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Sample records for abandoned coppice forests

  1. Coppice abandonment and its implications for species diversity in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 343, May 1 (2015), s. 88-100 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conversation * forest management * history Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  2. Effects of small-scale management on biodiversity of an abandoned coppice forest in Japan: a case study on vegetation regeneration and ground beetle community

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    S. Shibuya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of small-scale vegetation disturbances on biodiversity in an abandoned coppice forest in central Japan during 2004–2006. We assessed biodiversity by examining vegetation regeneration and by changes in the diversity and abundance of ground beetles after experimental manipulations including tree felling, vegetation clearing, and litter removal. Our experimental design was dictated by the need of producing only small disturbances; therefore we could not replicate plots. Instead, we used a repeated measures approach during three years to document the consistency of experimental effects. We found that the diversity of regenerating vegetation increased dramatically due to recruitment of many new species after clearing ground vegetation. Tree cutting caused strong environmental changes and affected vegetation regeneration rate but not diversity. Tree cutting also significantly increased the diversity of ground beetle species, while litter removal affected the abundance of ground beetles. Our results suggest that a sound conservation practice shall combine tree cutting with ground vegetation clearing and litter removal. Besides, conservation of abandoned forests may be based on low-intensity labor, including tree cutting on restricted areas. Finally, ground beetles appeared to be surprisingly sensitive to vegetation disturbance on a restricted area and thus can be suggested for monitoring such small-scale-disturbance-based conservation practices.

  3. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  4. Overmature periurban Quercus-Carpinus coppice forests in Austria and Japan: a comparison in view of carbon stocks, stand characteristics and conversion to high forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Terada, Toru; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Periurban coppice forests have a long history and tradition in Austria, as well as in Japan. Although developed in a slightly different context, such forests faced nearly the same fate during the last century. While these once served biomass almost exclusively as a feedstock for thermal energy, their significance decreased with the increasing use of fossil fuels and coppice management was consequently abandoned and the area developed, or these forests were converted into high forests with different management aims. This study tries to assess the status of periurban forests that were previously managed as coppice in a comparative approach between Austria and Japan. The focus is stand structure, biomass and C stocks, as well as a comparison with high forest. In Japan, we further directly assessed the consequences of coppice to high forest conversion on soil chemistry. We found remarkable similarities in species distribution and total C stocks. While lower diameter classes are dominated by Carpinus, Quercus is only found in larger diameter classes, indicating the overmature character of both stands due to the lapse from a recognized system of coppice management with occasional fuelwood harvesting in the past decades. Total C stocks are comparable, but SOC is significantly higher in Japanese Andosols. The conversion of coppice to high forest in the 1960's in Japan had a notable impact on soil chemistry. This concerns especially the N cycle and we also observed fewer phenolic compounds in mineral soil after conversion. The authors find that there may be multiple benefits for restoring coppice management to these periurban forests. This includes increased biomass production capabilities and carbon sequestration as well as a better habitat provision and a higher biodiversity.

  5. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košulič, Ondřej; Michalko, Radek; Hula, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40%) and red-listed threatened species (26%). The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small-scale improvements

  6. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

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    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  7. Coppice forests, or the changeable aspect of things, a review

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    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coppiced forests were the main source of firewood, brushwood, and charcoal for rural and urban settlements’ basic needs such as cooking food and domestic heating for thousands of years and up to the mid-20th century in many European countries and, specifically, in Mediterranean countries. The global diffusion of fossil fuels reduced this leadership and the coppice system turned, to some extent, to a reminder of the past. Nowadays, the ongoing global changes and the related green-economy issues call for resilient systems and effective bio-energy producers. These issues have caused a second turning point and the coppice has returned fifty years later to play a role. A review of the silvicultural system has been carried out with a special focus on the changes which have occurred in between, taking Italy as a consistent case-study. The analysis is mainly framed upon the long-term research trials established by the CREA-Forestry Research Centre in the late sixties, to find out adaptive management strategies and overcome the system’s crisis. The findings and further knowledge achieved so far on the dynamics and functioning of coppice forests in the outgrown phase, both as natural evolutive patterns and silviculture-driven processes, are highlighted in this paper. They provide useful tools to handle the management shift regarding forthcoming issues, i.e. the current role attributable to the coppice system within the changing environment and the renewable energy demand. The basic features of each management area and their complementarities within the current framework are outlined.

  8. Armillaria root disease affects oak coppice regeneration in upland Missouri Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Bruhn; D. C. Dey; K. K. Kromroy; J. D. Mihail; J. M. Kabrick; J. J., Jr. Wetteroff

    2005-01-01

    Coppice regeneration is favored in North America for oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration. Although models of oak stump sprouting do not consider Armillaria root disease, many oak stumps in upland Ozark forest stands carry active Armillaria root crown infections. The spatial pattern of sprouting on oak stumps is...

  9. Patterns of functional diversity of two trophic groups after canopy thinning in an abandoned coppice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipoš, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Hula, V.; Chudomelová, Markéta; Košulič, O.; Niedobová, J.; Riedl, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-58 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice restoration * functional diversity * trophic groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  10. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  11. Forecasting tree growth in coppiced and high forests in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, Marko; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Levanič, T.; Szatniewska, Justyna; Pokorný, Radek; Linares, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC (2017), s. 56-68 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : coppice * high forest * senssile oak * dendroecology * basal area increment * climate change * emission scenarios Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  12. Coppices in Tuscany: considerations on the relationship between forest management and natural resources

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    Giunti M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the amount of wood samples resulting from coppicing and the recent years trend based on national and regional inventories data and on the “Report on the state of forests in Tuscany, 2008”. I highlight the difficulty in assessing a relationship between forest planning and protection of natural elements susceptible to deterioration of old forests. I also point out the difficulty of choosing appropriate indicators and investigation scale. Finally I analyze the regional laws in force, highlighting the rules can be critical for the habitat and/or the species of conservation concern.

  13. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

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    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  14. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C.L.

    1978-03-01

    Progress is reported in research to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing the nitrogen fixing tree Alnus glutinosa to plantations of Plantanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Plantations to compare growth rates of pure and mixed plots of the three species have been established on two sites in Georgia. Locations were selected on the basis of physiographic province (Piedmont and Coastal Plain) on soils which probably will be available for short rotation forestry. Propagation techniques for mass-cloning Platanus occidentalis using single buds and internodes of dormant or active twigs from young trees were developed. Tissue culture procedures were used to induce bud and root formation in callus cultures of Robinia and Gleditsia. Research dealing with fluctuations in starch and sugar levels in coppiced root systems of sycamore during the winter is reported. Total available carbohydrates ranged from 15 to 26 percent of root dry weight and starch to sugar conversion was detected. However, more starch disappeared than could be accounted for by the concomitant rise of sugar levels. There were some differences between annually coppiced root systems and those cut every two years. (JGB)

  15. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  16. Application of Nearest Neighbor Indices in Persian Oak (Quercus brantii var. persica Coppice Stands of Zagros Forests

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    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecological relationship between trees is important in the sustainable management of forests. Studying this relationship in spatial ecology, different indices are applied that are based on distance to nearest neighbor. The aim of this research was introduction of important indices based on nearest neighbor analysis and their application in the investigation of ecological relationship between Persian oak coppice trees in Zagros forests. A 9 ha plot of these forests in Kohgilouye - BoyerAhmad province was selected that was completely homogeneous. This plot was covered with Persian oak coppice trees that their point map was obtained after registering their spatial location. Five nearest neighbor indices of G(r, F(r, J(r, GF(r and CE were then applied to study the spatial pattern and relationship of these trees. The results showed that Persian oak coppice trees were located regularly in the homogeneous plot and they were not dependent ecologically. These trees were independent and did not affect the establishment of each other.

  17. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of the project is to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Robinia pseudoacacia and others) to plantations of Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Yield increases due to intensive cultivation, especially fertilization and irrigation, will be documented. A genetic improvement program of promising candidate species both through the identification of superior genotypes and mass cloning with tissue culture is also included. Three plantings have been established successfully to screen candidate species on various sites and to test the effects of weed control, fertilization and irrigation on short rotation forests. Two plantations in Georgia are in their 2nd and 3rd growing seasons while one in South Carolina is in its 1st growing season. A two acre plantation has been established to test development of geographic seed source material for sycamore. A nursery is in operation to develop seedling production methods for new species and to grow and maintain genetic material. Mass cloning of selected material by tissue culture techniques has produced material for testing in outplantings.

  18. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest

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    Mattia eTerzaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated 6 times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm. The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest.

  19. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

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    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  20. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  1. Coppicing systems as a way of understanding patterns in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Ewald, J.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Kirkby, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : traditional coppices * vegetation dynamics * ecological restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  2. Integrating conservation objectives into forest management: coppice management and forest habitats in Natura 2000 sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mairota, P.; Buckley, P.; Suchomel, C.; Heinsoo, K.; Verheyen, K.; Hédl, Radim; Terzuolo, P. G.; Sindaco, R.; Carpanelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, AUG 2016 (2016), s. 560-568 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * habitats directive * forest habitat types Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  3. ABILITY OF LANDSAT-8 OLI DERIVED TEXTURE METRICS IN ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND CARBON STOCKS OF COPPICE OAK FORESTS

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    A. Safari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9, and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1] to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared. Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived

  4. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  5. SOIL SEED BANK IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST AND ABANDONED PASTURE

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    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the seed bank in the soil of different successional stages of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and abandoned pasture in order to understand the natural regeneration potential of these areas. At each successional stage, 30 samples of soil were collected in the rainy and dry seasons to evaluate the qualitative heterogeneity of the forest, at the regeneration stage (FEA forest, intermediate regeneration stage forest (ISF and pasture (PAS. The species were classified according to the life form, successional group and dispersion syndrome. The number of individuals germinated was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the ISF and in the rainy season (15,949 individuals. Richness was higher in the pasture area (79 species, with a significant difference only between the environments. Most species are herbaceous (49.5%, pioneers (76.5% and zoocory was the main dispersion syndrome (49% of species. The results show that seed bank in the fragment of the regeneration advanced stage forest presents the highest resilience potential, since it is formed by different life forms and, mainly, by early and late secondary species.

  6. Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlander, Anneli

    2006-04-15

    Treatment and reuse of wastewater by irrigation of willow coppice, forest or wetlands may create new exposure routes for pathogens. This thesis summarises results from a series of field and laboratory studies aimed at identifying and quantifying the microbial health hazards associated with such alternative wastewater treatment systems. Leaching and retention of viruses in the soil-plant system were studied in a lysimeter experiment using a bacteriophage as model organism. The presence and die-off of pathogens was studied in three full-scale systems with wastewater irrigation of willow in southern Sweden. The reduction in pathogens was also studied in microcosms under controlled conditions. In addition, the presence and die-off of pathogens in two wetlands was studied. Finally, a risk assessment was made in order to identify and quantify the most important exposure routes of pathogens. In the Swedish full-scale systems, the average reduction in microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants was in the range 1.3-2.5 log10. Analyses of faeces collected in the irrigated area did not indicate an increase in pathogens in mammals and birds, whereas indicator organisms were detected in foliage and in some groundwater samples in the fields. The results of the lysimeter study showed very high retention of viruses in sandy soils, whereas leaching to groundwater was substantial and extremely rapid in the clay soil. In the microcosm study Campylobacter were rapidly reduced (<3 h) while Salmonella bacteria were highly resistant. No single factor (light, temperature or radiation) was found to govern the reduction. In the wetlands studied, the reduction in suspended particles seemed to be the main factor controlling bacterial elimination from the water phase. In the sediment, survival of microorganisms was prolonged. The theoretical microbial risk assessment indicated a substantial risk of viral infections caused by direct contact with the wastewater, with aerosols from

  7. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Majtaz, C.; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, feb (2016), s. 546-552 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Low Forest * Soil Moisture * Soil Respiration * Temperature Dependence Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  8. Land abandonment, landscape, and biodiversity: questioning the restorative character of the forest transition in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Otero; Joan Marull; Enric Tello; Giovanna L. Diana; Manel Pons; Francesc Coll; Martí Boada

    2015-01-01

    The effects of land abandonment on biodiversity have received considerable attention by scholars, but results are far from conclusive. Different cultural traditions of scientists seem to underlie the contrasting ways in which land abandonment is understood. Although the forest transition (FT) framework considers land abandonment as an opportunity for biodiversity conservation, European landscape ecologists characterize it as a threat. We use insights from both traditions to analyze the effect...

  9. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  10. Land abandonment, landscape, and biodiversity: questioning the restorative character of the forest transition in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Otero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land abandonment on biodiversity have received considerable attention by scholars, but results are far from conclusive. Different cultural traditions of scientists seem to underlie the contrasting ways in which land abandonment is understood. Although the forest transition (FT framework considers land abandonment as an opportunity for biodiversity conservation, European landscape ecologists characterize it as a threat. We use insights from both traditions to analyze the effects of land abandonment on landscape and biodiversity in a mountain area of metropolitan Barcelona. We do so through an in-depth historical case study covering a period of 160 years. A set of landscape metrics was applied to land-cover maps derived from cadastral cartography to characterize the landscape ecological changes brought about by land abandonment. Cadastral data on land uses were used to understand how landscape ecological changes could be explained by changing socioeconomic activities. Information on past land-management practices from semistructured interviews was used to shed light on how peasants shaped the capacity of landscape to host biodiversity. Our results point to a remarkable landscape deterioration along with the disappearance of the peasant land-use mosaics and the ensuing forest expansion. By using insights from landscape ecology in a historically informed manner, we (1 question the alleged relationship between land abandonment and ecosystem recovery; (2 show that the assumed restorative character of the FT is based on the underestimation of the ecological importance of nonforest habitats; and (3 point at a remarkable trade-off between FT and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. Finally, the case study also serves to illustrate some of the strengths and challenges of using historical approaches to land abandonment.

  11. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  12. Laurel forest recovery during 20 years in an abandoned firebreak in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón Arévalo, José; Dolores Peraza, María; Álvarez, Carlos; Bermúdez, Alfredo; Domingo Delgado, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; María Fernández-Palacios, José

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the recovery of the structure and species composition of a laurel forest in an abandoned firebreak in the Rural Park of Anaga, Tenerife (Canary Islands). We statistically compared values of species richness, density and biovolume between 23 plots in the firebreak and six control plots in natural forest near the firebreak. We evaluated changes in species composition with detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) based on densities and biovolume. Biovolume is increasing significantly along the successional gradient (from 1990 to 2004) but remains less than the values in control plots. Stem densities were significantly lower in control plots than in 2004 plots. Species richness was significantly higher in control plots than in 2004 plots (although there were no differences in values obtained between the first sampling period 6 years after abandonment, and the second sampling 20 years after abandonment). Changes in species richness are significant, but all species present in control plots are also found in the firebreak plots. DCA based on biovolume significantly discriminated control plots from firebreak plots in 1990 (for axis I). Results suggest recovery to a laurel forest is occurring, although more time will be required to reach control plot density and biovolume values. The low intensity of disturbance and a well-conserved forest adjacent to the firebreak favour the recovery of species inside the firebreak. We advise eliminating suckers from all small trees (leaving the bigger stems) to accelerate succession to a vegetation structure similar to that found surrounding the firebreak.

  13. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  14. When the shifting agriculture is gone: functionality of Atlantic Coastal Forest in abandoned farming sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for a very long time by the traditional populations (caiçaras on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. After a few years of use the plots are abandoned to fallow. We examined the processes of litter production and decomposition and the relationships between forest lands used by caiçara populations and landscape functionality. Five and 25-year-old forests growing on areas once used for subsistence agriculture were compared to a near-climax forest site. No significant differences between the three areas were noted in terms of litter production over a 2-yr period; the average litter productions were 9,927, 8,707 and 10,031 kg/ha/yr for the 5-year, 25-year and climax forests respectively. N and K nutrient input through litter was greatest in the climax forest; P and Mg input was greatest in the 5-yr forest; and Na greatest in the 25-yr forest. Ground litter accumulation (3,040-3,730 kg/ha/yr was not significantly different in the three areas. Litter turnover times (1/K were 0.33, 0.42 and 0.38 for the 5-yr, 25-yr and climax forests respectively. These secondary forests cover almost all of Ilha Grande and demonstrate low species diversity, but they have production and decomposition systems similar to those of mature forests.

  15. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north......-eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  16. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  17. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were

  18. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora H.M Leitão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank, in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5mx0.5m over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%, pioneers (88%, zoochorous (51% and small-seeded species (60%. Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold and from seed rain (three-fold compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times. Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1271-1282. Epub 2010 December 01.La introducción de plántulas en pastizales abandonados es una técnica común de restauración de los bosques en los trópicos, debido a que incrementa el reclutamiento de plántulas y acelera la sucesión. En este estudio se evaluó el papel de un bosque restaurado joven (un año en el reclutamiento de plántulas a través de dos fuentes (lluvia y banco de semillas en la región del

  19. Ecosystem N distribution and δ15N during a century of forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J.E.; Hooker, T.D.; Perakis, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of terrestrial ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools reflect internal processes and input–output balances. Disturbance generally increases N cycling and loss, yet few studies have examined ecosystem δ15N over a disturbance-recovery sequence. We used a chronosequence approach to examine N distribution and δ15N during forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment. Site ages ranged from 10 to 115 years, with similar soils, climate, land-use history, and overstory vegetation (white pine Pinus strobus). Foliar N and δ15N decreased as stands aged, consistent with a progressive tightening of the N cycle during forest regrowth on agricultural lands. Over time, foliar δ15N became more negative, indicating increased fractionation along the mineralization–mycorrhizal–plant uptake pathway. Total ecosystem N was constant across the chronosequence, but substantial internal N redistribution occurred from the mineral soil to plants and litter over 115 years (>25% of ecosystem N or 1,610 kg ha−1). Temporal trends in soil δ15N generally reflected a redistribution of depleted N from the mineral soil to the developing O horizon. Although plants and soil δ15N are coupled over millennial time scales of ecosystem development, our observed divergence between plants and soil suggests that they can be uncoupled during the disturbance-regrowth sequence. The approximate 2‰ decrease in ecosystem δ15N over the century scale suggests significant incorporation of atmospheric N, which was not detected by traditional ecosystem N accounting. Consideration of temporal trends and disturbance legacies can improve our understanding of the influence of broader factors such as climate or N deposition on ecosystem N balances and δ15N.

  20. Carbohydrates and thermal analysis reflects changes in soil organic matter stability after forest expansion on abandoned grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Claudia; Vesterdal, Lars; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens; Gianelle, Damiano; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Grassland abandonment, followed by progressive forest expansion, is the dominant land-use change in the Southern Alps, Europe. Land-use change can affect not only the amount of organic matter (OM) in soil but also its composition and stability. Our objective was to investigate changes in organic matter properties after forest expansion on abandoned grasslands, combining analysis of carbohydrates, indicative of labile OM compounds with prevalent plant or microbial origin, with thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was used as a rapid assessment method for the characterization of SOM stability. A land-use gradient was investigated in four land-use types in the subalpine area of Trentino region, Italy: i) managed grassland, mown and fertilized for the past 100 years; ii) grassland abandoned since 10 years, with sparse shrubs and Picea abies saplings; iii) early-stage forest, dominated by P. abies and established on a grassland abandoned around 1970; iv) old forest, dominated by Fagus sylvatica and P. abies. Mineral soil was sampled at three subplots in each land use type with eight soil cores, which were subsequently pooled by depth (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm). Sugars were extracted from bulk soil samples through acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 (0.5 M). The analytical composition of sugar monomers was performed with HPAEC technology (Dionex ICS5000), equipped with PAD-detection. Thermal stability was assessed with a differential scanning calorimeter DSC100, heating soil samples up to 600°C at a heating rate of 10°C min-1 in synthetic air. Peak height (W g OC-1) of 1st DSC exotherm, dominated by burning of labile OM compounds, was used as thermal stability index. In the abandoned grassland, carbohydrates compounds accounted for a greater proportion of soil OC than in other land use types. Microbially derived sugars, as rhamnose and galactose, were more abundant in managed and abandoned grasslands compared with early-stage and old forest. The amount of thermally labile sugars

  1. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  2. Coppice Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19th century overlapping into the 20th century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.. Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp., hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, European beech (Fagus sylvatica, European chestnut (Castanea sativa, and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.

  3. Habitat requirements of endangered species in a former coppice of high conservation value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, Jan; Vild, Ondřej; Sladký, J.; Řepka, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : abandoned coppice * environmental requirements * red-list species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  4. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sares, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  5. Spatial Simulation of the Dynamics of Establishment of Secondary Forest in Abandoned Pasture in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebel, K. T.; Riha, S. J.; Rondon, M. A.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Fernandes, E. C.

    2001-05-01

    In the Amazon, approximately 35 million hectares of primary forest that was converted to pasture is now being abandoned. This represents about 70% of all pastureland that was previously established. The dynamics of reconversion of this land to secondary forest is of interest because the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest will impact net primary productivity and the amount of carbon being stored on abandoned pastures. In addition, the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest may depend on the size of the pasture, whether it is surrounded by primary or secondary forest, and on pasture productivity at the time of abandonment. Pasture productivity at the time of abandonment will depend primarily on the age structure of the pasture grasses and on weediness, which are influenced by grazing and fire history. Also, an understanding of the dynamics of conversion of pastureland to forest can serve as the basis for management strategies to inhibit pasture conversion. A spatial, dynamic model of the conversion of pasture to secondary forest was developed using the PCRaster Dynamic Modeling Package. This software provides a computer language specially developed for modeling temporal and spatial processes in a GIS, and is well suited for the development of ecological, dynamic models. The model of pasture conversion is implemented for the central Amazon. We assume that succession involves only three plant types: pasture grass, weeds and woody plants. The pasture grass is parameterized for Brachiaria (brizantha, humidicola), the weeds for Borreria and Rolandra, and the woody plants for Vismia spp. The model uses a 1m x 1m grid and 2-month time step. Each initial plant and each surviving propagule is referred to as a plant and only occupies one grid cell. A number of values are calculated for each grid cell for each time-step. These include whether vegetation is present and, if so, which species, the age of the species, the

  6. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  7. Natural forest regeneration in abandoned sugarcane fields in northeastern Brazil: floristic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Ladivania Medeiros do; Sampaio,Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Rodal,Maria Jesus Nogueira; Silva,Suzene Izídio da; Lins e Silva,Ana Carolina Borges

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were undertaken to examine the floristic changes during secondary succession in three areas of 12 and three of 20-year-old secondary forests in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Two hundred and six species were identified, with 136 being found in the 12-year-old secondary forest and 161 species in the 20-year-old forest. Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the most important families, increasing in species numbers with regeneration age. Of the 216 species, 115 were trees, 48 shrubs, 16 herbaceous pla...

  8. Agricultural Abandonment, Suburban Growth, and Forest Expansion in Puerto Rico between 1991 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K. Parés-Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of local economies to the globalization process can have a large effect on population and land-use dynamics. In countries with a high population density and relatively high levels of education, the globalization process has resulted in a shift in the local economy from agriculture to manufacturing, technology, and service sectors. This shift in the economy has impacted land-use dynamics by decreasing agricultural lands, increasing urban growth, and in some cases, increasing forest cover. This process of economic and forest transition has been well documented in Puerto Rico for the period 1950 to 1990, but some authors predicted that poor planning and continued urban growth would eliminate the gains in forest cover. To investigate the impacts of recent economic changes, we evaluated demographic and land-use changes for 880 "barrios" (i.e., neighborhoods, the smallest administrative unit, in Puerto Rico using government census data from 1990 and 2000 and land-cover classifications from 1991 and 2000. During this period, the population increased by 284 127 people (8.2%. Most of the growth was in the suburban barrios, whereas urban barrios lost population. This shift was reflected by the construction of more than 100 000 housing units in suburban barrios. Although urban sprawl is perceived as the major land-cover change, urban cover only increased from 10% to 11% between 1990 and 2000, whereas the increase in forest cover was much greater (28% to 40%. Grasslands and shrublands were the major sources of new urban and forest areas in 2000. Although these results are encouraging in terms of increasing forest cover, most of the new development has been concentrated in the coastal plains, which are the location of most of the remaining agricultural areas, a few protected areas, and threatened ecosystems (e.g., mangroves.

  9. Detection of successional stages and spatial patterns of forest initiation strategies for an abandoned tropical dry forest pasture in Guanacaste Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Nunez, Mauricio

    Canopy heights derived from a Waveform LIDAR sensor (LVIS) are used to identify characteristics of successional stages in an abandoned pasture in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. LIDAR canopy heights were validated through comparison with field collected heights The location of 3 classes derived from an automatic classification of the LIDAR data was compared against the location of successional stages identified a previous research. In addition the spatial location of two forest initiation strategies (seed dispersion) was investigated analyzing the textural information from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generated from the LVIS total canopy height data. The results of this research suggest a good agreement between successional stages reported in the literature and those identified with the LIDAR data. Also the fragments initiated by wind and vertebrate dispersion strategies detected in this study suggest a good agreement with several characteristics (spatial patterns) of such fragments reported by the literature.

  10. Public perceptions of short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The ''Wood as a Fuel'' programme - which funded the research covered in this report - is one of the renewable energy development programmes managed by ETSU (the Energy Technology Support Unit) for the Department of Trade and Industry. This national programme is developing the production and use of fuel wood from two main sources - forestry residues and short rotation coppice. Wood fuel from short rotation coppice offers the greater potential - energy equivalent to 10 mtce (million tonnes of coal equivalent) could be produced annually from 1 million hectares of land. This programme is now well established, with ten trial coppice sites in operation, plus some 40 others. A number of successfully willow and poplar clones have been selected for different soil conditions, and machinery for planting and harvesting has been developed. Local consortia of farmers and users are being established to provide long-term markets for the wood fuel produced. (author)

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  12. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267; GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppicing * history * tree-ring analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  13. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  14. Comparison of anatomical properties of non-coppiced and coppiced wood in six Eucalyptus genotypes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zbonak, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available product. While the large variation in the fibre properties among different Eucalyptus resources is well documented, little is known whether the quality of wood of the coppice shoots is different from that of the original seedling tree. In this study...

  15. A conversion method of young hornbeam coppices and its possible impact on future stand structural attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Tulbure

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the substitution of hornbeam coppice stands and conversion into high forest stands, formed by species that better valorise the site conditions. An improved alternative for the method of substitution in corridors is presented. The main goal of this new substitution-conversion alternative is to gradually conduct the actual structure of the coppice stands towards the target structure imposed by the forest management objectives, without a total elimination of the species that will be substituted. Two plot areas were selected in order to put into practice the proposed method. Bands were created for reducing the effective costs of the substitution process. 450 respectively 468, small seedlings (of beech, pedunculate oak and sessile oak per hectare were planted in the created bands. The planting scheme took into account the shadow tolerance of the species from the target composition. Based on the field data and using the yield tables, the evolution of the stands in the two selected plots was simulated. In this respect, the forest treatments were parameterized according to the Romanian forest rules regarding the application of thinning and regeneration cuttings. The substitution-conversion process started from an almost pure hornbeam coppice and, simulating the application of the proposed method for 120 years, it was predicted that the method allows directing the actual stand structure to the target structure. The dynamics of species and structural diversity were assessed and the results of 120 years simulation indicate an important increase of both the species (the Shannon species index increases from 0.203 to 1.073 and structural diversity (the Gini structural index increases from 0.032 to 0.200. 

  16. Short-term abandonment of human disturbances in Zagros Oak forest ecosystems: Effects on secondary succession of soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI HEYDARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heydari M, Pothier D, Faramarzi M, Merzaei J. 2014. Short-term abandonment of human disturbances in Zagros Oak forest ecosystems: Effects on secondary succession of soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. Biodiversitas 15: 147-161. Zagros Oak forests in the west of Iran have been degraded by anthropogenic activities during many years and to fight against this degradation, several management strategies have been implemented. The principal objectives this study were to identify the characteristics of the soil seed bank and the aboveground vegetation that were affected by degradation and short-term abandonment of human disturbances and evaluate the potential of the soil seed bank to restore the degraded types after short-term conservation management. For that, we compared three types of Zagros forest ecosystem with different management regimes: (1 Long term disturbed type as LDT (also used and disturbed at the present, (2 Short-term abandonment of human disturbances as SAD (5 years without human disturbances and an undisturbed control or C (3. We selected three replicates or stands per type. In the aboveground vegetation (ABV, 115, 72 and 51 species were recorded in C, SAD and LDT types, respectively, whereas in the soil seed bank (SSB flora, 33, 19 and 12 plant taxa were observed in C, SAD and LDT types, respectively. The percentage of annuals increased in ABV and decreased in SSB with increasing site degradation with human activities such as animal husbandry in the forest edges. The percentage of perennial and biennial herbs decreased in ABV and increased in SSB with increasing site degradation. The Shannon index of the SSB decreased with increasing site degradation. The average seed density in the SAD type was significantly larger than that of the LDT type. DCA analysis showed that the seed bank flora of SAD and LDT types were relatively similar and differed from that of the C type. This indicates that a full recovery of degraded type in the

  17. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  18. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  19. Monitoring mangrove forests after aquaculture abandonment using time series of very high spatial resolution satellite images: A case study from the Perancak estuary, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proisy, Christophe; Viennois, Gaëlle; Sidik, Frida; Andayani, Ariani; Enright, James Anthony; Guitet, Stéphane; Gusmawati, Niken; Lemonnier, Hugues; Muthusankar, Gowrappan; Olagoke, Adewole; Prosperi, Juliana; Rahmania, Rinny; Ricout, Anaïs; Soulard, Benoit; Suhardjono

    2017-06-23

    Revegetation of abandoned aquaculture regions should be a priority for any integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). This paper examines the potential of a matchless time series of 20 very high spatial resolution (VHSR) optical satellite images acquired for mapping trends in the evolution of mangrove forests from 2001 to 2015 in an estuary fragmented into aquaculture ponds. Evolution of mangrove extent was quantified through robust multitemporal analysis based on supervised image classification. Results indicated that mangroves are expanding inside and outside ponds and over pond dykes. However, the yearly expansion rate of vegetation cover greatly varied between replanted ponds. Ground truthing showed that only Rhizophora species had been planted, whereas natural mangroves consist of Avicennia and Sonneratia species. In addition, the dense Rhizophora plantations present very low regeneration capabilities compared with natural mangroves. Time series of VHSR images provide comprehensive and intuitive level of information for the support of ICZM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple constraint modeling of nutrient cycling stoichiometry following forest clearing and pasture abandonment in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric; Nifong, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    While deforestation has declined since its peak, land-use change continues to modify Amazonian landscapes. The responses and feedbacks of biogeochemical cycles to these changes play an important role in determining possible future trajectories of ecosystem function and for land stewardship through effects on rates of secondary forest regrowth, soil emissions of greenhouse gases, inputs of nutrients to groundwater and streamwater, and nutrient management in agroecosystems. Here we present a new synthetic analyses of data from the NASA-supported LBA-ECO project and others datasets on nutrient cycling in cattle pastures, secondary forests, and mature forests at Paragominas, Pará, Brazil. We have developed a stoichiometric model relating C-N-P interactions during original forest clearing, extensive and intensive pasture management, and secondary forest regrowth, constrained by multiple observations of ecosystem stocks and fluxes in each land use. While P is conservatively cycled in all land uses, we demonstrate that pyrolyzation of N during pasture formation and during additional burns for pasture management depletes available-N pools, consistent with observations of lower rates of N leaching and trace gas emission and consistent with secondary forest growth responses to experimental N amendments. The soils store large stocks of N and P, and our parameterization of available forms of these nutrients for steady-state dynamics in the mature forest yield reasonable estimates of net N and P mineralization available for grasses and secondary forest species at rates consistent with observed biomass accumulation and productivity in these modified ecosystems. Because grasses and forests have much different demands for N relative to P, the land use has important biogeochemical impacts. The model demonstrates the need for periodic P inputs for sustainable pasture management and for a period of significant biological N fixation for early-to-mid-successional secondary forest

  1. Forest gardening on abandoned terraces links local biomass carbon accumulation to international carbon markets, reverses land degradation, improves food diversity, and increases farmer income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Despite chronic underproduction of food in Nepal, more and more agricultural land is abandoned especially in the remote middle hills and mountains. Male and young workers leave the villages for higher wages in the bigger cities or abroad. By now, most villages are mainly populated by women, children and elderly persons maintaining the gardens and fields close to the houses and leave the centenarian terraces fallow. Erosion, vanishing water resources, losses of soil organic carbon and the weakening of the local agro-economy become increasingly problematic. During the rainy season of 2015/16, 86 farmer families from four villages replanted their abandoned terraces with 25,000 mixed trees, mostly Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, and various nuts. All trees were planted with a blend of organic biochar-based fertilizer and compost, since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method. Mulching of the trees with rice straw or thatch grass was generalized. To let the young tries pass the critical seven months of dry season, water retention ponds with pipe irrigation were installed. Farmers were organized in groups of three families to mutually help and control the tree maintenance which led to an average tree survival rate of more than 80% after the first year compared to less than 50% in many country-wide forestation projects since the 1980s. Between the lower and upper lines of trees on the terraces, ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils and other secondary crops were cultivated using the same organic biochar based fertilizer and mulching techniques. What may seem a reasonable approach for many places, is in many of the poorest countries simply not possible to realize because village families do often not have the necessary initial investment for saplings and irrigation facilities at their disposal. Therefore, the Ithaka Institute linked the forest garden

  2. A comparison of dung beetle assemblage structure (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae between an Atlantic forest fragment and adjacent abandoned pasture in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Mata dos Godoy State Park in Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. Baited pitfall traps were installed in the forest, in adjacent abandoned pasture land, and on the borders between these two environments. Every two weeks, from June 1999 to May 2000, the traps were placed for 24 hours and the material was collected every 12 hours. The 4687 specimens of Scarabaeinae collected belong to 13 genera and 27 species. The most frequent species were Onthophagus catharinensis (Paulian, 1936 (22.1%, Onthophagus hirculus (Mannerhein, 1829 (20.1%, Dichotomius mormon (Ljungh, 1799 (13.1%, Sulcophanaeus menelas (Laporte, 1840 (12.8%, and Eurystemus parallelus (Dalman, 1824 (10.6%. The other species collected amounted to less than 4.7%. The difference in numbers of specimens collected in the three environments was not significant (K(2.72 = 0.63, p = 0.729. The distribution patterns of species composition for the different environments (ANOSIM R = 0.29, p < 0.01 and activity periods (ANOSIM R = 0.18, p < 0.01 were different. Sulcophanaeus menelas, Canthidium aff. trinodosum, O. hirculus, and E. parallelus were the most abundant species, being predominantly diurnal; the first three species were more active on abandoned pasture. Most of the Dichothomius assifer (Eschscholtz, 1822 and D. mormon specimens were captured at night. The latter species was the most abundant in edges, whereas D. assifer, Scybalochantum aff. zischkai, and O. catharinensis can be considered bioindicators because they were either exclusively or highly predominant in the best preserved areas. A larger number of individuals was observed from December 1999 through March 2000, which is the time of the year when adults of Scarabaeinae normally emerge and fly, in the studied region. The highest diversity (88.89% was observed in February.

  3. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  4. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  5. Killing Eucalyptus grandis cut stumps after multiple coppice rotations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isopropylamine salt, 192 g l-1) were applied to a basal frill, the cut surface, or the foliage of coppice regrowth of E. grandis stumps. ... The application of herbicides to a basal frill killed 90 % of the stumps and required the least follow-up control.

  6. Commercially Grown Short Rotation Coppice Willow in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate biomass production in commercially grown short rotation coppice willow in Denmark and to investigate effects of site and management factors on willow yield. Biomass production assessed by non-destructive sampling on 296 plots from 25 plantations was a...

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Brändle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land

  8. Clearcutting effects on streamflow in coppiced Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J. S.; Henriques, M. O.; David, T. S.; Tomé, J.; Ledger, D. C.

    1994-10-01

    Two Eucalyptus globulus catchments in Central Portugal were instrumented to gain some understanding of the hydrological effects of coppicing forest stands of this fast-growing species. Suspected increases in total flow, quick flow and delayed flow after clearcutting were tested statistically using the R-Student statistic for outlier detection. Under normal climatic conditions, significant annual flow increases were found only during the water-year immediately after clearcutting. However, when the water-year following harvesting was extremely dry, no flow increase occurred during that year although flow increases were found during the second water-year. Nevertheless, owing to the rapid regrowth of the stands, the hydrological effects of clearcutting were always short lived. Depending on the dominant runoff-generating processes, increases in total flow were due to increases in both the quick and delayed flow components or to increases only in the quick flow component.

  9. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  10. Non-random extinctions dominate plant community changes in abandoned coppices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Martin; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2013), s. 79-87 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Grant - others:ERC - European Union(XE) FP7/2007-2013 ERC no. 278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : long-term changes * taxonomic homogenization * temporal nestedness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.754, year: 2013

  11. Silvicultural options in ageing holm oak (Quercus ilex L. coppices in Gargano: results after 14 growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scopigno D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a long-term research program concerning management of ageing holm oak coppices, results available after 14 growing seasons are reported in present paper. Experimental treatments include: A 50 standards per hectare, all of the same age; B 250 standards per hectare, all of the same age; C 140 standards per hectare, with two different ages; D conversion to high forest; E natural evolution (control. A total of 15 permanent plots were established (5 treatments x 3 replicates per treatment and the experimental design used is that of randomised blocks. Based on observations concerning seedlings and shoots development and standards growth and competitive effects, the following preliminary results may be highlighted: i recovering the traditional coppicing system with few standards per hectare represents a valid option from both ecological and shoots growth point of view; the stools, with few standards per hectare, showed a larger number of sprouts, provided with a higher average height and larger diameters; ii uneven-aged standards represent a good alternative form the points of view of both landscape impact immediately after felling operations and stand resistance to climatic damages; iii a good alternative is to apply conversion treatments to high forest, whenever their site quality allows these operations.

  12. Nutrient enhanced short rotation coppice for biomass in central Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, R.W.; Slater, F.M.; Lynn, S.F.; Randerson, P.F. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    Two projects involving short rotation willow coppice are taking place on the eastern side of the Cambrian Mountains in central Wales. One project examines, as an alternative land use, the potential of short rotation willow coppice variously enhanced by combinations of lime, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers and also digested sewage sludge on an acidic upland site at an altitude of 260m. The first year results of this project are described in detail, showing the necessity for limestone additions and also demonstrating that of the four willow varieties established, Salix dasyclados is the only possible, profitable fuel crop. The other project involving willow in a filter bed system is outlined along with an additional project investigating the effect of sewage sludge additions on the Rubus fruticosus production in a birch dominated mixed deciduous woodland.

  13. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  14. Effect of reduced soil water availability on productivity of short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    "Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age.'' Perlin and Journey (1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in a form of wood has been used for energy purposes since millennia and through times has been preferred source of biomass. Ever since, the production and use of woody biomass resources expands globally. Main drivers for its use as a source of energy are diversification and the mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through partial substitution of fossil fuels. An alternative option for wood biomass sourcing from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the major constraint of woody biomass production involving serious economic consequences. In the central Europe, increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity increases the reference evapotranspiration resulting in an increased demand for soil water during growing season. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of poplar based short rotation coppice plantation during multiple growing seasons. Throughfall exclusion system based on plastic roof strips placed under the canopy was used to drain up to 70 % of the incoming rain water. Usual methods were used to assess the annual above ground biomass increment expressed in dry matter content. Not surprisingly our results show systematic decline in the productivity of plots subjected to decreased soil water availability but also considerable resilience of the drought-stressed trees which will be also discussed. This study was supported by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought", No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248 and PASED - project supported by Czech program

  15. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  16. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  17. Eucalypt coppices behavior under application of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Simone Freitag Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TDZ; calciocianamide, and thiourea in the emission and development of eucalyptus shoots. The study was conducted in clonal sprouts of an Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis clone, located in the city of Mogi Guaçu, Northeastern State of São Paulo. The climate was Cwa. Harvesting was performed in the stand at age of 6.5 years. The diameter of the shoots at the twelfth month, the height of the shoots at six, twelve, and eighteen months of age and the number of shoots by coppice at three, six and twelve months post-harvesting. The thinning of coppices occurred at the twelfth month, and left two shoot/stump. There were used the following treatments: T2: complete fertilization; T10: complete fertilization + calciocianamide; T11: complete fertilization + TDZ; T12: complete fertilization + thiourea. TDZ and calciocianamida affected the shoot height up to 12 months after post-harvesting. Doses of TDZ, thioureia, and calciocianamida applied onto the strains show no effect on the shoot height, shoot stem diameter, and number of sprouts of that eucalypt clone after 18 months after post-harvesting.

  18. The Characteristics of Fibres within Coppiced and Non-Coppiced Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. and their Aptness for Wood - and Paper - Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick ANTHONIO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus is highly priced for furniture, flooring and cabinetry for its rich hue and durability. Its coppiced wood augments the timber for regular supply and sustainable utilization. Fibre morphology from macerated slivers within its coppiced and non-coppiced stems and their utilization potential were assessed. Derived ratios for the fibres were also calculated. The axial positions (butt, middle, crown affected the fibre dimensions. Fibre length was greater for coppiced trees [i.e., 1663±11, 1488±5, 1511±10µm (for sapwood and 1498±10, 1486±9, 1394±4µm (for heartwood] than the non-coppiced [i.e., 1240±7, 1013±5, 1137±5µm (sapwood and 1094±8, 1002±2, 1041±9µm (heartwood]. In all, those for sapwoods were greater than heartwoods’. Significant differences (P˂0.05 existed between fibre lengths from the coppiced (1394±4-1663±11µm and non-coppiced trees (1002±2-1240±7µm. Fibre diameters for coppiced sapwood and heartwood were 23±1, 20±1, 22±0.8µm and 21.5±0.3, 20.7±0.5, 21.3±2µm and noncoppiced recorded 21±0.6, 20.7±0.3, 20.6±0.1µm and 21±0, 21±0.4, 21±0.8µm respectively. Their respective double wall thicknesses were 8.4±0.2, 7.2±0.2, 9.4±1µm and 8.2±0.2, 9±0.3, 9.1±0.4µm for coppiced wood, and 9.1±1, 7.8±0.1, 8.1±0.3µm and 8.5±0.3, 8±0.4, 8±1 for non-coppiced. Thus, radial stem position also influenced fibre morphology. The fibre indices [i.e., Runkel Ratio, Slenderness Ratio and Flexibility Coefficient for coppiced wood (0.6±0.06-0.85±0.06, 68±4-77±6, 56±4-64±2 respectively and non-coppiced (0.64±0.12-0.8±0, 49±1-58±4, 57±3-62±2 respectively] indicate the timber’s aptness for pulp and paper. Besides, the Wood Industry could exploit the fibre characteristics of coppiced wood also for engineering of fibre-based products and structural applications.

  19. Prevention of Child Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the determinants of child abandonment in the city of Bra ov. The research is based on a new dataset collected on the field on mothers and pregnant women at risk of abandoning their child.

  20. The role of short rotation coppice technology in fuelwood supply in Rungwe district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Karwani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The roles of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC Technology in fuelwood supply and offsetting CO2 emissions in the Tanzania and most African countries remain poorly understood. This study was carried in Rungwe District, Mbeya region in Tanzania, to determine trends, extent and drivers of adoption of SRC; identify various sources of household energy and assess the contribution of SRC to the total household fuelwood needs, and trees and shrub species used as sources of fuelwood. Data were collected using reconnaissance, field and social surveys and was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results revealed that, 97.5% of local community adopted the SRC technology since 1960s. Eucalyptus spp. are mostly planted in woodlots and field boundaries while Persea americana and Leucaena leucocephala are intercropped in farmlands. The survey indicated that out of 176 tons of fuelwood used annually, 73% comes from SRC technology, 25% from non-SRC technology, and only 2% is purchased to supplement household fuelwood shortage. Local communities depend heavily on biomass energy from woodlots and farmlands where tree species like Eucalyptus spp. plays a key role in meeting the energy demand. This study demonstrates that SRC technologies like woodlots, boundary planting, and intercropping in farmland hold high promise to meet the household energy demand. If promoted and backed with strong policies and supportive land tenure, these technologies may reduce the harvesting pressure on native forests for energy demand and contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. Short rotation coppice for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for SRC planting by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of SRC compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of SRC and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions.

  3. Energy forest cultivation and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)

  4. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act (ASA). The ASA allows states to manage a broad range of resources within submerged lands, including...

  5. Phenology and population dynamics of willow beetles (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in short-rotation coppiced willows at Long Ashton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The life cycles and phylogeny of three willow beetle pests, Phyllodecta vulgatissima, P. vitellinae and Galerucella lineola (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), were investigated during 1994-95 in an experimental plantation of short-rotation coppiced willows (Salix viminalis Bowles Hybrid) at Pearces Farm, Long Ashton (Bristol), UK, Willow rods were sampled at regular intervals throughout the year and carefully search for eggs, larvae and adult beetles. An extensive survey was done in hedgerows around the site during February 1995 in order to identify the overwintering sites of adult beetles. In autumn 1995, hibernation trap-bands were used to study the onset of hibernation and the distribution of hibernating in the vicinity of the willow plantation. Adult flight activity was monitored each week throughout the year using window traps. Pot-grown willows were established in the field to augment observations on beetle behaviour in spring and autumn. Exclusion cages were used during the summer in an attempt to estimate the natural mortality of eggs larvae and pupae, but this technique had to be abandoned because all the cages were attacked and damaged by wasps. The fecundity of adult beetles and the development of eggs, larvae and pupae were measured in the laboratory under controlled environment conditions. (Author)

  6. Abandoned works program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of improperly abandoned or decommissioned oil and gas wells are threatening the purity of Ontario's source water. This presentation discussed an abandoned works program developed by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The abandoned works program was established in 2005 in order to plug old oil and gas wells. The program was designed to create a list of abandoned wells, develop a coherent policy, and formulate procurement and contracting protocols. Abandoned wells are defined as wells drilled prior to 1963 with no operator other than the current landowner. There are currently over 200 prioritized wells on the list. Twenty-six contracts have been issued for a total of 33 wells, and 19 wells have been plugged since the program's field operations began in 2006. However, the program is often challenged by the difficulties associated with determining where the wells are located. Many of the wells have been cut off and buried, and access is often dependent on weather conditions and road restrictions. There is also a shortage of contractors who have experience working with older wells. It was concluded that the program will expand by obtaining further funding and modifying its qualification criteria. tabs., figs

  7. Influence of Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Isabelle, Bertrand; Gwenaelle, Gibaud

    2015-04-01

    Human activities can lead to the degradation of soil physical properties. For instance, machinery traffic across the land can induce the development of compacted areas at the wheel tracks. It leads to a decrease in porosity which results in a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, prevents water infiltration and promotes surface runoff. Land use, soil management and soil cover also have a significant influence on soil physical properties (Kodesova et al., 2011). In the arable land, surface runoff and soil erosion are enhanced by the absence of soil cover for part of the year and by the decrease of aggregate stability due to a decline of soil organic matter. In that context, few studies focused on the effects of a Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice (SRC) on soil physical properties. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the conversion of a grassland in a SRC on soil physical properties. These properties have also been compared to those of arable land and natural forest. For that, in several plots of the experimental farm of Grignon (30 km west of Paris, France), different measurements were performed: i) soil water retention on a pressure plate apparatus for 7 water potential between 0 and 1500 kPa, ii) bulk density using the method for gravelly and rocky soil recommended by the USDA, iii) aggregate stability using the method described in Le Bissonnais (1996), and iv) soil hydraulic conductivity using a Guelph permeameter. All these measurements were performed on the same soil type and on different land uses: arable land (AL), grassland (GL), natural forest (NF) and short rotation coppice (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia planted 5 years ago. Soil water retention measurements are still under progress and will be presented in congress. Bulk density measurements of the AL, GL and SRC are not significantly different. They ranged from 1.32 to 1.42. Only the NF measurements are significantly lower than the other (0.97). Aggregate

  8. Decline in holm oak coppices (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.): biometric and physiological interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrada, R.; Gómez-Sanz, V.; Aroca, M.J.; Otero, J.; Bravo-Fernández, J.A.; Roig, S.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To analyse the decline in aged holm oak coppice forests as regards above-ground and below-ground fractions and physiological features. Area of study: Centre of the Iberian Peninsula (Guadalajara province). Material and methods: 26 pairs of holm oak stools with different vigour but with similar site and structural characteristics within each pair were selected. Morphological (basal area, number of stools, maximum height) and physiological traits (leaf water potential, stomatal conductance) of the standing stools were assessed. Their aerial and underground parts were extracted and different size fractions of both their above and below-ground biomass were quantified. Linear mixed models were built to test the effect of ’Stool vigour’ on the mean behaviour of the measured variables. Additionally, for the aerial part, linear regressions between the weights of the different size fractions and the basal area at breast height were performed using ‘Stool vigour’ as a fixed factor. Main results: For the same site, root depth, and number and diameter of shoots than good vigour stools, poor vigour stools displayed: lower predawn water potential, greater leaf mass per unit of area; lower total leaf area; lower above-ground biomass (in total as well as per fractions); lower fine roots biomass; lower proportion of leaf biomass and a greater proportion of biomass of both all roots and those with diameter 2-7 cm. Research highlights: The above-ground physiological and morphological characteristics of declined stools are interpreted as poorer adaptation to site conditions. Root system architecture was found to be relevant to explain this behaviour.

  9. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  10. Studies on coppice management of willows and some properties of the wood produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsanov, T.I.; Kolarov, D.

    1979-01-01

    Salix alba Valenza I-1/59, S. caprea dasyclados, and S. triandra were grown on coppice rotations in Bulgaria to determine the effect of spacings (2 x 2 and 3 x 3 m ) and of rotation length (3 and 6 yr) on yield. The results are tabulated. At a spacing of 2 x 2 m, the mean yield from 3-yr coppice was 75 t/ha for Valenza I-1/59, 43 t/ha for S. caprea desycladas, and 24 t/ha for S. triandra; yields were much greater with the closer spacing and the shorter rotation. The chemical composition of the barked and unbarked wood was determined (data tabulated), and results indicate that coppice willow is a suitable raw material for the pulp and cardboard industry.

  11. Effects of the sequence wildfire-harvesting-coppice sprout selection on nutrient export via streamfloe in a small E. globulus watershed in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Vega, J. A.; Bara, S.; Alonso, M.; Fonturbel, T.

    2011-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out between 1987 and 1999, to assess the effect of the sequence wildfire-clear felling-coppice sprout selection thinning, on stream flow nutrient export in a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. watershed in Galicia (NW Spain). The effects of such a sequence on nutrient export via stream flow had not been previously evaluated. A wildfire in 1989 caused a significant increase in nutrient exports in stream flow during the following two years. No significant effect was observed the third year after wildfire. After clear felling in 1992, inputs via precipitation compensated for nutrient exports in stream flow, except for K the first year following harvest and NO{sub 3}- during the three years after this operation. Coppice sprout selection thinning in 1995 had less effect on nutrient exports than wildfire or harvest. The results presented here could may help in evaluating the effects of current intensive forest management and perturbations that affect eucalypt stands in NW Spain. (Author) 39 refs.

  12. An evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)

  13. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct

  14. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  15. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    peer reviewing and is considered an important impact indicator and supplement to the physical interventions. The prototypes vary in achievement and in timeframe. The geographical area for the actions is Thisted Municipality, Denmark, ideal due to its many identified small communities in varied stages...... to today’s EU and state funded demolition programmes. These programmes are often carried out en masse without anyone questioning the consequences of loss of mate-rial and immaterial values such as cultural heritage, building density and local narratives. By way of contrast, this research seeks to establish...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...

  16. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2017-01-01

    to material and intrinsic immaterial values embedded in the abandoned buildings, as well as how the threat to these values influences the local identity and damages community cohesion. The aim is to develop and test different strategies to identify, preserve or activate values such as aspects of cultural...... of posing a threat to the local identity of rural villages, their density and cultural heritage, as instruments of rapid eradication of history, they could be utilized to contribute to community cohesion. An anxiety towards ruins permeates the Danish debate on rural transformation, however the counter......At the moment the Danish rural population are abandoning their home villages and moving into the cities. Thus, the economic and social inequality between the urban and rural populations is increasing. The implications for rural villages are conspicuous and exemplified by a rapidly increasing number...

  17. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material

  18. Intensive game keeping, coppicing and butterflies: The story of Milovicky Wood, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Dovala, J.; Konvička, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, 1-3 (2006), s. 353-365 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly conservation * Central Europe * coppice management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.839, year: 2006

  19. Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction Estimating future drought impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 109 (2018), s. 182-189 ISSN 0961-9534 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : water-use * energy * stand * systems * dominance * density * l. * Dominance * Drought * Mortality * Productivity * Short-rotation coppice * Throughfall manipulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  20. Responses in young Quercus petraea: coppices and standards under favourable and drought conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, Marko; Čater, M.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, jan (2016), s. 127-136 ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : coppice * standards * comparison * photosynthetic response * quantum yield * light conditions * drought response Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2016

  1. A comparison of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water stress in Eucalyptus globulus coppice regrowth and seedlings during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul L; Mendham, Daniel S; White, Don A; Ogden, Gary N

    2009-05-01

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill., a globally significant plantation species, is grown commercially in a multiple rotation framework. Second and subsequent crops of E. globulus may be established either by allowing the cut stumps to resprout (commonly referred to as coppice) or by replanting a new crop of seedlings. Currently, long-term growth data comparing coppice and seedling productivity in second or later rotations in southern Australia is limited. The capacity to predict productivity using these tools is dependent on an understanding of the physiology of seedlings and coppice in response to light, water and nutrient supply. In this study, we compared the intrinsic (independent of the immediate environment) and native (dependent on the immediate environment) physiology of E. globulus coppice and second-generation seedlings during their early development in the field. Coppice not only grew more rapidly, but also used more water and drew on stored soil water to a depth of at least 4.5 m during the first 2 years of growth, whereas the seedlings only accessed the top 0.9 m of the soil profile. During the same period, there was no significant difference between coppice and seedlings in either their stomatal response to leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) or intrinsic water-use efficiency; CO(2)- and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were greater in seedlings than that in coppice as were the quantum yield of photosynthesis and total leaf chlorophyll content. Thus, at a leaf scale, seedlings are potentially more productive per unit leaf area than coppice during early development, but this is not realised under ambient conditions. The underlying cause of this inherent difference is discussed in the context of the allocation of resources to above- and below-ground organs during early development.

  2. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.J.; Randerson, P.F.; Slater, F.M.

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  3. Regenerative Resilience of Tree Species in a Degraded Forest within Mt Kenya Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenda, T.O; Kariuki, J.G; Kamondo, B.M; Kiamba, J.K

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread human induced degradation of natural forest in Kenya. The major challenge to this situation is to devise cost effective rehabilitation approaches to reverse this trend. A study was conducted in Nyanza province of Kenya describing the structure and diversity of a disturbed natural forest and understanding the role so various propagules, namely seed, soil seed bank and coppices in post-disturbance recovery. The pre-disturbance forest type was a podo-Cassipourea-Teclea tropical montane forest. Four 350 m long line-plot transects were randomly located within the forest. Tree and stump data were obtained from 20*20 m plots located at 50 m intervals, while sapling, seeding and soil seed bank data were obtained from 5*5 m, 1*1 m and 0.2*0.2*0.5 subplots respectively, nested within the large plot. An 'Index of Species Resilence' that defines their continued was developed based on the tree species ability to coppice and their representation in seedling, sapling and tree stages. The forest condition was highly heterogeneous as determined through spatial distribution of basal area, height and diameter of breast height (dbh) of trees and cut stumps, the latter an indicator of disturbance. The Resilience Index indicated that, out of the 40 tree species found in the forest, only 30% had stable presence while 50% had an unstable presence characterized by in key succession stages-implying low auto-recovery potential. Results indicated that, coppicing had a more critical role in regeneration than previously thought, with 78% of all cut-tree species coppicing while only 27.5% of all the trees species regenerated from seed. The role of soil seed bank in auto-recovery was insignificant in this site. The apparent high coppicing potential presents a new opportunity for managing natural forests

  4. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  5. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  6. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of mensurational and phytosanitary researches ten years after thinning trials in chestnut coppices (Castanea sativa Miller in Sila, are reported.. Eight experimental areas, four located at an average elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. aged 20 yrs and four located on average at 1050 m a.s.l. aged 13 yrs, were compared. Three sub-plots were installed in each area and mensurational and phytosanitary surveys were carried out in 1997 (before and after thinning trials and ten years later (2007 on 30 stools per sub-plot to assess bio-ecological, structural and compositional status of the standing crops. At each elevation, the experimental protocol included the following theses: thesis T (control: release of the standing crop and removal of dried up stems on the ground, only; thesis A (light thinning: removal of the dominated storey, on average 30% of coppice shoots, poorly shaped, both withered and green; thesis B (moderate thinning: removal from the dominated up to the dominant storey = 43% of the shoots, both dried up and green; thesis C (heavy thinning: removal = 62% of coppice shoots, both withered and green. Results highlighted the significance of thinnings in the cultivation of chestnut coppices. As for silviculture and growth pattern, the surveying ten years later showed the following outcomes: reduction of shoots mortality, according to the thinning intensity from A to C (by comparing the number of dried up coppice shoots surveyed in the control theses; a higher number of coppice shoots in the commercial category “average stems” in the thinned plots; the higher percentage increment in dbh, basal area and volume in the sub-plots undergoing thinning A and C at the elevation of 1050 m and, in general, with thesis C at both elevations; the complete recovery of canopy cover even in the sub-plots heavily thinned. As for the phytosanitary aspects, the research has been oriented on the chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, due to

  8. Rootstock mass of coppiced Platanus occidentalis as affected by spacing and rotation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Nwoboshi, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The root mass per unit land area for Platanus occidentalis was determined 9 years after planting 1-0 seedlings. Trees had been planted at 0.3 X 1.2, 0.6 X 1.2 and 1.2 X 1.2 m spacings and coppiced after two growing seasons in the field. Rotations of 1, 2, and 7 years were then imposed. Rootstocks coppiced annually had significantly less rootstock mass (16.0 tons/ha) than those harvested on longer cycles. No significant difference was found between the 2- and 7-year rotations, which averaged 22.8 and 25.2 tons of dry rootstock mass per hectare, respectively. Spacing did not affect rootstock mass per unit land area. Rotations of 2 years or longer and relatively wide spacings are recommended for short rotation forestry.

  9. Growing short rotation coppice on agricultural land in Germany: A Real Options Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musshoff, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In many cases decision-makers apparently do not adapt as fast as expected to changing economic conditions. This is also the case for the conversion of farm land to short rotation coppice. From an economic point of view, short rotation coppice has become more interesting in the last few years. Nevertheless, farm land still is rarely used to grow this quite unknown crop. Several explanatory approaches (e.g., traditionalistic behavior and risk aversion) are currently discussed in order to explain this behavior. A relatively new explanatory approach is the Real Options Approach. The Real Options Approach uses a comprehensive dynamic-stochastic model that combines the uncertainty of investment returns, the sunk costs, and the temporal flexibility of the investment implementation. The quintessence of the Real Options Approach is that—compared to the Classical Investment Theory—the investment triggers will be shifted upwards if investments involve intertemporal opportunity costs. This paper develops a real options model which allows the determination of triggers on the basis of realistic assumptions. We examined when farmers, who only dispose of sandy soils with little water-storing capacity, should convert set-aside land to short rotation coppice. The results show that farmers should not convert until the present value of the investment returns exceeds the investment costs considerably. Thus, they confirm the empirically observed reluctance in conversion. Furthermore, it turned out that the magnitude of the difference between the Classical Investment Theory and the Real Options Approach depends heavily on the type of stochastic process that underlies the investment returns. -- Highlights: ► Frequently observed reluctance of farmers to convert to short rotation coppice. ► Risk neutral farmers should convert if the investment multiple exceeds 1.57. ► The Real Options Approach is an explanatory approach for this observation. ► Results depend very much on the

  10. An identification of potential new herbicides for short rotation coppice (Task 4). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to identify potential new herbicides and their suitability for weed control in commercial short rotation coppice (SRC) crops, and to establish the safety of the crops. The arrangements for the use of 'off-label' pesticides, which are permitted for use on other crops, on SRC are discussed along with the importance of the use of laboratory pot trials and field trials. Several herbicides are proposed for larger scale field trials.

  11. Dynamics of herbaceous vegetation during four years of experimental coppice introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Šipoš, Jan; Chudomelová, Markéta; Utinek, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 83-99 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * ecological restoration * coppice-with-standards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  12. Spatial Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Mesquite Coppice Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, L. M.; Throop, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    Woody encroachment, an increase in woody plant abundance in formerly grass-dominated ecosystems, has occurred in semi-arid and arid systems worldwide over the past century. Woody encroachment has emerged as a potentially important, but highly uncertain, component of the North American carbon sink. The effects of woody plant encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) relative to Prosopis velutina have been explored in the Sonoran Desert, where strong spatial patterns in SOC and TN based on shrub size and subcanopy location exist. Encroachment of Prosopis glandulosa in sandy soils in the Chihuahuan Desert leads to coppice dune formation. We applied spatially-intensive soil sampling methods around P. glandulosa dunes in the Chihuahuan Desert to see how spatial patterns differed from patterns in the Sonoran Desert, where dunes do not form. Approximately 15 soil cores were taken from within and around each of 13 dunes and analyzed for bulk density, SOC, and TN. The aboveground biomass of P. glandulosa in coppice dunes was also collected for a comparison of aboveground biomass and SOC pools. Intercanopy soils had greater bulk density than soils within dunes (Pglandulosa coppice dunes does not require information on individual dune size or spatial position. The differences in SOC and TN accumulation patterns beneath P. velutina and P. glandulosa may result from differences in shrub morphology and its consequences for patterns of aeolian erosion and deposition.

  13. Forest Area Trends in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Peter L. Weaver

    1987-01-01

    Forest area trends in Puerto Rico from 1980 to 1985 are included in this update of earlier studies. Total forest area has increased from 279,000 ha in 1980 to 300,000 ha in 1985. Most of the new forest is growing on abandoned pasture. Secondary forest and abandoned coffee shade account for 78 percent of all forest land. Xeric scrub and active coffee shade account for...

  14. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are...

  15. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  16. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  17. Assortment structure in beech coppice stands in the Crni vrh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in beech coppice stands was studied for the region of Crni vrh. Assortment structure was determined according to the standard (JUS in two ecological units. The study results show that the assortment value structure significantly increases with the increase of tree diameter and that there are no statistically significant differences in assortment structure between the selected ecological units. The dependence of the assortment value structure on tree diameter can be represented by an exponential function. The value percentage of assortments made of stem wood in theoretical crosscutting depending on tree diameter has an increasing tendency, except for the wood for excelsior.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously.

  19. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.

  20. Five QTL hotspots for yield in short rotation coppice bioenergy poplar: The Poplar Biomass Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Nicole

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern over land use for non-food bioenergy crops requires breeding programmes that focus on producing biomass on the minimum amount of land that is economically-viable. To achieve this, the maximum potential yield per hectare is a key target for improvement. For long lived tree species, such as poplar, this requires an understanding of the traits that contribute to biomass production and their genetic control. An important aspect of this for long lived plants is an understanding of genetic interactions at different developmental stages, i.e. how genes or genetic regions impact on yield over time. Results QTL mapping identified regions of genetic control for biomass yield. We mapped consistent QTL across multiple coppice cycles and identified five robust QTL hotspots on linkage groups III, IV, X, XIV and XIX, calling these 'Poplar Biomass Loci' (PBL 1–5. In total 20% of the variation in final harvest biomass yield was explained by mapped QTL. We also investigated the genetic correlations between yield related traits to identify 'early diagnostic' indicators of yield showing that early biomass was a reasonable predictor of coppice yield and that leaf size, cell number and stem and sylleptic branch number were also valuable traits. Conclusion These findings provide insight into the genetic control of biomass production and correlation to 'early diagnostic' traits determining yield in poplar SRC for bioenergy. QTL hotspots serve as useful targets for directed breeding for improved biomass productivity that may also be relevant across additional poplar hybrids.

  1. Improving the water use efficiency of short rotation coppice (SRC) willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, W.; Bonneau, L.; Groves, S.; Armstrong, A.; Lindegard, K.

    2003-07-01

    On the premise that biofuels will make a significant contribution to the UK's renewable energy sources by the year 2010, willow short rotation coppicing is being studied. The high water requirement of willow is seen as a potential problem in the drier regions of the UK and increasing the water use efficiency and/or draught resistance would extend the areas where willow coppicing would be profitable. The first part of the project was to investigate the water use of a number of near-market varieties of willow and evaluate techniques for early drought tolerance screening in a breeding program and for this, field studies were conducted. This report gives some very early results from the preliminary study. Since DTI funding ceased before the one-season study of the three-year program was complete, the results should be regarded as tentative only. The next phase of the program will be funded by DEFRA and will include efforts to identify how a range of high-yielding willows respond to water stress.

  2. Willow Short Rotation Coppice Trial in a Former Mining Area in Northern Spain: Effects of Clone, Fertilization and Planting Density on Yield after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Castaño-Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A willow short rotation coppice (SRC trial was conducted on former mining land in northern Spain over a period of five years, with the purpose of evaluating the effects on yield of two planting densities (9876 and 14,815 cuttings ha−1, three treatments (control, two levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer (NPK plus weed control and three willow clones (Björn, Inger, Olof. The area was subsoiled, ploughed, harrowed and fertilized with NPK before trial establishment. A randomized block design was applied, with three replications of each treatment in a total of 54 plots, each of an area of 400 m2. The effects of the interactions between the various factors on yield and other growth parameters were also studied. The clone factor significantly affected the number of shoots per stool (greatest for the Inger clone and the Olof clone, which showed the lowest mortality rate and produced the largest trees and largest quantity of biomass. The combined application of fertilizer and herbicide also significantly increased the values of all response variables considered, except the mortality rate. The planting density did not significantly affect the response variables. Clone × treatment interactions were significant for the shoots per stool, height, diameter and biomass variables, and the Olof clone displayed the highest height and diameter growth and yield. The results obtained in the first rotation indicate that the Olof clone adapted well to the trial conditions and therefore would be appropriate for producing biomass in abandoned mine land in Asturias. These findings will help in the development of strategies for the establishment and management of SRC on marginal land.

  3. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  4. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map of the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89 in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  5. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheets related to Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, ain the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  6. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  7. Optimization of thinning technology in beech coppice stands in Crni Vrh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Vojislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of rationalized thinning technology in beech coppice stands was studied. Three basic methods of thinning: schematic, selection and combined method were analyzed. In the framework of each of the above thinning methods, different thinning varieties were designed, differing by the degree of crosscutting, width of gathering lines and their distance. The applied method of felling and crosscutting is the whole tree method or log method, and the form of work organization (1M+1R. The felling and crosscutting are characterized by two key work operations: directed felling and manual collection of the felled wood material. Manual collection is made significantly easier by the correct selection of tree felling direction which in turn affects significantly the rationalization of the entire thinning process.

  8. Background CH4 and N2O fluxes in low-input short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-04-01

    Extensively managed short rotation coppice systems are characterized by low fluxes of CH4 and N2O. However due to the large global warming potential of these trace gases (GWP100: CH4: 34, N2O: 298), such background fluxes can still significantly contribute to offsetting the CO2 uptake of short rotation coppice systems. Recent technological advances in fast-response CH4 and N2O analysers have improved our capability to capture these background fluxes, but their quantification still remains a challenge. As an example, we present here CH4 and N2O fluxes from a short-rotation bioenergy plantation in Belgium. Poplars have been planted in a double-row system on a loamy sand in 2010 and coppiced in the beginning of 2012 and 2014 (two-year rotation system). In 2013 (June - November) and 2014 (April - August), the plantation's CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured in parallel with an eddy covariance tower (EC) and an automated chamber system (AC). The EC had a detection limit of 13.68 and 0.76 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The median detection limit of the AC was 0.38 and 0.08 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The EC picked up a few high CH4 emission events with daily averages >100 μmol m-2 h-1, but a large proportion of the measured fluxes were within the EC's detection limit. The same was true for the EC-derived N2O fluxes where the daily average flux was often close to the detection limit. Sporadically, some negative (uptake) fluxes of N2O were observed. On the basis of the EC data, no clear link was found between CH4 and N2O fluxes and environmental variables. The problem with fluxes within the EC detection limit is that a significant amount of the values can show the opposite sign, thus "mirroring" the true flux. Subsequently, environmental controls of background trace gas fluxes might be disguised in the analysis. As a next step, it will be tested if potential environmental drivers of background CH4 and N2O fluxes at the plantation can be

  9. Comparison between abiotic parameters and the forest structure of a forest fragment and an eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith abandoned reforestation in the ecological park of Klabin, Telemaco Borba/PR Comparação entre parâmetros abióticos e a estrutura florestal de um fragmento de floresta e um reflorestamento abandonado de eucalipto (Eucalyptus saligna Smith no parque ecológico da Klabin, Telêmaco Borba/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pimenta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The forest structure causes a direct impact on the microclimate, being important for the continuity of the successional processes as well as for the restoration of ecosystem processes. Studies on forest structure are important to help determine ecological restoration actions, improving its implementation. In order to compare two forest formations, being one of them a secondary forest fragment and the other one an abandoned area of eucalyptus reforestation, some abiotic parameters were evaluated in this study, as well as the forest structure of the areas. Amongst the abiotic factors studied, there are: temperature and relative air humidity, soil compaction, moisture and soil pH and thickness of the litter. In order to analyze the forest structure, the following items were evaluated: herbaceous cover on the soil, rate of canopy cover, the diameter at breast height (DBH, basal area (BA and height of trees of all species. Among the parameters analyzed, comparing the areas, it was observed that: soil compaction was higher in the secondary forest (0.57 MPa than in the eucalyptus reforestation (0.43 MPa; the presence of herbaceous plants on the soil occurred less in the eucalyptus reforestation (17.96% than in the secondary forest (59.4%; the canopy cover index was of 45.99% for the eucalyptus reforestation, while in the secondary forest it was of 61.02%, being therefore higher for the latter. Nevertheless, according to Kolmogorov Smirnov test, the forest structure is not different between the areas, since the DBH and height values were not different between what was calculated and what was observed. A estrutura florestal tem impacto direto sobre o microclima, e é importante para a continuidade dos processos sucessionais e para o restabelecimento dos processos do ecossistema. Estudos acerca da estrutura florestal são importantes para auxiliar as ações de restauração ecológica, melhorando a sua aplicação. Visando comparar duas forma

  10. Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

  11. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avohou, T. Hermane [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin); Bioversity International, West and Central Africa Office, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou (Benin); Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin)

    2011-01-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 {+-} 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} (t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 {+-} 0.47 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 {+-} 0.65 t DM ha{sup -1} in weedy plots and 11.63 {+-} 0.76 t DM ha{sup -1} in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass ({>=}88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  12. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avohou, T. Hermane; Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 ± 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha -1 year -1 (t DM ha -1 year -1 ) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 ± 0.47 t DM ha -1 year -1 ). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 ± 0.65 t DM ha -1 in weedy plots and 11.63 ± 0.76 t DM ha -1 in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass (≥88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  13. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), e55770 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : tree-rings * coppicing * competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  14. Abandonment of farmland and vegetation succession following the Eurasian plague pandemic of AD 1347-52

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; van Geel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper reviews the available documentary, archaeological and palaeoecological evidence for the abandonment of agricultural land and consequent regeneration of the forest in Europe after the Black Death. Location: Western and northern Europe. Methods: This review is the result of an

  15. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short-rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2016-01-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short-rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. This period corresponded to a single rotation of the SRC site. The REF site was a crop rotation between grassland and winter wheat, i.e. the same management of the SRC site before the conversion to short-rotation coppice. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. The measurements began 2 years after the conversion of arable land to SRC so that an older poplar plantation was used to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to SRC establishment and to estimate SOC recovery over time. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled. A GHG emission offset, due to the substitution of natural gas with SRC biomass, was credited to the GHG budget of the SRC site. Emissions generated by the use of biomass (FEXP) were also considered. Suitability was finally assessed by comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. CO2 uptake was 3512 ± 224 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site in 2 years, and 1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site, thus basically compensating for FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site. The SRC site could offset 379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN made up 2 and 4 % in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss was 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in 2 years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality from a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONED PROPERTIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    wastes that accumulate in it. It facilitates crime; at least 37% of the total crimes in both cities have connection with abandoned buildings. This is because abandonment reduces the efficiency of law enforcement agents who are reluctant to enter. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 Supplement ...

  17. Ocean abandonment of radioactive waste. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouyama, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    Now, the nuclear powered submarines armed with ballistic missiles have become the main strength of navy. In Russia, eight nuclear powered icebreakers are operated. Mainly PWRs are used for these nuclear ships. The fuel exchange for nuclear powered submarines is carried out after the use for nearly ten years, therefore, the degree of enrichment of U-235 in fuel seems considerably high. So far, the sinking accidents of five nuclear powered submarines were reported. Former USSR began the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste in 1959, and continued it up to recent date. The northern sea area where the abandonment was carried out and the abandoned amount of radioactivity are shown. Also those in Far East sea area are shown. The management system for radioactive waste in Russia, the course after the abandonment of liquid waste in Japan Sea by Russian navy, the response of Japan regarding the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste and so on are described. (K.I.)

  18. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  20. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a study of the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides (with both contact and residual activity) for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). Severe competition from weeds that have not been controlled adequately by pre-emergence herbicide application is one of the commonest causes of SRC crop failure. In the study, the effects of 11 herbicide treatments currently recommendation for weed control with cereals, legumes or potatoes were compared with an untreated control. There was minimal crop death from any treatment, though most of the treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Two commercial products, Reflex T and Impuls, gave the best overall crop safety and weed control results. The report provides growers of SRC and their advisors with some information on how to achieve improved weed control in SRC fields, and recommends that British Biogen (the trade industry body) should consider the compilation of a technical register of herbicide applications based on information supplied by growers and advisers, including field treatment details.

  1. Work analysis of the machine Claas Jaguar 880 employed in short rotation coppice harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verani S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Working times observed during different harvesting phases in a poplar short rotation coppice (second rotation were calculated. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the yard productivity and the economic gain in order to furnish good indications to the field operators about the harvesting planning. A comparisons between productivity and economic features was carried out on observed (experimental yard and optimized data (optimized yard, the latter characterized by the absence of the inproductive times due to suboptimal yard organization. The harvested gross time as a function of distance covered by machine was assessed using linear regressions methods. The observed average biomass in plantation was 47.32 t ha-1. The harvesting gross average productivity observed in experimental yard was 34.20 t h-1 and the optimized was 54.16 t h-1. The working ability was 0.76 and 1.18 ha h-1 for experimental and optimized yard, respectively. The final product (chips costs estimated was 9.81 euro t-1 and 444.46 euro ha-1 in the experimental yard. The optimized yard was 22-24% more efficient. This paper demonstrates the feasibilty to estimate harvesting times and costs per hectare using linear regressions with good approximation when the standing biomass in plantation is known.

  2. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek M. Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of short rotation bio-energy plantation. An accurate measurement of LAI is critical for quantifying light interception and penetration within the canopy, and subsequently understanding its influence on the stand carbon and energy balance. The aim of the current study is validation of the Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer which serves as an indirect method for the evaluation of the seasonal patterns of LAI, relation between LAI and above ground woody dry biomass and to determine the specific leaf area in short-rotation poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii in uncoppiced (1st rotation and coppiced (2nd rotation, respectively. LAI was measured in uncoppiced and coppiced by two different methods using indirect (SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and direct (litterfall collection. Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer was compared against litterfall collection (only way to retrieve the actual LAI. Simple regression (R2 = 0.82 model was fitted to validate indirect measurement method and a very good agreement (82% was observed in LAI values estimated from SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and from litterfall collection. Seasonal variability of LAI in a short rotation coppice (SRC culture of poplar clone J-105 was evaluated over six years period (2008–2013, for uncoppiced (2008 and 2009 and coppiced (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 culture. The maximum canopy LAI (LAImax reached 7.3 (uncoppiced and 9.5 (coppiced. The linear regression (R2 = 0.93 for average LAI and above ground woody dry biomass was determined, and it was found that LAI acts an indicator of biomass productivity. Specific leaf area (SLA was estimated in both uncoppiced and coppiced culture of poplar. The maximum SLA was found to be 138.9 cm2g−1 in uncoppiced and 126.9 cm2g−1 in coppiced. To conclude, the evaluated indirect LAI measurement method is portable, reliable and faster than direct LAI measurement

  3. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  4. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  5. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  6. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  7. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  8. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  9. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  10. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  11. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  12. Growth duration is a better predictor of stem increment than carbon supply in a Mediterranean oak forest: implications for assessing forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Morine; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Damesin, Claire; Joffre, Richard; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rambal, Serge

    2015-08-01

    Understanding whether tree growth is limited by carbon gain (source limitation) or by the direct effect of environmental factors such as water deficit or temperature (sink limitation) is crucial for improving projections of the effects of climate change on forest productivity. We studied the relationships between tree basal area (BA) variations, eddy covariance carbon fluxes, predawn water potential (Ψpd ) and temperature at different timescales using an 8-yr dataset and a rainfall exclusion experiment in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean coppice. At the daily timescale, during periods of low temperature (forest productivity under climate change scenarios. © 2015 CNRS-ADEME New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are located in the...

  14. The development of a wood fuel gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues: project ARBRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, K.F.; Lundbergt, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of ARBRE Energy, a joint venture company that includes Yorkshire Environmental of the United Kingdom and Tenniska Processer AB of Sweden. The project will establish 2000 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilized with digested sewage sludges, to provide 80% of the fuel requirements of a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 20% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be examined in detail, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (author)

  15. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureysens, I.; Temmerman, L. de; Hastir, T.; Gysel, M. van; Ceulemans, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha -1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha -1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha -1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  16. Biomass productivity and water use relation in short rotation poplar coppice (Populus nigra x p. maximowiczii) in the conditions of Czech Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kučera, J.; Fajman, M.; Žalud, Zdeněk

    LIX, č. 6 (2011), s. 141-152 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : short rotation coppice * biomass increment * water consumption * water use effi ciency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Annual and Intra-Annual Water Balance Components of a Short Rotation Poplar Coppice Based on Sap Flow and Micrometeorological and Hydrological Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 991, JUN 04-07 (2013), s. 401-408 ISSN 0567-7572 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : short rotation poplar coppice * water balance * sap flow * Bowen ratio and energy balance method * modeling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED CROP FALLOWS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom N Pathak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  The succession in areas once vegetated before the disturbance to a forest as climax community is called secondary succession. Secondary succession is influenced by soil type and the vegetation that invades the community. During the literature survey we found that the cropping areas are abandoned in different parts of the world and the fallows left are under secondary succession. There the socio-economy of the people has been found to affect the succession. Species diversity, species richness, rate of replacement and the soil type etc. have been studied by succession researchers. Succession study has also been carried out by using the tools like remote sensing, geographical information system etc.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 166-176

  19. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  20. GHGs balance in a land use change process from grassland to short rotation coppice of poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Arriga, Nicola; Baiocco, Andrea; Boschi, Alessio; Castaldi, Simona; Consalvo, Claudia; Gioli, Beniamino; Matteucci, Giorgio; Tomassucci, Michele; Zaldei, Alessandro; Papale, Dario

    2013-04-01

    At present one of the fastest spreading renewable energy sources are bioenergy cultivations. Millions of hectares of traditional crops all over the Europe are expected to be converted in energy crops in the near future, in order to produce green energy and contrast global warming. Last year, in the context of the GHG-Europe FP7 project we set up an experiment to verify the effects on the green-house gases balance of a land use change from traditional agriculture to short rotation coppice of poplar clones in central Italy. CO2 fluxes measured during the last growing season through three Eddy Covariance masts - two on poplar plantations of different ages and one over a reference site (grassland) - have been analysed. We also monitored CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil measured using chambers in order to better understand the contribution of other GHGs. The two poplar plantations showed a similar uptake of Carbon, 368 g C m-2 year-1 and 358 g C m-2 year-1, while the grassland absorbed 220 g C m-2 year-1 during the same period. Soil respiration in average was higher for the youngest plantation of poplar and for the grassland, lower for the oldest one, where soil is undisturbed from more time. In all the sites we measured low emissions during the winter (between 80 and 150 mg CO2 m-2 h-1), progressively higher in the spring and early summer with growing temperatures (up to 650 mg CO2 m-2 h-1), quite low during the summer because of a strong drought, while the highest values were recorded in September (ca. 1100 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 in the grassland and youngest poplar) after important rain events. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil are very low: little absorption of CH4 in the grassland (values between 0 and -18.75 μg m-2 h-1), with peak after fertilization; in the SRC little absorption or emission with no clear seasonal pattern. Insignificant fluxes of N2O in all crops (even in the grassland after fertilization). The carbon fluxes measured are strongly related to the particular

  1. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Biomass will play a role in the UK meeting EU targets on renewable energy use. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and miscanthus are potential biomass feedstocks; however, supply will rely on farmer willingness to grow these crops. Despite attractive crop establishment grants for dedicated energy crops (DECs) in the UK, uptake remains low. Drawing on results from an on-farm survey with 244 English arable farmers, 81.6% (87.7%) of farmers would not consider growing miscanthus (SRC), while respectively, 17.2% (11.9%) would consider growing and 1.2% (0.4%) were currently growing these crops. Farmer age, location, land ownership, farm type, farm size and farmer education level were not significant factors in determining acceptance of DECs. The main reasons cited for not growing DECs were impacts on land quality, lack of appropriate machinery, commitment of land for a long period of time, time to financial return and profitability. Reasons cited for willingness to grow DECs included land quality, ease of crop management, commitment of land for a long period of time, and profitability. Farmers cited a range of 'moral' (e.g. should not be using land for energy crops when there is a shortage of food), land quality, knowledge, profit and current farming practice comments as reasons for not growing DECs, while those willing to grow DECs cited interest in renewable energy, willingness to consider new crops, and low labour needs as rationale for their interest. Farm business objectives indicated that maximising profit and quality of life were most frequently cited as very important objectives. Previous research in the UK indicates that farmers in arable areas are unlikely to convert large areas of land to DECs, even where these farmers have an interest and willingness to grow them. Assuming that those farmers interested in growing DECs converted 9.29% (average percentage of arable land set-aside between 1996 and 2005) of their utilised agricultural area to these crops, 50,700

  2. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel dry forests in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Molina Colón; Ariel E. Lugo; Olga Ramos

    2011-01-01

    We report results of new research on (1) community composition of novel subtropical dry forests developing on abandoned pastures and agricultural fields in both private and protected public lands and (2) seed germination and growth rates of plantings of native tree species on degraded soils. We found that novel dry forests were dominated by introduced species, which...

  4. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient......, focusing on changes in aggregate stability and particulate organic matter (POM). Methods. Four successional stages were investigated: managed grassland, two transitional phases in which grassland abandonment led to colonization by Picea abies (L.) Karst., and old mixed forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica L...

  5. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  6. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Szili-Kovács, T.; Tříska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2002), s. 435-440 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) T25739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  7. Climate impact and energy efficiency from electricity generation through anaerobic digestion or direct combustion of short rotation coppice willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Niclas; Nordberg, Åke; Sundberg, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Serina; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using LCA, CHP from willow use in biogas was compared with direct combustion. • Direct combustion was ninefold more energy-efficient. • Biogas had a much greater cooling effect on global mean surface temperature. • The effects of soil carbon changes on temperature over time differed. • Biogas had long-term temperature effects, direct combustion short-term effects. - Abstract: Short rotation coppice willow is an energy crop used in Sweden to produce electricity and heat in combined heat and power plants. Recent laboratory-scale experiments have shown that SRC willow can also be used for biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Here, life cycle assessment is used to compare the climate impact and energy efficiency of electricity and heat generated by these measures. All energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil organic carbon fluxes were included in the life cycle assessment. The climate impact was determined using time-dependent life cycle assessment methodology. Both systems showed a positive net energy balance, but the direct combustion system delivered ninefold more energy than the biogas system. Both systems had a cooling effect on the global mean surface temperature change. The cooling impact per hectare from the biogas system was ninefold higher due to the carbon returned to soil with the digestate. Compensating the lower energy production of the biogas system with external energy sources had a large impact on the result, effectively determining whether the biogas scenario had a net warming or cooling contribution to the global mean temperature change per kWh of electricity. In all cases, the contribution to global warming was lowered by the inclusion of willow in the energy system. The use of time-dependent climate impact methodology shows that extended use of short rotation coppice willow can contribute to counteract global warming

  8. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1979-03-01

    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  9. Temporal dynamics of plant succession in abandoned field in Mediterranean mountain areas: farming terraces and sloping fields (Iberian System, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Cropland abandonment is an important problem in mountain areas worldwide. This process represents the change from an agricultural management to an abandoned land in which a complex plant succession process occurs, with important hydromorphological effects, and consequences in water resources availability and soil erosion. Literature indicates that plant succession depends on multiple natural factors (soil properties, topography, climate, lithology, and distance to natural covers…) and anthropogenic factors (age of abandonment, management of each field during the cultivation period and after the abandonment…). Despite the advances, much is unknown about the vegetation succession, due to the complexity of ecological and social conditions in which land abandonment occurs. Recently, it is shown that only local factors can explain the heterogeneity of the process (Burel and Baudry, 2002; Jouba and Alados, 2012). In this work, we analyze the diversity of vegetation cover in abandonment fields in Cameros Viejo (Iberian System, Spain), related to the different field patterns (terraces and sloping fields) and the age of abandonment. Agricultural lands were delimited using aerial photographs from 1956 and 1978. The current land cover was obtained from SIOSE (Information System of Land Occupation in Spain). According to our cartography, cultivated land occupied as much as 15,491 ha (39% of the area), remaining abandoned 14,505 ha by 1978. Farming terraces occupied 55.9% of the abandoned area, and 44.1% as sloping fields. On the other hand, our cartography highlights the complexity of current land cover of abandoned fields in a landscape matrix of scrubland. Our results suggest that ecological succession is faster in farming terraces than in sloping fields, mostly until scrubland phase is attained. They also suggest that current land cover is better explained by the physical conditions of each field than by the abandonment age. Acknowledgement This research was supported

  10. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  12. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice. Four year study involving wildlife monitoring of commercial SCR plantations planted on arable land and arable control plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.D.; Bishop, J.D.; McKay, H.V.; Sage, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded project monitoring wildlife within and around a number of commercially managed Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations aimed at using the information gathered to assess the ecological impact of SRC plantations on the wildlife in the area. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of the monitoring programme examining the distribution of flora and fauna within the plantations, and the monitoring of birds, plants, insects and butterflies. The greater diversity of wildlife and plants in the SRC plots, the higher densities of birds, and the increasing number of butterfly species are discussed along with the increased mean number of invertebrate orders with subsequent growth of willow coppices, and the habitats at the edges of the plots and at headlands designed for access to machinery within the plots.

  13. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  14. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  15. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk.

  16. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  17. Safety problems with abandoned explosive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, W.C.

    1969-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the safe removal of explosive and radioactive contaminated materials structures and drains from abandoned sites, including explosives processing and service buildings with a goal to return the entire area to its natural state and to permit public access. The safety problems encountered in the cleanup and their solutions are applicable to modification and maintenance work in operating explosive facilities. (U.S.)

  18. Plug and abandonment operations and tool positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering With aging oil fields, the Norwegian petroleum authorities are focusing on Plug and Abandonment (P&A) plans. Therefore efforts are being made, by relevant authorities, to improve standards and procedures for the P&A operations. Regulations for UK part of the North Sea define the P&A operation plans and execution phases in a way that may help improve the standards on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Halliburton like its competitors is focusing on ...

  19. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  20. Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asmarhansyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate   appropriate   land   development measures and amelioration  strategies for  utilization of mined  areas  for crop  production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general  food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana  L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.

  1. Historical, ecological, and governance aspects of intensive forest biomass harvesting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    forest management impacts and conservation of light-demanding biodiversity associated with historic coppicing and grazing than on intensive harvesting. The energy sector drives the development of new governance to verify forest biomass sustainability, but the national knowledge base for such verification......Intensive forest harvesting has increased in Fennoscandia over the last few decades. Similar developments may follow throughout Europe as renewable energy replaces fossil fuels. The international literature suggests that intensive harvesting could increase ecological risks to yield, carbon stores...... and their inclusion in governance is reviewed. Denmark was almost completely deforested by the early 1800s, but centuries of afforestation have resulted in a current forest cover of 14.3%. Research commonly uses stem-only harvesting as a reference against which to compare intensive harvesting impacts, but pristine...

  2. Getting cold feet?: Why health care mergers are abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anne-Fleur; Postma, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence and sizeable consequences of merger abandonment in other sectors, there is no thorough understanding of merger abandonment in health care. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of determinants of health care merger abandonment. On the basis of the literature on merger abandonment, we formulated a framework on potential determinants of health care merger abandonment. We then constructed a survey that was sent to 70% of all executives of Dutch health care organizations (response rate = 35%, n = 291). We provide descriptive overviews of open, multiple-response, and multiple-choice questions on merger abandonment and use chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to test whether abandoned and completed merger processes differ. About 62% of the respondents were involved in at least one merger process during the period of 2005-2012. Thirty-eight percent of these respondents reported that their last merger case ended prematurely (n = 53). The most frequently mentioned determinants of merger abandonment are changing insights on the desirability and feasibility during merger processes, incompatibilities between executives, and insufficient support for the merger from internal stakeholders. We did not find significant relationships between merger abandonment and executives' previous merger experience, degree of organizational diversification, health care sector, size differences, or other organizational differences. Our findings partially confirm results from previous studies, especially with regard to the importance of changing insights and incompatibilities between the involved executives in merger abandonment. We also find that pressure from internal stakeholders, particularly nonexecutive directors, and distrust, fear, and animosity play an important role in merger abandonment. To minimize the organizational and societal costs of abandoned mergers, we advise executives who engage in mergers to construct backup plans with

  3. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  4. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  6. Bryophyte species diversity in secondary forests dominated by the introduced species Spathodea campanulata Beauv. in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Perez; I. Sastre de Jesús; A. E. Lugo; O. J. Abelleira Martínez

    2012-01-01

    The introduced tree species Spathodea campanulata (Bignoniaceae) forms novel forests in Puerto Rico, these having emerged after the abandonment of fields in the mid-20th century and resulting in forests with a new species composition. We assessed bryophyte species richness in these novel forests and sought correlations with geological substrate, past land use, forest...

  7. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  9. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  11. Studies on coppice management of willows and some properties of the wood produced. [Salix alba 'Valenza' I-1/59, S. caprea dasyclados, and S. triandra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsanov, Ts.I.; Kolarov, D.

    1979-01-01

    Salix alba 'Valenza' I-1/59, S. caprea dasyclados, and S. triandra were grown on coppice rotations in Bulgaria to determine the effect of spacings (2 X 2 and 3 X 3 m) and of rotation length (3 and 6 yr) on yield. The results are tabulated. At a spacing of 2 X 2 m, the mean yield from 3-yr coppices was 75 tons/hectare (t/ha) for Valenza I-1/59, 43 t/ha for S. caprea dasycladas, and 24 t/ha for S. triandra; yields were much greater with the closer spacing and the shorter rotation. The chemical composition of the barked and unbarked wood was determined (data tabulated), and results indicate that coppice willow is a suitable raw material for the pulp and cardboard industry.

  12. Soil carbon sequestration due to post-Soviet cropland abandonment: estimates from a large-scale soil organic carbon field inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertebach, Tim-Martin; Hölzel, Norbert; Kämpf, Immo; Yurtaev, Andrey; Tupitsin, Sergey; Kiehl, Kathrin; Kamp, Johannes; Kleinebecker, Till

    2017-09-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered cropland abandonment on a continental scale, which in turn led to carbon accumulation on abandoned land across Eurasia. Previous studies have estimated carbon accumulation rates across Russia based on large-scale modelling. Studies that assess carbon sequestration on abandoned land based on robust field sampling are rare. We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks using a randomized sampling design along a climatic gradient from forest steppe to Sub-Taiga in Western Siberia (Tyumen Province). In total, SOC contents were sampled on 470 plots across different soil and land-use types. The effect of land use on changes in SOC stock was evaluated, and carbon sequestration rates were calculated for different age stages of abandoned cropland. While land-use type had an effect on carbon accumulation in the topsoil (0-5 cm), no independent land-use effects were found for deeper SOC stocks. Topsoil carbon stocks of grasslands and forests were significantly higher than those of soils managed for crops and under abandoned cropland. SOC increased significantly with time since abandonment. The average carbon sequestration rate for soils of abandoned cropland was 0.66 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 (1-20 years old, 0-5 cm soil depth), which is at the lower end of published estimates for Russia and Siberia. There was a tendency towards SOC saturation on abandoned land as sequestration rates were much higher for recently abandoned (1-10 years old, 1.04 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ) compared to earlier abandoned crop fields (11-20 years old, 0.26 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Our study confirms the global significance of abandoned cropland in Russia for carbon sequestration. Our findings also suggest that robust regional surveys based on a large number of samples advance model-based continent-wide SOC prediction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Aboveground Biomass and Litterfall Dynamics in Secondary Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differences in aboveground biomass, litterfall patterns and the seasonality of litterfall in three secondary forest fields aged 1, 5 and 10 years of age regenerating from degraded abandoned rubber plantation and a mature forest were studied in southern Nigeria. This is with a view to understanding the possibility of ...

  14. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    experiments did not show evidence of SOC stabilization. SOC mineralization was higher in the top layers and values decreased with depth. These results put the question forward which type of forest and landscape management is most appropriate to decide for the best practices after land abandonment for soil recovery and soil organic carbon dynamics. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974). E. Nadal-Romero was the recipient of a "Ramón y Cajal" postdoctoral contract (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  15. Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana; Moulik, Nirmalya Roy; Mishra, Ravi Krishna; Kumar, Dipak

    2013-05-01

    The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment. The present study takes a closer look at causes of abandonment of therapy and effectiveness of counselling in reducing abandonment. A retrospective study of children with retinoblastoma registered at our centre from March 2008 through August 2011. Fifty (49.50%) of 101 children registered for treatment abandoned therapy. Abandonment rates were significantly higher in rural as compared to urban children (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in rate of abandonment between stages or laterality of disease and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone calls were more effective than letters in tracing patients (31.2% vs. 2.4%). Major reasons cited behind abandonment were financial problems (30%) and unwillingness to enucleate (20%). Of the 12 children who returned and were retreated 6 (50%) died of progressive disease. Nineteen (73%) of those who did not return died at home. Abandonment rates steadily declined from 71.42% in 2008 to 16.66% in 2011 (P = 0.01) due to effective pre-abandonment counselling by a support team under the National Retinoblastoma Registry of India from 2009. Abandonment rates for children with retinoblastoma continue to be unacceptably high. Rural background, financial constraints and hesitancy to enucleate were important causes behind abandonment. Outcome of patients who abandoned treatment was uniformly dismal. Inclusion of support team and intensified initial counselling helped in improving compliance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  17. Invasion by native tree species prevents biotic homogenization in novel forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that secondary forests dominated by introduced species, known as novel forests, increase taxonomical similarity between localities and lead to biotic homogenization in human dominated landscapes. In Puerto Rico, agricultural abandonment has given way to novel forests dominated by the introduced African tulip tree Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (...

  18. An evaluation of harvesting machinery for short rotation coppice willow in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-12-31

    During the harvesting seasons 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 several harvesting trials were carried out within the EU project on harvesting and storage of Short Rotation Crops and within a national project. During this period the following machines were investigated: Diemelstadt poplar harvester, cut and chip; Claas forage harvester with SRF header, cut and chip; Austoft sugarcane harvester, adapted to SRF, cut and chip; Bender II, cut and chip; Hvidsted Energy Allrounder, whole shoot harvester; Dansalix whole shoot harvester. In the 1994-1995 season the intention was to harvest 300 tonnes of whole shoots, chunks and chips for a storage trial. The main conclusions of the 1994-1995 harvesting season must be that harvesting willow with the existing machines in wet winters without frozen ground is very difficult. The machines will have to be developed further and special interest should be given to developing shuttle vehicles with the same flotation as the tracked harvester. Several of the problems encountered with the machines in Denmark were confirmed by the experience in the other trials. Road transportation of chips from SRF plantations is just as expensive as transporting energy chips from the forest at about Dkr 50 per tonne over 48 km. Transporting whole shoots is very expensive due to the low bulk density. Transportation of whole shoots over 48 km costs on the average Dkr 133 per tonne fresh. A very short pilot study into chipping of whole shoots from a three metre high pile indicated that this comminution with a normal forest chipper has a low productivity (8.9 tonnes fresh per work place hour) and is very expensive at Dkr 157 per tonne. This productivity can be improved by equipping the chipper with a special feeding table and better feed rollers for the SRF crop. (EG)

  19. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  20. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  1. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  2. 77 FR 74063 - Amendments to the Abandoned Plan Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... individual account plans may be considered ``abandoned'' and procedures by which financial institutions (so... the United States Code on the theory that such plans are effectively being abandoned by the sponsor as...) of Sec. 2578.1 that allows only large financial institutions and other asset custodians described in...

  3. Vegetational dynamics in some tropical abandoned rice fields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, poor farmers of tropics being unable to adopt such soil management strategy abandon the agricultural systems because of decline in production and leave the fields to remain fallow. The present study examined the vegetational succession and quantitative community characteristics in some abandoned ...

  4. Life form and species diversity on abandoned croplands, Roggeveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Roggeveld consists of an island of Mountain Renosterveld (Fynbos biome) surrounded by Succulent Karoo biome vegetation. Since management of abandoned croplands depends on a better understanding of their succession sequences, vegetation recovery on abandoned croplands in the Roggeveld was studied ...

  5. Vegetational dynamics in some tropical abandoned rice fields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Ceaselpinaceae. Butea monosperma. Desmodium levigatum. Crotolaria albida. Cassia tora. 3.39. 6.15. 4.77. 14.91. Table 3. Species richness, diversity and Dominant indices of different vegetation on different abandoned rice field. Status of studied plots with respect to abandonment. Species richness. Species diversity Ĥ.

  6. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ..., General Reclamation Requirements; Part 876, Acid Mine Drainage Treatment and Abatement Program; Part 879... fires, subsidence, water loss, dangerous impoundments, abandoned structures/equipment, open mine portals... [SATS NO. TN-001-FOR; OSM 2011-0010] Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program AGENCY: Office of Surface...

  7. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reptiles, accident and vagrancy. The brunt of abandonment is found to be more in the medium residential density. The study thus recommends an aggressive environmental management that offsets blighted conditions in the environment. Keywords: Effects, Buildings, Lots, Abandonment, Landed Properties, Environment ...

  8. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

  9. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  10. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silvicultural systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems, silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition, afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  11. Soil seed bank during succession at an abandoned pasture in the upper Paraná river-floodplain, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6391 Soil seed bank during succession at an abandoned pasture in the upper Paraná river-floodplain, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Campos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated density and species composition of the soil seed bank in active pasture and in secondary forest on a 10 year-old abandoned pasture to identify changes in density, richness, diversity and species composition during secondary succession of abandoned pastures. The implications of those changes for the forest recovery process were also considered. Soil samples were collected at Porto Rico island, state of Paraná, in 2007. The seedling emergence method was used. Data on active pasture collected in 1996, published by Campos and Souza (2003 were used for comparative analysis. No evidence was found of a pattern of changes in density of the soil seed bank during succession of abandoned pastures. We observed increases in richness and diversity, in the contribution of tree and shrub species and dominance of herb species for the seed bank during the first 10 years of abandonment of pastures in riparian forests. At the end of succession, the soil used as pasture can result in systems that are different from the original environment, due to seed bank impoverishment and presence of exotic species.We evaluated density and species composition of the soil seed bank in active pasture and in secondary forest on a 10 year-old abandoned pasture to identify changes in density, richness, diversity and species composition during secondary succession of abandoned pastures. The implications of those changes for the forest recovery process were also considered. Soil samples were collected at Porto Rico island, state of Paraná, in 2007. The seedling emergence method was used. Data on active pasture collected in 1996, published by Campos and Souza (2003 were used for comparative analysis. No evidence was found of a pattern of changes in density of the soil seed bank during succession of abandoned pastures. We observed increases in richness and diversity, in the contribution of tree and shrub species and dominance of herb species for the seed bank during the

  12. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  13. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  14. Forest restoration in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    Forest restoration on land cleared for agriculture is occurring around the world. Often land was abandoned because of infertility, frequent flooding, or other site limitations. In some countries, market forces or changing trade policies drive conversion of cleared land to plantations of exotic or native tree species. The objective of this paper is to introduce the...

  15. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand

  16. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; PSports.

  17. Starobylé výmladkové lesy - metodika inventarizace, evidence a péče

    OpenAIRE

    Maděra, Petr; Buček, Antonín; Úradníček, Luboš; Slach, Tomáš; Friedl, Michal; Machala, Martin; Řepka, Radomír; Lacina, Jan; Černušáková, Linda; Volařík, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Methodology is focused on suggestion how to do an inventory, evidence and management of ancient coppice woodlands. Ancient coppice woodlands are defined as longterm and continuously coppiced forest stands.

  18. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  19. Robust Abandoned Object Detection Using Dual Foregrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Haga

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the tracking-based approaches that heavily depend on accurate detection of moving objects, which often fail for crowded scenarios, we present a pixelwise method that employs dual foregrounds to extract temporally static image regions. Depending on the application, these regions indicate objects that do not constitute the original background but were brought into the scene at a subsequent time, such as abandoned and removed items, illegally parked vehicles. We construct separate long- and short-term backgrounds that are implemented as pixelwise multivariate Gaussian models. Background parameters are adapted online using a Bayesian update mechanism imposed at different learning rates. By comparing each frame with these models, we estimate two foregrounds. We infer an evidence score at each pixel by applying a set of hypotheses on the foreground responses, and then aggregate the evidence in time to provide temporal consistency. Unlike optical flow-based approaches that smear boundaries, our method can accurately segment out objects even if they are fully occluded. It does not require on-site training to compensate for particular imaging conditions. While having a low-computational load, it readily lends itself to parallelization if further speed improvement is necessary.

  20. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  1. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  2. Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e

  3. Assessing Regional-Scale Impacts of Short Rotation Coppices on Ecosystem Services by Modeling Land-Use Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jule; Frank, Karin; Priess, Joerg A; Meyer, Markus A

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world's growing energy demand through bioenergy production involves extensive land-use change which could have severe environmental and social impacts. Second generation bioenergy feedstocks offer a possible solution to this problem. They have the potential to reduce land-use conflicts between food and bioenergy production as they can be grown on low quality land not suitable for food production. However, a comprehensive impact assessment that considers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) and biodiversity is needed to identify the environmentally best feedstock option, as trade-offs are inherent. In this study, we simulate the spatial distribution of short rotation coppices (SRCs) in the landscape of the Mulde watershed in Central Germany by modeling profit-maximizing farmers under different economic and policy-driven scenarios using a spatially explicit economic simulation model. This allows to derive general insights and a mechanistic understanding of regional-scale impacts on multiple ESS in the absence of large-scale implementation. The modeled distribution of SRCs, required to meet the regional demand of combined heat and power (CHP) plants for solid biomass, had little or no effect on the provided ESS. In the policy-driven scenario, placing SRCs on low or high quality soils to provide ecological focus areas, as required within the Common Agricultural Policy in the EU, had little effect on ESS. Only a substantial increase in the SRC production area, beyond the regional demand of CHP plants, had a relevant effect, namely a negative impact on food production as well as a positive impact on biodiversity and regulating ESS. Beneficial impacts occurred for single ESS. However, the number of sites with balanced ESS supply hardly increased due to larger shares of SRCs in the landscape. Regression analyses showed that the occurrence of sites with balanced ESS supply was more strongly driven by biophysical factors than by the SRC share in the landscape. This

  4. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  5. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become...

  6. Broadcast seeding as a potential tool to reestablish native species in degraded dry forest ecosystems in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Brooks; S. Cordell; L. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Hawaiian dry forests currently occupy a small fraction of their former range, and worldwide tropical dry forests are one of the most human-altered systems. Many small-scale projects have been successful in restoring native dry forests in abandoned pastures and degraded woodlands by outplanting after invasive species removal, but this is a costly approach. In this...

  7. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  8. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  9. Cultural Meanings and Consumers’ Discourses about Their Brand Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Diniz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although we know a lot about how brand meanings are created and perpetuated in relation to and through cultural discourses, remarkably little work has been done in the marketing field to develop a better comprehension as to how brand meanings are enacted through distancing behaviors, such as brand abandonment. In the marketing literature, abandonment has usually been associated with relationship crises, most commonly as the result of consumer dissatisfaction. This study investigates consumers who abandoned previously consumed brands in two distinct product categories, soft drinks and automobiles. Through investigation of two emblematic brands – CocaCola and Fiat - the analysis illustrates cultural discourses that consumers use to give meanings and socially negotiate their brand abandonment. Considering the repertoire of meanings attached to both the brands and consumers’ commitment to their distancing behavior, the analysis presents three types of brand abandonment: (a contingent, (b balanced and (c aversive. This paper also presents brand abandonment as an enabler of social distinctions, highlighting two discrete discourses promulgated and perpetuated by consumers: (a Life evolution, and (b Rationality, self-control and sovereignty.

  10. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bürgi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-07-01

    Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  11. Vietnam’s forest transition in retrospect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankersen, Jeppe; Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    One of the prerequisites of the REDD+ mechanism is to effectively predict business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios for change in forest cover. This would enable estimation of how much carbon emission a project could potentially prevent and thus how much carbon credit should be rewarded. However, different...... factors like forest degradation and the lack of linearity in forest cover transitions challenge the accuracy of such scenarios. Here we predict and validate such BAU scenarios retrospectively based on forest cover changes at village and district level in North Central Vietnam. With the government......’s efforts to increase the forest cover, land use policies led to gradual abandonment of shifting cultivation since the 1990s. We analyzed Landsat images from 1973, 1989, 1998, 2000, and 2011 and found that the policies in the areas studied did lead to increased forest cover after a long period of decline...

  12. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West, 122... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land...

  13. Historical cropland expansion and abandonment in the continental U.S. during 1850 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LCLUC) are among the most important driving forces that alter terrestrial ecosystem functions and their feedbacks to climate system, but reliable spatially explicit dataset over century long period is still lacking for fine-scale earth system modeling. In this study, by harmonizing multiple sources of inventory data and high-resolution satellite images, we reconstructed cropland density maps to depict the annual percentage and distribution pattern of cultivated land (excluding summer idle/fallow, cropland pasture) in the conterminous U.S. during 1850 to 2016. We further examined the cropland expansion and abandonment in the U.S. using the newly-developed LCLUC data. In total, national cropland expansion is 104 million hectares (Mha) from 1850 to 2016 and peaked at about 127 Mha in 1920. Forests and shrublands were the dominant land cover types that croplands were converted from during 1850-1880, which may be primarily attributed to agriculture development in Northeast region. Croplands began to expand into grasslands since 1870 and the encroached area dramatically increased, mainly due to cultivation development in the Great Plain and Midwestern area. In comparison, the abandoned cropland in the U.S. is 65 Mha (34% of the maximum crop density) during the study period. We found cropland abandonment mostly occurred in the Central and Southeast U.S., while cropland expansion centered in the Midwestern states, the Central California, and the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. National cultivated lands have shifted from the Eastern to Midwestern U.S., which contributed to the increasingly important role of Midwest in the rise of food and biofuel productions, enhanced GHGs emission, and intensive nitrogen loads into the Gulf of Mexico. Our study provides a reliable database of historical cropland distribution, which is essential for modeling assessments of LCLUC impacts, crop production estimation, and social-economic analysis.

  14. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z

    2009-05-01

    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P < 0.0001). Babies left in a non-findable location (34%) had a 5.19 (2.06, 13.11) higher odds of death compared with those to be found. Most babies (74%) were abandoned outdoors and only 9.7% were left with a memento. Few mothers, almost exclusively those of older babies, were found (37.1%). Of those found, 92% were located within 3 days of abandoning their baby. Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for

  15. Abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to treatment is one of the hindering factors in the process of smoking cessation. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status and motivation among smokers who maintained or abandoned treatment to stop smoking, and to analyze associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study on 216 smokers who were attended at healthcare units in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. METHODS: The instruments used were the Fagerström, URICA and CAGE questionnaires. Data from the initial evaluation was analyzed using the two-proportion test (α < 0.05. The patients were monitored for six months and those who abandoned treatment were accounted for. Bivariate analysis was conducted, using crude prevalence ratios and 5% significance level (P < 0.05, with abandonment of treatment as the outcome variable. Associations with P < 0.20 were selected for multiple robust Poisson regression (RPa. RESULTS: The abandonment rate was 34.26%. Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake predominated in the dropout group. In the final model, gender (RPa 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.10 and age group (RPa 3.77; 95% CI: 1.47-9.67 remained associated with abandonment. CONCLUSION: Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake more frequently abandoned the treatment. Male gender and younger age group were associated with abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment.

  16. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  17. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  18. Modeling Mediterranean forest structure using airborne laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Chirici, Gherardo; Giannini, Raffaello; Mele, Salvatore; Mura, Matteo; Puxeddu, Michele; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Valbuena, Ruben; Travaglini, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The conservation of biological diversity is recognized as a fundamental component of sustainable development, and forests contribute greatly to its preservation. Structural complexity increases the potential biological diversity of a forest by creating multiple niches that can host a wide variety of species. To facilitate greater understanding of the contributions of forest structure to forest biological diversity, we modeled relationships between 14 forest structure variables and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for two Italian study areas representing two common Mediterranean forests, conifer plantations and coppice oaks subjected to irregular intervals of unplanned and non-standard silvicultural interventions. The objectives were twofold: (i) to compare model prediction accuracies when using two types of ALS metrics, echo-based metrics and canopy height model (CHM)-based metrics, and (ii) to construct inferences in the form of confidence intervals for large area structural complexity parameters. Our results showed that the effects of the two study areas on accuracies were greater than the effects of the two types of ALS metrics. In particular, accuracies were less for the more complex study area in terms of species composition and forest structure. However, accuracies achieved using the echo-based metrics were only slightly greater than when using the CHM-based metrics, thus demonstrating that both options yield reliable and comparable results. Accuracies were greatest for dominant height (Hd) (R2 = 0.91; RMSE% = 8.2%) and mean height weighted by basal area (R2 = 0.83; RMSE% = 10.5%) when using the echo-based metrics, 99th percentile of the echo height distribution and interquantile distance. For the forested area, the generalized regression (GREG) estimate of mean Hd was similar to the simple random sampling (SRS) estimate, 15.5 m for GREG and 16.2 m SRS. Further, the GREG estimator with standard error of 0.10 m was considerable more precise than the SRS

  19. Carabid Beetles (Carabidae in an Abandoned Quarry Near Čelechovice na Hané

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2012 and 2013 a research of carabid beetles was performed in an abandoned quarry Státní lom (Čelechovice na Hané. Capturing was conducted at three plots with early succession and at three plots with advanced succession using formaldehyde pitfall traps. In total, 42 species in the total number of 867 specimens were collected at all plots in both years. Overall eurytopic species prevailed. Among the major species, the following were detected Cylindera germanica (VU, Carabus irregularis (NT, C. scheidleri, and C. ullrichii. The quarry is mostly colonized by species preferring open habitats. Species that require unshaded habitats and species indifferent to shading occurred especially on the quarry terraces and on its outskirts. Species requiring shaded habitats, typically forest species, were found in the vicinity of the quarry and inside the quarry where a lot of bushes were growing.

  20. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  1. Real-size experiments and 3-D simulation of rockfall on forested and non-forested slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. A. Dorren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few rockfall simulation models take into account the mitigating effect of existing forest cover. The objective of our study was to improve the generic rockfall simulation model RockyFor, which does take the effect of forest stands into account, thereby developing a clear method for quantifying and modelling slope surface characteristics based on quantitative field data. To obtain these data we carried out 218 real-size rockfall experiments on forested and non-forested sites on a mountain slope in the French Alps. On the basis of a polygon map representing different diameter classes of the material covering the slope, we determine the mean obstacle height (MOH for each homogeneous unit at the experimental sites. We proposed an algorithm for calculating the tangential coefficient of restitution using the MOH. Comparing the simulated and observed data from the real-size rockfall experiments showed that the 3-D combined deterministic-probabilistic rockfall simulation model RockyFor accurately predicted rockfall events on a non-forested (Root Mean Square Error = 17% and a forested site (Root Mean Square Error = 12%. We conclude that for further improvement of rockfall-forest simulation on different slope types more quantitative data is required on (1 the energy dissipative capacity of shrubs and bushes (e.g. in coppice stands, (2 the effect of the slope material, (3 the rock shape as well as the rock size, and (4 the tangential and normal coefficient of restitution. Based on the presented results we can state that the RockyFor model could contribute to better taking into account the mitigating effect of the existing forest cover when planning protective measures.

  2. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  3. Changes in hydrological connectivity due to vegetation recovery and wall collapse in abandoned terraced fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; López-Vicente, Manuel; Oranjuren, Rafael; Ángel Llorente, José; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Arnáez, José

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces have been built in mountain regions worldwide in order to provide a larger surface for cultivation, improve water availability and reduce soil erosion, as they favour infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment connectivity from hillslopes to streams. In many Mediterranean countries, farmland abandonment has led to progressive natural revegetation and, in terraced slopes, due to a lack of maintenance, to a collapse of the water conservation structures, often followed by small mass movements and gullying. Little is known about the effect of such failures on the hydrological system, especially at catchment scale. The aim of this study is to contributing to fill in this gap by exploring the effect of vegetation recovery and terrace failure on hydrological connectivity in a small catchment (192 ha) in northern Spain mostly occupied by abandoned terraced fields. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). Besides using the C-RUSLE factor, as used by many authors, we tested the inclusion of an infiltration component (Kf) to assess the landscape-weighting factor. The Kf factor accounted for the high infiltration rates observed in the terraced soils and was estimated using the permeability classes of the K-RUSLE factor. A 2x2 m resolution DEM was used to capture the terraced fields and run the IC model. Following the recommendation of Cavalli et al. (2015), we used the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm (Tarboton, 1997) to represent the real flow paths, especially on hillslopes, where divergent flow predominates, and on stream channels. To ensure the continuity of the flow path lines, local sinks were filled in with the algorithm of Planchon & Darboux (2001) that preserved a minimum slope gradient of 0.01 degrees. Finally, linear landscape elements such as stonewalls, rock outcrops, and trails and forest roads were also considered. The IC was calculated for the current scenario

  4. Stakeholders’ perception of forest management: a Portuguese mountain case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta-Costa, A.; Torres-Manso, F.; Pinto, R.; Tibério, L.; Carneiro, I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The Natura 2000 Network “Montemuro Mountain” Site in Portugal. Material and methods: This study combined several consultation and citizen participation techniques. Main results: The perceptions shared by the stakeholders are some similar, others not similar and others still quite paradoxical regarding forest characteristics and the opportunities they offer. The study has shown that it is possible to implement and improve citizen participation methodologies. This can be a viable way towards more effective forest management and fire prevention as this may help blunt conflicts of interest in forest space management. However, for participation to be truly effective and representative, a policy regarding training and awareness of the importance of information is necessary. Research highlights: The stakeholder perceptions on forests and forest management are assessed; forest fires and agrarian abandonment are central for territory’s development; depopulation, old age and absenteeism emphasize degradation of forest areas; Conscious citizen participation benefit policymaking and forest management. (Author)

  5. Stakeholders’ perception of forest management: a Portuguese mountain case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta-Costa, A.; Torres-Manso, F.; Pinto, R.; Tibério, L.; Carneiro, I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of study: The Natura 2000 Network “Montemuro Mountain” Site in Portugal. Material and methods: This study combined several consultation and citizen participation techniques. Main results: The perceptions shared by the stakeholders are some similar, others not similar and others still quite paradoxical regarding forest characteristics and the opportunities they offer. The study has shown that it is possible to implement and improve citizen participation methodologies. This can be a viable way towards more effective forest management and fire prevention as this may help blunt conflicts of interest in forest space management. However, for participation to be truly effective and representative, a policy regarding training and awareness of the importance of information is necessary. Research highlights: The stakeholder perceptions on forests and forest management are assessed; forest fires and agrarian abandonment are central for territory’s development; depopulation, old age and absenteeism emphasize degradation of forest areas; Conscious citizen participation benefit policymaking and forest management. (Author)

  6. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  7. Previous land use alters plant allocation and growth in forest herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2006-01-01

    Former human practices can persistently influence forest ecosystems, particularly by altering the distribution and abundance of vegetation. Previous research has focused on the role of colonization success in governing plant community patterns in abandoned forests, but few studies have explored how changes in the performance of adult plants may contribute to...

  8. A numerical study on hydrological impacts of forest restoration in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.-Q. Liu

    2010-01-01

    Landscape in the southern United States changed dramatically during the 1930s and the following decades when massive agricultural and abandoned logging lands were converted to forest lands through natural restoration and silviculture. The impacts of this forest restoration on hydrology were investigated in this study by conducting numerical experiments with a regional...

  9. Structure and species composition of novel forests dominated by an introduced species in northcentral Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez; Mariela A. Rodríguez; Ivonne Rosario; Nataly Soto; Armando López; Ariel E. Lugo

    2010-01-01

    The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata Beauv., is an introduced species forming novel forest types in Puerto Rico. These forests develop naturally after deforestation, agricultural use and land abandonment, and there are many questions as to their ecological characteristics. We sampled structure and species composition of large, small, and juvenile trees (C10,...

  10. Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  11. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this 'environmental catastrophe'. The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  12. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil, the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT. These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. Methods We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. Results There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%, a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties......) was examined, comprising managed grassland, two transitional phases in which grassland abandonment led to colonization by Picea abies (L.) Karst., and old forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica L. and P. abies. Mineral soil samples were physically separated through aggregate size and size-density fractionation...

  14. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions after land-use abandonment in relation to carbon, nitrogen, and microbial community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Former agricultural land-use has strong legacy effects on biogeochemical cycles as well as on plant and microbial community composition in secondary ecosystems. Since many forests and grasslands have previously been cultivated it is important to understand long-term effects of former arable land use on these ecosystems. We studied the temporal dimension of the impact of former agricultural land use on soil total organic C (TOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) fractions, and microbial community structure in two chronosequences of abandoned vineyards, differing in exposition and slope. We found that more TOC accumulated in soils of south- than in southwest-exposed sites, which can be attributed to the drier microclimate that decreases organic matter decomposition. TOC concentrations were significantly positive correlated with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (R=0.99, pland use-abandonment. A linear relation between microbial C and TOC (R=0.83, pland-use abandonment, indicating a quick recovery of AMF most likely due to the fast colonization of the sites by herbaceous plants. Along with an increase in the abundance of trees the ratio of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)/bacteria decreased again. No changes were found in the total fungi/bacteria ratio during secondary succession. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOM is an effective intermediate storage of fertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P, but still contains high amounts of P even more than 100 years after land-use abandonment. This has important implications for conservation management as it shows that organic P stocks have to be taken into account for estimating the development potentials of formerly cultivated sites for plant conservation.

  15. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  16. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Miranda, Pedro L S; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  17. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  18. Counting the opportunity cost of abandoning the omnibus Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counting the opportunity cost of abandoning the omnibus Health Professions Authority ... Twenty two years of civil war ruined the healthcare system in South Sudan. Government provides only ... This regulatory vacuum is best resolved by establishing a Health Professions Authority to set the standards, and to supervise and ...

  19. Poverty and patient abandonment in the University of Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the relationship between poverty and patient abandonment and its effect on health care services in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. A survey design was adopted, data were collected through questionnaires and interviews, including secondary data from the hospital ...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22223 Crosscuts before... unsealed areas, unless crosscuts are provided within 30 feet of the face. ...

  1. Poverty and patient abandonment in the University of Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and patient abandonment in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Medical Sciences ... Field data confirmed that cultural interpretation and perception of poverty bordered on economic and welfare dimensions and that there is a significant relationship between poverty and ...

  2. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offering disclose information about the abandoned private offering, including: (i) The size and nature of... were (or who the issuer reasonably believes were): (i) Accredited investors (as that term is defined in... document used in the private offering discloses any changes in the issuer's business or financial condition...

  3. Arthropods on Abandoned Apple Trees: Comparison of Orchard Versus Alley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Psota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of arthropods on abandoned apple trees was studied in 2010 and 2011. The research was carried out in South Moravia (Czech Republic. Two sites were selected within this area – apple trees (Malus domestica in an alley along a road and an abandoned apple orchard. At each location, arthropods were collected from 5 separate trees. Deltamethrin was applied into the treetops using a fogger. The killed arthropods were collected 15 minutes after the application. From among the collected data, 48 families were determined in accordance with a generalized linear model with a logarithmic-link function and Poisson distribution. As a result it was found that 33 families have significantly higher abundance in the abandoned orchard and 9 families in the alley. According to the Shannon-Wiener index, diversity of families was higher in the alley in both years (2010: H’ = 3.016, 2011: H’ = 3.177 compared to the abandoned orchard (2010: H’ = 2.413, 2011: H’ = 3.007.

  4. Abandonment of the Road Accident Place: Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov D. N.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the legal aspects of drivers’ behavior are considered, of those ones who abandon places of road accidents. The author separates the cases when leaving the place of the road accident is allowed and the cases when such actions bring to administrative punishment.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Access of abandoned children and orphans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access of abandoned children and orphans with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy - a legal impasse. Liesl Gerntholtz, Marlise Richter. In 2002, 13% of children aged between 2 and 14 years in South. Africa had lost a mother, a father or both parents.1. The Centre for Actuarial Research at the University of the Western Cape.

  6. Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Dekker, S.C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web

  7. Archaeological Finds from Isale, an Abandoned Settlement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the archaeological finds collected from Isale an abandoned site in southeast Abeokuta, Nigeria. From the reconnaissance carried out, a number of artifacts were recovered. These include cowrie shells, metal objects, animal remains, and smoking pipes among others. These artifacts helped us in ...

  8. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  9. 'Standard Shona' Approach to Teaching ChiShona Abandoned Or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish whether ChiShona teachers in Zimbabwe have abandoned the formerly 'Standard Shona' approach to ChiShona teaching. It was conducted in five provinces of Zimbabwe in the years 1997-2016. The study took a qualitative paradigm, with longitudinal study as the method. Interviews ...

  10. Geophysical investigation of abandoned back-filled railway line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation was carried out on a back-filled segment of an abandoned railway route at Okebadan Estate, Ibadan using electrical resistivity imaging. The study is aimed at depicting the cause(s) of settlement that led to building foundation failure. Five profile lines were established during the study and the ...

  11. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forestry. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.

    1980-04-04

    The objective of this project is to determine means of increasing the biomass yield of short rotation hardwood forests through certain species admixtures, irrigation, fertilization and intensive cultural practices and the development of techniques for cloning in sterile culture of superior sycamore and other hardwood strains and the identification and propagation of individual hardwoods with superior growth and other characteristics.

  12. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  13. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  14. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

  15. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Panton, W.J. [Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin, NT (Australia); Head, J. [Australian National Univ, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Quaternary Dating Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia.

  16. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  17. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  18. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  19. 75 FR 10547 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Jefferson County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Docket No. AB-55 (Sub-No. 695X)] CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Jefferson County, NY CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.24-mile rail line, known as the Roe Feed...

  20. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 293X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a line...

  1. 41 CFR 109-45.901 - Authority to abandon or destroy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.901 Authority to abandon or destroy. Personal property in the... determination has been made by the OPMO that property has no commercial value or the estimated cost of its...

  2. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  3. Investigation and comparison of natural regeneration structure of forest stands in protected and non-protected areas in Arasbaran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijanpour, Ahmad; Mahmoudzadeh, Ahmad

    2007-05-15

    In this study, a part of Arasbaran forest stands in two protected and non-protected areas have been compared for quantitative and qualitative factors of regeneration. Thus, using aerial photographs of 1967 in the scale of 1:20000, the similarity of these stands was examined and the comparable stands were chosen. Afterward, 77 circle plots of 0.01 ha in protected area and in the same way 77 circle plots of 0.01 ha in non-protected area with a grid size of 250x250 m were established. In each plot, all species with diameter at breast height (dbh) from zero to 7.5 cm were measured. According to the results the number of regeneration average in protected area was significantly higher than that in non-protected area. Oak and Hornbeam regeneration percentages showed highest significant difference in the selected areas. Additionally, these two species have the highest mixture percentage. The regeneration structure in both areas includes high and coppice systems, but coppice is prevalent. In both regions cutting, branching and grazing are the most important destructive factors, and the effects of these factors are higher in non-protected area.

  4. Nuclear Avenue: “Cyclonic Development”, Abandonment, and Relations in Uranium City, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boschman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise and abandonment of Uranium City constitutes an environmental history yet to be fully evaluated by humanities scholars. 1982 marks the withdrawal of the Eldorado Corporation from the town and the shuttering of its uranium mines. The population declined to approximately 50 from its pre-1982 population of about 4000. This article is inspired by findings from the authors’ initial field visit. As Uranium City is accessible only by air or by winter roads across Lake Athabasca, the goal of the visit in May 2017 was to gather information and questions through photographic assessment and through communication and interviews with residents. This paper in part argues that the cyclonic development metaphor used to describe single-commodity communities naturalizes environmental damage and obscures a more complicated history involving human agency. Apart from the former mines that garner remedial funding and action, the town site of Uranium City is also of environmental concern. Its derelict suburbs and landfill, we also argue, could benefit from assessment, funding, and remediation. Canada’s 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report provides a way forward in healing this region, in part by listening to the voices of those most affected by environmental impacts caused not by a metaphorical cyclone but by other humans’ decisions. As descendants of European immigrants to Turtle Island (the Indigenous term referring to North America, the authors are also subjects of the very terms—cyclonic development, abandonment, remediation—used to describe the history of the land itself: in this case, a mining town in the far northern boreal forests and Precambrian Shield.

  5. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America

  6. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  7. Forecasting poductivity in forest fire suppression operations: A methodological approach based on suppression difficulty analysis and documented experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of land, the high energy load generated and accumulated by vegetation covers, climate change and interface scenarios in Mediterranean forest ecosystems are demanding serious attention to forest fire conditions. This is particularly true when dealing with the budget requirements for undertaking protection programs related to the state of current and...

  8. Historical land use and stand age effects on forest soil properties in the Mid-Atlantic US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Yesilonis; K. Szlavecz; Richard Pouyat; D. Whigham; L. Xia

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of agriculture lands to forest has been occurring in parts of North America for decades. The legacy of management activity during this transition is reflected in soil physical and chemical properties years after abandonment. This study was conducted at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA, to determine land-use history and forest...

  9. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  10. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  11. Production and Economic Parameters of a Poplar (J 105 Coppice Plantation with Different Length of the First Rotation in the Conditions of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysed production and economic effectiveness of a short-rotation coppice plantation, namely J 105, after the first rotation period of 7 and 8 years respectively. The plantation is located in the region of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands with an annual precipitation of 497 mm and mean air temperature of 8.6 °C. To assess the productivity, the trees were selected according to stem diameter at a height of 10 cm above the ground level and classified into three categories: I 0–3.0 cm; II 3.1–7.0 cm and III > 7.0 cm. Sample trees were selected in each year. The economic effectiveness of the plantation was assessed as the difference between profits and costs for both rotation cycles. The mean annual above-ground biomass production for the 7-year rotation (2012 was 3.15 t/ha and 3.30 t/ha for the 8-year rotation (2013. The low productivity of poplar was due to slow growth (approx. 0.5 m in height and drought in the first year after the plantation was established. The economic effectiveness for the 7-year rotation was CZK −5,300/ha and CZK +17,500/ha for the 8-year rotation. It was due to current total aboveground dry mass increment in the 8th year of rotation.

  12. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of poplar and black locust short rotation coppices on mine reclamation sites in Eastern Germany - Model development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinkenstein, A; Jochheim, H

    2016-03-01

    In the temperate zone short rotation coppice systems for the production of woody biomass (SRC) have gained great interest as they offer a pathway to both sustainable bioenergy production and the potential sequestration of CO2 within the biomass and the soil. This study used the carbon model SHORTCAR to assess the carbon cycle of a poplar (Populus suaveolens Fisch. x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray cv. Androscoggin) and a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SRC. The model was calibrated using data from established SRC plantations on reclaimed mine sites in northeast Germany and validated through the determination of uncertainty ranges of selected model parameters and a sensitivity analysis. In addition to a 'reference scenario', representing the actual site conditions, 7 hypothetical scenarios, which varied in climate conditions, rotation intervals, runtimes, and initial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were defined for each species. Estimates of carbon accumulation within the biomass, the litter layer, and the soil were compared to field data and previously published results. The model was sensitive to annual stem growth and initial soil organic carbon stocks. In the reference scenario net biome production for SRC on reclaimed sites in Lusatia, Germany amounted to 64.5 Mg C ha(-1) for R. pseudoacacia and 8.9 Mg C ha(-1) for poplar, over a period of 36 years. These results suggest a considerable potential of SRC for carbon sequestration at least on marginal sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Willow clones with high biomass yield in short rotation coppice in the southern region of Tohoku district (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Yu; Seto, Shoko; Nishio, Mari; Minato, Kazuya; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to select willow (Salix spp.) clones with a high potential for use as biomass energy crops in the southern region of Tohoku district in Japan. Cuttings of 8 willow clones were planted on an abandoned farmland near Sendai (av. annual temp., 10.9 o C) in March 2006, grown throughout the year and cut back in late December 2006 to resprout from the remaining stools in March 2007. The biomass yield in December 2007, after the first growing season, was highest in Salix pet-susu clone KKD, followed by Salix pseudolinearis clone FXM and Salix sachalinensis clone SEN. The biomass yield on December 2008, after the second growing season, was again highest in clone KKD followed by clone FXM, S. pet-susu clone HB471 and S. sachalinensis clone SEN; the average annual yield of dry mass after the second growing season being 3.09, 2.58, 2.17 and 1.85 kgDM plant -1 for the clones in this order. Plant growth form differed among the clones. Clones FXM and SEN had several shoots of almost uniform base diameter, whereas clones KKD and HB471 showed plagiotropic growth with one thick and several thin shoots. The calorific values of dried stem segments were similar among clones, ranging from 18.7 to 19.1 kJ g -1 . The dried stem segments contained 78.9-81.2 wt.% hollocellulose, 27.2-32.3 wt.% lignin and 2.1-4.0 wt.% extractives with ethanol-benzene, depending on clones. Based on these results, we could select four clones (KKD, FXM, HB471 and SEN) suitable for biomass production by SRWC in this area.

  14. Abandonment of the production wells and protection the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazáè Josef

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A well for oil and gas production and the deposit of oil and gas form one hydrodynamic system. From the point of view of filtration process, the well is, in comparison with the permeable layer of the deposit, a flow path with the lowest filtration resistance. This also causes the movement of liquids into the well if migration has already been induced in the deposit. This process takes place (without any external actions until the pressure conditions are balanced. The classical – common abandonment of the production well is performed by plugging the total length (or selected intervals with cement mixtures and by closing with a concrete slab at the depth of about 1.5 m below the ground surface. However, it is expected that the energy of the deposits has been totally or almost totally exhausted and the pressure in the deposit has been lowered to the level enabling the safe, economically reasonable and ecological abandonment.

  15. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  16. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.; Abouguendia, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  17. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  18. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  19. Detection of abandoned mineshafts in the proximity of railways

    OpenAIRE

    Drossaert, Francis H

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of a project funded by Network Rail. The mining industry left a legacy of numerous concealed abandoned mineshafts throughout Britain. Decages later an improperly sealed mineshaft can cause subsidence or even collapse. In order to provide a safe reliable railway system, network Rail set itself the target to locate and treat all known mineshafts in the proximity of railways. Several geophysical surveys were commisioned by Network to locate mineshafts, with limit...

  20. Hepatic and colonic perforation by an abandoned ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thipphavong, Seng; Kellenberger, Christian J.; Manson, David E. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children,University Ave., M5G 1X8, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rutka, James T. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    We report a case of an abandoned distal limb of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt that resulted in hepatic as well as colonic perforation in a 12-year-old girl. Although it is common practice at the time of shunt revision to leave a retained distal catheter in the peritoneal cavity, we suggest this can result in perforation of solid as well as hollow viscera. (orig.)

  1. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  2. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  3. Real-time detection of abandoned bags using CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidyakin, S. V.; Vishnyakov, B. V.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of automatic abandoned bag detection is of the great importance for ensuring security in the public areas. At the same time emergency situations occur rarely in the large-scale video surveillance systems. Therefore it is important to keep false alarms low maintaining high accuracy of detection. The approach that satisfies mentioned requirements for abandoned bag detection in complex environments is proposed. It consists of two blocks. The first block does the preliminary detection of abandoned bags on pixel level by background modelling via Gaussian mixture model. It ensures high speed and precise positioning of the bounding boxes on the objects of interest. The second part performs the bag recognition on a region level via a compact convolutional neural network. Using of the convolutional neural network is a key component to success. All processing happens on a central processing unit. The proposed approach is suitable for systems (microcomputers), which do not have powerful graphical subsystems. The experiments have been conducted on the real-world scenes. Obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and provides acceptable quality characteristics.

  4. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  5. DYNAMICS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ABANDONED GRASSLANDS OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Israel Yerena Yamallel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Livestock activities due to the improper handling of the load capacity, suffer from low productivity in their grasslands, which are abandoned giving rise to the appearance of species considered invasive and undesirable for producers, without knowing the qualities of these as mitigating of climate change. The objective of the present study was to estimate the carbon content in tamaulipan thornscrub and three abandoned grasslands with a time of abandonment of 10, 20 and 30 years. For the estimation of the carbon content was used a systematic sampling design, in each area were established four sampling sites of 1,600 m2. The primary scrub is the system that resulted in the largest value of carbon content of 14.25 Mg ha-1, followed by the grasslands of 30, 20 and 10 years with 8.03, 7.33 and 4.13 Mg ha-1 respectively. It was concluded that recovering the initial state of the primary scrub take many years, as can be seen in the grasslands system 30 years reaching only 56% of what it had in reserves of primary scrub.

  6. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.

  7. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  8. Forests, woods, forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In protected areas the forest ecosystem management is directed to define the best approaches with high protection levels from ecological, historical, anthropological and landscape point of view. The conservation purposes have to be taken in consideration to not disturb the natural and functional processes, and therefore any forest human activity has to be done. Through a detailed analysis of the relations among functionality, stability, productivity and genetic diversity, the statement of the reasons for application of close-to-nature silviculture is described and discussed. Some specific silvicultural systems are illustrated on the basis of very large quantity of data and information originated from researches carried out for long time. A major challenge facing modern silviculture is to reconcile the traditional objectives of timber production with the demand for multifunctional forest ecosystems which arises from the society. The preservation of the functionality is strictly related to the forest genetic pool which is the basis of biodiversity, as it represents the basis for adaptation and survival of species and individual.

  9. Land-use history as a major driver for long-term forest dynamics in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (central Spain) during the last millennia: implications for forest conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Molino, César; Colombaroli, Daniele; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Tinner, Willy; Salomón, Roberto L.; Carrión, José S.; Gil, Luis

    2017-05-01

    In the Mediterranean Basin, long-lasting human activities have largely resulted in forest degradation or destruction. Consequently, conservation efforts aimed at preserving and restoring Mediterranean forests often lack well-defined targets when using current forest composition and structure as a reference. In the Iberian mountains, the still widespread Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica woodlands have been heavily impacted by land-use. To assess future developments and as a baseline for planning, forest managers are interested in understanding the origins of present ecosystems to disclose effects on forest composition that may influence future vegetation trajectories. Quantification of land-use change is particularly interesting to understand vegetation responses. Here we use three well-dated multi-proxy palaeoecological sequences from the Guadarrama Mountains (central Spain) to quantitatively reconstruct changes occurred in P. sylvestris forests and the P. sylvestris-Q. pyrenaica ecotone at multi-decadal to millennial timescales, and assess the driving factors. Our results show millennial stability of P. sylvestris forests under varying fire and climate conditions, with few transient declines caused by the combined effects of fire and grazing. The high value of pine timber in the past would account for long-lasting pine forest preservation and partly for the degradation of native riparian vegetation (mostly composed of Betula and Corylus). Pine forests further spread after planned forest management started at 1890 CE. In contrast, intensive coppicing and grazing caused Q. pyrenaica decline some centuries ago (ca. 1500-1650 CE), with unprecedented grazing during the last decades seriously compromising today's oak regeneration. Thus, land-use history played a major role in determining vegetation changes. Finally, we must highlight that the involvement of forest managers in this work has guaranteed a practical use of palaeoecological data in conservation and

  10. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  11. A quantitative analysis of plant community structure in an abandoned rubber plantations on Kho-Hong Hill, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekapong Sripao-raya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize plant community structure of rubber plantations abandoned 26 years previously and now a protected area of Prince of Songkla University on the west slope of Kho-Hong Hill. Trees whose girth at breast high were at least 30 cm were recorded from thirty-one plots (10*10 m which were laid out systematically at every 100 m along three transects. Among native trees, this plant community is dominated by Schima wallichii Choisy, Castanopsis schefferiana Hance, Memecylon edule Roxb., Diospyros frutescens Blume, and Diplospora malaccensis Hook.f. Trees of the families Myrtaceae, Theaceae, Clusiaceae, Fagaceae, and Rubiaceae, and saplings of Clusiaceae, Myrtaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most common. This plant community was characterized as a late seral stage post-cultivation succession. The basal area of rubber trees was positively significantly related to the species richness of native trees but negatively related to the density of native trees in each plot. Although abandoned rubber plantations create environmental conditions which effectively catalyze forest succession, dense rubber trees could slow succession of native trees by competition for resources. Further ecological, educational and recreational studies are discussed. Zoning this area to be a strict nature reserve and a conservation area is recommended.

  12. Overstory structure and soil nutrients effect on plant diversity in unmanaged moist tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Manhas, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Forests with intensive management past are kept unmanaged to restore diversity and ecosystem functioning. Before perpetuating abandonment after protracted restitution, understanding its effect on forest vegetation is desirable. We studied plant diversity and its relation with environmental variables and stand structure in northern Indian unmanaged tropical moist deciduous forest. We hypothesized that post-abandonment species richness would have increased, and the structure of contemporary forest would be heterogeneous. Vegetation structure, composition, and diversity were recorded, in forty 0.1 ha plots selected randomly in four forest ranges. Three soil samples per 0.1 ha were assessed for physicochemistry, fine sand, and clay mineralogy. Contemporary forest had less species richness than pre-abandonment reference period. Fourteen species were recorded as either seedling or sapling, suggesting reappearance or immigration. For most species, regeneration was either absent or impaired. Ordination and multiple regression results showed that exchangeable base cations and phosphorous affected maximum tree diversity and structure variables. Significant correlations between soil moisture and temperature, and shrub layer was observed, besides tree layer correspondence with shrub richness, suggesting that dense overstory resulting from abandonment through its effect on soil conditions, is responsible for dense shrub layer. Herb layer diversity was negatively associated with tree layer and shrub overgrowth (i.e. Mallotus spp.). Protracted abandonment may not reinforce species richness and heterogeneity; perhaps result in high tree and shrub density in moist deciduous forests, which can impede immigrating or reappearing plant species establishment. This can be overcome by density/basal area reduction strategies, albeit for both tree and shrub layer.

  13. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  14. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  15. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  16. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  17. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-22

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km 2 of urban gain and -21,017 km 2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km 2 ) and closed shrubland (60,854 km 2 ) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  19. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and -21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  20. Neotropical dry forests of the Caribbean: Secondary forest dynamics and restoration in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Brian F.

    Neotropical dry forests exist today mainly as secondary forests heavily influenced by exotic plants. This project analyzes land-cover change and secondary dry forest dynamics in three distinct phases (land cover change, secondary forest succession and forest rehabilitation), using St. Croix, US Virgin Islands as an example. Using Landsat satellite images and other data layers, I created classified land cover maps of St. Croix for 1992 and 2002. Forest was the dominant (56%) cover type on both dates, followed by development, grassland/pastures and water. A land cover change analysis comparing the two images revealed that 15% of the study area experienced a change either to (8%) or from (7%) forest. Grassland was the cover most likely to change and decreased from 16% to 11%, converted primarily to development. The overall result is a landscape trending toward younger forests, and increased forest fragmentation and development. In a second study, vegetation data from a chronosequence of secondary forests was analyzed for changes to forest structure, species composition and presence of exotic species. The leguminous exotic tree Leucaena leucocephala was by far the most frequently observed tree and dominated all stands, except those over 50 years old. Species diversity was significantly ( pland-use remained low in species diversity and dominated by exotics >50 years after abandonment. In a third experiment, a 'gap planting' method for establishing four rare native tree species was tested on a site experiencing arrested succession. All four species successfully established at >69% survival in 3m diameter gaps artificially created in exotic tree stands. A mulch treatment significantly (pland cover type and secondary forests are predominant forest type. The species composition of these forests is dynamic, but they tend to be dominated by exotic tree species and over 50 years of natural succession is insufficient time for secondary forest stands to advance beyond the

  1. Carbon implications of forest restitution in post-socialist Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, P; Woodcock, C E [Department of Geography and Environment, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kuemmerle, T [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A62, D-14412 Potsdam (Germany); Griffiths, P; Knorn, J [Department of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Baccini, A; Houghton, R A [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States); Gancz, V [Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Sos. Stefanesti 128, 077190 Voluntari, Bucharest (Romania); Blujdea, V [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change and Air Quality Unit, Via Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Abrudan, I V, E-mail: olofsson@bu.edu [Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania University of Brasov, Street Sirul Beethoven, nr. 1, Brasov (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    The collapse of socialism in 1989 triggered a phase of institutional restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Several countries chose to privatize forests or to return them to pre-socialist owners. Here, we assess the implications of forest restitution on the terrestrial carbon balance. New forest owners have strong incentives to immediately clearcut their forests, resulting in increased terrestrial emissions. On the other hand, logging generally decreased after 1989 and forests are expanding on unused or abandoned farmland, both of which may offset increased logging on restituted forests. We mapped changes in forest cover for the entire country of Romania using Landsat satellite images from 1990 to 2010. We use our satellite estimates, together with historic data on logging rates and changes in forest cover, to parameterize a carbon book-keeping model for estimating the terrestrial carbon flux (above and below ground) as a consequence of land use change and forest harvest. High logging rates during socialism resulted in substantial terrestrial carbon emissions and Romania was a net carbon source until the 1980s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union forest harvest rates decreased dramatically, but since restitution laws were implemented they have increased by 60% (from 15 122 {+-} 5397 ha y{sup -1} in 2000 to 23 884 {+-} 11 510 ha y{sup -1} in 2010), but still remain lower than prior to 1989. Romania currently remains a terrestrial carbon sink, offsetting 7.6% {+-} 2.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions. A further increase in logging could result in net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems during the coming decades. However, forest expansion on degraded land and abandoned farmland offers great potential for carbon sequestration.

  2. Vegetation and Lepidoptera in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Community structure along climate zones, forest succession and seasonality in the Southern Yucatán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essens, T.; Leyequien, E.; Pozo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are worldwide recognized as important ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. Increasing agricultural activities (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture) leads to a heterogeneous landscape matrix; and as ecological succession takes over in abandoned fields, plant and

  3. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  4. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Mathematical Model of Pipeline Abandonment and Recovery in Deepwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Guang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In offshore oil and gas engineering the pipeline abandonment and recovery is unavoidable and its mechanical analysis is necessary and important. For this problem a third-order differential equation is used as the governing equation in this paper, rather than the traditional second-order one. The mathematical model of pipeline abandonment and recovery is a moving boundary value problem, which means that it is hard to determine the length of the suspended pipeline segment. A novel technique for the handling of the moving boundary condition is proposed, which can tackle the moving boundary condition without contact analysis. Based on a traditional numerical method, the problem is solved directly by the proposed technique. The results of the presented method are in good agreement with the results of the traditional finite element method coupled with contact analysis. Finally, an approximate formula for quick calculation of the suspended pipeline length is proposed based on Buckingham’s Pi-theorem and mathematical fitting.

  6. The valorisation of abandoned railway yards. The case of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Milan’s urban growth was heavily influenced by the structure of the rail network for transporting goods and people. The great railway yards that used to service the industrial system have now lost their raison d'être after the relocation of industrial plants and the tertiary sector dynamics took over the city. These have become large abandoned brownfields or soon to be abandoned, totaling over 1,300,000 square meters, located mainly along the urban belt surrounding the city walls, often in densely built environments. Since 2005 these areas were the subject of several agreements between the City of Milan, State Railways SpA (FS and the Lombardy Region, to examine various scenarios and the feasibility of their conversion, as confirmed in the draft of the new Territorial Government Plan (PGT, which identifies the Areas of Urban Transformation. Scenarios and assumptions that, in the current revision of the PGT, must approach the strategic role of this rich heritage from an environmental regeneration and valorization perspective extended to urban and metropolitan scales.

  7. Review of the book: Neuropsychology of infantile abandonment and mistreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Barca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Fernández, R.M. (Coord. (2014. Neuropsychology of infantile abandonment and mistreatment. Barcelona: Hilo Rojo. 207 pp. ISBN: 978-84-941620-7-7. Depósito legal: B 4535-2014. This book deals with an important current topic: the mistreatment and/or abandonment of children who have been adopeted, mostly from abroad. There are 14 chapters and 15 authors.  The central problem revolves around childhood abuse and the authors have focused on a neuro-bio-psychological explanation to understand what happens in the brain of a child who is abused, and, most importantly, their behavior during and after physical or psychological abuse or mistreatment.  Toward the end of the book the main measures that should be taken in this kind of situation are presented.  Generally, the authors cover the essence of the topics brought up and the presentation is always done with extreme scientific rigor and terminological and conceptual precision.

  8. Managing abandonment and reclamation liability in the midstream energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, H.; Ireland, G. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Compliance and Operations Branch

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Directive 024 and the Large Facility Liability Management Program to manage abandonment and reclamation liability in the midstream energy sector. The program was developed by various members of governmental agencies and members of the oil and gas industry in order to prevent the creation of orphaned facilities as well as to provide a framework for the identification of liabilities. The program currently addresses issues related to suspensions, abandonment, remediation, and the reclamation obligations of licensees. The program provides licences for sulphur recovery plants, standalone straddle plants, and in situ oil sands central processing facilities with design capacities exceeding 5000 m{sup 3} per day. Site specific values are used to determined liabilities and assets. A liability management rating system with multiple liability pools is used to rate liabilities. The assets of midstream companies are determined using nonproducer licensee calculations. Licensees' orphan levies are based on their proportional share of the liability pool, multiplied by the required orphan levy amount. Licensees are responsible for paying their proportional share. A limited look back program is available for up to 24 months after licence transfer approval. The program also examines concerns related to confidentiality issues raised by stakeholders, and fair and equitable treatment between gas plants in different programs. tabs., figs.

  9. OUTLINES OF JUDICIALIZATION: REFLECTIONS ON REMARRIED FAMILIES AND EMOTIONAL ABANDONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina eiras coelho Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to articulate two studies in the overview of Legal Psychology and taking as objects of study issues relating to the family in the sphere of justice. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the outlines that characterize the movement of judicialization on the demands of remarried families and emotional abandonment. In general, judicialization can be understood as the movement of expansion of judicial powers to matters that used to be resolved in other spaces. With respect to remarried families, this study identified how jurisprudence can provide a way to resolve demands that are not covered by the legislation. However, respondents’ reports indicated that they look for solutions without resorting to court, which differs from the proposal found on the theoretical reference to formulate specific legislation to address this family configuration. In regards to emotional abandonment, the analysis of aspects related to the production and validation of this demand by the legal system highlights the difficulty to measure damage and its relationship with absence of affection, in addition to the important gender approach, that assigns different positions and specific roles for each parental figure. Therefore, we conclude that the judicialization trend reflects and at the same time forges demands, denoting a social change in the way society deals with family impasses.

  10. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  11. Carbohydrates and thermal properties indicate a decrease in stable aggregate carbon following forest colonization of mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In mountainous areas of Europe, the abandonment of grasslands followed by forest expansion is the dominant land-use change. Labile (i.e. easily decomposable) litter represents the major source for soil microbial products, which promote soil aggregation and long-term C stabilization. Our objective......-use gradient in the Southern Alps (Italy) following analysis of carbohydrate monomers and thermal analysis of mineral soil and physical soil fractions. The land-use gradient comprised managed grassland, two transitional phases in which grassland abandonment led to colonization by Picea abies (L.) Karst......., and an old forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica L. and P. abies.Grassland abandoned for 10years tended to have higher levels of carbohydrate and thermally labile soil C than managed grassland and old forest, presumably caused by differences in the quality and amount of litter input. Carbohydrates...

  12. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2001-06-01

    The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

  13. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  14. Soil changes in a subtropical seasonal forest chronosequences in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Vargas Kilca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abandonment of field crops and the vegetation recovery in exhausted soils have been a recently studied subject as a way to assess the forest role on the soil recovering. The aim of this study was assess changes in the chemical(14 variables and grain size (sand, silt, and clay soil features in four forests chronosequences grew over abandoned field crops in the edge of the Brazilian Southern plateau, Rio Grande do Sul State. There were selected 25 forests aging from 5 to >100 years old in areas of slopes and highlands where samples of Leptosols and Regosols were collected at 15cm in depth. The Fisher's Discriminant Analysis showed that some variable groups of soils can distinguish significantly the soils under different forest ages. Six chemical features of soil fertility were the best monitoring indicators of areas impacted by agriculture. Changes in soil did not occur in a linear way towards time.

  15. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  16. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  18. Modeling forest disturbance and recovery in secondary subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Van Bloem, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of human pressures, the need to understand and predict the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests is urgent. Through modifications to the ZELIG vegetation demographic model, including the development of species- and site-specific parameters and internal modifications, the capability to predict forest change within the Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico can now be accomplished. One objective was to test the capability of this new model (i.e. ZELIG-TROP) to predict successional patterns of secondary forests across a gradient of abandoned fields currently being reclaimed as forests. Model simulations found that abandoned fields that are on degraded lands have a delayed response to fully recover and reach a mature forest status during the simulated time period; 200 years. The forest recovery trends matched predictions published in other studies, such that attributes involving early resource acquisition (i.e. canopy height, canopy coverage, density) were the fastest to recover, but attributes used for structural development (i.e. biomass, basal area) were relatively slow in recovery. Biomass and basal area, two attributes that tend to increase during later successional stages, are significantly lower during the first 80-100 years of recovery compared to a mature forest, suggesting that the time scale of resilience in subtropical dry forests needs to be partially redefined. A second objective was to investigate the long and short-term effects of increasing hurricane disturbances on vegetation structure and dynamics, due to hurricanes playing an important role in maintaining dry forest structure in Puerto Rico. Hurricane disturbance simulations within ZELIG-TROP predicted that increasing hurricane intensity (i.e. up to 100% increase) did not lead to a large shift in long-term AGB or NPP. However, increased hurricane frequency did lead to a 5-40% decrease in AGB, and 32-50% increase in NPP, depending on the treatment. In addition, the modeling approach used

  19. Development of second-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 25-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1961-01-01

    Second-growth timber occupies more than one-third of the commercial northern hardwood forest land in New England. The origin of these stands - clearcutting, or land abandonment with or without fire - determined their present characteristics; they are essentially even-aged, with a high proportion of intolerant and intermediate species and many stems of sprout origin (...

  20. VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FISCHER

    1997-01-01

    growing acid-indicators. Soil acidification, although taking place, is therefore often not reflected in changes in the vegetation cover. Up to now, syntaxonomic changes are usually restricted to the levels below the association. Additionally some proportion of (beech forest stands are presently changing since the regeneration following the abandonment of degrading land use practices has not yet been completed. As a consequence of changing climatic conditions (CO2-content, air temperature, precipitation, storms it is expected that European beech forests will change in the future. However, details of the floristic structure of future beech forest communities can not be predicted. Nevertheless, according to present knowledge, beech forests will remain the most important natural forests in Europe during the next century.

  1. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  2. The Significance of Forests and Algae in CO2 Balance: A Hungarian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the sequestration and emissions of forests and algae related to CO2 while providing a comparison to other biomass sources (arable crops, short rotation coppices. The goal of the paper is to analyze the impact of the current CO2 balance of forests and the future prospects for algae. Our calculations are based on data, not only from the literature but, in the case of algae, from our own previous experimental work. It was concluded that the CO2 sequestration and natural gas saving of forests is typically 3.78 times higher than the emissions resulting from the production technology and from the burning process. The economic and environmental protection-related efficiency operate in opposite directions. The CO2 sequestration ability of algae can primarily be utilized when connected to power plants. The optimal solution could be algae production integrated with biogas power plants, since plant sizes are smaller and algae may play a role, not only in the elimination of CO2 emissions and the utilization of heat but also in wastewater purification.

  3. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  4. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, Margarete

    1984-12-01

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  5. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, D.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  6. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be... adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources...

  7. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...). As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be... protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  8. 77 FR 40147 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad.... 91 (1979). To address whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  9. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be... protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA issued an environmental...

  10. 78 FR 75958 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Md

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad.... 91 (1979). To address whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources...

  11. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  12. Abandonment landscapes: user attitudes, alternative futures and land management in Castro Laboreiro, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Carvalho-Ribeiro, Sónia M.; Verburg, P.H.

    2018-01-01

    Land abandonment is an important process for the European Union, which primarily occurs in less productive, remote and mountainous areas with unfavourable conditions for agriculture. Future management directions of these abandonment areas are under debate, with increasing calls to adjust policies to

  13. time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  14. Erosion and terrace failure due to agricultural land abandonment in a semi-arid environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Nieman, T.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is currently widely spread in Mediterranean countries and a further increase is expected. Previous research has shown that abandoned fields in semi-arid areas are more vulnerable to gully erosion. The absence of ploughing and slow vegetation recovery cause the formation

  15. Investigation on factors that contribute to the abandonment of building in construction industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Jaafar, Mohd Faizal Md; Idris Ali, Mohamad; Irwan Ramli, Noram; Muthusamy, Khairunisa; Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, the construction sector is one of the important sectors that contribute to economic growth and employments. However, a major concern facing the construction industry is the growing rate of delays in project delivery. In the worse cases, the projects were abandoned due to some reasons when the contract period ended. Abandoned building defines as construction work that has been continuously stalled for 6 months or more, during the project completion period or beyond the scheduled date of completion. When the projects become abandoned, it gives an adverse effect on many parties such as the developer, contractor, consultant and also client. According to previous researchers, the abandonment of building causes a serious problem and need some mitigation plan to avoid this problem from occurring. This study will investigate the fundamental factors that contribute to the abandonment of building and projects in Malaysia based on the current data of the abandoned building in most states in Malaysia. The data was collected from the respondents who is in the construction industry and had experience working with abandoned housing project. Form the respondents perspective, it shows that the main factor contribute to the building abandonment is due to the financial problem facing by the developer company.

  16. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 310X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to...

  17. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and...

  18. Identification of vulnerable areas for gully erosion under different scenarios of land abandonment in Southeast Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Global Change Commission,

    2006-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land is the result of interacting processes of global change and human behaviour. Due to changing European policies, urbanisation, desertification and climate change land abandonment has become one of the main changes in land use in Mediterranean countries. The

  19. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different

  20. Time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  1. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  2. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  3. Phenology of selected herbaceous species of northern Wisconsin deciduous forests and forest roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenophases were observed from 1970 to 1974 on 30 native and 8 introduced herbaceous species growing under deciduous forests and on an abandoned logging road in the Enterprise Radiation Forest in northern Wisconsin. Forest herbs started growing in the same order each year, but logging-road herbs varied. Growth initiation was more variable in the early-starting than in the late-starting species. In most years logging-road herbs started growth a few days earlier than forest herbs. Initiation of flowering of the 38 species was bimodal, culminating around mid-May for forest species and around mid-July for logging-road species. In general, the annual start of flowering varied less than the start of vegetative growth. Duration of flowering of most species was variable, however. Seed ripening times varied strikingly among species, ranging from 11 days for Taraxacum officinale to 101 days for Iris versicolor. Seeds of forest herbs took longer to ripen than those of logging-road species. On the basis of growth initiation of the 6 earliest species, spring arrival in 1970 to 1974 differed by 26 days and appeared to be related to snow disappearance. The growing season of most species paralleled cumulative current-year (May--July) and last-year (August--September) precipitation. Multiple regression analyses between precipitation and average length of growing season explained 87 percent of the total variation for forest herbs and 69 percent of that for logging-road herbs

  4. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  5. Well Abandonment at Various Sites, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damphousse, Sarah Joan

    2016-01-01

    Between January 29 and March 9, 2016, a total of 23 monitoring wells were properly abandoned-in-place at five KSC sites (OPF-1&2, OPF-3, RDG, SRB, and HSB). The total abandonment encompassed 489.06 linear feet. The wells abandoned were constructed of PVC with diameters ranging from 1-inch to 2-inches. The shallowest well abandoned was measured to be 11.6 ft bls (OPF) and the deepest well abandoned was documented to be 51.45 feet bls (HSB). All aboveground completions were removed and each area was re-graded and/or grouted to surface to match existing surroundings. All materials (concrete pads, well casings, etc.) were disposed of accordingly.

  6. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qihong; Zhao Fuxiang; Wang Lihua

    2008-01-01

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure γ radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  7. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  8. SOIL QUALITY EVALUATION OF SPOLIC TECHNOSOLS. CASE STUDY FROM THE ABANDONED MINING SITE IN IMPERINA VALLEY (BELLUNO, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining, milling and smelting operations are major causes of heavy metal contamination and constitute an increasing threat to the environment. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between soil metal pollution, humus development and microarthropod community structure, using a Biological Soil Quality (QBS-ar method. Humus and soil samples (0-30cm were collected during spring 2011 from an abandoned mixed sulphides mining area in Northeast Italy, under both forest and grassland ecosystems. The mine site is contaminated by several heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe. Humus forms varied from Dysmoder and Amphimus to the more developed Oligomull. The QBS-ar values presented a wide range (between 65 and 162. Moreover, results demonstrate that in the forest ecosystem the microarthropod communities showed a high biodiversity (richness. On the other hand, we observed stable community structures (evenness in grassland sites. Humus forms do not have a significant correlation with QBS-ar values and classes of soil biological quality.Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of litter and chemical-physical structure of the microhabitats.Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for monitoring surface mine soils.

  9. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  10. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  11. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Yoan; Bergès, Laurent; Hjältén, Joakim; Odor, Péter; Avon, Catherine; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan; De Bruyn, Luc; Fuhr, Marc; Grandin, Ulf; Kanka, Robert; Lundin, Lars; Luque, Sandra; Magura, Tibor; Matesanz, Silvia; Mészáros, Ilona; Sebastià, M-Teresa; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Tóthmérész, Béla; Uotila, Anneli; Valladares, Fernando; Vellak, Kai; Virtanen, Risto

    2010-02-01

    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species richness between unmanaged and managed forests throughout Europe. We explored the response of different taxonomic groups and the variability of their response with respect to time since abandonment and intensity of forest management. Species richness was slightly higher in unmanaged than in managed forests. Species dependent on forest cover continuity, deadwood, and large trees (bryophytes, lichens, fungi, saproxylic beetles) and carabids were negatively affected by forest management. In contrast, vascular plant species were favored. The response for birds was heterogeneous and probably depended more on factors such as landscape patterns. The global difference in species richness between unmanaged and managed forests increased with time since abandonment and indicated a gradual recovery of biodiversity. Clearcut forests in which the composition of tree species changed had the strongest effect on species richness, but the effects of different types of management on taxa could not be assessed in a robust way because of low numbers of replications in the management-intensity classes. Our results show that some taxa are more affected by forestry than others, but there is a need for research into poorly studied species groups in Europe and in particular locations. Our meta-analysis supports the need for a coordinated European research network to study and monitor the biodiversity of different taxa in managed and unmanaged

  12. Impacts of land-use history on the recovery of ecosystems after agricultural abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Arneth, Almut

    2016-09-01

    Land-use changes have been shown to have large effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles, but so far most studies have focused on the effects of conversion of natural vegetation to croplands and pastures. By contrast, relatively little is known about the long-term influence of past agriculture on vegetation regrowth and carbon sequestration following land abandonment. We used the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model to study the legacy effects of different land-use histories (in terms of type and duration) across a range of ecosystems. To this end, we performed six idealized simulations for Europe and Africa in which we made a transition from natural vegetation to either pasture or cropland, followed by a transition back to natural vegetation after 20, 60 or 100 years. The simulations identified substantial differences in recovery trajectories of four key variables (vegetation composition, vegetation carbon, soil carbon, net biome productivity) after agricultural cessation. Vegetation carbon and composition typically recovered faster than soil carbon in subtropical, temperate and boreal regions, and vice versa in the tropics. While the effects of different land-use histories on recovery periods of soil carbon stocks often differed by centuries across our simulations, differences in recovery times across simulations were typically small for net biome productivity (a few decades) and modest for vegetation carbon and composition (several decades). Spatially, we found the greatest sensitivity of recovery times to prior land use in boreal forests and subtropical grasslands, where post-agricultural productivity was strongly affected by prior land management. Our results suggest that land-use history is a relevant factor affecting ecosystems long after agricultural cessation, and it should be considered not only when assessing historical or future changes in simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle but also when establishing long-term monitoring networks and

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties ...... grasslands, which can be explained by lower accumulation of binding agents of microbial origin. This can have implications for the accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in soil and for the susceptibility of SOC to external disturbances such as management and environmental changes.......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...... involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy...

  14. 77 FR 64847 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Adams, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Adams, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colo. Union Pacific... Abandonments to abandon a 23.90-mile freight rail operating easement for the remaining portion of the Boulder... Valmont, in Adams, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colo. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip...

  15. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier Obligation Exemption--in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties... freight operating easement on, and for VTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common carrier... abandoned for freight rail service, but will be retained and rebuilt for future inclusion in the Bay Area...

  16. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the county level. Our results show that farmland abandonment has striking spatial relativity, and there are two clustering zones with a high index of farmland abandonment (IFA in the Dongting plain and the basin in south-central Hunan, while a clustering zone of low IFA can be found in the mountains of southwest Hunan. Farmland abandonment at the regional level is negatively affected by the land productive potentialities, proportion of mechanized planting, ratio of effective irrigation, and distance to provincial capital, while it is positively associated with the variables mountainous terrain, per capita farmland area, and labor shortage. Additionally, farmland abandonment is also affected by adjacent areas through its spatial dependence. In short, seasonal farmland abandonment is also driven integratedly by the socioeconomic and environmental dimensions and spatial interaction of farm abandonment.

  17. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  18. Sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological aspects of Tuberculosis treatment abandonment in Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo Luiz Medeiros; Amaral, Nathália Alves Castro do; Zacarias, Amanda Correia Paes; Ribeiro, Leila Karina de Novaes Pires

    2017-01-01

    to describe abandonment rates according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new tuberculosis cases being treated in Pernambuco State, Brazil. this is a descriptive ecological study using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2014; the abandonment rate was calculated by the Regional Administration on Health (GERES). of the 57,015 new cases, 6,474 (11.3%) abandoned treatment, although abandonment decreased from 16.4% (2001) to 9.3% (2014); the abandonment rate in GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina and IX Ouricuri was still >5% in 2014; the rate was higher in males (11.9%), people aged 20-39 (12.7%), people with incomplete elementary school (12.1%), black-skinned people (13.7%), institutionalized people (12.5%) and those with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis (14.1%). despite the decrease, the abandonment rate remained high; males, adults with low education level, black-skinned people, institutionalized patients and patients with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis seemed more prone to abandoning treatment.

  19. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  20. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  1. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  2. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  3. Mapping Cropland Abandonment in the Aral Sea Basin with MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Löw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropland abandonment is globally widespread and has strong repercussions for regional food security and the environment. Statistics suggest that one of the hotspots of abandoned cropland is located in the drylands of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB, which covers parts of post-Soviet Central Asia, Afghanistan and Iran. To date, the exact spatial and temporal extents of abandoned cropland remain unclear, which hampers land-use planning. Abandoned land is a potentially valuable resource for alternative land uses. Here, we mapped the abandoned cropland in the drylands of the ASB with a time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS from 2003–2016. To overcome the restricted ability of a single classifier to accurately map land-use classes across large areas and agro-environmental gradients, “stratum-specific” classifiers were calibrated and classification results were fused based on a locally weighted decision fusion approach. Next, the agro-ecological suitability of abandoned cropland areas was evaluated. The stratum-specific classification approach yielded an overall accuracy of 0.879, which was significantly more accurate ( p < 0.05 than a “global” classification without stratification, which had an accuracy of 0.811. In 2016, the classification results showed that 13% (1.15 Mha of the observed irrigated cropland in the ASB was idle (abandoned. Cropland abandonment occurred mostly in the Amudarya and Syrdarya downstream regions and was associated with degraded land and areas prone to water stress. Despite the almost twofold population growth and increasing food demand in the ASB area from 1990 to 2016, abandoned cropland was also located in areas with high suitability for farming. The map of abandoned cropland areas provides a novel basis for assessing the causes leading to abandoned cropland in the ASB. This contributes to assessing the suitability of abandoned

  4. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 2: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In an effort to support remedial investigations of abandoned septic tanks by US DOE, this report contains the results of chemical analyses of the contents of these abandoned tanks. Analytical data are presented for the following: volatile/TCLP volatile organics; semivolatile/TCLP semivolatile organics; PCB organics; total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total metals. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. The 20 sites investigated are located on the Nevada Test Site

  5. At risk and abandoned: street children, AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, S

    1995-01-01

    When Covenant House was established in the late 1960s, its mission was to end the harassment and murder of homeless street children by authorities in Latin America. At present, Covenant House Latin America is broadening its focus to encompass another form of societal violence against vulnerable youth--acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Street educators include information on AIDS as part of their outreach efforts, and Covenant House Crisis Centers provide AIDS counseling. Most of these young people are on the streets as a result of abandonment, child abuse, and poverty. A study of 143 street children in Guatemala ages 7-17 years found that 100% had been sexually abused, 53% by a family member. 71% currently had 1-2 sexual partners per day, 4% had 3-4 partners, and 25% reported more than 4 partners per day; none was using contraception. Covenant House seeks to publicize this latest form of violence against children and is urging adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates, among other things, that special care will be given to children who have been rendered vulnerable by separation from their families.

  6. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  7. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  8. How lingering representations of abandoned context words affect speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydgat, Ilse; Diependaele, Kevin; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2012-07-01

    Four experiments tested whether and how initially planned but then abandoned speech can influence the production of a subsequent resumption. Participants named initial pictures, which were sometimes suddenly replaced by target pictures that were related in meaning or word form or were unrelated. They then had to stop and resume with the name of the target picture. Target picture naming latencies were measured separately for trials in which the initial speech was skipped, interrupted, or completed. Semantically related initial pictures helped the production of the target word, although the effect dissipated once the utterance of the initial picture name had been completed. In contrast, phonologically related initial pictures hindered the production of the target word, but only for trials in which the name of the initial picture had at least partly been uttered. This semantic facilitation and phonological interference did not depend on the time interval between the initial and target picture, which was either varied between 200 ms and 400 ms (Experiments 1-2) or was kept constant at 300 ms (Experiments 3-4). We discuss the implications of these results for models of speech self-monitoring and for models of problem-free word production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  10. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  11. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  12. Do agricultural terraces and forest fires recurrence in Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments alter soil quality and soil nutrient content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Fortesa, Josep; García-Comendador, Julián; Gago, Jorge; Estrany, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Bioclimatic characteristics and intense human pressure promote Mediterranean ecosystems to be fire-prone. Afforestation processes resulting from the progressive land abandonment during the last decades led to greater biomass availability increasing the risk of large forest fires. Likewise, the abandonment and lack of maintenance in the terraced lands constitute a risk of land degradation in terms of soil quantity and quality. Despite the effects of fire and the abandonment of terraced lands on soil loss and physico-chemical properties are identified, it is not clearly understood how wildfires and abandonment of terraces affect soil quality and nutrients content. Microbiological soil parameters and soil enzymes activities are biomarkers of the soil microbial communitýs functional ability, which potentially enables them as indicators of change, disturbance or stress within the soil community. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of terracing (abandoned and non-abandoned) on the soil enzyme activities, microbiological soil parameters and soil nutrients dynamics in three Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments (i.e., soil respiration rate and extracellular soil enzymes. Differences between experimental plots with different forest fire recurrence or comparing terraced and unburned plots with burned plots were weaker in relation to biochemical and microbiological parameters. Soil nutrient content showed an opposite trend with higher values in terraced plots, although differences were weaker. We conclude that terraced landscapes present poorer soil quality parameters due to land abandonment and the lack of terraced management. In addition, forest fire recurrence exacerbates soil degradation processes due to the direct effects on vegetation and soil properties.

  13. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F.

    2011-04-07

    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  14. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  15. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  16. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features of all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Points are centroids developed from the...

  18. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Regions, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  19. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using the...

  20. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in the Navajo Nation. Attributes...

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Enforcement Action Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent abandoned uranium mines with EPA enforcement actions as of March 2016 in Navajo Nation. Attributes include...

  2. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  3. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  4. Underlying drivers and spatial determinants of post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in temperate Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel; Baumann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to understand the underlying drivers and spatial determinants of agricultural land abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent transition from state-command to market-driven economies from 1990 to 2000. We brought an example of agricultural land-use change...... with institutional changes regarding land use. Using spatially explicit logistic regressions, we assessed spatial determinants of agricultural land abandonment. The highest rates of land abandonment from 1990 to 2000 were observed in Russia (31 %), followed by Lithuania (19 %), and Belarus (13...... in one agro-climatic zone stretching across Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Here, we provide an overview of the agricultural changes for the studied countries. We estimated the rates and patterns of agricultural land abandonment based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and linked these data...

  5. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Pueyo, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland

  6. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA...

  7. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority Mine Points, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing priority abandoned uranium mines in Navajo Nation, as determined by the US EPA and the Navajo Nation. USEPA and...

  8. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region Polygons, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the boundaries of the six Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Regions, including the: Central, Eastern, Northern,...

  9. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  10. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Cerdà

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2 show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces the soil losses to very low values, the fire increase runoff and soil erosion. Water and soil losses are much lower in the fire-affected plots than on the cultivated ones due to the use of herbicides.

  11. Accounting for Risk in Valuing Forest Carbon Offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, M. D.; Hungate, B. A.; Koch, G. W.

    2008-12-01

    Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. U.S. Forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression. Increasing carbon density and reducing emissions from disturbances (fire, pest outbreaks) are two potential strategies for using forests to slow the rise of atmospheric CO2. The recent increase in frequency of large and severe fires due to past fire suppression and ongoing climate change represents risk in forest carbon offset investment. Under current carbon accounting mechanisms, all forest carbon offset projects are equivalent provided they meet additionality and permanence standards. Risk of loss from disturbance is not incorporated into quantifying permanence, even though some forests are at greater risk than others. We used the fire regime condition class (FRCC) departure index and mean fire return interval (mFRI) data products developed for the LANDFIRE project to discount the market value of forest carbon as a function of the risk of loss due to wildfire. Based on our risk assessment valuation method, the value of carbon varies depending on forest type and condition. For example, a unit carbon in fire-prone ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S. is worth only 24% of that in redwood forest. FRCC departure can be altered, making this equation robust to management actions and allowing for site specific quantification of the carbon market value of a management action. Substitution of FRCC and mFRI with the appropriate metrics would allow application of this approach to discounting market value of forest carbon due to risks of other disturbances such as forest pest outbreaks.

  12. A Summary of 20 Years of Forest Monitoring in Cinnamon Bay Watershed, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2006-01-01

    St. John, and probably the Cinnamon Bay watershed, has a history of human use dating to 1700 B.C. The most notable impacts, however, occurred from 1730 to 1780 when sugar cane and cotton production peaked on the island. As agriculture was abandoned, the island regenerated in secondary forest, and in 1956, the Virgin Islands National Park was created. From 1983 to 2003...

  13. Analysis and Application of Coal Seam Seismic Waves for detection of Abandoned Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Yancey, Daniel Jackson

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon for underground coal mining to be conducted in the proximity of abandoned underground mines that are prone to accumulate water, methane or other toxic gases, and are often either poorly mapped or without good surface survey control. Mining into such abandoned voids poses a great safety risk to personnel, equipment, and production from inundation or toxic/explosive gas release. Often, surface or underground drilling is employed to detect the mine void and e...

  14. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Robust abandoned object detection integrating wide area visual surveillance and social context

    OpenAIRE

    Ferryman, James; Hogg, David; Sochman, Jan; Behera, Ardhendu; Rodriguez-Serrano, Jose A.; Worgan, Simon; Li, Longzhen; Leung, Valerie; Evans, Murray; Cornic, Philippe; Herbin, Stephane; Schlenger, Stefan; Dose, Michael; Computational Vision Group, School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, RG6 6AY, UK; School of Computing, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT UK

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a video surveillance framework that robustly and efficiently detects abandoned objects in surveillance scenes. The framework is based on a novel threat assessment algorithm which combines the concept of ownership with automatic understanding of social relations in order to infer abandonment of objects. Implementation is achieved through development of a logic-based inference engine based on Prolog. Threat detection performance is conducted by testing against a range of dat...

  16. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  17. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  18. Impacts of changes in land use and fragmentation patterns on Atlantic coastal forests in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Quintanilla, Luis G; Carreño, Francisco; Gutiérrez, David

    2010-01-01

    Changes in forested landscapes may have important consequences for ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In northern Spain, major changes in land use occurred during the second half of the 20th century, but their impacts on forests have not been quantified. We evaluated the dynamics of landscape and forest distribution patterns between 1957 and 2003 in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (northwestern Spain). We used orthoimages and a set of standard landscape metrics to determine transitions between land cover classes and to examine forest distribution patterns. Eucalypt plantations showed the greatest increase in area (197%) over time. Furthermore, transitions to eucalypt plantations were found in all major land cover classes. Forest showed a net decline of 20% in total area and represented 30% of the landscape area in 2003. Forest losses were mainly due to eucalypt plantations and the building of a water reservoir, while forest gains were due to increases in shrubland, meadows and cultivated fields which had been recolonised. Forest patch size and core area decreased, and edge length increased over time. In turn, increases were obtained in mean distance between forest patches, and in adjacency to eucalypt plantations and to a water reservoir. These results suggest an increase in forest fragmentation from 1957 to 2003, as well as a change in the nature of the habitat surrounding forest patches. This study shows that land use changes, mostly from eucalypt plantation intensification, negatively affected forested habitats, although some regeneration was ongoing through ecological succession from land abandonment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  20. Monitoring abandoned dreg fields of high-speed railway construction with UAV remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yangchun; Lin, Yi; Du, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    High-speed railway construction will produce a large amount of abandoned dregs, so it is necessary to build enough dreg deposition fields along the railway. The task of the department of soil and water conservation is to monitor the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields according to the design in the whole process of railway construction. As long linear construction projects, many high-speed railways go through regions of complex terrain, which poses great difficulties to monitoring current status of abandoned dreg fields. With the advantages of low cost, flexible launch and landing, safety, under-cloud-flying, hyperspatial image resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very suitable for obtaining remote sensing imagery along the railway. One segment of the high-speed railway from Chongqing to Wanzhou and its neighborhood was chosen as the study area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of monitoring abandoned dreg fields using the UAV system. The UAV system and its components are introduced along with the flight trajectories, acquired UAV imagery, and attitude data. Image preprocessing and generation of DEM and DOM are described in detail followed by image-based measurement accuracy assessment and abandoned dreg field status investigation on the resulting DOM and DEM. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed wing UAV system to rapidly monitoring the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields

  1. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  2. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  3. ABANDONED HOUSING PROJECTS IN MALAYSIA: Pressing Issues during the Rehabilitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned of housing projects during construction is a prevailing problem that the housing sector in Malaysia has been experiencing since 1980s. This paper aims to highlight the causes and impacts of abandoned housing projects, and various initiatives to rehabilitate these projects. Factors pertaining to projects abandonment can be categorized into: economic, financial, legal, managerial, system-related, and unforeseen risks. The study reveals three main impacts of abandoned housing projects: social, economic, and environmental impacts. The main steps taken to solve this problem include the rehabilitation of abandoned projects and other initiatives to reserve the right of purchasers through appropriate legal resolutions endorsement. Additional initiatives and formulation of upgraded solutions would further strengthen and enhance the ongoing policy of preempting and resuscitating abandoned housing projects. The study suggests further research to be conducted to identify various risks involved in the rehabilitation process. Such research can be aided through the seeking of stakeholders’ opinions on the risks to carry out projects rehabilitation.

  4. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  5. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...

  6. Effect Analysis of Early Warning for Abandoned Object on Highway Based on Internet-of-Vehicles CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: (1 the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. (2 Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. (3 Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.

  7. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  8. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  9. Water repellency, plants, agriculture abandonment and fire in citrus plantations. The Canyoles river watershed study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a key soil property that determine the soil and water losses, soil fertility and plant development. Although until the 90's the soil water repellency was seeing as an uncommon soil characteristic, now is considered a key soil property to understand the soil hydrology (Alanís et al., 2016; Hewelke et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2016). The inspiring research of Leonard DeBano and Stefan H Doerr changed the fate of the science (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al. 2000). Soil water repellency was associated to forest fire affected land due to the pioneer contribution of professor DeBano in the 70's and Professor Doerr in the 90's. The research during the last two decades demonstrate that fire affects the reallocation of the hydrophobic substances and can reduce or increase the severity of the soil water repellence at different soil depths and horizons. The SWR is usually measured by sampling to show the influence of key soil properties (texture, structure, plant cover, litter, season…) on the degree of soil water repellency. The sampling is applied usually with a few drops when the Water Drop Penetration Time method is applied, and this inform of the time of penetration, but few researches focussed in the spatial distribution of the water repellency, which is a key factor of the runoff generation, the water infiltration and the water redistribution such as demonstrate the wetting fronts. Our approach research the spatial distribution of the water repellency by means of an intense sampling of soil surface water repellency. One thousand drops were distributed in a square meter (100 lines separated 1 cm and 100 drops per each line of 100 cm, with a total od 1000 drops in 1m2) on 10 sampling points on 4 land managements: ploughing and herbicide agriculture fields treatment), abandoned 10 years, and burnt. The research was carried out in citrus plantations of the Canyoles river watershed. The results show that the

  10. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  11. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  12. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Anjos, R.M.; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222 Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m 3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m 3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m 3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina

  13. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pH<7), hydrolisis and metal leaching, precipitation of oxides and sulphates. The restoration of these sites, therefore, is a primary objective, in order to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could

  14. The effect of abandoned mining ponds on trace elements dynamics in the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, María; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    In semiarid climate regions lack of vegetation and dryer climate contribute to erosion of abandoned mining surface areas making them up important potential sources of metal pollution into the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of mine ponds in agriculture and forest soils, and identify the dynamic of metals in the soil-plant system for native plant species (Ballota hirsuta) and crop species (Hordeum vulgare) in two ancient mining districts: La Unión and Mazarrón. To achieve these objectives, wastes samples from mine ponds and soil samples (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils) from natural and agricultural lands were collected. In addition, six plants (Ballota hirsuta) from natural area and 3 plants (Hordeum vulgare) from crops were collected. Physicochemical properties and total, water soluble and bioavailable metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic were measured in waste/soil samples. The chemical speciation of metals in soil was estimated by a sequential extraction procedure. For plants analyses, each plant were divided in roots, stem and leaves and metal content measured by ICP-MS. Results indicated that mine, natural and agricultural soils were contaminated by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemical partitioning revealed higher mobility of metals in mine ponds than natural and agriculture soils while only Fe and As are completely bound to the soil matrix due to the mineralogical compositions of soils. The accumulation of metals in Ballota hirsuta in La Union decrease as Fe>As>Cr>Ni>Cu>Zn>Cd>Mn>Co>Pb while in Mazarrón did as As>Fe>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>Mn>Zn>Cd. Ballota hirsuta showed high ability to bio-accumulate Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and As, transferring a large amount to edible parts without exceeding the toxicity limits for animals. Results for barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) showed the ability to absorb and accumulate As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, although the transfer ability of As, Cd and Pb was lower. Although the

  15. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  16. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South`s 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government`s transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960`s. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail.

  17. Accounting for risk in valuing forest carbon offsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch George W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. In the U.S., forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression, and they currently sequester approximately 10% of annual US emissions. This ecosystem service is recognized in greenhouse gas protocols and cap-and-trade mechanisms, yet forest carbon is valued equally regardless of forest type, an approach that fails to account for risk of carbon loss from disturbance. Results Here we show that incorporating wildfire risk reduces the value of forest carbon depending on the location and condition of the forest. There is a general trend of decreasing risk-scaled forest carbon value moving from the northern toward the southern continental U.S. Conclusion Because disturbance is a major ecological factor influencing long-term carbon storage and is often sensitive to human management, carbon trading mechanisms should account for the reduction in value associated with disturbance risk.

  18. Accounting for risk in valuing forest carbon offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Hungate, Bruce A; Koch, George W

    2009-01-16

    Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. In the U.S., forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression, and they currently sequester approximately 10% of annual US emissions. This ecosystem service is recognized in greenhouse gas protocols and cap-and-trade mechanisms, yet forest carbon is valued equally regardless of forest type, an approach that fails to account for risk of carbon loss from disturbance. Here we show that incorporating wildfire risk reduces the value of forest carbon depending on the location and condition of the forest. There is a general trend of decreasing risk-scaled forest carbon value moving from the northern toward the southern continental U.S. Because disturbance is a major ecological factor influencing long-term carbon storage and is often sensitive to human management, carbon trading mechanisms should account for the reduction in value associated with disturbance risk.

  19. Ecological Structure of a Tropical Urban Forest in the Bang Kachao Peninsula, Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montathip Sommeechai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has changed the structure and function of natural ecosystems, especially floodplain ecosystems in SE Asia. The ecological structure of vegetation stands and the usefulness of satellite images was investigated to characterize a disturbed tropical urban forest located in the Chao Phraya River lower floodplain, Thailand. Nine sample plots were established on the Bang Kachao Peninsula (BKP within 4 tropical forest types in an urban area: rehabilitation forest, home-garden agroforestry, mangrove and park. The tree habitats were beach forest, swamp forest, moist evergreen forest, dry evergreen forest, mangrove forest and abandoned orchard or home-garden. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values obtained from Landsat 7 satellite images were correlated with plant structure from field surveys. NDVI had the highest relationship with stand factors for number of families, number of species, Shannon-Weiner index and total basal area. Linear regression predicted well the correlation between NDVI and stand factors for families and basal area. NDVI trends reflected urban tropical forest typing and biodiversity, being high in rehabilitation and mangrove forests, moderate in home-gardens and low in parks. We suggest that the application of NDVI for assessments can be useful for future planning, monitoring and management of the BKP and hence may contribute for increasing biodiversity and complexity of these urban forests.

  20. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  1. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability

  2. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  3. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  5. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

  6. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

  7. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Chieber, C.; Schneider, Th.

    2002-08-01

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  8. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  9. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  10. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  11. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science is one of the leading forestry journals in the Southern Hemisphere. The journal publishes scientific articles in forest science and management of fast-growing, planted or natural forests in the Southern Hemisphere and the tropics. Papers are also encouraged on related ...

  12. Effect of Land Use Legacy on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the NE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Forest stand age is a prime determinant of the strength of the carbon sink, as younger, growing forests tend to be stronger sinks than more mature forests. The substantial carbon sink in the NE U.S. is due to forests regrowing from previous disturbance. The particular type of disturbance, whether agricultural abandonment, timber harvest, or fire, can have an impact on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) observed today, especially for more recently disturbed forests. Nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen, are the most important factor determining the rate of regrowth following disturbance. Agriculture results in depletion of nutrients from the soil, so often results in slower regrowth than timber harvest, for example. If fire is also used during harvesting, nutrient depletion may be even more severe. This study will use the 1 km USDA forest stand age data for the NE U.S. for a series of model sensitivity experiments with the TEM-Hydro model. Three simulations will apply a single disturbance to result in the correct stand age, with agricultural abandonment, timber harvest, and fire applied at the year of disturbance, respectively. A 1/8o run will explore how aggregated stand age affects NEP relative to higher resolution stand age. Preliminary results for a single grid in PA show timber harvest has faster regrowth than regrowth from agricultural abandonment, though fertilization quickens regrowth rates. The effect of crops on NEP is a larger sink than timber harvest in the 5 years following disturbance, but a smaller sink in the decades following, with equivalent NEP values after about 50 years. A simple stand age mixture experiment shows that heterogeneous stand age matters most in the first 20 years following disturbance. These methods will be applied to realistic stand ages for the entire NE U.S. to determine the importance of disturbance type on forest regrowth.

  13. Forests to fields. Restoring tropical lands to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1993-04-01

    In discussing land use in tropical forest regions, there is an emphasis on the following topics: the need for the expansion of cropping areas, the precedent for use of the tropical forest for cropping based on past use patterns, the pressure from conservationists against cropping, debunking the mythology that forests are "natural" and refuting the claims that forest clearance is not reversible, the archeological evidence of past forest use for agricultural purposes, abandonment of tropical land to forest, and rotation of forest and field. The assumption is that the way to stop food importation is to increase crop production in the tropics. Crop production can be increased through 1) land intensification or clearing new land, 2) output per unit of land increases, or 3) reallocation to agriculture land previously cleared and overgrown with tropical forest. "Temporary" reuse of land, which reverted back to tropical forest, is recommended. This reuse would ease population pressure, and benefit bioconservation, while populations stabilize and further progress is made in international plant breeding. The land would eventually be returned to a forest state. Conservation of tropical forest areas should be accomplished, after an assessment has been made of its former uses. Primary forests need to identified and conversion to farming ceased. Research needs to be directed to understanding the process of past forest regeneration, and to devising cropping systems with longterm viability. The green revolution is unsuitable for traditional cropping systems, is contrary to demands of international funding agencies for sustainability, and is not affordable by most poor farmers. Only .48 million sq. km of closed forest loss was in tropical rainforests; 6.53 million sq. km was lost from temperate forests cleared for intensive small-scale peasant farming. The use of tropical forest land for farming has some benefits; crops in the wetter tropics are perennial, which would "reduce

  14. Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange and Evapotranspiration After the Felling of an Eucalyptus Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Abel; Mateus, Antonio; Pereira, Santos J.

    2011-01-01

    Espirra site (38o38’N,8o36’W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9oC. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an eddy covariance system. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. During the period of analyses the total annual precipitation has varied between a minimum of 248mmYr-1 (2005) to a maximum of 796mm Yr-1 (2007), pattern typical of a Mediterranean climate. The diminution of precipitation (and also how it is distributed along the year) affects the forest uptake of Carbon .The GPP and the TER show lower values in dry years, both in the adult forest as in the young one. The GPP of the growing eucalyptus has been affected by the dry year but also by the thinning that took place in Oct 2008. The Ecosystem total respiration shows high values after the felling ( the same order of magnitude as the forest before the felling) due to the leaves and branches that were left over the soil after the harvesting. Three years after the felling the GPP of the young forest is 61% the value of the adult forest (mean value, excluding the dry year). The seasonal pattern of TER is similar before and after the felling, but in the young forest the GPP is lower and the NEE becomes positive in winter time. In an annual base the growing eucalyptus forest only in the first year after felling was a source of carbon.

  15. Carbon uptake before and after the felling of an Eucalyptus forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Abel; Mateus, Joao; Santos Pereira, Joao

    2010-05-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an eddy covariance system. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. during the period of analyses the total annual precipitation has varied between a minimum of 248mmYr-1 (2005) to a maximum of 796mm Yr-1 (2007), pattern typical of a Mediterranean climate. The diminution of precipitation (and also how it is distributed along the year) affects the forest uptake of Carbon .The GPP and the Reco show lower values in dry years, both in the adult forest as in the young one. The GPP of the growing eucalyptus has been affected by the dry year but also by the thinning that took place in Oct 2008. The Ecosystem total respiration shows high values after the felling ( the same order of magnitude as the forest before the felling) due to the leaves and branches that were left over the soil after the harvesting. Three years after the felling the GPP of the young forest is 61% the value of the adult forest (mean value, excluding the dry year). The seasonal pattern of RECO is similar before and after the felling, but in the young forest the GPP is lower and the NEE becomes positive in the summer time. In an annual base the growing eucalyptus forest only in the first year after felling was a source of carbon.

  16. Forest Structure Assessment of a Rehabilitated Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Roland K.J. Heng; Nik M.A. Majid; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Silvester Jemat; Melvin K.K. Kin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Forest structure assessment provides information on forest succession, dynamics, biodiversity and health which are important but only few information is available on rehabilitated forest. The objective of this study was to assess the forest structure of selected age stands at a rehabilitated forest situated in Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. Approach: Four 20± 22years) and all stands were measured for Diameter Breast Height (DBH) ...

  17. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  18. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Mariz, Larissa; Campos Muniz Medeiros, Carla; Cruz Enders, Bertha; Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira, Caroline Evelin; Aires Silva Medeiros, Kaio Keomma; Silva Coura, Alexsandro

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8), high maternal education (OR=2.4), white skin color (OR=2.9), and obesity (OR=3.6). Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  19. Using Local Data to Address Abandoned Property: Lessons Learned From a Community Health Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samantha; Kolke, Demi

    A growing body of research highlights the role of the built environment in promoting or impeding health. This research suggests that environmental issues like abandoned properties exact a toll on physical and mental health. We describe a community partnership aimed at improving community health through equitable land use policies and blight remediation. A collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Operation Better Block, Inc. (OBB), a community development corporation in Pittsburgh, was formed. We implemented an intervention to address property abandonment using data-driven techniques. In addition to successful advocacy for city-wide policies addressing abandonment, 80% of the properties that were part of our intervention were improved or addressed by the city. Balancing the needs of community and academic partners can be challenging, but our experiences suggest that community health partnerships to address built environmental issues may be an important conduit to health promotion.

  20. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Soares Mariz

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Results. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8, high maternal education (OR=2.4, white skin color (OR=2.9, and obesity (OR=3.6. Conclusion. Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  1. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  2. Proceedings: An international workshop on offshore lease abandonment and platform disposal: Technology, regulation, and environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, A. [ed.] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    1997-03-01

    This Proceedings volume includes papers prepared for an international workshop on lease abandonment and offshore platform disposal. The workshop was held April 15, 16, and 17, 1996, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Included in the volume are several plenary speeches and issue papers. prepared by six working groups, who discussed: Abandoning Wells; Abandoning Pipelines; Removing Facilities; Site Clearance; Habitat Management, Maintenance, and Planning; and Regulation and Policy. Also included are an introduction, an afterword (reprinted with the permission of its author, John Lohrenz), and, as Appendix C, the complete report of the National Research Council Marine Boards An Assessment of Techniques for Removing Fixed Offshore Structures, around which much of the discussion at the workshop was organized. Short biographies of many speakers, organizers, and chairpersons are included as Appendix A. Appendix B is a list of conference participants. Selected papers have been processes separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  3. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  4. Forest thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.

  5. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  6. Nutrient limitation in tropical secondary forests following different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Rastetter, Edward B; Neill, Christopher; Porder, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Secondary forests now make up more than one-half of all tropical forests, and constraints on their biomass accumulation will influence the strength of the terrestrial carbon (C) sink in the coming decades. However the variance in secondary tropical forest biomass for a given stand age and climate is high and our understanding of why is limited. We constructed a model of terrestrial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling to examine the influence of disturbance and management practices on nutrient limitation and biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests. The model predicted that N limited the rate of forest recovery in the first few decades following harvest, but that this limitation switched to P approximately 30-40 yr after abandonment, consistent with field data on N and P cycling from secondary tropical forest chronosequences. Simulated biomass recovery agreed well with field data of biomass accumulation following harvest (R 2  = 0.80). Model results showed that if all biomass remained on site following a severe disturbance such as blowdown, regrowth approached pre-disturbance biomass in 80-90 yr, and recovery was faster following smaller disturbances such as selective logging. Field data from regrowth on abandoned pastures were consistent with simulated losses of nutrients in soil organic matter, particularly P. Following any forest disturbance that involved the removal of nutrients (i.e., except blowdown), forest regrowth produced reduced biomass relative to the initial state as a result of nutrient loss through harvest, leaching and/or sequestration by secondary minerals. Differences in nutrient availability accounted for 49-94% of the variance in secondary forest biomass C at a given stand age. Management lessons from this study are the importance of strategies that help retain nutrients on site, recognizing the role of coarse woody debris in immobilization and subsequent release of nutrients, and the potential for nutrient additions to enhance

  7. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  8. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  9. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  10. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  11. Successional changes in functional composition contrast for dry and wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Paz, Horacio; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Tauro, Alejandra; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    We tested whether and how functional composition changes with succession in dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. We hypothesized that compositional changes during succession in dry forest were mainly determined by increasing water availability leading to community functional changes from conservative to acquisitive strategies, and in wet forest by decreasing light availability leading to changes from acquisitive to conservative strategies. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest plots (5-63 years after abandonment) and 17 wet secondary forest plots (dry forest than in wet forest and largely characterized by different traits. During dry forest succession, conservative traits related to drought tolerance and drought avoidance decreased, as predicted. Unexpectedly acquisitive leaf traits also decreased, whereas seed size and dependence on biotic dispersal increased. In wet forest succession, functional composition changed from acquisitive to conservative leaf traits, suggesting light availability as the main driver of changes. Distinct suites of traits shape functional composition changes in dry and wet forest succession, responding to different environmental filters.

  12. Drivers, Constraints and Trade-Offs Associated with Recultivating Abandoned Cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Meyfroidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land- based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union countries, where the transition from state-command to market-driven economies resulted in widespread agricultural land abandonment, cropland expansion may incur relatively low costs, especially compared with tropical regions. Our objectives were to quantify the drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland to assess the potentially available cropland in European Russia, western Siberia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan - the region where the vast majority of post- Soviet cropland abandonment took place. Using spatial panel regressions, we characterized the socio-economic determinants of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes in cropland to 1 spatially characterize the socio-economic, accessibility and soil constraints associated with the recultivation of abandoned croplands and 2 investigate the environmental trade-offs regarding carbon stocks and habitat for biodiversity. Less cropland abandonment and more recultivation after 2000 occurred in areas with an increasing rural population and a younger labor force, but also improved yields. Synergies were observed between cropland recultivation and intensification over the 2000s. From 47.3 million hectares (Mha of cropland abandoned in 2009, we identified only 8.5 (7.1-17.4 Mha of potentially available cropland with low environmental tradeoffs and low to moderate socio-economic or accessibility constraints that were located on high-quality soils (Chernozems. These areas represented an annual wheat production potential of 14.3 (9.6-19.5 million tons (Mt. Conversely, 8.5 (4.2-12.4 Mha had high carbon or biodiversity trade-offs, of which 10

  13. The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Bing

    2004-01-01

    The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m 3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

  14. [Abandonment of nursing courses: a survey regarding the motivations which lead the students to the abandonment of the nursing degree course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrobecq, Anne; Destefani, Chiara; Sponton, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The Authors made a survey regarding the motivations which make the students leave the nursing degree course (NDC). The statistical data regarding the abandonment of university courses in Italy say that a 19/20% of the students leave the courses. As regards the whole University of Milan, the amount of those students (18,3%) lays under the national average. The authors made a survey about the motivations which lead the students of nursing to the abandonment of their academic path; via the offices of the nursing schools they collected the telephone numbers of the students enroled between 2000 and 2006, then they made a structured telephonic interview. An 87,7% of the interviewed students said that he/she had abandoned during the first year; the motivations are the following, in order of frequency: Too much engagement (30.1%), Other (26%), this item offers several answers, for example pregnancy, emotive problems, personal problems, Change of the academic path (23,3%) Expectations Disappointment (12,4%), Economic problems (8.2%). The survey is qualitative; it wants to be a first-step study to deeply analyze a topic of major interest in the field of nursing courses management.

  15. Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian–Mediterranean limit of north-west Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Martinez, J.M.; Suarez-Seoane, S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Luis Calabuig, de E.

    2014-01-01

    1.In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanisms behind landscape change is a complex undertaking because the influence of land use may be reinforced

  16. Effects of forest regrowth and urbanization on ecosystem carbon storage in a rural–urban gradient in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Zhang; Hanqin Tian; Shufen Pan; Mingliang Liu; Graeme Lockaby; Erik B. Schilling; John Stanturf

    2008-01-01

    Forest regrowth after cropland abandonment and urban sprawl are two counteracting processes that have influenced carbon (C) sequestration in the southeastern United States in recent decades. In this study, we examined patterns of land-use/landcover change and their effect on ecosystem C storage in three west Georgia counties (Muscogee,...

  17. The Forest of Romania: a Social - Economic's Dramma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Roman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests were covering at the start of the third millennium around 26.5% of Romania's territory. Comprised into forest zones expanded in all historical provinces of the country, they are representing an important economic resource, an also an essential factor of the man-environment equilibrium. The organization of the rational exploitation of the forestry fund, adopted ever since the XIX Century, was abandoned after the forests nationalization, imposed by the communist regime in 1948. Urbanization and industrialization, held in view by this regime, did not take into account the ecological requirements and neither those linked to the renewal of the natural economic resources. The transition coming after the fall of communism, with pervert economic, psychological and sociological effects, has led to a savage exploitation of the forestry fund, the lack of some compensation measures (re-forestations, young forest protection, under the context of statal authority's dissolution (after the excessive communist authoritarism, having catastrophic consequences: land slides, desertification, pollution. The remake of the forest ownership structure, from before nationalization, is not, as a consequence, sufficient, the putting into possession having to be accompanied, in the goal of remaking the natural harmony of man with his existential environment, by a series of economic, legislative, educational initiatives, which the EU integration could facilitate.

  18. Forest Cover Change within the Russian European North after the Breakdown of Soviet Union (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover dynamics (defined as tree canopy cover change without regard to forest land use within the Russian European North have been analyzed from 1990 to 2005 using a combination of results from two Landsat-based forest cover monitoring projects: 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. Results of the forest cover dynamics analysis highlighted several trends in forest cover change since the breakdown of the Soviet planned economy. While total logging area decreased from the 1990–2000 to the 2000–2005 interval, logging and other forms of anthropogenically-induced clearing increased within the Central and Western parts of the region. The most populated regions of European Russia featured the highest rates of net forest cover loss. Our results also revealed intensive gross forest cover loss due to forest felling close to the Russian-Finland border. The annual burned forest area almost doubled between the two time intervals. The 2000–2005 gross forest cover gain results suggest that tree encroachment on abandoned agriculture land is a wide-spread process over the region. The analysis demonstrates the value of regional-scale Landsat-based forest cover and change quantification. Our results supplemented official data by providing independently derived spatial information that could be used for assessing on-going trends and serve as a baseline for future forest cover monitoring.

  19. Environmental geochemistry of the abandoned Mamut Copper Mine (Sabah) Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Edraki, Mansour

    2018-02-01

    The Mamut Copper Mine (MCM) located in Sabah (Malaysia) on Borneo Island was the only Cu-Au mine that operated in the country. During its operation (1975-1999), the mine produced 2.47 Mt of concentrate containing approximately 600,000 t of Cu, 45 t of Au and 294 t of Ag, and generated about 250 Mt of overburden and waste rocks and over 150 Mt of tailings, which were deposited at the 397 ha Lohan tailings storage facility, 15.8 km from the mine and 980 m lower in altitude. The MCM site presents challenges for environmental rehabilitation due to the presence of large volumes of sulphidic minerals wastes, the very high rainfall and the large volume of polluted mine pit water. This indicates that rehabilitation and treatment is costly, as for example, exceedingly large quantities of lime are needed for neutralisation of the acidic mine pit discharge. The MCM site has several unusual geochemical features on account of the concomitant occurrence of acid-forming sulphide porphyry rocks and alkaline serpentinite minerals, and unique biological features because of the very high plant diversity in its immediate surroundings. The site hence provides a valuable opportunity for researching natural acid neutralisation processes and mine rehabilitation in tropical areas. Today, the MCM site is surrounded by protected nature reserves (Kinabalu Park, a World Heritage Site, and Bukit Hampuan, a Class I Forest Reserve), and the environmental legacy prevents de-gazetting and inclusion in these protected area in the foreseeable future. This article presents a preliminary geochemical investigation of waste rocks, sediments, secondary precipitates, surface water chemistry and foliar elemental uptake in ferns, and discusses these results in light of their environmental significance for rehabilitation.

  20. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-11-01

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. 77 FR 58218 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in McKinley County, N.M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under... affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources...

  2. 78 FR 57680 - Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Allegheny County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad.... 91 (1979). To address whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for..., if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental...

  3. 78 FR 67216 - The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Passaic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under... affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no... that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA...

  4. 77 FR 32714 - Jackson, Gordonville and Delta Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cape Girardeau County, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line..., 360 I.C.C. 91 (1979). To address whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental...

  5. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Danya Keene; Bernadette C. Hohl; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on...

  6. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier Obligation Exemption--in Alameda County, Cal. (San Jose Industrial Lead... easement on, and for SCVTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common carrier obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial Lead between mileposts 5.38 and 7.35 near the Warm Springs freight rail...

  7. Development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land abandonment in a semi-arid ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Kooijman, A.M.; van Wesemael, B.

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate erosion on abandoned fields in semi-arid ecosystems, it is important to understand how vegetation and soil properties and patterns develop after land abandonment. Our objective was to investigate the development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land

  8. 77 FR 58909 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment and Discontinuance of Service Exemption-In Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment and Discontinuance of Service Exemption--In Lake County, Ind., and Cook County, Ill. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a... Service for NSR to abandon approximately 6.30 miles of rail line (the Eastern Line Segment) located in...

  9. Choosing a miracle: Impoverishment, mistrust, and discordant views in abandonment of treatment of children with cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Challinor, Julia; Gigengack, Roy; Reis, Ria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In El Salvador, at the only hospital offering pediatric oncology care, the number of children abandoning treatment for cancer has decreased in recent years (13%-3%). An investigation of caregivers' motives for abandonment was performed over 15 months from 2012 to 2014. Caregiver and

  10. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO General § 41.25 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and...

  11. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias; Bragina, Eugenia V.; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Müller, Daniel; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Sieber, Anika; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-09-01

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation.

  12. Concentration and vertical distribution of total soil phosphorus in relation to time of abandonment of arable fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, A.; De Boer, W.; Lubbers, I.M.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural soils is a common practice in Western Europe to increase the area of nature and to counteract agricultural overproduction. However, it has been suggested that abrupt changes in management of land, such as abandonment of heavily fertilized agricultural fields, could

  13. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  14. Minnesota Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Charles Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel I. Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Minnesota forests reports 17.4 million acres of forest land with an average live tree volume of 1,096 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies 29 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 36 percent sapling/...

  15. Wisconsin's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  16. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  17. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  18. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... agencies) have been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the... condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d... the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  19. 78 FR 53819 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Canyon County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be... protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed... environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by September 6, 2013...

  20. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... agencies) have been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the... condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources...