampa, and to identify the fractions to which they are associated we applied a sequential chemical extraction. The results were compared with studies into their mineralogical characterization, a quantitative chemical analysis and a determination of potential acidity and potential neutralization by the ABA (acid-base accounting) method applied to samples of tailings. The sequential extraction procedure confirmed the mode of general alteration observed in the area through mineralogical studies: a relatively easy mobility of Pb, and Cd, and considerable immobility with regard to Ag, Cr and Co, as well as an intermediate mobility of Cu, Zn, and As. Significant cadmium and lead contents found in the most mobile fractions of the tailings may represent an environmental threat, bearing in mind the toxic nature of these elements. Despite the low mobility of arsenic, the total quantities of this element are so high that the waters of the Rio Santa are being affected. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  20. Heavy metal toxicity in some coal mining areas of Madhya Pradesh: a case study from Western Madhya Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot (India). Dept. of Physical Science

    2008-07-01

    The paper deals with the effects of various toxic metals. The mines which were studied are Satpura-1, Patharkhera and Chandamata. The study indicates presence of Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Co and Zn in the samples. The effects of deficiency as well as excess of heavy metal leads to various problems to vegetation and workers. It is suggested that biologists should pay attention to the following factors: (1) education has to be given to the mine workers, (2) effects of mine dust on flora and fauna should be studied; (3) reuse should be made of wastewater for mining and associated activities; (4) environmentally sound utilization of tailings, effluents and wastes; (5) investigation of mine water for toxic and heavy metals and evolving effective and economical treatment process; (6) mythology for environmental impact assessment of mining; (7) economics of environmental protection measures in mining activities, and (8) micro and macro environmental analysis of habitat in the mining area. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  2. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Brewer, P. A.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Bird, G.; Coulthard, T. J.; Dennis, I. A.; Lechler, P. J.; Miller, J. R.; Turner, J. N.

    2006-09-01

    As the result of current and historical metal mining, river channels and floodplains in many parts of the world have become contaminated by metal-rich waste in concentrations that may pose a hazard to human livelihoods and sustainable development. Environmental and human health impacts commonly arise because of the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in river sediments and alluvial soils and their bioaccumulatory nature in plants and animals. This paper considers how an understanding of the processes of sediment-associated metal dispersion in rivers, and the space and timescales over which they operate, can be used in a practical way to help river basin managers more effectively control and remediate catchments affected by current and historical metal mining. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metals is outlined and four emerging research themes are highlighted and critically reviewed. These are: (1) response and recovery of river systems following the failures of major tailings dams; (2) effects of flooding on river contamination and the sustainable use of floodplains; (3) new developments in isotopic fingerprinting, remote sensing and numerical modelling for identifying the sources of contaminant metals and for mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in river channels and floodplains; and (4) current approaches to the remediation of river basins affected by mining, appraised in light of the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Future opportunities for geomorphologically-based assessments of mining-affected catchments are also identified.

  3. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 庹先国; 张成江; 马玉孝

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihua mining area including steel smelting, coal mining, urban and rural districts. A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area. By using the above baseline models, the regional geochemical baseline values of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. On the basis of the baselines, the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources, and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine, iron mine, smelting factory, tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  4. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination and their uptake by rice crops around the Kubong Au-Ag mine, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joo-Sung; Chon, Hyo-Taek [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Son, Ah-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-30

    The concentrations and distributions of As and heavy metals have been investigated in the agricultural area around the abandoned Kubong Au-Ag mine in South-Choongchung Province, Korea. The characteristics of heavy metal uptake by rice crops were also assessed. Paddy soil was moderately contaminated by As, Cd and Pb, and their mean concentrations were 59.4, 1.4 and 67 mg/kg, respectively. The elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn in sediment by direct input of tailings were found as far as 4 km downstream, and tailings effluent contained up to 1,890 {mu}g/l of As and 25 {mu}g/l of Cd, showing that As and Cd in tailings as well as contaminated sediment can be easily mobilized into stream water and irrigation water. Arsenic, Cd and Pb were also enriched in rice crops and their concentration factors were high in the order of Cd>As>Pb. Translocation of As and Pb in rice stalk and leaves was limited to rice grains, but some of the rice grain samples were unsuitable for human diet, considering 3.1 mg/kg of Cd of a maximum content. Given the geographical distributions of As, Cd and Pb, and the increasing fractions of the exchangeable forms of heavy metals in paddy soils compared with those of tailings and stream sediments, it is suggested that the stream water, continuously affected by tailings and contaminated sediment, can be the most important source of the contamination in the study area. For the reclamation of this area, containment of tailings, dredging the contaminated sediment and mixing paddy soils with unpolluted soil or deep plowing will be needed. (author). 23 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children.

  6. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of Southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, A.P.; Annis, M.L.; May, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metals contamination characteristics in soil of different mining activity zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Guo-li; LIAO Da-xue; LI Quan-ming

    2008-01-01

    Depending upon the polluted features of various mining activities in a typical nonferrous metal mine, the contaminated soil area was divided into four zones which were polluted by tailings, mine drainage, dust deposition in wind and spreading minerals during vehicle transportation, respectively. In each zone, soil samples were collected. Total 28 soil samples were dug and analyzed by ICP-AES and other relevant methods. The results indicate that the average contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As in soils are 508.6, 384.8, 7.53, 356 and 44.6 mg/kg, respectively. But the contents of heavy metals in different zone have distinct differences. The proportion of oxidizing association with organic substance is small. Difference of the association of heavy metals is small in different polluted zones.

  8. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Factors Affecting Metal Uptake by Plants in the Vicinity of a Korean Cu-W Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Myung Chae Jung

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in soils and plants in and around a copper-tungsten mine in southeast Korea to investigate the influence of past base metal mining on the surface environment. The results of chemical analysis indicate that the heavy metals in soils decreased with distance from the source, controlled mainly by water movement and topography. The metal concentrations measured in plant species generally decreased in the order; spring onions > soybean leaves > perilla leave...

  10. Biotesting as a Method of Evaluating Waste Hazard in Metallic Mineral Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovaya, Y. R.; Orlova, K. N.; Litovkin, S. V.; Malchik, A. G.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    As the result of identifying content of each chemical element it has been revealed that metallic mineral wastes have a considerable amount of valuable useful metals. Thus, large-tonnage inorganic wastes are considered to be an additional raw source of metal production. This paper highlights the necessity of supplementary biotesting metallic mineral wastes in order to bring into correlation with corresponding hazard classes and facilitate efficient recycling of these wastes in future. It has been found out that determined in this way waste class can be dumped or used after recycling. It has been also indicated that mill tailings are to be stored according to contained metals without messing up dissimilar metal-containing wastes. After winning metals these wastes are similar to the group of inorganic non-metallic wastes and can be used in building material production, for filling mined-out spaces, in road construction etc.

  11. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We review methods for testing toxicity of sediments affected by metals. • Toxicity testing provides site-specific assessment of impacts on resident biota. • Goals are to document extent of toxicity and associations with metal exposure. • Need to characterize bioavailability of metals in sediment and pore water. • Toxicity data is basis for guidelines used to predict hazards of metal toxicity. - Abstract: This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate

  12. Temporal variation and the effect of rainfall on metals flux from the historic Beatson mine, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, L.L.; Foster, A.L.; Koski, R.A.; Munk, L.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2008-01-01

    Several abandoned Cu mines are located along the shore of Prince William Sound, AK, where the effect of mining-related discharge upon shoreline ecosystems is unknown. To determine the magnitude of this effect at the former Beatson mine, the largest Cu mine in the region and a Besshi-type massive sulfide ore deposit, trace metal concentration and flux were measured in surface run-off from remnant, mineralized workings and waste. Samples were collected from seepage waters; a remnant glory hole which is now a pit lake; a braided stream draining an area of mineralized rock, underground mine workings, and waste piles; and a background location upstream of the mine workings and mineralized rock. In the background stream pH averaged ???7.3, specific conductivity (SC) was ???40 ??S/cm, and the aqueous components indicative of sulfide mineral weathering, SO4 and trace metals, were at detection limits or lower. In the braided stream below the mine workings and waste piles, pH usually varied from 6.7 to 7.1, SC varied from 40 to 120 ??S/cm, SO4 had maximum concentrations of 32 mg/L, and the trace metals Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn showed maximum total acid extractable concentrations of 186, 5.9, 6.2 and 343 ??g/L, respectively. With an annual rainfall of ???340 cm (estimated from the 2006 water year) it was expected that rain water would have a large effect on the chemistry of the braided stream draining the mine site. A linear mixing model with two end members, seepage water from mineralized rock and background water, estimated that the braided stream contained 10-35% mine drainage. After rain events the braided stream showed a decrease in pH, SC, Ca + Mg, SO4, and alkalinity, due to dilution. The trace metals Ni and Zn followed this same pattern. Sodium + K and Cl did not vary between the background and braided stream, nor did they vary with rainfall. At approximately 2 and 3 mg/L, respectively, these concentrations are similar to concentrations found in rainfall on the coasts of

  13. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  14. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yacoub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL. The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES. The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  15. Biochar Amendment for Reducing Leachability of Nitro Explosives and Metals from Contaminated Soils and Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Su

    2016-05-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of nitro explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene [DNT], 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX]) in biochar-amended soils and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in biochar-amended mine tailings were investigated via various types of leaching procedures in laboratory-scale batch experiments. The results from the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction showed that approximately 55 to 95% of the explosives were released from the contaminated soils and would thus be considered as mobile. With the addition of biochar, the extracted concentrations of explosives were reduced to less than 10% of the initial concentrations after 10 d. According to the results from a Korean waste leaching method, the TCLP method, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, adding biochar to mine tailings reduced the extractability and bioavailability of metals. The chemical forms of the metals, types of extractants, pH, and curing period strongly affected the extractability of metals from mine tailings. The results suggest that biochar is a promising immobilizer of explosives and metals in contaminated soils and mine tailings under limited conditions. PMID:27136167

  16. Use of Lead Isotopes to Identify Sources of Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosol from Mining Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Omar I.; Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Kyle P. Rine; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Mining operations are a potential source of metal and metalloid contamination by atmospheric particulate generated from smelting activities, as well as from erosion of mine tailings. In this work, we show how lead isotopes can be used for source apportionment of metal and metalloid contaminants from the site of an active copper mine. Analysis of atmospheric aerosol shows two distinct isotopic signatures: one prevalent in fine particles (< 1 μm aerodynamic diameter) while the other corresponds...

  17. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: a pathways approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  18. Metal mining to the aid of the oil sands? Lateral opportunities in industrial cross-breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabag, S.F. [Dumont Nickel Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper demonstrated how oil sands operations can benefit from supporting innovative low cost metal mining to enhance their eco-footprint. Northeast Alberta contains large accumulations of recoverable metals, hosted in metal bearing black shales. Immense low grade polymetallic zones were discovered in 1995 but could not be exploited with existing recovery technologies. However, significant advances in bioleaching of metals from polymetallic black shale deposits have propelled this new deposit type to the forefront over the past 5 years as a long term future source of metals. Compared to traditional smelting and refining, bioleaching has lower Capex/Opex, lower eco-footprint and less energy dependence. Envisaged metal mining in the black shales of northeast Alberta can benefit oil sands operations by consuming large amounts of waste sulfur while also providing collateral opportunities for carbon sinks/offsets. Black shales have the capacity to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Dumont Nickel Inc. is advancing 6 polymetallic black shale projects in northeast Alberta over 2,500 km{sup 2} with potential for hosting up to 20 billion tons in six 50-100 km{sup 2} deposits. The projects present opportunities to develop low footprint metal mines, to use run-of-river hydro, to harvest waste heat, and to combine local technologies to create a new valuable industry independent of energy markets.

  19. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  20. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive.

  1. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  2. Contributions of a compost-biochar mixture to the metal sorption capacity of a mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forján, R; Asensio, V; Rodríguez-Vila, A; Covelo, E F

    2016-02-01

    One technique applied to restore degraded or contaminated soils is to use amendments made of different types of waste materials, which in turn may contain metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn. For this reason, it is important to determine the capacity of the soil to retain these materials, and to compare the sorption capacity between an amended soil and another unamended soil. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and availability of these metals in the soil after applying the amendment, and how it affected the soil's sorption capacity. Sorption isotherms were compared with the empirical models of Langmuir and Freundlich to estimate the sorption capacity. The overall capacity of the soils to sorb Cu, Pb or Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr. The amendments used in this study were a mixture made of compost and biochar in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 100 %), which were applied to the mine tailing from a settling pond from a copper mine. The mine tailing that were amended with the mixture of compost and biochar had a higher sorption capacity than the mine tailing from the unamended pond, and their sorption isotherms had a greater affinity towards Cu, Pb and Zn than the mine tailing that was studied. Therefore, the results obtained show that adding a mixture of compost and biochar favours the retention of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine tailing. PMID:26432263

  3. Stochastic optimization of mine production scheduling with uncertain ore/metal/waste supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leite Andre; Dimitrakopoulos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of long-term mine production scheduling in open pit mines deals with the management of cash flows, typically in the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Conventional mine scheduling utilizes optimization methods that are not capable of accounting for inherent technical uncertainties such as uncertainty in the expected ore/metal supply from the underground, acknowledged to be the most critical factor. To integrate ore/metal uncertainty into the optimization of mine production scheduling a stochastic integer programming (SIP) formulation is tested at a copper deposit. The stochastic solution maximizes the economic value of a project and minimizes deviations from production targets in the pres-ence of ore/metal uncertainty. Unlike the conventional approach, the SIP model accounts and manages risk in ore supply, leading to a mine production schedule with a 29%higher net present value than the schedule obtained from the conventional, industry-standard optimization approach, thus contributing to improving the management and sustainable utilization of mineral resources.

  4. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Korosi, Jennifer B; Hargan, Kathryn E; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Palmer, Michael J; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2016-08-17

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. PMID:27534958

  5. Collapse susceptibility map in abandoned mining areas by microgravity survey: A case study in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González-Castillo, L.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The presence of disused gypsum mine galleries in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain) has caused constructions at the western end of the hill to collapse. The mine, which closed in the 1960s, is disconnected from the surface. Therefore, the precise dimensions and position of the galleries are unknown, making it essential to undertake a thorough microgravity study to assess the collapse susceptibility of the area. On the one hand, we analyze the accuracy of the terrain correction and Bouguer anomaly calculation, varying density values. This study shows that higher density values produce more pronounced residual minima corresponding to the mine galleries. On the other hand, the approximate mine gallery positions and dimensions were derived through forward modelling, then correlated with the gravity residual anomalies produced in the hill. Altogether, these results can be presented as a collapse susceptibility map relating the areas containing mine galleries with shallow voids on the hill.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of boreal sediments affected by metal mining: Metal geochemistry, seasonality, and comparison of several risk assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Kristiina; Kauppila, Tommi; Mäkinen, Jari; Leppänen, Matti T; Lyytikäinen, Merja; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-10-01

    The mining industry is a common source of environmental metal emissions, which cause long-lasting effects in aquatic ecosystems. Metal risk assessment is challenging due to variations in metal distribution, speciation, and bioavailability. Therefore, seasonal effects must be better understood, especially in boreal regions in which seasonal changes are large. We sampled 4 Finnish lakes and sediments affected by mining for metals and geochemical characteristics in autumn and late winter, to evaluate seasonal changes in metal behavior, the importance of seasonality in risk assessment, and the sensitivity and suitability of different risk assessment methods. We compared metal concentrations in sediment, overlying water, and porewater against environmental quality guidelines (EQGs). We also evaluated the toxicity of metal mixtures using simultaneously extracted metals and an acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach together with water quality criteria (US Environmental Protection Agency equilibrium partitioning benchmarks). Finally, site-specific risks for 3 metals (Cu, Ni, Zn) were assessed using 2 biotic ligand models (BLMs). The metal concentrations in the impacted lakes were elevated. During winter stratification, the hypolimnetic O2 saturation levels were low (89%) and neutral pH (6.1-7.5) were found after the autumnal water overturn. Guidelines were the most conservative benchmark for showing an increased risk of toxicity in the all of the lakes. The situation remained stable between seasons. On the other hand, SEM-AVS, equilibrium partition sediment benchmarks (ESBs), and BLMs provided a clearer distinction between lakes and revealed a seasonal variation in risk among some of the lakes, which evidenced a higher risk during late winter. If a sediment risk assessment is based on the situation in the autumn, the overall risk may be underestimated. It is advisable to carry out sampling and risk assessment during periods in which metals are assumed to be the most

  7. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 等

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihuaminingarea including steel smelting,coal mining ,urban and rural districts.A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area.By using the above baseline models,the regional geochemical baseline values of As,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined.On the basis of the baselines,the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources,and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine,iron mine,smelting factory,tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  8. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue

    2006-01-01

    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  9. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F

    2004-07-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

  10. Qinghai 10 Million Tonne Grade Multiple Metal Mine Development Base has Initially Taken Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been learned that,in 2014Qinghai completed 2.777 billion yuan of prospecting investment in the whole year,implemented a total of 703 prospecting projects,and obtained a group of new prospecting achievements,10 million tonnes grade multiple metal mine development base has initially taken shape.

  11. Biological recovery of metals, sulfur and water in the mining and metallurgical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Copini, C.F.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Schultz, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Metals of particular interest in acid mine drainage and industrial wastewaters include copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, manganese, aluminum, lead, nickel, silver, mercury, chromium, uranium and iron, in a concentration that can range from 106 to 102 g/l. The composition of such wastewater reflects th

  12. Glomalin in a mediterranean ecosystem affected by mining activities and its contribution to heavy metals sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, P.; Meier, F.; Borie, G.; Borie, F.

    2009-07-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and usually presents in high amounts in soil, may stabilize heavy metals such as Cu an Zn in soils affected by mining activities, as large areas of central Chile. (Author)

  13. Heavy metals in soils from Baia Mare mining impacted area (Romania) and their bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Carmen; Baciu, Calin; Rosu, Cristina; Pistea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: heavy metals, soil contamination, bioavailability, Romania The fate of various metals, including chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, and lead, and metalloids, like arsenic, antimony, and selenium, in the natural environment is of great concern, particularly in the vicinity of former mining sites, dumps, tailings piles, and impoundments, but also in urban areas and industrial centres. Most of the studies focused on the heavy metal pollution in mining areas present only the total amounts of metals in soils. The bioavailable concentration of metals in soil may be a better predictor for environmental impact of historical and current dispersion of metals. Assessment of the metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility is critical in understanding the possible effects on soil biota. The bioavailability of metals in soil and their retention in the solid phase of soil is affected by different parameters like pH, metal amount, cation-exchange capacity, content of organic matter, or soil mineralogy. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the total fraction and the bioavailable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soil in a well-known mining region in Romania, and to evaluate the influence of soil pH on the metal bioavailability in soil. The heavy metal contents and their bioavailability were monitored in a total of 50 soil samples, collected during June and July 2014 from private gardens of the inhabitants from Baia-Mare area. The main mining activities developed in the area consisted of non-ferrous sulphidic ores extraction and processing, aiming to obtain concentrates of lead, copper, zinc and precious metals. After 2006, the metallurgical industry has considerably reduced its activity by closing or diminishing its production capacity. The analysed soil samples proved to have high levels of Pb (50 - 830 mg/kg), Cu (40 - 600 mg/kg), Zn (100 - 700 mg/kg) and Cd (up to 10 mg/kg). The metal abundance in the total fraction is

  14. Soil metatranscriptomics for mining eukaryotic heavy metal resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehembre, Frédéric; Doillon, Didier; David, Elise; Perrotto, Sandrine; Baude, Jessica; Foulon, Julie; Harfouche, Lamia; Vallon, Laurent; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Richaud, Pierre; Colpaert, Jan V; Chalot, Michel; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Blaudez, Damien; Marmeisse, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Heavy metals are pollutants which affect all organisms. Since a small number of eukaryotes have been investigated with respect to metal resistance, we hypothesize that many genes that control this phenomenon remain to be identified. This was tested by screening soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes which encompass RNA from organisms belonging to the main eukaryotic phyla. Soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs were converted into cDNAs and 35 of them were selected for their ability to rescue the metal (Cd or Zn) sensitive phenotype of yeast mutants. Few of the genes belonged to families known to confer metal resistance when overexpressed in yeast. Several of them were homologous to genes that had not been studied in the context of metal resistance. For instance, the BOLA ones, which conferred cross metal (Zn, Co, Cd, Mn) resistance may act by interfering with Fe homeostasis. Other genes, such as those encoding 110- to 130-amino-acid-long, cysteine-rich polypeptides, had no homologues in databases. This study confirms that functional metatranscriptomics represents a powerful approach to address basic biological processes in eukaryotes. The selected genes can be used to probe new pathways involved in metal homeostasis and to manipulate the resistance level of selected organisms. PMID:23663419

  15. Analysis of the Metals in Soil-Water Interface in a Manganese Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhi Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of the metals of soil-water interface in a manganese mine (Xiangtan, China, on local water environment, there are six kinds of metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb characterized by measuring their concentration, correlation, source, and special distribution using principal component analysis, single factor, and Nemero comprehensive pollution index. The results showed that the corresponding average concentration was 0.3358, 0.045, 0.0105, 0.0148, 0.0067, and 0.0389 mg/L. The logarithmic concentration of Mn, Zn, and Pb was normal distribution. The correlation coefficients (between Mn and Pb, Mn and Zn, Mn and Ni, Cu and Zn, Cu and Pb, and Zn and Cd were found to range from 0.5 to 0.6, and those between Cu and Ni and Cu and Cd were below 0.3. It was found that Zn and Mn pollution were caused primarily by ore mining, mineral waste transportation, tailing slag, and smelting plants, while Cu and Ni mainly originate from the mining industry activities and the traffic transportation in the mining area. In addition, the Cd was considered to be produced primarily from the agricultural or anthropogenic activities. The pollution indexes indicated that metal pollution degree was different in soil-water interface streams as listed in increasing order of pollution level as Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cd. For all of the pollution of the soil-water interface streams, there was moderate metal pollution but along the eastern mine area the pollution seemed to get more serious. There was only a small amount of soil-water interface streams not contaminated by the metals.

  16. Mining-related metals in terrestrial food webs of the upper Clark Fork River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorok, R.A.; LaTier, A.J.; Butcher, M.K.; Ginn, T.C. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fluvial deposits of tailings and other mining-related waste in selected riparian habitats of the Upper Clark Fork River basin (Montana) have resulted in metals enriched soils. The significance of metals exposure to selected wildlife species was evaluated by measuring tissue residues of metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) in key dietary species, including dominant grasses (tufted hair grass and redtop), willows, alfalfa, barley, invertebrates (grasshoppers, spiders, and beetles), and deer mice. Average metals concentrations in grasses, invertebrates, and deer mice collected from tailings-affected sites were elevated relative to reference to reference levels. Soil-tissue bioconcentration factors for grasses and invertebrates were generally lower than expected based on the range of values in the literature, indicating the reduced bioavailability of metals from mining waste. In general, metals concentrations in willows, alfalfa, and barley were not elevated above reference levels. Using these data and plausible assumptions for other exposure parameters for white-tailed deer, red fox, and American kestrel, metals intake was estimated for soil and diet ingestion pathways. Comparisons of exposure estimates with toxicity reference values indicated that the elevated concentrations of metals in key food web species do not pose a significant risk to wildlife.

  17. Application of Innovative Remediation Processes to Mining Effluents contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldini S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the remediation processes by electrowinning and selective sequential precipitation, for toxic metals removal from acid mine drainage. By electrochemical experiments, high metals removal has been achieved: in particular, by Zn and Mn electrodeposition, it was possible to achieve about 93-99% Zn and Mn removal (as MnO2, with a relatively low energetic consumption. The principle of the heavy metals selective sequential precipitation is the combined application of sodium hydroxide solution and hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. For the hydrogen sulfide production the sulphate-reducing bacteria of genus Desulfovibrio was used. The selective sequential precipitation process reaches the selective precipitation of chosen metals with 99% efficiency – Fe, As, Al and Mn in the form of metal hydroxides, Cu and Zn as metal sulfides.

  18. Eco-Environmental Geochemistry of Heavy Metal Pollution in Dexing Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 焦鹏程; 邓坚; 张成江; 王金生

    2004-01-01

    An eco-environmental geochemical investigation was carried out in and around the Dexing mining area to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface water, sediments, soils and plants. The main objective of this study is to assess the environmental situation and evaluate the transferring of heavy metals from mining activities into the food chain. Some samples of water, sediment, topsoil and plant were collected along the Lean River in the Dexing mining area. The total concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were determined by AAS, and Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor AAS. Some indices such as ‘contamination degree',‘geoaccumulation index', and ‘biological absorption coefficient' were used to assess eco-environmental quality. The investigation indicated a highly localized distribution pattern closely associated with the two pollution sources along the Le'an River bank: one is strong acidity and a large amount of Cu in the drainage from the Dexing Cu mining area; and the other is the high concentrations of Pb and Zn in the effluents released from many smelters and mining, processing and extracting activities in the riparian zone. Results from the investigated localities indicated, at least in part, that some problems associated with environmental quality deterioration should be solved in the future.

  19. Heavy metals in cottontail rabbits on mined lands treated with sewage sludge. [Sylvilagus floridanua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, R.L.; Storm, G.L.; Tzilkowski, W.M.; Sopper, W.E.

    Levels of heavy metals in soils, vegetation, and tissues of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on a Pennsylvania strip-mined site treated with sewage sludge were compared with those from a non-treated mine site to determine increases due to treatment effect. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn were higher in vegetation on the sludge-treated site. Zinc was higher in femurs of cottontails from the treated site, but levels of most metals in the tissues of cottontail rabbits from the treated site were comparable to those from a non-treated mine site and a nonmined area. Baseline values for the uptake of Cd were documented with captive cottontail rabbits fed diets supplemented with 0, 5, or 25 mg Cd kg/sup -1/. Captive rabbits fed diets supplemented with a Cd salt accumulated increasing levels of Cd in their tissues, except for muscle, as the dietary intake of Cd increased. Liver and muscle tissue of rabbits collected on treated mine sites contained higher Cd levels than laboratory controls, but overall, cottontail rabbits did not accumulate metals on the sludge-treated site at hazardous levels.

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  1. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: → Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. → Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. → Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. → Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  2. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  3. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Jeffree

    Full Text Available Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi and black catfish (Neosilurus ater were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients, in exposed populations of both species, (ii experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii the number of generations exposed to likely

  4. Magnitude and extent of the impact of a small-scale gold-mine on the geochemistry of stream bed and floodplain sediments in the Horsefly catchment, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Perk, Marcel; Vogels, Marjolein F. A.; Clark, Deirdre E.; Owens, Philip N.; Petticrew, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Mining represents a major source of metal contamination for fluvial systems worldwide. Monitoring and understanding the effects on downstream water and sediment quality is essential for effective management of active and abandoned mine sites. This study aims to determine the downstream effects of th

  5. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  6. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health. PMID:27037696

  7. Characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacterial plasmids isolated from a platinum mine tailings dam / by Tladi Abram Mahlatsi.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlatsi, Tladi Abram

    2012-01-01

    The development of metal-tolerance and antibiotic resistance in bacteria may be caused by metals polluting a particular environment. During mining and mineral processing activities, large quantities of metals are deposited into the soil. These high concentrations of metals are evolutionary pressures selecting for microorganisms tolerant to these metals. Metaltolerance maybe conferred to these organisms by mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. This study describes the characteristics of pl...

  8. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  9. Controlled Metal Detector Mounted on Mine Detection Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Masunaga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Landmine detection capability of metal detectors is very sensitive to the gap between buried landmines and the sensor heads. Therefore, human deminers manually scan ground surface with the metal detectors in such a manner that the sensor heads follow the ground surface. In case of robots assisted landmine detection, this function can be performed accurately and safely by controlling the gap and attitude of the sensor heads. In this investigation, the effectiveness of the gap and attitude control of the sensor head by some mechanical manipulator on the landmine detection performance has been addressed quantitatively. To this end, the paper describes the development of a Controlled Metal Detector (CMD for controlling the gap and attitude of the sensor head. The CMD generates trajectories of the sensor head from the depth information of the ground surface acquired with 3D stereovision camera in order to avoid any obstacles and possible impact with the ground, and then tracks the trajectories with a trajectory-tracking controller. The effectiveness and the impact related to the gap and attitude control on the landmine detection performance of the CMD have been demonstrated by experimental studies.

  10. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Around the Dabaoshan Mine, Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinity of the Dabaoshan Mine, Guangdong Province, China, was studied through determination of total concentrations and chemical speciation of the toxic metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that over the past decades, the environmental pollution was caused by a combination of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ph, with tailings and acid mine drainage being the main pollution sources affecting soils.Significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were found in the tailings as compared with paddy, garden,and control soils, with averages of 1486, 2516, 6.42, and 429 mg kg-1, respectively. These metals were continuously dispersed downstream from the tailings and waste waters, and therefore their concentrations in the paddy soils were as high as 567, 1 140, 2.48, and 191 mg kg-1, respectively, being significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) as compared with those in the garden soils. The results of sequential extraction of the above metals from all the soil types showed that the residual fraction was the dominant form. However, the amounts of metals that were bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter were relatively higher than those bound to carbonates or those that existed in exchangeable forms. As metals could be transformed from an inert state to an active state, the potential environmental risk due to these metals would increase with time.

  11. INFLUENCE OF MINING AND METAL INDUSTRY ON PHYSCIA LICHENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of lichens Physcia. Рopulation at different levels of aerotechnogenic pollution of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. In the highway area there was found the worsening living conditions of thallus at the lichens Physcia, manifested in the reduction of a projective cover and reducing of the size of thallus with the increasing of the degree of their damage. It is set that specific composition and conformities to law of distribution of cladinas is determined the type of the industrial loading. Predominance at the lichens of crustaceous cladinas, insignificant participation of fissile cladinas and complete absence of bushy forms is the possible consequence of industrial influence. We registered some 3 species of epiphytic lichens, namely Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella, Physcia adscendens in a residential zone, while on conditional control area we found Physcia orbicularis. The dominant species was scum-like shape Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia adscendens, Physcia tenella, while on conditional control region we marked predominance of Physcia orbicularis and did not registered bushy lichens form. We also divided the lichens into two groups according to the resistance towards air pollution - moderate (2 species, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella and toxic-resistant (2 species, Physcia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens. Epiphytic lichens in terms of residential areas compared to conventionally control area characterized by a decrease of morphometric parameters of the melt. Key results can be used to predict the state of ecosystems using lichenoindication in terms of industrial regions of Ukraine.

  12. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on.

  13. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values. PMID:27376316

  15. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  18. Scientific investigations accompanying recultivation of abandoned lignite mines in East Germany. Research projects 1994 through 2000; Wissenschaftliche Begleitung der ostdeutschen Braunkohlesanierung. Forschungsprojekte 1994 bis 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gockel, G.; Hildmann, E.; Schlenstedt, J.; Schreiber, M. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    From 1990 the reduction of lignite mining on the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) led to the closure of plants for the production and processing of lignite. This entailed a dramatic demand of redevelopment and transformation of former mining and industrial areas of lignite industry and the creation of the industrial branch of remediation of post-lignite-mining areas, for which suitable structures of management and financing had to be found. The target of these endeavours is the creation of multifunctional to follow former surface mining areas. Ecological and security criteria play an eminent part in this process. Stabilising slopes, recultivation, rehabilitation of a balanced water regime and the elimination of dangers emanating from groundwater and soil contamination by earlier industrial use have particular priority. Recultivation requires scientific preparation and surveillance. Deficits are discussed that have led to the invitation of tenders for a promotion initiative and resulted in the implementation of a number of research projects. This publication deals with the presentation of the tasks and research approaches as well as the description and evaluation of results with the view of their applicability. (orig.)

  19. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  20. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  1. Proceedings of the third International Federation of Automatic Control symposium on automation in mining, mineral and metal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, J.; Polis, M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-four papers covering many aspects of automation in mining, mineral and metal processing are presented. Opening and concluding remarks are also given. Fourteen papers are individually abstracted.

  2. Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) as a biological monitor of changes in soil metal loading related to past mining activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) is the dominant tree species in many abandoned mine areas of the Rocky Mountains. It is long-lived, and therefore, may act as a long term biological monitor of changes in soil chemistry caused by past mining activity. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to analyze individual tree rings of Engelmann spruce for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Sr concentrations. Cores were obtained from trees growing in tailings-impacted and control (non-tailings impacted) sites near the Waldorf mine (Waldorf, CO, USA). Zinc, Cu, Fe, Cd, Pb and Sr concentrations remained low and consistent over time in the control tree rings. However, in the tailings impacted cores, concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd increase significantly in post-mining rings. In addition, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cd concentrations in pre-mining rings of both the control and tailings impacted cores are similar, indicating that present day soil concentrations of these elements in the control area are a reasonable estimation of background for this area. Lead and Sr concentrations in control and tailings-impacted rings remained similar and relatively constant through time and are not useful in determining changes in soil chemistry due to past mining activity. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Possibilities for use of natural raw materials in treatment of mine water contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Zendelska, Afrodita

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation examines the possibility of applying natural raw materials such as clinoptilolite, stilbite and opalitized tuff in removing heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Mn и Cu) from contaminated mine water. The basic examination of these natural raw materials led to the conclusion that the stilbite gives best results, a little lower efficiency is noted for the clinoptilolite, while the opalitized tuff shows the smallest power of absorption compared to that of the stilbite and the clin...

  4. The Use of Bioleaching Methods for the Recovery of Metals Contained in Sulfidic Mining Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Guezennec, Anne-Gwénaëlle; Delclaud, Marie; Savreux, Frederic; Jacob, Jérome; d'Hugues, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Mining wastes can contain base and precious metals, but also metalloids and rare earth elements that are nowadays considered as highly critical for the industrial development of the European Union. The development of alternative routes to conventional processing is still required in order to decrease the cost associated with the treatment of these resources, which are more complex in composition and with lower grades. An ecologically acceptable and yet economic alternative for processing of l...

  5. Growth and metal uptake of energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in different metal mine tailings with soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhang, Yuebin; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Shaochun; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Rudan; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

    2014-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of growing energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in three different metal mine tailings (Cu, Sn and Pb/Zn tailings) amended with uncontaminated soil at different mixing ratios. The results indicated that sugarcane was highly tolerant to tailing environments. Amendments of 20% soil to Sn tailings and 30% soil to Cu tailings could increase the biomass of cane-stem for use as the raw material for bioethanol production. Heavy metals were mostly retained in roots, which indicated that sugarcane was useful for the stabilization of the tailings. Bagasse and juice, as the most valuable parts to produce bioethanol, only accounted for 0.6%-3% and 0.6%-7% of the total metal content. Our study supported the potential use of sugarcane for tailing phytostabilization and bioenergy production.

  6. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons Johannes Maria; Weijma, Jan; Contreras, Paula Gonzalez; Dijkman, Henk; Rozendal, Rene A.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2016-01-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typically about 99% of solid material hauled to, and ground at, the land surface currently ends up as waste (rock dumps and mineral tailings). Exposure of these to air and water frequently leads to the for...

  7. Classification Identification of Acoustic Emission Signals from Underground Metal Mine Rock by ICIMF Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the drawback that fuzzy classifier was sensitive to noises and outliers, Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm was developed, in which bilateral Gaussian membership function parameters were set as constraint conditions and the indexes of fuzzy classification effectiveness and number of correct samples of fuzzy classification as the subgoal of fitness function. Moreover, Iris database was used for simulation experiment, classification, and recognition of acoustic emission signals and interference signals from stope wall rock of underground metal mines. The results showed that Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm could effectively improve the prediction accuracy of classification of data sets with noises and outliers and the classification accuracy of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines was 90.00%. It was obvious that the improved chaos immune Mamdani fuzzy (ICIMF classifier was useful for accurate diagnosis of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines.

  8. Global direct pressures on biodiversity by large-scale metal mining: Spatial distribution and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Diego I; Bringezu, Stefan; Schaldach, Rüdiger

    2016-09-15

    Biodiversity loss is widely recognized as a serious global environmental change process. While large-scale metal mining activities do not belong to the top drivers of such change, these operations exert or may intensify pressures on biodiversity by adversely changing habitats, directly and indirectly, at local and regional scales. So far, analyses of global spatial dynamics of mining and its burden on biodiversity focused on the overlap between mines and protected areas or areas of high value for conservation. However, it is less clear how operating metal mines are globally exerting pressure on zones of different biodiversity richness; a similar gap exists for unmined but known mineral deposits. By using vascular plants' diversity as a proxy to quantify overall biodiversity, this study provides a first examination of the global spatial distribution of mines and deposits for five key metals across different biodiversity zones. The results indicate that mines and deposits are not randomly distributed, but concentrated within intermediate and high diversity zones, especially bauxite and silver. In contrast, iron, gold, and copper mines and deposits are closer to a more proportional distribution while showing a high concentration in the intermediate biodiversity zone. Considering the five metals together, 63% and 61% of available mines and deposits, respectively, are located in intermediate diversity zones, comprising 52% of the global land terrestrial surface. 23% of mines and 20% of ore deposits are located in areas of high plant diversity, covering 17% of the land. 13% of mines and 19% of deposits are in areas of low plant diversity, comprising 31% of the land surface. Thus, there seems to be potential for opening new mines in areas of low biodiversity in the future. PMID:27262340

  9. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  10. Metal-containing residues from industry and in the environment: geobiotechnological urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombitza, Franz; Reichel, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explains the manifold geobiotechnological possibilities to separate industrial valuable metals from various industrial residues and stored waste products of the past. In addition to an overview of the different microbially catalyzed chemical reactions applicable for a separation of metals and details of published studies, results of many individual investigations from various research projects are described. These concern the separation of rare earth elements from phosphorous production slags, the attempts of tin leaching from mining flotation residues, the separation of metals from spent catalysts, or the treatment of ashes as valuable metal-containing material. The residues of environmental technologies are integrated into this overview as well. The description of the different known microbial processes offers starting points for suitable and new technologies. In addition to the application of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms the use of heterotrophic microorganisms is explained.

  11. MetalS(3), a database-mining tool for the identification of structurally similar metal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasatava, Yana; Rosato, Antonio; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Andreini, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a database search tool to identify metal sites having structural similarity to a query metal site structure within the MetalPDB database of minimal functional sites (MFSs) contained in metal-binding biological macromolecules. MFSs describe the local environment around the metal(s) independently of the larger context of the macromolecular structure. Such a local environment has a determinant role in tuning the chemical reactivity of the metal, ultimately contributing to the functional properties of the whole system. The database search tool, which we called MetalS(3) (Metal Sites Similarity Search), can be accessed through a Web interface at http://metalweb.cerm.unifi.it/tools/metals3/ . MetalS(3) uses a suitably adapted version of an algorithm that we previously developed to systematically compare the structure of the query metal site with each MFS in MetalPDB. For each MFS, the best superposition is kept. All these superpositions are then ranked according to the MetalS(3) scoring function and are presented to the user in tabular form. The user can interact with the output Web page to visualize the structural alignment or the sequence alignment derived from it. Options to filter the results are available. Test calculations show that the MetalS(3) output correlates well with expectations from protein homology considerations. Furthermore, we describe some usage scenarios that highlight the usefulness of MetalS(3) to obtain mechanistic and functional hints regardless of homology.

  12. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乐昌; 王焰新; 吕俊文; 卢学实; 刘耀驰; 刘晓阳

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of radioactive pollutants, such as 222Rn, U, Th and 226Ra in the air, surface waters, soils and crops around the Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China, is studied. The mechanical, geochemical and biogeochemical processes responsible for the transport and fate of the radioactive elements are discussed based on the monitoring data. The pollutants concentrations of effluents from the mine tunnels were dependent on pH and which were controlled by biochemical oxidation of sulfide in the ore/host rocks. Radon anomalies in air reached 4 km from the tailings pile depending on radon release from the site, topography and climate. 238U and 226Ra abnormities in stream sediments and soil were 40-90 cm deep and 790-800 m away downstream. Anomalies of radioactive contaminants of surface watercourses extended 7.5-13 km from the discharge of effluents of the site mainly depending on mechanical and chemical processes. There were about 2.86 ha rice fields and 1.59 km stream sediments contaminated. Erosion of tailings and mining debris with little or no containment or control accelerated the contamination processes.

  13. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  14. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan

    1999-05-28

    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  15. Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

  16. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SOIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field, which is reclamation area filled bycoal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine, Liaoning Province, the Northeast China. The soil samples aretaken at different locations, including three kinds of covering soil, three different depths of soil layers and four differentcovering ages of covering soil. The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is studied. The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year; the determinant reasonwhy the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30em depth layer and surface is fertilizer and manure apphcation; the metal elements mainly come from external environment; there is no metal pollution comingfrom mother material (coal mining wastes) in plough layer of covering soil.

  17. SPATIAL—TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SPIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJun-bao; LIUJing-shuang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field,which is reclamation area filled by coal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine,Liaoning Province,the Northeast China.The soil samples are taken at different locations,including three kinds of covering soil,three different depths of soil layers and four different covering ages of covering soil.The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is stud-ied.The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year,the determinant reason why the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30cm depth layer and surface is fertiliz-er and manure application;the metal elements mainly come from external environment;there is no metal pollution coming from mother material (coal mining wastes)in plough layer of covering soil.

  18. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.parraga@upct.es [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain); Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio [Water and Soil Conservation Department, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSIC Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, Espinardo-Murcia ES-30100 (Spain); González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 18}O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain

  19. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ13C and δ18O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain. - Highlights: • Significant amounts of

  20. Hydrogeochemical and mineralogical characteristics related to heavy metal attenuation in a stream polluted by acid mine drainage: a case study in Dabaoshan Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huarong; Xia, Beicheng; Qin, Jianqiao; Zhang, Jiaying

    2012-01-01

    Dabaoshan Mine, the largest mine in south China, has been developed since the 1970s. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from the mine has caused severe environmental pollution and human health problems. In this article, chemical characteristics, mineralogy of ocher precipitations and heavy metal attenuation in the AMD are discussed based on physicochemical analysis, mineral analysis, sequential extraction experiments and hydrogeochemistry. The AMD chemical characteristics were determined from the initialwater composition, water-rock interactions and dissolved sulfide minerals in the mine tailings. The waters, affected and unaffected by AMD, were Ca-SO4 and Ca-HCO3 types, respectively. The affected water had a low pH, high SO4(2-) and high heavy metal content and oxidation as determined by the Fe2+/Fe3+ couple. Heavy metal and SO4(2-) contents of Hengshi River water decreased, while pH increased, downstream. Schwertmannite was the major mineral at the waste dump, while goethite and quartz were dominant at the tailings dam and streambed. Schwertmannite was transformed into goethite at the tailings dam and streambed. The sulfate ions of the secondary minerals changed from bidentate- to monodentate-complexes downstream. Fe-Mn oxide phases of Zn, Cd and Pb in sediments increased downstream. However, organic matter complexes of Cu in sediments increased further away from the tailings. Fe3+ mineral precipitates and transformations controlled the AMD water chemistry. PMID:23505864

  1. Impaired microbial activity caused by metal pollution: A field study in a deactivated uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European frameworks for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated sites integrate information from three lines of evidence: chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological. Regarding the last one, field observations at the contaminated sites are compared to reference site(s) and the differences recorded are analysed at the light of a cause-effect relationship, taking into account the site-specific contamination. Thus, included in the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an deactivated uranium mining area, a battery of soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, arysulphatase, cellulase, acid phosphate) and potential nitrification were assessed in seven sampling sites (A–D–E–F–G–H–I) at different distances from the mine pit. These parameters have been considered good indicators of impacts on soil microbial communities and, subsequently, on soil functions. Soil enzyme activities were impaired in the most contaminated site (A, near the mine pit), for which a higher degree of risk was determined in the tier 1 of ERA. Three other sites within the mining area (F, G, and D) were discriminated on the basis of their low microbial activity, using uni- and multivariate approaches, and validating what had been previously found with chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence. We observed considerable among-site heterogeneity in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, combined with seasonal differences in enzyme activities. Still, the correlation between microbial parameters and soil general physical and chemical parameters was weak. In opposition, significant and negative correlations were found between soil enzyme activities and several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U). These findings suggest a clear correlation between compromised soil function (nutrient recycling) and metal contamination. Such information reinforces the evidence of risks for some sites within the mining area and is an important

  2. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessing the utility of mixed organic materials for removal of metals in mine drainage impacted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Neculita, C.; Lee, G.; Jeong, J.; Cho, D.; Chang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The use of natural organic materials in bioreactors is one of the most sustainable technologies for treatment of metals in mine-impacted waters. Several natural organic substrates including mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw were characterized and used in combination for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Bench-scale batch experiments were performed for 35-day period to evaluate the performance of organic substrates in removing dissolved metals. Overall results indicated that mixtures of different substrates showed satisfactory performances in removing metals (Al > Fe > Mn) (up to 100%), generating alkalinity, and reducing sulfate at both pH conditions. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. Collectively, the substrate mixtures had comparable performances to the mushroom compost, the most commonly used material in field bioreactors, in terms of metal removal, pH neutralization, and sulfate reduction, except for the reactors containing rice straw. Especially, the mixture of sawdust and cow manure was the most efficient substrate for treatment of mine-impacted waters. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO42- ratio was weak and this indicates the type of DOC plays more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  4. Flotation of fine size coal: Mulga Mine, Mead Metals and Minerals Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute of The University of Alabama conducted flotation tests of run-of-mine fine coal from the Mulga mines of the Mead Metals and Minerals Corporation, Birmingham, Alabama, to determine the feasibility of recovering a low-ash (and sulfur) coal acceptable for general industrial marketing. The sample contained about 64 percent coal, 32 percent ash, and 1.4 percent total sulfur. In the better flotation tests, about 92 percent of the coal was recovered in a product containing 6.4 percent ash and 1.2 percent sulfur. As simplicity of flowsheet was of prime consideration, no effort was made to reduce the pyritic sulfur of the concentrates other than the minimal normal rejection accompanying the flotation and cleaning of the coal froths. The benefits to be gained from incorporating a secondary flowsheet to remove the pyrite were questionable.

  5. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. PMID:27450331

  6. Tolerance of Grasses to Heavy Metals and Microbial Functional Diversity in Soils Contaminated with Copper Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Ying; LUO Yong-Ming; HUANG Chang-Yong; LONG Jian; LI Zhen-Gao; P.CHRISTIE

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) mine tallings,because of their high content of heavy metals,are usually hostile to plant colonization.A pot experiment was conducted to determine the tolerance of four forage grasses to heavy metals in Cu mine tailings and to examine the variation in the microbial functional diversity of soils from the tailing sites in southern China.All the four grass species survived on Cu mine tailings and Cu mine tailing-soil mixture.However,on pure mine tailings,the growth was minimal,whereas the growth was maximum for the control without mine railings.The tolerance of grasses to heavy metals followed the sequence: Paspalum notatum >Festuca arundinacea >Lolium perenne >Cynodon dactylon.The planting of forage grasses enhanced the soil microbial biomass.The Biolog data indicated that the soil microbial metabolic profile values (average well color development,community richness,and Shannon index) of the four forage grasses also followed the sequence: P.notatum > F.arundinacea > L.perenne > C.dactylon.Thus,P.notatum,under the experimental conditions of this study,may be considered as the preferred plant species for revegetation of Cu mine tailing areas.

  7. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity and diversity in a reclaimed mining wasteland of red soil area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; CHEN Cheng-li; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    The microbial biomass, basal respiration and substrate utilization pattern in copper mining wasteland of red soil area, southern China, were investigated. The results indicated that soil microflora were obviously different compared with that of the non-mine soil.Microbial biomass and basal respiration were negatively affected by the elevated heavy metal levels. Two important microbial ecophysiological parameters, namely, the ratio of microbial biomass C( Cmic )/organic C( Corg ) and metabolic quotient(qCO2 ) were closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There was a significant decrease in the Cmic/Corg ratio and an increase in the metabolic quotient with increasing metal concentration. Multivariate analysis of Biolog data for sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that heavy metal pollution had a significant impact on microbial community structure and functional diversity. All the results showed that soil microbiological parameters had great potential to become the early sensitive, effective and liable indicators of the stresses or perturbations in soils of mining ecosystems.

  8. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong-Sik; Kang, Sun-Duck; Lee, Sang-Kwon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The remediation or prevention of environmental problems and hazard around mining areas is required to prevent the natural environments and to protect human health. A survey were carried out to exam the characteristics of abandoned mines and to delineate contaminated sites in 4 abandoned mines (Imgee mine, Duckeum mine, Seosung mine and Jeonjuil mine). Permeability experiment was carried out to resolve clogging problems in passive treatment system. Absorption and desorption experiment was carried out to evaluate algae's ability for eliminating metals in mine drainage. In addition, a research on optimal mining method for reducing the area of forest damage in open pit mining areas was carried out. Results of permeability experiment showed that the coefficients of permeability of oak chips mixed with crushed limestone and coarse sand were 4.2 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec and 2.3 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec, respectively. As mine drainage upflowed through the column, metal hydroxide was intensively accumulated near the inlet and the outlet of columns. These phenomena contributed to lower the coefficient of permeability and caused clogging in columns. Further study on the optimal mixture of substrates for maintenance of constant flow and treatment for mine drainage in the wetland system will be required in order to prevent clogging caused by precipitation of metal hydroxides. The absorption test of algae for metals revealed that algae absorbed Fe, Cu and Al. Manganese was absorbed to the extend of 0.3 wt.% of dry algae. Therefore algae may be used for removal of Mn in passive treatment system. Plan Cut method was more superior to Bench Cut method in that the former could minimize the area of forest damage and reduce the mining environmental problems. (author). 19 refs., 39 tabs., 106 figs.

  9. Metal uptake and partitioning in biofuel crops grown on amended mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadowski, T. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Beckett, P.J. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    A major concern for growing biofuel crops on mine tailings waste is the potential uptake of metals into the crop and the subsequent release of metals during fuel consumption. This paper discussed a study in which corn and canola were grown on nickel/copper tailings amended with organic residual material from the pulp and paper industry for analysis to determine the metal uptake. The crop metal and nutrient content was compared to that of crops grown in an agricultural field. The crops were monitored and sampled throughout the growing season. Both above- and below-ground plant components were collected and sorted into roots, shoots, cobs, and pods. The corn cobs were further subdivided into fruit, husk, and bract, whereas the canola pods were subdivided into bract and seed. For inseparable immature cobs, the husk and fruit will be analyzed together, as with the canola pods. The total nutrient and metal content will be determined by acid digestion following separation. The partitioning of the metals within the crops will be determined by plasma spectroscopy.

  10. Antioxidative Responses and Metal Accumulation in Invasive Plant Species Growing on Mine Tailings in Zanjan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. A. BOO JAR; Z. TAVAKKOLI

    2011-01-01

    Tailings of a Pb and Zn mine as a metal-contaminated area (Zone 1) with two pioneer plant species,Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum fabago,were investigated and compared with a non-contaminated area (Zone 2) in the vicinity.Total concentrations of Pb,Zn,and Cu in the soil of Zone 1 were 1 416,2217,and 426 mg kg-1,respectively,and all exceeded their ranges in the normal soils.The soil pH was in the neutral range and most of the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils from both zones were almost similar.The species Z.fabago accumulated higher Cu and Zn in its aerial part and roots than the normal plants.On the other.hand,their concentrations did not reach the criteria that the species could be considered as a metal hyperaccumulator.The species P.harmala did not absorb metals in its roots; accordingly,the accumulation factor values of these metals were lower than 1.The contents of chlorophyll,biomass,malondialdehyde,and dityrosine in these two species did not vary significantly between the two zones studied.In Zone 1,leaf vacuoles of Z.fabago stored 35.6% and 43.2% of the total leaf Cu and Zn,respectively.However,in this species,the levels of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher in Zone 1 than in Zone 2.In conclusion,metal exclusion in P.harmala and metal accumulation in Z.fabago were the basic strategies in the two studied pioneer species growing on the metal-contaminated zone.In response to metal stress,elevation in antioxidant enzyme activities,increases in the PCs and GSH levels in the aerial parts,and metal storage within vacuoles counteracted each other in the invasion mechanism of Z.fabago.

  11. Spatial Variability of Trace Metals in Surface and Groundwater Within a Contaminated Mining Environment in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Armah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to spatially assess the distribution of heavy metals within the catchment of the Tarkwa mining area using interpolation techniques in a geographical information systems environment. Water quality trends for 84 sites in Tarkwa, a mining district in Ghana, were examined for fourteen (14 parameters-pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, turbidity, nitrates, sulphates, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, total cyanides, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni and lead (Pb. Kriging was utilized to illustrate the spatial patterns of variables. The results showed that surface and groundwater are contaminated by As, Cd, Fe, Mn and Pb with the average concentrations exceeding World Health Organisation guideline values. The spatial dependence of the heavy metals was assessed using variogram parameters which varied from 320.30 to 4842.25 m. Significant correlations were found among heavy metals, which suggest a common origin. This is confirmed by the cluster analysis which indicated that Fe, As and Pb belonged to one group. The use of geostatistical tools in water quality assessment in this study enhances our understanding of spatial trends.

  12. High efficiency of heavy metal removal in mine water by limestone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhigang; ZHOU Lifa; BAO Zhengyu; GAO Pu; SUN Xingwang

    2009-01-01

    The removal of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from dilute mine water by using several geological materials including pure limestone, sand, carbonaceous limestone and brecciated limestone was performed on a laboratory scale. The results showed that to add geological materials in combination with sodium carbonate injection would notably enhance the efficiency of heavy metal removal to varying degrees. Pure limestone was found the best one among the four materials mentioned above for removing heavy metals from mine water. The removal efficiencies of pure limestone when it is ground as fine as 30-60 meshes are 58.6% for Cd, 100% for Cu, 47.8% for Ni, and 36.8% for Zn at 20℃. The optimum pH is about 8.9 to 9.1. The mechanism of higher effective removal, perhaps, is primarily due to co-precipitation under the control of calcite-related pH value. According to this research, Na2CO3 injection manners, including slug dosing and drip-wise, seemed to have little impact on the efficiency of heavy metal removal.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine...

  14. Spectral Estimation Model Construction of Heavy Metals in Mining Reclamation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jihong; Dai, Wenting; Xu, Jiren; Li, Songnian

    2016-01-01

    The study reported here examined, as the research subject, surface soils in the Liuxin mining area of Xuzhou, and explored the heavy metal content and spectral data by establishing quantitative models with Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR), Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and Sequential Minimal Optimization for Support Vector Machine (SMO-SVM) methods. The study results are as follows: (1) the estimations of the spectral inversion models established based on MLR, GRNN and SMO-SVM are satisfactory, and the MLR model provides the worst estimation, with R² of more than 0.46. This result suggests that the stress sensitive bands of heavy metal pollution contain enough effective spectral information; (2) the GRNN model can simulate the data from small samples more effectively than the MLR model, and the R² between the contents of the five heavy metals estimated by the GRNN model and the measured values are approximately 0.7; (3) the stability and accuracy of the spectral estimation using the SMO-SVM model are obviously better than that of the GRNN and MLR models. Among all five types of heavy metals, the estimation for cadmium (Cd) is the best when using the SMO-SVM model, and its R² value reaches 0.8628; (4) using the optimal model to invert the Cd content in wheat that are planted on mine reclamation soil, the R² and RMSE between the measured and the estimated values are 0.6683 and 0.0489, respectively. This result suggests that the method using the SMO-SVM model to estimate the contents of heavy metals in wheat samples is feasible.

  15. Spectral Estimation Model Construction of Heavy Metals in Mining Reclamation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jihong; Dai, Wenting; Xu, Jiren; Li, Songnian

    2016-01-01

    The study reported here examined, as the research subject, surface soils in the Liuxin mining area of Xuzhou, and explored the heavy metal content and spectral data by establishing quantitative models with Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR), Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and Sequential Minimal Optimization for Support Vector Machine (SMO-SVM) methods. The study results are as follows: (1) the estimations of the spectral inversion models established based on MLR, GRNN and SMO-SVM are satisfactory, and the MLR model provides the worst estimation, with R2 of more than 0.46. This result suggests that the stress sensitive bands of heavy metal pollution contain enough effective spectral information; (2) the GRNN model can simulate the data from small samples more effectively than the MLR model, and the R2 between the contents of the five heavy metals estimated by the GRNN model and the measured values are approximately 0.7; (3) the stability and accuracy of the spectral estimation using the SMO-SVM model are obviously better than that of the GRNN and MLR models. Among all five types of heavy metals, the estimation for cadmium (Cd) is the best when using the SMO-SVM model, and its R2 value reaches 0.8628; (4) using the optimal model to invert the Cd content in wheat that are planted on mine reclamation soil, the R2 and RMSE between the measured and the estimated values are 0.6683 and 0.0489, respectively. This result suggests that the method using the SMO-SVM model to estimate the contents of heavy metals in wheat samples is feasible. PMID:27367708

  16. Barrier capacity of weathered coal mining wastes with respect to heavy metal and organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some types of weathered, buffered coal mining wastes (CMW), being essentially heterogenous and complex mineralogical system of developed surface area, under certain conditions could be widely applicable for binding a variety of contaminants both inorganic in cationic or anionic form, and organic compounds. The experiments reported earlier, showed excellent Cr(VI)-binding capacity of CMW. In this paper, experiments on simultaneous removal of heavy metals Crt, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ from highly (pH 2.5) and mildly acidic solutions (pH 4.0), as well as of organic compounds and color reduction in leachate from solid industrial waste dump (foundry wastes) will be presented

  17. Eliminating Cyanide, Reducing Heavy Metals, and Harvesting Gold from Mining Waste with Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    wastewater combines several benefits: cyanide is removed, plants are irrigated and fertilised. Heavy metals (including gold) are extracted by plants. Plants can be harvested and used, e.g., for energy production by burning. The ash of the plants is probaly rich in gold and a resource for further gold......Large amounts of cyanides are used in gold mining. The application is open and generates environmental problems. Regulators therefore insist on detoxifying cyanide-contaminated wastewater. There are existing technologies to remove cyanides, but none uses plants. Here, a new technology is introduced...

  18. Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

  19. ARPANSA's regulatory role in the protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Licensing the remediation of abandoned uranium mine workings in Kakadu National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARPANSA was established by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 to perform a number of specific functions including the licensing of those activities involving radioactive material that are undertaken by Commonwealth entities. This paper describes the role of the regulator in the rehabilitation of an area of Kakadu National Park, which has been licensed as a Prescribed Radiation Facility. When making a decision on whether to issue a licence, the CEO of ARPANSA is obliged by the ARPANS Act to consider, inter alia, whether it has been established that the proposed conduct can be carried on without undue risk to the health and safety of people, and to the environment. However, when licensing the remediation of environmental and radiological consequences of mining activities special difficulties may arise in determining the regulatory approach to be adopted with regard to an intervention of this nature. One specific example is the limited internationally accepted objective radiological criteria on which to base regulation of any remediation. In the particular case of an intervention in Kakadu National Park, the multiplicity of interest groups directly or indirectly involved in management of the affairs of this world heritage listed area adds an extra element to the regulatory equation. (author)

  20. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  1. Arsenic and heavy metal uptake and accumulation in native plant species from soils polluted by mining activities

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Salgado, Sara; Garcia Casillas, David; Quijano Nieto, M. Angeles; Bonilla Simon, M. Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and heavy metal (specifically Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) uptake, translocation, and accumulation in ten native plant species spontaneously growing in soils polluted by mining activities were studied, with a focus on future phytoremediation work in polluted soils. Plant and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of the Mónica mine (NW Madrid, Spain). Soil analysis showed the ability of native plants for growing in soils with high concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and especi...

  2. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an Acid mine drainage-contaminated natural wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, John W; Fournelle, John H; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  3. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  4. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  5. Risk Analysis of Metals in Soil from a Restored Coal Mining Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Siping; Gao, Liangmin; Zhao, Junjie

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate ecological impacts of metals in soil from the restored Panyi coal mining area of China. Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd had significantly accumulated in the studied soil compared with regional background values (p<0.05). Geo-accumulation indices indicate that the soil was at low risk for Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb contamination, while a low to moderate risk for Cr and Cd contamination existed. The ecological impact of all the selected metals was identified by ecological soil screening levels, apart from Cr, the impact of which was determined based on Dutch Target and Intervention Values. Results suggest that plants may be significantly affected by Ni, the avian population by Zn, Pb and Cd, while mammals are possibly influenced by Cd. PMID:26067704

  6. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD.

  7. Risk Analysis of Metals in Soil from a Restored Coal Mining Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Siping; Gao, Liangmin; Zhao, Junjie

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate ecological impacts of metals in soil from the restored Panyi coal mining area of China. Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd had significantly accumulated in the studied soil compared with regional background values (prisk for Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb contamination, while a low to moderate risk for Cr and Cd contamination existed. The ecological impact of all the selected metals was identified by ecological soil screening levels, apart from Cr, the impact of which was determined based on Dutch Target and Intervention Values. Results suggest that plants may be significantly affected by Ni, the avian population by Zn, Pb and Cd, while mammals are possibly influenced by Cd.

  8. Simulation of topographic reconstruction of abandoned mine based on sub-watershed natural geomorphology%基于小流域自然形态的废弃矿区地形重塑模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翠霞; 赵廷宁; 谢宝元; 曹福存; 张成梁; 张艳

    2014-01-01

    Topographic reconstruction is a crucial part of land reclamation and ecological rehabilitation because the resulting geography landscapes are the foundations for all subsequent reclamation practices and the surfaces for future land uses. It is also ranked among the most important research technical problems. Nature can provide analogues for mined or mining landscapes during disturbed-land reclamation according to landscape stability and according to the reconstructed structure blending in with the surrounding undisturbed landscape. In terms of the watershed geomorphology and the principle of self-similarity theory, the sub-catchments and channels of abandoned mines were re-planned by using ArcGIS soft technology and a practical survey in this paper. At the same time, the topography characteristics of adjacent, undisturbed catchments were calculated by applying an ArcGIS Hydrologic analysis tool, which was taken as the following simulation reference standard. Then the topography in a sub-watershed unit in the Huangyuan abandoned quarry project of Fangshan county in Beijing city was reconstructed by using a Geofluv (Natural Regrade) module driven by geomorphic principles, in which this module simulated the function of the natural landscape that would evolve over time under the physical and climatic conditions present at the site to water and sediment from the land surface in a stable hydrologic equilibrium. Moreover, the theory and technical method of the reconstructed topography were studied. The initial study of the sub-watershed on the undisturbed landform in the project’s vicinity were selected and calculated to develop a stable channel design and reconstruction guidelines by using GIS spatial analysis tools, and the selected geomorphologic characteristics index were first and second order sub-watershed, the average sub-watershed area, main channel, drainage density, watershed roundness, average elevation difference, and average slope, which provided targets

  9. Development Theme of the Modern Metal Mining%现代金属矿业的发展主题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古德生; 周科平

    2012-01-01

    China is a big mining country, but not a strong one yet In order to accelerate the modernization of metal mining industry, in accordance with national conditions and thinking about the future, three metal mining developmental themes are put forward, which are: green mining; deep mining and intelligent mining. The paper has discussed the mining developmental topics related to definitions, connotations, the background of innovation, science and technology requirements and prospects for development, respectively. Furthermore, some innovative academic ideas are proposed.%我国是矿业大国,但非矿业强国.为了加速金属矿业现代化,依据国情,思考未来,提出了我国金属矿业的三大发展主题,即绿色开发、深部开采和智能采矿.对发展主题的相关定义、内涵、创新背景、科技需求与发展前景等分别进行了讨论,进而提出了一些具有新意的学术思想.

  10. Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings and soils around a Pb-Zn mine in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Ruiz, E; Alonso-Azcárate, J; Rincón, J

    2009-02-01

    Soil pollution by lead, zinc, cadmium and copper was characterized in the mine tailings and surrounding soils (arable and pasture lands) of an old Spanish Pb-Zn mine. Sixty soil samples were analyzed, determining the total metal concentration by acid digestion and the chemical fractionation of Pb and Zn by the modified BCR sequential extraction method. Samples belonging to mine waste areas showed the highest values, with mean concentrations of 28,453.50 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 7000.44 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 20.57 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 308.48 mg kg(-1) for Cu. High concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding arable and pasture lands, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Acidic drainage and wind transport of dust were proposed as the main effects causing the dispersion of pollution. Sequential extraction showed that most of the Pb was associated with non-residual fractions, mainly in reducible form, in all the collected samples. Zn appeared mainly associated with the acid-extractable form in mine tailing samples, while the residual form was the predominant one in samples belonging to surrounding areas. Comparison of our results with several criteria reported in the literature for risk assessment in soils polluted by heavy metals showed the need to treat the mine tailings dumped in the mine area.

  11. [Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in stream sediments from a typical nonferrous metals mining city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Yan-Min; Pan, Cheng-Rong; Chen, Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2013-03-01

    A modified Tessier's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of seven types of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, As) in the surface sediments from Huixi Stream in Tongling City, a typical nonferrous metals mining city, China. Based on speciation distribution analysis of these metals, contamination degree and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals were conducted by means of risk assessment code (RAC) and mean sediment quality guideline quotient (SQG-Q). The results show that: (1) Cr and As are major composed with residual fractions, Zn, Ni and Pb are mainly constituted of residual and bound to iron and manganese oxides fractions, and Cu is dominated by bounding to organic matter, while Cd exists in approximate mass fractions of exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron and manganese oxides, and residue. (2) Carbonate and exchangeable mass fractions of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As reach 46.48%, 4.62%, 4.05%, 4.12%, 9.17%, 0.97% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the RAC, Cd is of high risk to the environment, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni are of low risk to the environment, while Pb and As pose extreme low risk to the environment. (3) The SQG index, calculated with SQG-Q, is 10.42, which is far higher than the threshold value 1.0, indicating that the sediment in Huixi Stream has a very high potential for biological toxicity effect. The PEL-Q indexes corresponding to Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As approach 4.23, 1.14, 20.75, 6.04, 2.33, 4.58 and 41.71, respectively, suggesting that all these metals have great potentials for biological toxicity and the adverse effects will frequently occur.

  12. Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils near the Almalyk Mining and Smelting Industrial Area, Uzbekistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obidjon KODIROV; Nosir SHUKUROV

    2009-01-01

    The present study demonstrates distribution and chemical forms of heavy metals in soils of the AImalyk mining and smelting industrial area along five transects. The study area is located in Almalyk, Uzbekistan, where the intensification of industrial enterprises negatively impacts the environment. The distribution of 17 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb,Ba, Th, and U) were studied in 21 sampling locations (21×3=63 soil samples) along five radial transects with a total length of 60 km downwind deposition gradient. Soil samples were collected from the upper layer (0-10 cm) at 4-6 km intervals. As a result of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analyses by using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, Philips Analytical Ink, USA ), a significant decrease in heavy metal (Cn, Zn, Pb) deposition was found going from the source in a downwind direction. Soil samples taken from the first location (near the pollution sources) showed higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb, and lower concentrations with increasing distance from the source. Obtained data showed different impact of pollution sources to heavy metal deposition and distribution in soils. The Almalyk mining and smelting complex is the major source of Pb, Zn and Cu enrichment in soils. Distribution of other trace elements does not exceed background content and suggests lithogenic background. This allowed us to divide these elements into two groups: (1) technogenic (Cu, Zn and Pb); and (2) iithogenic (Sc, V, Cr, Co,Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Th and U) origins.

  13. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boamponsem, L.K. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Adam, J.I. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Dampare, S.B., E-mail: dampare@cc.okayama-u.ac.j [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka 3-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nyarko, B.J.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Essumang, D.K. [Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2010-05-01

    In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  14. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  15. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    “Transformation of abandonment, a new critical practice” Abstract. While the major cities in Denmark are experiencing growth in population and economy, the surrounding rural areas face abandoned villages and increasing decay. This research focuses on the abandoned houses, seeking an alternative...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...... are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life...

  16. 基于社会责任视角下的矿山企业弃置费用会计政策研究%Based on the community responsibility angle of view's under mining enterprises abandons the expense accounting policy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱卫林; 雷芳

    2011-01-01

    This article from mineral resource business accounting and enterprise community responsibility's relations' obtaining, abandons the expense in view of the mining enterprise the particularity, proposed that the present accounting standards the guidance are insufficient in the operation stratification plane, to a certain extent does not favor the standard mining enterprise to undertake the community responsibility, finally proposed abandons the expense calculation related suggestion and the measure to the mining enterprise, guaranteed that the mining enterprise can carry on the land reclamation and the geological disaster positively prevents and controls, promote social sustainable development, safeguard economic society har-morious development.%本文从矿山企业弃置费用与企业社会责任的关系人手,针对矿山企业弃置费用的特殊性,指出现行会计准则在操作层面上指导性不足,在一定程度上不利于规范矿山企业承担社会责任.最后,提出了对矿山企业弃置费用核算相关建议及措施,以保证矿山企业能够积极进行土地复垦和地质灾害防治,促进社会的可持续发展,保障经济社会和谐发展.

  17. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use. - Rhizospheric fungi and organic matter encourage plant vegetation of tailings by pioneers and colonizing species.

  18. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Larrocea, Maria del Pilar [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, Rogelio [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, Jani [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Garduno, Margarita Diaz [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Lopez-Meyer, Melina [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Gomez-Flores, Lydia [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, Ma. del Carmen A., E-mail: carmeng@colpos.m [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use. - Rhizospheric fungi and organic matter encourage plant vegetation of tailings by pioneers and colonizing species.

  19. Uranium biomineralization by a metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from contaminated mine waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium biomineralization by a metal-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from uranium mine waste was characterized for its potential in bioremediation. Uranium resistance, its cellular localization and chemical nature of uranium-bacteria interaction were elucidated. Survival and uranium biomineralization from mine water were investigated using microcosm experiments. The selected bacterium showed U resistance and accumulation (maximum of 275 mg U g-1 cell dry wt.) following incubation in 100 mg U L-1, pH 4.0, for 6 h. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that bioaccumulated uranium was deposited within the cell envelope as needle shaped U-phosphate compounds that attain crystallinity only at pH 4.0. A synergistic involvement of deprotonated phosphate and carboxyl moieties in facilitating bioprecipitation of uranium was evident from FTIR analysis. Based on these findings we attribute the localized U sequestration by this bacterium as innocuous complex to its possible mechanism of uranium resistance. Microcosm data confirmed that the strain can remove soluble uranium (99%) and sequester it as U oxide and phosphate minerals while maintaining its viability. The study showed that indigenous bacteria from contaminated site that can survive uranium and other heavy metal toxicity and sequester soluble uranium as biominerals could play important role in uranium bioremediation.

  20. Screening of metal-resistant coal mine bacteria for biofabrication of elemental silver nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBHASMITA PANDA; KANTI KUSUM YADAV; PARTH SARTHI NAYAK; MANORANJAN ARAKHA; SUMAN JHA

    2016-04-01

    Green synthesis approaches for nanoparticle synthesis are considered as nontoxic, eco-friendly and cost-effective approaches than other physical and chemical approaches. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using the bacteria from the habitat of relatively metal-rich coal mine dust. The bacteria showed resistance to significant concentration of anti-microbial Ag(I) ion. The nanoparticle was synthesized at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag(I) using only two isolates. The synthesis of silver nanoparticle was confirmed from the surface plasmon resonance property of the nanoparticle, whereas morphological features were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope. The hydrodynamic size analysis showed the presence ofmicroparticles along with the nanoparticles. Additionally, IR study provided information about the bacterial proteins involved in either reduction of Ag(I) into silver nanoparticle or capping of reduced silver nanocrystal or both.Thus, majority of the bacteria found in the coal mines have the resistance against the antimicrobial metal ion, and the potential to reduce the ion into nano- or micro-particles. Hence, the bacteria can be used as a single cell factoryfor production of silver nanomaterial.

  1. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  2. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  3. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  4. Release of Heavy Metals from the Pyrite Tailings of Huangjiagou Pyrite Mine: Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangqian Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the basic information about the release of heavy metals from the pyrite tailings of Huangjiagou pyrite mine, the pyrite tailings were investigated through a series of batch experiments under different initial pH of extractant, temperature, liquid-solid (LS ratio, and soaking time conditions. Moreover, calcium carbonate was added in the pyrite tailings to determine the reduction effect on the release of heavy metals. The results show that Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni were the major heavy metals in the pyrite tailings. Low initial pH and high LS ratio significantly promoted Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn release, and high temperature significantly promoted Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni release. Only small amounts of Cr were detected at low LS ratios. With the increase of soaking time, the released amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn increased to the maximum value within 48 h, respectively. After adding calcium carbonate, the released amounts of Fe, Cu, and Zn reduced at least 70.80% within 48 h soaking time. The results indicate that summer and the early soaking stage are the main phases for the release of heavy metals from the pyrite tailings. In the pyrite tailings, Cr is difficult to release. Adding calcium carbonate can effectively reduce the release of Fe, Cu, and Zn.

  5. Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

  6. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Hazen, Terry C; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    To understand the links between the long-term impact of uranium and other metals on microbial community composition, ground- and surface water-influenced soils varying greatly in uranium and metal concentrations were investigated at the former uranium-mining district in Ronneburg, Germany. A soil-based 16S PhyloChip approach revealed 2358 bacterial and 35 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTU) within diverse phylogenetic groups with higher OTU numbers than at other uranium-contaminated sites, e.g., at Oak Ridge. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB), which have the potential to attenuate uranium and other metals by the enzymatic and/or abiotic reduction of metal ions, were found at all sites. Although soil concentrations of solid-phase uranium were high, ranging from 5 to 1569 μg·g (dry weight) soil(-1), redundancy analysis (RDA) and forward selection indicated that neither total nor bio-available uranium concentrations contributed significantly to the observed OTU distribution. Instead, microbial community composition appeared to be influenced more by redox potential. Bacterial communities were also influenced by bio-available manganese and total cobalt and cadmium concentrations. Bio-available cadmium impacted FeRB distribution while bio-available manganese and copper as well as solid-phase zinc concentrations in the soil affected SRB composition. Archaeal communities were influenced by the bio-available lead as well as total zinc and cobalt concentrations. These results suggest that (i) microbial richness was not impacted by heavy metals and radionuclides and that (ii) redox potential and secondary metal contaminants had the strongest effect on microbial community composition, as opposed to uranium, the primary source of contamination. PMID:26122566

  7. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Haz