WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoned coal-mined lands

  1. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  2. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  3. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  4. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  5. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  6. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  7. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  8. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands on...

  9. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  10. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain types...

  11. Mined land in the Ruhr area: Geological assessments to bound the environmental consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggering, H.

    1993-01-01

    The extraction, transportation, and processing of coal has severe environmental impacts. The development of the highly mechanized underground mining has resulted in the displacement of very large quantities of coal and waste rock at the surface and underground. This has led to land subsidence, changes in groundwater flow, soil erosion, air pollution, and local climatic effects. Thus, in the Ruhr area more than 4,000 km 2 is subject to subsurface mass displacement. The surface undergoes a mobile trough-shaped subsidence. The resulting deformations produce a range of different effects on geomorphology and hydrology/geohydrology. Abandoned coal mines have to be taken under long term drainage, pumping stations have to regulate the groundwater levels. The devastated areas have to be restored, hazardous waste materials from mining activities must be treated, and the long term risks of coal mining must be assessed as part of long range planning and the protection of natural resources. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Spatio-temporal anomaly detection for environmental impact assessment: a case of an abandoned coal mine site in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Düzgün, H. Şebnem

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this research is to determine the anomalies regarding with the coal mining operations in an abandoned coal mine site in central Anatolia by multi-temporal image analysis of Landsat 4-5 surface reflectance data. A well-known anomaly detection algorithm, Reed-Xioli (RX), which calculates square of Mahalanobis metrics to calculate the likelihood ratios by normalizing the difference between the test pixel and the background to allocate anomaly pixels, is implemented across the time series. The experimental results reveal especially the profound land use - land cover change in time series, pointing out critically abandoned regions that need immediate rehabilitation action. The rate of anomaly scores together with their relation to mine development over the focused time spectrum discloses a linearity trend as of the operations are ceased at the end of 1990s, which is indicative of the capacity of the applied method. The performance of the algorithm is also quantified with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and precisionrecall graphs to quantify its capability on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral image series. The resulting plots show the increasing capability of the hyperspectral anomaly detection technique in multi-temporal data set, with a steady and slight increase in performance between 2000 and 2012 after the end of the mining activities, which substantiates the success of global RX algorithm to identify the mining-induced land use and land cover anomalies.

  13. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  14. An overview of potential benefits and limitations of Compressed Air Energy Storage in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyński, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the methods that can solve the problems with intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy sources. The storage is charged by increasing air pressure with the use of electrically driven compressors, which convert the electric energy into potential energy. The pressurized air is stored in compressed air storage volumes (caverns, voids, porous structures etc.) of any kind and can then be released upon demand to generate electricity again by expansion of the air through an air turbine or gas turbine. Limited availability of salt caverns in Europe creates difficulties in the implementation of this concept on larger scale. This paper deals with underground storage part in CAES concept and lists benefits related to the storage of air in abandoned coal mines. Examples of natural gas storage in abandoned coal mines are given and compared with the compressed air storage. The study shows an example of coal mine volume calculation. The non-exhaustive list of problems and solutions associated with this idea is given in order to develop this concept at larger scale.

  15. Hydrology of an abandoned coal-mining area near McCurtain, Haskell County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality was investigated from October 1980 to May 1983 in an area of abandoned coal mines in Haskell county, Oklahoma. Bedrock in the area is shale, siltstone, sandstone, and the McAlester (Stigler) and Hartshorne coals of the McAlester Formation and Hartshorne Sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. The two coal beds, upper and lower Hartshorne, associated with the Hartshorne Sandstone converge or are separated by a few feet or less of bony coal or shale in the McCurtain area. Many small faults cut the Hartshorne coal in all the McCurtain-area mines. The main avenues of water entry to and movement through the bedrock are the exposed bedding-plane openings between layers of sandstone, partings between laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting of the brittle rocks, and openings caused by surface mining--the overburden being shattered and broken to form spoil. Water-table conditions exist in bedrock and spoil in the area. Mine pond water is in direct hydraulic connections with water in the spoil piles and the underlying Hartshorne Sandstone. Sulfate is the best indicator of the presence of coal-mine drainage in both surface and ground water in the Oklahoma coal field. Median sulfate concentrations for four sites on Mule Creek ranged from 26 to 260 milligrams per liter. Median sulfate concentrations increased with increased drainage from unreclaimed mined areas. The median sulfate concentration in Mule Creek where it drains the reclaimed area is less than one-third of that at the next site downstream where the stream begins to drain abandoned (unreclaimed) mine lands. Water from Mule Creek predominantly is a sodium sulfate type. Maximum and median values for specific conductance and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, chloride, dissolved solids, and alkalinity increase as Mule Creek flows downstream and drains increasing areas of abandoned

  16. Methodology for monitoring land reclamation of coal mining dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.; Gil, A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of reclaiming coal mining dumps is to create a stable and self-sustaining land surface that can, in the long term, be put to some productive use. The relationship that is established between the soil and vegetation is the starting point for the newly created ecosystem to enter into a dynamic evolution. In order to know this evolution, it is necessary to develop a methodology for monitoring systematically the reclaimed surfaces. This monitoring methodology should make it feasible to continuously evaluate the obtained results and serve to clarify the potential uses of the reclaimed lands. This paper explains a monitoring methodology implemented at the mining waste dump at the Puentes Mine in Spain. It consists of the selection of 11 plots on the basis of the time the spoils have been exposed to weathering, the type of reconstructed soils, the reclamation system applied, and the revegetation success. Furthermore, an attempt was made to include every possible situation in the dump. Over a period of 3 years, the evolution of the physicochemical conditions of the reconstructed soils, the soil organisms, the herbaceous species, mycorrhizae, tree species, and vertebrates in these plots were studied. The paper also defines the parameters that need to be controlled within each phase of the study. The results obtained reveal the necessity to place the spoils selectively in the dump, the possibilities offered by the ashes as amendments, and the importance of applying organic fertilizers, seeding herbaceous species as a first phase, selecting tree species, and introducing the vertebrates, soil organisms, and mycorrhizae gradually

  17. Use of modflow drain package for simulating inter-basin transfer in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation of groundwater flow in abandoned mines is difficult, especially where flux to and from mines is unknown or poorly quantified, and inter-basin transfer of groundwater occurs. A 3-year study was conducted in the Elkhorn area, West Virginia to better understand groundwater-flow processes and inter-basin transfer in above drainage abandoned coal mines. The study area was specifically selected, as all mines are located above the elevation of tributary receiving streams, to allow accurate measurements of discharge from mine portals and tributaries for groundwater model calibration. Abandoned mine workings were simulated in several ways, initially as a layer of high hydraulic conductivity bounded by lower permeability rock in adjacent strata, and secondly as rows of higher hydraulic conductivity embedded within a lower hydraulic conductivity coal aquifer matrix. Regardless of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to mine workings, neither approach to simulate mine workings could accurately reproduce the inter-basin transfer of groundwater from adjacent watersheds. To resolve the problem, a third approach was developed. The MODFLOW DRAIN package was used to simulate seepage into and through mine workings discharging water under unconfined conditions to Elkhorn Creek, North Fork, and tributaries of the Bluestone River. Drain nodes were embedded in a matrix of uniform hydraulic conductivity cells that represented the coal mine aquifer. Drain heads were empirically defined from well observations, and elevations were based on structure contours for the Pocahontas No. 3 mine workings. Use of the DRAIN package to simulate mine workings as an internal boundary condition resolved the inter-basin transfer problem, and effectively simulated a shift from a topographic- dominated to a dip-dominated flow system, by dewatering overlying unmined strata and shifting the groundwater drainage divide up dip within the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam several kilometers into the adjacent

  18. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  20. Statistical evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of abandoned underground coal mines around Cannelburg, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical analysis of daily water-level changes in an abandoned coal mine indicates that precipitation affects the potentiometric level of the mine, independent of associated atmospheric pressure changes and changes in the water level of an overlying aquifer. The independent statistical effect of precipitation (0.99 cm of water-level change per centimeter of rainfall) is interpreted to reflect either lateral percolation from the coalbed's subcrop (1.2 km from the mine) or rapid recharge through mine-associated pathways, such as poorly plugged shafts, boreholes, or subsidence fractures. The relationship between water-level changes in the mine's voids and changes in the overlying aquifer is also statistically significant, but the regression coefficient (0.04) is an order of magnitude smaller than that for precipitation, indicating that vertical percolation (which is represented by covariance of the two aquifers) through undisturbed overburden may be less effective than the recharge associated with precipitation that bypasses the overburden. An equivalent analysis of water-level changes in an underlying unmined coalbed indicated that precipitation had a weaker direct effect (regression coefficient of 0.34, compared with 0.99), although it was still the dominant independent variable. In contrast, the effect of water-level changes in an overlying aquifer (the flooded mine itself) was relatively stronger (regression coefficient of 0.15, compared with 0.04), indicating that vertical percolation through interburden is more important at depth. ?? 1993.

  1. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 30 CFR 942.20 - Approval of Tennessee reclamation plan for lands and waters affected by past coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lands and waters affected by past coal mining. 942.20 Section 942.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING... affected by past coal mining. The Tennessee Reclamation Plan, as submitted on March 24, 1982, is approved...

  3. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  4. Groundwater-quality data associated with abandoned underground coal mine aquifers in West Virginia, 1973-2016: Compilation of existing data from multiple sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Mitchell A.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2017-11-14

    This report describes a compilation of existing water-quality data associated with groundwater resources originating from abandoned underground coal mines in West Virginia. Data were compiled from multiple sources for the purpose of understanding the suitability of groundwater from abandoned underground coal mines for public supply, industrial, agricultural, and other uses. This compilation includes data collected for multiple individual studies conducted from July 13, 1973 through September 7, 2016. Analytical methods varied by the time period of data collection and requirements of the independent studies.This project identified 770 water-quality samples from 294 sites that could be attributed to abandoned underground coal mine aquifers originating from multiple coal seams in West Virginia.

  5. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic modelling to simulate groundwater inflow at an abandoned underground coal mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Daehoon; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Dukmin

    2017-04-01

    The safety and environmental concerns should be addressed for sustainable mining operations, and one of the key issues is the prediction of the groundwater flow into underground mine workings. Prediction of the groundwater inflow requires a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other properties of the rockmass, are also provided. Various numerical models have been applied to develop hydrogeologic models at mine sites, and the MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate the groundwater flow related to mining. Mine sealing is one of the usual methods to control mine water at abandoned mines. An experimental program has been undertaken to provide a practical procedure for sealing abandoned coal mines in Korea. Two abandoned coal mines were selected, and extensive geological and geophysical surveys were performed. Field hydraulic tests, such as pumping tests and packer tests, had also been conducted to measure the hydraulic conductivities of the rock mass. In this study, constructing three-dimensional hydrogeologic models of the study area are essential for design and installation of the stable adit-plug system. With the complete 3D model constructed, the rate of mine water rebound after the installation of the adit-plug system can be hypothesized. The maximum water pressure affecting the stability of the plug, and the long-term seepage problems, can also be estimated.

  6. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon storage of the grassland, shrub land and arbor land were

  7. [Effect of soil phenolic acids on soil microbe of coal-mining depressed land after afforestation restoration by different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Yang, Li Xue

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids are one of the most important factors that influence microbial community structure. Investigating the dynamic changes of phenolic acids and their relationship with the microbial community structure in plantation soils with different tree species could contribute to better understanding and revealing the mechanisms of microbial community changes under afforestation restoration in coal-mining subsidence areas. In this study, plantations of three conifer and one deciduous species (Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and Populus ussuriensis) were established on abandoned coal-mining subsidence areas in Baoshan District, Shuangyashan City. The contents of soil phenols, 11 types of phenolic acids, and microbial communities in all plots were determined. The results showed that the contents of soil complex phenol in plantations were significantly higher than that of abandoned land overall. Specifically, soils in larch and poplar plantations had higher contents of complex phenol, while soils in larch and Korean pine plantations had greater contents of total phenol. Moreover, soil in the P. koraiensis plantation had a higher content of water-soluble phenol compared with abandoned lands. The determination of 11 phenolic acids indicated that the contents of ferulic acid, abietic acid, β-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, shikimic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid were higher in plantation soils. Although soil phenol contents were not related with soil microbial biomass, the individual phenolic acids showed a significant relationship with soil microbes. Ferulic acid, abietic acid, and β-sitosterol showed significant promoting effects on soil microbial biomass, and they showed positive correlations with fungi and fungi/bacteria ratio. These three phenolic acids had higher contents in the poplar plantation, suggesting that poplar affo-restation had a beneficial effect on soil quality in coal-mining subsidence areas.

  8. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  9. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be to another small business, and that it will require its sublessors to agree to the same. ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  11. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  12. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  13. Optimisation of reclamation approaches to land affected by surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabrna, M.; Hendrychova, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic); Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Salek, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Rehor, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1950s, reclamation of land affected by brown coal mining in the Czech Republic has been conducted. Since this time, there has been significant improvement in quality development of reclamation measures. This paper discussed the results of different studies where technically reclaimed sites as well as naturally developed sites were investigated. The paper discussed the methodology of the study as well as results of succession versus reclamation and next preferences. One of the studies that was examined involved four groups of animals that have a close relation to soil and plant vegetation. These included ground beetles, bugs, molluscs, and birds. This study found that the spontaneously developed sites could be characterized by the same or a higher biodiversity than those technically reclaimed. The second study examined bird nest preferences either to domestic or to exotic trees. The results showed that although exotic trees dominate on reclaimed sites, the birds preferred the domestic trees for nesting. It was concluded that the natural succession could play a significant role within reclamation practices, particularly on those sites where higher species diversity is desirable. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram, E-mail: sadasivams@cardiff.ac.uk; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-15

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  15. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-01-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  16. Coal mine subsidence and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 10 9 m 2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 10 9 m 2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

  17. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s -1 , with a median of 18.4 L s -1 . The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-μm pore-size filter) SO 4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L -1 ), B ( -1 ), Ge ( -1 ), and As ( -1 ). The most abundant trace metals, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Zn (0.6-10,000), Ni (2.6-3200), Co (0.27-3100), Ti (0.65-28), Cu (0.4-190), Cr ( -1 in 97% of the samples, with a maximum of 0.0175 μg L -1 . No samples had detectable concentrations of Hg, Os or Pt, and less than half of the samples had detectable Pd, Ag, Ru, Ta, Nb, Re or Sn. Predominant rare-earth elements, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Y (0.11-530), Ce (0.01-370), Sc (1.0-36), Nd (0.006-260), La (0.005-140), Gd (0.005-110), Dy (0.002-99) and Sm ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of

  18. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  19. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  20. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  1. Hydrologic and geochemical factors governing chemical evolution of discharges from an abandoned, flooded, underground coal mine network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, K.M.; Lambert, D.C.; Mugunthan, P.; Dzombak, D.A. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (US). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2005-04-01

    Discharges from some underground flooded coal mines have exhibited increases in pH and reductions in contaminant loadings with time. Data from a study of mine water quality evolution in interconnected, flooded mines of the Uniontown syncline, Southwestern Pennsylvania were evaluated with the aid of modeling to elucidate the hydrologic and geochemical factors responsible for such changes. Coal barriers left in place from mining operations define three hydraulically distinct but interconnected zones: the southern, central, and northern pools. Assuming each mine pool to behave as a completely mixed tank reactor, a steady-state, tanks-in-series model was developed to describe system hydraulics. Chemical modeling components were coupled with the tank reactor hydraulic model to simulate inputs to the mine voids, acid generation from pyrite dissolution, and discharge water quality. Empirical in-mine chemical production terms were estimated for each of the mine pools based on discharge data from 1974 to 1975 and 1998 to 2000. The production terms were then used to simulate discharge water quality for each of the mine pools over a 50 year period. Simulated water quality in the northern and central mine pools reached steady-state conditions approximately 25-30 years after the mine pools flooded, evolving over time to reflect the recharge water quality. The simulation results indicate that the evolution of mine water quality in the flooded mine voids has been governed by alkaline recharge water slowly displacing acidic 'first flush' water.

  2. Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km

  3. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  5. Grazing Pressure of Cattle on Mixed Pastures at Coal Mine Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Daru

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the grazing pressure in mix pasture of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens and puero (Pueraria phaseoloides at coal mining reclamation. The experiment was arranged by randomized block design consisted of 5 stocking rate treatments, those were 12.56, 19.63, 28.26, 38.47, and 50.24 m2.animal-1.d-1 which were equal to length of tether rope of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 m, respectively. The rotation system was applied by modifying the tether. Each rotation period was 30 d of three-rotation period. Result of this experiment showed that average daily gain (ADG was different (P<0.05 with different grazing pressure. Highest total gain has achieved at length of tether rope 2.0 m or grazing area 12.56 m2.animal-1.d-1 and decreased linearly with increasing length of rope from 254.29 to 100.17 kg.ha-1. Maximum dry matter consumption was achieved at length of tether rope of 3.32 m or grazing area 34.61 m2.animal-1.d-1. Average dry matter yield in this experiment was 235.39 g.m-2.d-1 or 2.35 ton.ha-1.mo-1. Botanical composition of signal grass, puero, and weeds before and after grazing was change with grazing pressure.

  6. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  7. Measurement of quantitative species diversity on reclaimed coal mine lands: A brief overview of the Wyoming regulatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The Wyoming Land Quality Division (LQD) Coal Rules and Regulations require mine operators to specify quantitative procedures for evaluating postmining species diversity and composition. Currently, permit commitments range from deferring to commit to a quantitative procedure until some future date to applying various similarity/diversity indices for comparison of reclaimed lands to native vegetation communities. Therefore, the LQD began trying to develop a standardized procedure to evaluate species diversity and composition, while providing operator flexibility. Review of several technical publications on the use of similarity and diversity indices, and other measurement techniques indicate that a consensus has not been reached on which procedure is most appropriate for use on reclaimed mine lands. In addition, implementation of many of the recommended procedures are not practical with regards to staff and data limitations. As a result, the LQD has developed an interim procedure, based on site-specific baseline data, to evaluate postmining species diversity and composition success with respect to bond release requests. This paper reviews many of the recommended procedures, outlines some of the pros and cons, and provides a specific example of how the proposed interim procedure was applied to an actual coal mine permit. Implementation of this or a similar procedure would allow for site-specific standardization of permits and regulatory requirements, thus reducing review time and reducing some of the subjectivity surrounding a component of the Wyoming bond release requirements

  8. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  9. Use of Strontium Isotopes to Quantify Interaction of Water With Coal Combustion Byproducts in an Abandoned, Partially Grouted Coal Mine, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, B. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Kim, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia, was actively mined until the late 1980s. Subsequently, water filled the mine void and acid discharges developed along the mine perimeter. The mine was partially grouted in 1998 by injecting coal combustion byproducts (CCB) mixed with cement in an attempt to reduce the acid discharge and stabilize the ground surface. Discharge continued after grouting, including from the grouted portions of the mine. In this study, discharge chemistry and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CCB material used to grout the abandoned mine. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. In general, the major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include potassium and arsenic, both of which were elevated in the waters that interacted with CCB grout. In contrast, strontium isotope ratios were capable of delineating discharges that were clearly from grouted portions of the mine vs. those that were derived from non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7151 to 0.7159, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.7140 to 0.7146. The water treatment system inlet, which receives both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotope ratios. Leaching experiments on CCB grout, coal, and surrounding floor and roof rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their strontium from the CCB grout material, suggesting that leaching of CCB is a significant contributor to discharge chemistry.

  10. Coal Mining and Coal Seam Gas on Gomeroi country: Sacred lands, economic futures and shifting alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    North western NSW has seen a host of interest groups working in alliance opposing coal and coal seam gas mining. These groups - farmers, residents and environmentalists share concerns about the impact on the unique black soil and aquifer, of fossil fuel more broadly. While these shared alliances across class, gender and generations are emergent, Aboriginal citizens are uniquely placed in this contest over land, environment and resources. This paper sets out to show the historical and contemporary significance of the place of Aboriginal people in the debate over land use, arguing that, for the first time in history, Aboriginal worlds are central to community futures. In this space, new relationships are being forged and new discourse is required to comprehend the complex position Aboriginal citizens have as custodians of place and at the same time, the responsibility to provide for families and communities, otherwise excluded from the prevailing modern economy. With reference to the history of both relationship to land and land usage over Gomeroi country, and drawing on ethnographic along with archival research, this article seeks to contribute to a critical understanding of Aboriginal people's dealings in relation to their land, their cultural and economic interests with in an emerging regional coal economy, and in turn how they are redefining the context for energy resource extraction, and energy policy. - Highlights: • Aboriginal worlds are central to community futures in Australia. • Prospecting for coal and coal seam gas is forcing Aboriginal land holders into new relationships. • The nexus between the coal economy & Aboriginal self-determination is deeply contested. • New discourses are emerging to comprehend the custodianship of place in the context of mining.

  11. Land reclamation in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines and its effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixta, J.

    1991-01-01

    Land reclamation actually begins the moment the opening of a new mine is planned. The following basic characteristics of the future landscape are decided on: the shape and size of outer waste dumps, location, shape and size of the remaining pit, ground modeling with respect to the airing of the territory and outflow of surface waters, and balance and exploitation of earth that can be made into arable land as well as of other resources. The success of the further use of the territory primarily depends on the mining-technical stage of the land reclamation activity. The biotechnical stage begins after closing the mine. This stage includes the supply of topsoil, a special 5-8 year sowing procedure, planting, etc. The post-reclamation stage, whose aim it is to sustain the desired pedogenetic development, is provided by the subsequent users of the reclaimed plots. The reclamation costs are included in the current mining costs. A detailed discussion is devoted to the economic and legal aspects of the future of reclamation activities. (M.D.). 2 tabs

  12. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  13. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD at or near the sites of the three largest mine springs is geochemically feasible based on alkalinity addition rates and increased pH determined by cubitainer experiments and geochemical mixing experiments using the computer model PHREEQCI. Alkalinity values for seven cubitainer experiments conducted to simulate anoxic treatment options exceeded the targeted value for alkalinity [90 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3)] specified in Missouri's Total Maximum Daily Load program by 18 percent or more, but maximum pH values were

  14. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Gu, H.

    1995-01-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Effects of historical coal mining and drainage from abandoned mines on streamflow and water quality in Bear Creek, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania-March 1999-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 years of anthracite coal mining has changed surface- and ground-water hydrology and contaminated streams draining the Southern Anthracite Coal Field in east-central Pennsylvania. Bear Creek drains the western prong of the Southern Anthracite Coal Field and is affected by metals in drainage from abandoned mines and streamwater losses. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) developed for dissolved iron of about 5 lb/d (pounds per day) commonly are exceeded in the reach downstream of mine discharges. Restoration of Bear Creek using aerobic ponds to passively remove iron in abandoned mine drainage is under consideration (2004) by the Dauphin County Conservation District. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Dauphin County Conservation District, evaluates chemical and hydrologic data collected in Bear Creek and its receiving waters prior to implementation of mine-drainage treatment. The data collected represent the type of baseline information needed for documentation of water-quality changes following passive treatment of mine drainage in Pennsylvania and in other similar hydrogeologic settings. Seven surface-water sites on Bear Creek and two mine discharges were monitored for nearly three years to characterize the chemistry and hydrology of the following: (1) Bear Creek upstream of the mine discharges (BC-UMD), (2) water draining from the Lykens-Williamstown Mine Pool at the Lykens Water-Level Tunnel (LWLT) and Lykens Drift (LD) discharges, (3) Bear Creek after mixing with the mine discharges (BC-DMD), and (4) Bear Creek prior to mixing with Wiconisco Creek (BCM). Two sites on Wiconisco Creek, upstream and downstream of Bear Creek (WC-UBC and WC-DBC, respectively), were selected to evaluate changes in streamflow and water quality upon mixing with Bear Creek. During periods of below-normal precipitation, streamwater loss was commonly 100 percent upstream of site BC-UMD (streamflow range = 0 to 9.7 ft3/s (cubic feet per second)) but no loss was detected

  16. Soil Metals and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with American Chestnut Hybrids as Reclamation Trees on Formerly Coal Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bauman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid chestnut (Castanea dentata × C. mollissima has the potential to provide a valuable agroforestry crop on formerly coal mined landscapes. However, the soil interactions of mycorrhizal fungi and buried metals associated with mining are not known. This study examined soil, plant tissue, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM root colonization on eight-year-old hybrid (BC1F3 and BC2F3 and American chestnuts on a reclaimed coal mine in Ohio, USA. Chestnut trees were measured and ECM colonization on roots was quantified. Leaves, flowers, and soil were analyzed for heavy metals. Differences were not detected among tree types regarding metal accumulation in plant tissue or ECM colonization. BC2F3 hybrids had greater survival and less cankers than American chestnuts (P = 0.006 and <0.0001. Taller trees were associated with greater ECM root colonization and correlated with an increase in Al uptake (P = 0.02 and 0.01. When comparing tissue, manganese and aluminum were in higher concentrations in leaves than flowers, where copper and selenium were significantly higher in floral tissue (P < 0.05. All trees were flowering at this time meriting further examination in nut tissue. Block effects for selenium and zinc indicate the variability in reclaimed soils requiring further monitoring for possible elemental transfer to nut and wood tissue.

  17. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  18. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  19. Influence of water chemistry on the distribution of an acidophilic protozoan in an acid mine drainage system at the abandoned Green Valley coal mine, Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A.; Hasiotis, S.T. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography Geology & Anthropology

    2001-07-01

    Euglena mutabilis, a benthic photosynthetic protozoan that intracellularly sequesters Fe, is variably abundant in the main effluent channel that contains acid mine drainage (AMD) discharging from the Green Valley coal mine site in western Indiana. Samples of effluent (pH 3.0-4.6) taken from the main channel and samples of contaminated stream water (pH 3.3 to 8.0) collected from an adjacent stream were analyzed to evaluate the influence of water chemistry on E. mutabilis distribution. E. mutabilis communities were restricted to areas containing unmixed effluent with the thickest (up to 3 mm) benthic communities residing in effluent containing high concentrations of total Fe (up to 12110 mg/l), SO{sub 4}(up to 2940 mg/l), Al (up to 1846 mg/l), and Cl (up to 629 mg/l). Communities were also present, but much less abundant, in areas with effluent containing lower concentrations of these same constituents. In effluent where SO{sub 4} was most highly concentrated, E. mutabilis was largely absent, suggesting that extremely high concentrations of SO{sub 4} may have an adverse effect on this potentially beneficial Fe-mediating, acidophilic protozoan.

  20. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  1. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  2. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  3. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, C.M.; Kelafant, J.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Manger, K.C.; Kruger, D.

    1990-09-01

    The report estimates global methane emissions from coal mining on a country specific basis, evaluates the technologies available to degasify coal seams and assesses the economics of recovering methane liberated during mining. 33 to 64 million tonnes were liberated in 1987 from coal mining, 75 per cent of which came from China, the USSR, Poland and the USA. Methane emissions from coal mining are likely to increase. Emission levels vary between surface and underground mines. The methane currently removed from underground mines for safety reasons could be used in a number of ways, which may be economically attractive. 55 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs

  4. Recycling the slagheap of an old coal mine (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmane, Y.; Alaoui, A.; Kitane, S.; Bennajah, M.; Daramy, A.; Cherkaoui, M. [ENIM, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-06-15

    A slagheap of the Jarada coal mine (Morocco) was recycled using the following ore processing operations: sifting, gravimetry and flotation. This abandoned coal mine has greatly evolved over the years. The oxidation of its pyrite content is the most remarkable change. The only remains are iron oxides which are concentrated within the fine particles of the slagheap. This study shows that the recovery efficiency of iron(III) oxide depends on the particle size, pH and the collector concentration. When recycled under optimum conditions, a commercial product containing 35% iron(III) oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in paint and enamelling was obtained.

  5. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems associated with the prediction of levels of methane emission from underground and surface coal mines. Current knowledge of coal mining emissions sources is outlined. On the basis of this information the methodology proposed by the IPCC/OECD Programme on National Inventories is critically examined and alternatives considered. Finally, the technical options for emissions control are examined together with their feasibility. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several

  7. Effects of Historical Coal Mining and Drainage from Abandoned Mines on Streamflow and Water Quality in Newport and Nanticoke Creeks, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Weitzel, Jeffrey B.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    This report characterizes the effects of historical mining and abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streamflow and water quality and evaluates potential strategies for AMD abatement in the 14-square-mile Newport Creek Basin and 7.6-square-mile Nanticoke Creek Basin. Both basins are mostly within the Northern Anthracite Coal Field and drain to the Susquehanna River in central Luzerne County, Pa. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Earth Conservancy, conducted an assessment from April 1999 to September 2000 that included (1) continuous stage measurement at 7 sites; (2) synoptic water-quality and flow sampling at 21 sites on June 2-4, 1999, and at 24 sites on October 7-8, 1999; and (3) periodic measurement of flow and water quality at 26 additional sites not included in the synoptic sampling effort. Stream water and surface runoff from the unmined uplands drain northward to the valley, where most of the water is intercepted and diverted into abandoned underground mines. Water that infiltrates into the mine workings becomes loaded with acidity, metals, and sulfate and later discharges as AMD at topographically low points along lower reaches of Newport Creek, Nanticoke Creek, and their tributaries. Differences among streamflows in unmined and mined areas of the watersheds indicated that (1) intermediate stream reaches within the mined area but upgradient of AMD sites generally were either dry or losing reaches, (2) ground water flowing to AMD sites could cross beneath surface-drainage divides, and (3) AMD discharging to the lower stream reaches restored volumes lost in the upstream reaches. The synoptic data for June and October 1999, along with continuous stage data during the study period, indicated flows during synoptic surveys were comparable to average values. The headwaters upstream of the mined area generally were oxygenated (dissolved oxygen range was 4.7 to 11.0 mg/L [milligrams per liter]), near-neutral (pH range was 5.8 to 7.6), and net

  8. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  9. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations...) Indirect financial interest in underground or surface coal mining operations means the same financial... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal...

  10. Safety Research and Experimental Coal Mines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Safety Research and Experimental Coal MinesLocation: Pittsburgh SiteThe Safety Research Coal Mine and Experimental Mine complex is a multi-purpose underground mine...

  11. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  12. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site

  13. Vegetation development and native species establishment in reclaimed coal mine lands in Alberta : directions for reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a study undertaken to evaluate reclamation vegetation at Coal Valley Mine in Alberta with respect to expected vegetation changes over time, establishing a successional model of vegetation development, and factors contributing to the observed patterns. Most of the expected vegetation trends were evident, including lower grass cover and height, lower legume cover, a higher degree of native plant species richness, and the establishment of woody species. Four vegetation communities (2 graminoid-dominated and 2 conifer-dominated) were identified in the study, for which a possible successional model was constructed. Vegetation dynamics for agronomic grasses, legumes, and tree cover were discussed. Areas with Lodgepole Pine were found to have higher species richness and cover. Concerns were raised that the identified trends may not in fact supply the expected opportunities for native species establishment. In order to facilitate the establishment of native species and better manage reclamation vegetation development, the author recommended that a conifer overstory be established to increase native richness and native cover, and that more appropriate seeding mixes be developed as certain agronomic species are detrimental to long-term goals. The author also recommended that site-specific seed mixes be developed according to end land-use goals, that a planting program for native plants and shrubs be developed, and that a monitoring program be established to better inform future reclamation efforts. The recommendations were designed to bring reclamation efforts into line with reclamation goals. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Was abandonment of the review clause a mistake? Evaluation of management flexibility in the German coal mining industry on the basis of real options; War die Aufgabe der Revisionsklausel ein Fehler? Beurteilung unternehmerischer Flexibilitaet im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau auf Basis von Realoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendiek, Ansgar [Hochtief Concessions AG, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The author analyses the decision to abandon the co called ''review clause'' (which was the right to revisit the decision to close German hard coal mines in 2012), and thus management flexibility on the basis of the option price theory and use of hedging instruments (derivatives) in coal trading. Only the case of coal production without any subsidies will be taken into account. The original intention of the review clause to subsidise coal production for further years will be left aside. Abandonment of the review clause destroyed a value of the real option of approx. 819 Mio. EUR. It should be agreed with the politicians that the decision concerning potential extension of coal production without subsidies should be made at the end of 2015. At this point in time the coal price for 2019 to 2021 can be locked in by forward contracts. A prerequisite for coal mining without subsidies would be an increase in the coal price of 3.1% p.a., which is only slightly above the inflation rate and seems to be realistic against the background of rising oil prices and increased scarcity of natural resources. (orig.)

  15. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 879.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition. (a) We may acquire land adversely affected by past coal mining...

  16. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  17. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  18. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Arif Setiawan; Dedik Budianta; Dwi Putro Priadi; Suheryanto

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust parti...

  19. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ..., General Reclamation Requirements; Part 876, Acid Mine Drainage Treatment and Abatement Program; Part 879... fires, subsidence, water loss, dangerous impoundments, abandoned structures/equipment, open mine portals... [SATS NO. TN-001-FOR; OSM 2011-0010] Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program AGENCY: Office of Surface...

  20. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  1. Environmental protection during coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, N.G.; Vavilin, V.P.; Reznikov, I.G.; Perel' , Eh.P.; Kirilenko, V.M.

    1983-03-01

    The paper evaluates effects of surfactants used in underground coal mining for dust suppression on efficiency of water treatment and on mine water pollution. Two surfactant types are compared: conventional surfactants such as BD, OP-7 or OP-10 and a new generation of soft surfactants which do not have a negative influence on water treatment systems (active sludge, nitrification process, etc.). The results of tests carried out by the KGMI Institute and the VNIIPAV Institute are discussed. About 100 surfactants of both types were evaluated. Coal samples of the following coal types were used: PZh, Zh, G, K, A, T and D coal. Coal samples with grain size from 0.315 mm to 0.4 mm were wet by surfactant solutions in water. The following surfactant concentrations were used: 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 g/l. Fresh water and mine water with increased mineral content was used. Selected results of the experiments aimed at determining the optimum surfactants for use in underground coal mining are shown in a table. The following surfactants are described: secondary alkyl sulfates (of the 'Progress' type), diethanolamides, monoethanolamides, alkyl sulfonates, Avirol', Savo, Sintanol DC-10, etc.

  2. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West, 122... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land...

  3. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine rescue...

  4. Hazard mitigation in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, R. V.; Devalal, Shilpa; Jacob, Anjali; Vidhyapathi, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    Today’s world witnesses increased number of mine accidents caused due to explosion and fire. When the methane gas concentration goes high, it causes fire leading to explosion. In this paper, an IoT based system is proposed to ensure safety to the mine workers in underground collieries. The proposed system consists of DHT-11 sensor to monitor the temperature and humidity of coal mines. When the gas sensor detects high methane gas level, blower is activated so that the atmospheric air can be pumped in from outside to dilute the gas concentration. The smoke sensor is also used to detect the fire. In case of any abnormality in any of these parameters the buzzer sounds. All these parameters are uploaded to the cloud directly so that the people at the control station can be well informed of the underground mines.

  5. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  6. Fibre Optics In Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    1984-08-01

    Coal mines have a number of unique problems which affect the use of fibre optic technology. These include a potentially explosive atmosphere due to the evolution of methane from coal, and a dirty environment with no cleaning facilities readily available. Equipment being developed by MRDE to allow the exploitation of optical fibres underground includes: A hybrid electrical/fibre optic connector for the flexible power trailing cable of the coal-face shearer; An Intrinsically Safe (IS) pulsed laser transmitter using Frequency Shift Key (FSK) data modulation; An IS Avalanche Photo Diode Receiver suitable for pulsed & continuous wave optical signals; A mine shaft and roadway cable/ connector system incorporating low loss butt-splices and preterminated demountable connectors.

  7. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  8. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  9. Description of the physical environment an coal-mining history of West-Central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Renn, Danny E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the physical and human environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds selected for study of the hydrologic effects of surface coal mining. The report summarizes information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal-mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana. Site-specific information is given on the morphology, geology, soils, land use, coal-mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds, which are each less than 3 square miles in area.

  10. Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Dekker, S.C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web

  11. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  12. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  13. Methane Content Estimation in DuongHuy Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thinh; Mijał, Waldemar; Dang, Vu Chi; Nguyen, Thi Tuyet Mai

    2018-03-01

    Methane hazard has always been considered for underground coal mining as it can lead to methane explosion. In Quang Ninh province, several coal mines such as Mạo Khe coal mine, Khe Cham coal mine, especially Duong Huy mine that have high methane content. Experimental data to examine contents of methane bearing coal seams at different depths are not similar in Duong coal mine. In order to ensure safety, this report has been undertaken to determine a pattern of changing methane contents of coal seams at different exploitation depths in Duong Huy underground coal mine.

  14. GIS-BASED EVALUATION AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL SITUATION IN THE COAL MINING AREAS WITH A CRITICAL TECHNOGENIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Pyankov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the features of the creation of the basin GIS, developed to support the environmental monitoring, assessment and forecasting of negative consequences in the areas of technogenic disaster (on the example of abandoned Kizel coal basin, located in Perm Region, Russia. The world experience of applying GIS-technologies for solving environmental problems of coal-mining regions is also being discussed. The information basis and structure of the cartographic and attributive database of the Kizel coal basin GIS are presented. The main tasks of creating the GIS, including inventory of man-made impact sources, identification of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of pollutants, quantification and mapping of the territory ecological status, forecasting of the environmental situation and planning of environmental measures have been identified. A system of spatial criteria for the integrated assessment of the territory ecological status within coal basins is proposed, which will allow monitoring of environmental changes and identifying areas with the critical environmental situation. These criteria include the pH value and the sulfates concentration in the streams, the complex of heavy metals, the species composition of microorganisms in surface waters, the area of degraded land and dead forest stands. The degree of negative impact of the abandoned coal mines on streams and groundwater is described, and the priority pollutants are identified.The estimates of the extent of contaminated streams, as well as areas of potential contamination of floodplain lands have been obtained using LANDSAT satellite imagery data. The significance of the creation of the algorithms for the integration of heterogeneous spatial information (ground-based and remote sensing observations for compiling synthetic maps that objectively estimate the ecological situation has been noted. 

  15. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  16. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  17. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  18. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  19. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated by...

  20. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  1. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  2. General mortality patterns in appalachian coal-mining and non-coal-mining counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanich, Jeanine M; Balmert, Lauren C; Youk, Ada O; Woolley, Shannon M; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether mortality disparities in Appalachia are due to coal mining or other factors. Unadjusted and covariate adjusted rate ratio models calculated total, all external, and all cancer mortality rates from 1960 to 2009 for cumulative total, surface, and underground coal production in coal-mining counties compared with non-coal-mining counties. No coal-related statistically significant elevations in total or all external mortality were found. Control for covariates attenuated rate ratios for all levels of coal mining. All forms of coal were statistically significant in the adjusted rate ratio models for all cancer mortality, with 4% to 6% excesses in the highest quartiles of production. Total and all external mortalities do not seem to be related to coal production in Appalachia, but all cancer mortality should be further examined. Additional causes of death should also be considered.

  3. Coal Mining Technology, An Innovative Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabash Valley Coll., Mt. Carmel, IL.

    Described in detail in this report are the processes and procedures involved in the development of a State funded curriculum and program for a new emerging technology, in this instance a Coal Mining Technology Program, to be taught at Wabash Valley College in Illinois. The document provides a step-by-step account of the determination of need,…

  4. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  5. Application of Coal Ash to Postmine Land for Prevention of Soil Erosion in Coal Mine in Indonesia: Utilization of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of coal-fired power plants with the increase in coal production and its consumption has caused the problem of the treatment of a large amount of coal ash in Indonesia. In the past studies, coal ash was applied to postmine land with the aim of improving soil conditions for plant growth; however, heavy rain in the tropical climate may cause soil erosion with the change in soil conditions. This study presents the effects of application of coal ash to postmine land on soil erosion by performing the artificial rainfall test as well as physical testing. The results indicate that the risk of soil erosion can be reduced significantly by applying the coal ash which consists of more than 85% of sand to topsoil in the postmine land at the mixing ratio of over 30%. Additionally, they reveal that not only fine fractions but also microporous structures in coal ash enhance water retention capacity by retaining water in the structure, leading to the prevention of soil erosion. Thus, the risk of soil erosion can be reduced by applying coal ash to topsoil in consideration of soil composition and microporous structure of coal ash.

  6. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  7. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  8. Monitoring coal mine changes and their impact on landscape patterns in an alpine region: a case study of the Muli coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dawen; Yan, Changzhen; Xing, Zanpin; Xiu, Lina

    2017-10-14

    The Muli coal mine is the largest open-cast coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and it consists of two independent mining sites named Juhugeng and Jiangcang. It has received much attention due to the ecological problems caused by rapid expansion in recent years. The objective of this paper was to monitor the mining area and its surrounding land cover over the period 1976-2016 utilizing Landsat images, and the network structure of land cover changes was determined to visualize the relationships and pattern of the mining-induced land cover changes. In addition, the responses of the surrounding landscape pattern were analysed by constructing gradient transects. The results show that the mining area was increasing in size, especially after 2000 (increased by 71.68 km 2 ), and this caused shrinkage of the surrounding lands, including alpine meadow wetland (53.44 km 2 ), alpine meadow (6.28 km 2 ) and water (6.24 km 2 ). The network structure of the mining area revealed the changes in lands surrounding the mining area. The impact of mining development on landscape patterns was mainly distributed within a range of 1-6 km. Alpine meadow wetland was most affected in Juhugeng, while alpine meadow was most affected in Jiangcang. The results of this study provide a reference for the ecological assessment and restoration of the Muli coal mine land.

  9. Methodology of Estimation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Based on a literature review concerning methane emissions in Poland, it was stated in 2009 that the National Greenhouse Inventory 2007 [13] was published. It was prepared firstly to meet Poland's obligations resulting from point 3.1 Decision no. 280/2004/WE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004, concerning a mechanism for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol and secondly, for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol. The National Greenhouse Inventory states that there are no detailed data concerning methane emissions in collieries in the Polish mining industry. That is why the methane emission in the methane coal mines of Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe - GZW (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) in Poland was meticulously studied and evaluated. The applied methodology for estimating methane emission from the GZW coal mining system was used for the four basic sources of its emission. Methane emission during the mining and post-mining process. Such an approach resulted from the IPCC guidelines of 2006 [10]. Updating the proposed methods (IPCC2006) of estimating the methane emissions of hard coal mines (active and abandoned ones) in Poland, assumes that the methane emission factor (EF) is calculated based on methane coal mine output and actual values of absolute methane content. The result of verifying the method of estimating methane emission during the mining process for Polish coal mines is the equation of methane emission factor EF.

  10. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  12. Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, A.; Ilic, Z.; Deljkic, D.; Adrovic, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify potential exposure of the workers in the coal mine Tusnica. The results of the investigation showed increased activity of brown coal up to 1060±88 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 976±30 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra and 118±31 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th. Dose rate measurements ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 μSv h -1 . The annual effective dose, taking into account external exposure to ambient gamma radiation and internal exposure due to inhalation of the resuspended dust, would be 1.6 mSv a -1 . The results presented lead to the conclusion that Tusnica coal mine contains brown coal with significant radioactivity, indicating that the working hours in the area should be regulated and the use of respiratory protective equipment is obligatory. (authors)

  13. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  14. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  15. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P; Strager, Jacquelyn M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Dunscomb, Judy K; Kreps, Brad J; Maxwell, Aaron E

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  16. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  17. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  18. Land abandonment, landscape, and biodiversity: questioning the restorative character of the forest transition in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Otero; Joan Marull; Enric Tello; Giovanna L. Diana; Manel Pons; Francesc Coll; Martí Boada

    2015-01-01

    The effects of land abandonment on biodiversity have received considerable attention by scholars, but results are far from conclusive. Different cultural traditions of scientists seem to underlie the contrasting ways in which land abandonment is understood. Although the forest transition (FT) framework considers land abandonment as an opportunity for biodiversity conservation, European landscape ecologists characterize it as a threat. We use insights from both traditions to analyze the effect...

  19. Identification of vulnerable areas for gully erosion under different scenarios of land abandonment in Southeast Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Global Change Commission,

    2006-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land is the result of interacting processes of global change and human behaviour. Due to changing European policies, urbanisation, desertification and climate change land abandonment has become one of the main changes in land use in Mediterranean countries. The

  20. A novel method for estimating methane emissions from underground coal mines: The Yanma coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Min; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Pan, Jie-Nan; Niu, Qing-He

    2017-12-01

    As the world's largest coal producer and consumer, China accounts for a relatively high proportion of methane emissions from coal mines. Several estimation methods had been established for the coal mine methane (CMM) emission. However, with large regional differences, various reservoir formation types of coalbed methane (CBM) and due to the complicated geological conditions in China, these methods may be deficient or unsuitable for all the mining areas (e.g. Jiaozuo mining area). By combing the CMM emission characteristics and considering the actual situation of methane emissions from underground coal mine, we found that the methane pre-drainage is a crucial reason creating inaccurate evaluating results for most estimation methods. What makes it so essential is the extensive pre-drainage quantity and its irrelevance with annual coal production. Accordingly, the methane releases were divided into two categories: methane pre-drainage and methane release during mining. On this basis, a pioneering method for estimating CMM emissions was proposed. Taking the Yanma coal mine in the Jiaozuo mining area as a study case, the evaluation method of the pre-drainage methane quantity was established after the correlation analysis between the pre-drainage rate and time. Thereafter, the mining activity influence factor (MAIF) was first introduced to reflect the methane release from the coal and rock seams around where affected by mining activity, and the buried depth was adopted as the predictor of the estimation for future methane emissions. It was verified in the six coal mines of Jiaozuo coalfield (2011) that the new estimation method has the minimum errors of 12.11%, 9.23%, 5.77%, -5.20%, -8.75% and 4.92% respectively comparing with other methods. This paper gives a further insight and proposes a more accurate evaluation method for the CMM emissions, especially for the coal seams with low permeability and strong tectonic deformation in methane outburst coal mines.

  1. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  2. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [de

  4. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  5. Acid drainage from coal mining: Effect on paddy soil and productivity of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Burhan U; Malang, Akbar; Webster, Richard; Mohapatra, Kamal P; Verma, Bibhash C; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Anup; Islam, Mokidul; Hazarika, Samarendra

    2017-04-01

    Overburden and acid drainage from coal mining is transforming productive agricultural lands to unproductive wasteland in some parts of Northeast India. We have investigated the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on the soil of rice paddy and productivity by comparing them with non-mined land and abandoned paddy fields of Jaintia Hills in Northeast India. Pot experiments with a local rice cultivar (Myngoi) as test crop evaluated biological productivity of the contaminated soil. Contamination from overburden and acid mine drainage acidified the soil by 0.5 pH units, increased the exchangeable Al 3+ content 2-fold and its saturation on clay complexes by 53%. Available sulfur and extractable heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn and Cu increased several-fold in excess of critical limits, while the availability of phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents diminished by 32-62%. The grain yield of rice was 62% less from fields contaminated with acid mine drainage than from fields that have not suffered. Similarly, the amounts of vegetation, i.e. shoots and roots, in pots filled with soil from fields that received acid mine drainage were 59-68% less than from uncontaminated land (average shoot weight: 7.9±2.12gpot -1 ; average root weight: 3.40±1.15gpot -1 ). Paddy fields recovered some of their productivity 4years after mining ceased. Step-wise multiple regression analysis affirmed that shoot weight in the pots and grain yield in field were significantly (p<0.01) and positively influenced by the soil's pH and its contents of K, N and Zn, while concentration of S in excess of threshold limits in contaminated soil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the weight of shoots in the pots and grain yield in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Burnout in Chinese coal mine safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Feiyu; Zhu, Dandan; Qi, Hui; Long, Ruyin

    2015-01-01

    This study examines commonly-suffered job burnout as it relates to the practice of safety supervision in Chinese coal mine enterprises. Commonly-suffered job burnout is a form of job burnout caused by external factors. It is closely related to task characteristics rather than individual idiosyncrasies. To explore the causes of commonly-suffered job burnout, the special attributes (the integrated output attributes, conditional output attributes, and public goods attributes) of coal mine safety output and the inevitability of the invalidation of the bounded authority in safety supervision were analyzed in this study, which reveals the formation mechanism of commonly-suffered job burnout. Moreover, a confirmatory game model was constructed to analyze how the attributes of the safety output and bounded authority of safety supervision act on the safety output. The theoretical connotation of commonly-suffered job burnout was explained based on the job demands-resources theory. A comparative analysis of commonly-suffered job burnout and the job burnout that occurs in the traditional research object was also undertaken from the viewpoint of the job demands, which are determined by the characteristics of the work task and their corresponding coping resources. Policy suggestions were given based on interventions in commonly-suffered job burnout. -- Highlights: •We discuss commonly-suffered job burnout in Chinese coal enterprises. •We analyze the special attributes of coal mine safety output. •We explore two main causes of commonly-suffered job burnout. •We construct a game model to validate how the two causes act on safety output. •We put forward related policy suggestions

  7. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  8. Ecoenvironment characteristics of subsidence lakes in coal mine areas and ways to harness them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Zhengfu; Zhang Guoliang; Lin Jiacong

    1994-01-01

    With the increase in coal output, the environment in coal mine areas, especially land destruction, has become increasingly worse. A main form of land destruction is subsidence lakes, which have disrupted people's lives and coal production and which change the ecological system of mine areas into water-land type or aquatic system. Two conditions forming subsidence lakes are surface subsidence and high phreatic level. The ratio of waterlogging in China's eastern coal mine areas is higher than that of other areas because of high phreatic level, and eastern mine areas are agriculture-based at the same time. It is a fact that the structure and function of an ecological system after mining is different from that before mining. It is not a good way to resume the original structure and function of the ecological system. Therefore, before harnessing subsidence lakes, it is necessary that their ecoenvironment characteristics be investigated thoroughly, then new structure and function of ecology affected by coal mining and ways to harness subsidence lakes are posed. These ways include: subsidence lakes used as fly ash, coal waste and other wastes deposit, land reclamation by raising the shallow land with digging the deep, recreating new aquatic ecosystem, etc

  9. ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Country-specific emissions of methane (CH4) from underground coal mines, surface coal mines, and coal crushing and transport operations are estimated for 1989. Emissions for individual countries are estimated by using two sets of regression equations (R2 values range from 0.56 to...

  10. R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joe G.

    This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of…

  11. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify the...

  12. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small coal...

  13. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large coal...

  14. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those bituminous...

  15. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  17. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2017-06-01

    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  18. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  19. The determination of the effects of coal mining on the coastal morphology at Black Sea coasts of Istanbul using Landsat data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maktav, D.; Kapdasli, S.

    1994-01-01

    At some regions of the Black Sea coasts of Istanbul in Turkey, there are a number of coal mining areas. As a result of these mining works, topographical and morphological structure of the land near the coast line has been strongly changed. Moreover, a great amount of earth has been carried into the sea in front of the coast line. The study concerns the attempt to monitor the coal mining effects on the coast line and coastal morphology by using remote sensing technology

  20. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  1. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  2. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luis F.O.; Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de; Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Madariaga, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  3. Technical assessment of subsequent burdens due to hard coal mining; Technische Abschaetzung von Folgelasten des Steinkohlenbergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preusse, A.; Kraemer, J. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen, Bergschadenkunde und Geophysik im Bergbau; Sroka, A. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen und Geodaesie

    2007-10-15

    On the basis of a political agreement, the subsidized German hard coal mining will be socially acceptable terminated by end of 2018. In 2012, this decision will be reassessed. Even after the abandonment of all mining activities subsequent burdens are inevitable. In this article, the long-term effects resulting from a mining industry history, which is spanning over more than 200 years, and their possible consequences are pointed out in particular in connection with the economically long-term meaningful cessation of mine dewatering measures. Furthermore, a frame of action within possibly concerned ranges is developed for this case. (orig.)

  4. Mathematical models of gas-dynamic and thermophysical processes in underground coal mining at different stages of mine development

    OpenAIRE

    М. В. Грязев; Н. М. Качурин; С. А. Воробьев

    2017-01-01

    New trends have been traced and the existing ones refined regarding filtration and diffusive motion of gases in coal beds and surrounding rock, spontaneous heating of coal and transport of gas traces by ventilation currents in operating coal mines. Mathematical models of gas-dynamic and thermophysical processes inside underworked territories after mine abandonment have been justified. Mathematical models are given for feasible air feeding of production and development areas, as well as for th...

  5. Underlying drivers and spatial determinants of post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in temperate Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel; Baumann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to understand the underlying drivers and spatial determinants of agricultural land abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent transition from state-command to market-driven economies from 1990 to 2000. We brought an example of agricultural land-use change...... with institutional changes regarding land use. Using spatially explicit logistic regressions, we assessed spatial determinants of agricultural land abandonment. The highest rates of land abandonment from 1990 to 2000 were observed in Russia (31 %), followed by Lithuania (19 %), and Belarus (13...... in one agro-climatic zone stretching across Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Here, we provide an overview of the agricultural changes for the studied countries. We estimated the rates and patterns of agricultural land abandonment based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and linked these data...

  6. Environmental management zoning for coal mining in mainland China based on ecological and resources conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haiqing; Chen, Fan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jie; Xu, Weihua

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish an environmental management zoning for coal mining industry which is served as a basis for making environmental management policies. Based on the specific impacts of coal mining and regional characteristics of environment and resources, the ecological impact, water resources impact, and arable land impact are chose as the zoning indexes to construct the index system. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels of low, medium, and high according to analytical hierarchy processes and gray fixed weight clustering analysis, and the water resources sensitivity is divided into five levels of lower, low, medium, high, and higher according to the weighted sum of sub-indexes, while only the arable land sensitive zone was extracted on the basis of the ratio of arable land to the county or city. By combining the ecological sensitivity zoning and the water resources sensitive zoning and then overlapping the arable-sensitive areas, the mainland China is classified into six types of environmental management zones for coal mining except to the forbidden exploitation areas.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  8. Decontamination of coal mine effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine using phytoremediation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Kalpana C; Lal, B; Banerjee, T K

    2017-06-03

    Toxicity of the effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine complex under the Central Coalfields Limited (CCL, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited) in Jharkhand, India was investigated. The concentrations (mg L -1 ) of all the toxic metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd) in the coal mine effluent were above the safe limit suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2003). Among these, Fe showed the highest concentration (18.21 ± 3.865), while Cr had the lowest effluent concentration (0.15 ± 0.014). Efforts were also made to detoxify the effluent using two species of aquatic macrophytes namely "'Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes." After 10 days of phytoremediation, S. molesta removed Pb (96.96%) > Ni (97.01%) > Cu (96.77%) > Zn (96.38%) > Mn (96.22%) > Fe (94.12%) > Cr (92.85%) > Cd (80.99%), and P. stratiotes removed Pb (96.21%) > Fe (94.34%) > Ni (92.53%) > Mn (85.24%) > Zn (79.51%) > Cr (78.57%) > Cu (74.19%) > Cd (72.72%). The impact of coal mine exposure on chlorophyll content showed a significant decrease of 42.49% and 24.54% from control values in S. molesta and P. stratiotes, respectively, perhaps due to the damage inflicted by the toxic metals, leading to the decay of plant tissues.

  9. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  10. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  11. Analysis of coal mining mechanization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Oak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. The statistics of coal industry are as follows. - The production of 1996 was dropped to 4,952 thousand tonne from 5,719 thousand tonne of 1995. - The overall O.M.S was increased to 1.81 ton per man{center_dot}shift from 1.68 ton of 1995. (author). 10 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  13. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  14. Abandonment landscapes: user attitudes, alternative futures and land management in Castro Laboreiro, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Carvalho-Ribeiro, Sónia M.; Verburg, P.H.

    2018-01-01

    Land abandonment is an important process for the European Union, which primarily occurs in less productive, remote and mountainous areas with unfavourable conditions for agriculture. Future management directions of these abandonment areas are under debate, with increasing calls to adjust policies to

  15. Erosion and terrace failure due to agricultural land abandonment in a semi-arid environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Nieman, T.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is currently widely spread in Mediterranean countries and a further increase is expected. Previous research has shown that abandoned fields in semi-arid areas are more vulnerable to gully erosion. The absence of ploughing and slow vegetation recovery cause the formation

  16. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different

  17. Accidents in Coal Mining from Perspective of Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, E. A.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Smirnov, G. I.

    2017-11-01

    Introduction. The indicators of the safety system quality in the technosphere include risk indicators. The purpose of this work is to assess the social risk of coal mining since coal mining is associated with specific working conditions, and any emergency situation immediately jeopardizes thelives of many people at the same time. Methods. The work is based on the analysis of statistical information. Results and discussion. The F/N curve of coal mining for the 70-year period (1943-2012) was constructed, and the normative values of the social risk of Russia and other industrialized countries were discussed. Judging by the F/N diagram, only the frequency of accidents with a large number of deaths can correspond to the normative level indicating an exceptionally high level of coal mining risk.

  18. Developing a model of strategic management of coal mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova Maria Anatolievna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of strategic management of the companies of ugledo-happening branch reveal, and the model of strategic management of the coal-mining enterprise taking into account their branch specificity is offered to consideration.

  19. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  20. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and subsidence of underground coal mines at Huntsville, Missouri, July 1987 to December 1988. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, D.W.; Ziegler, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal mining in and near Huntsville, in Randolph County in north-central Missouri, began soon after 1831. Mining in the Huntsville area was at its peak during 1903 and continued until 1966 when the last underground mine was closed and the economically recoverable coals under Huntsville had been mostly, if not completely, removed. The now abandoned mines are of concern to the public and to various State and Federal agencies for two reasons: (1) mine drainage acidifies streams and leaves large, soft, dangerous deposits of iron oxyhydroxides at mine springs and on streambeds (data on file at the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Land Reclamation Commission), and (2) collapse of mine cavities sometimes causes surface subsidence resulting in property damage or personal injury. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, in 1987 initiated a study to: determine the location of mine springs, the seasonal variation of stream-water chemistry, and the effects of underground-mine water on flow and water quality of nearby ground water and receiving streams; and identify areas susceptible to surface subsidence because of mine collapse. The purpose of the report is to present the findings and data collected for the study

  1. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability

  2. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  3. Land abandonment, landscape, and biodiversity: questioning the restorative character of the forest transition in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Otero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land abandonment on biodiversity have received considerable attention by scholars, but results are far from conclusive. Different cultural traditions of scientists seem to underlie the contrasting ways in which land abandonment is understood. Although the forest transition (FT framework considers land abandonment as an opportunity for biodiversity conservation, European landscape ecologists characterize it as a threat. We use insights from both traditions to analyze the effects of land abandonment on landscape and biodiversity in a mountain area of metropolitan Barcelona. We do so through an in-depth historical case study covering a period of 160 years. A set of landscape metrics was applied to land-cover maps derived from cadastral cartography to characterize the landscape ecological changes brought about by land abandonment. Cadastral data on land uses were used to understand how landscape ecological changes could be explained by changing socioeconomic activities. Information on past land-management practices from semistructured interviews was used to shed light on how peasants shaped the capacity of landscape to host biodiversity. Our results point to a remarkable landscape deterioration along with the disappearance of the peasant land-use mosaics and the ensuing forest expansion. By using insights from landscape ecology in a historically informed manner, we (1 question the alleged relationship between land abandonment and ecosystem recovery; (2 show that the assumed restorative character of the FT is based on the underestimation of the ecological importance of nonforest habitats; and (3 point at a remarkable trade-off between FT and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. Finally, the case study also serves to illustrate some of the strengths and challenges of using historical approaches to land abandonment.

  4. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, W. Mark; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  5. Coal mine enterprise integration based on strategic alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Sun, J.; Xu, S. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Technology

    2003-07-01

    The relationship between coal mine and related enterprise was analysed. Aiming at the competitive world market as well as the dynamic requirement, a coal mine enterprise integration strategy and a enterprise strategic alliance were proposed for the product providing service business pattern. The modelling method of the enterprise strategic alliance was proposed, including the relationship view model, information view model and business process view model. The idea of enterprise strategic alliance is useful for enterprise integration. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  7. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.; Masto, R.E.; Ram, L.C.; Selvi, V.A.; Srivastava, N.K.; Tripathi, R.C.; George, J. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2009-09-15

    Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil respiration (BSR), and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase). Principal component analysis was employed to derive a rhizosphere soil microbial index (RSMI) and accordingly, dehydrogenase, BSR/MBC, MBC/SOC, EC, phenol oxidase and AMBC were found to be the most critical properties. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into RSMI. The tree species could be arranged in decreasing order of the RSMI as: A. marmelos (0.718), A. indica (0.715), Bauhinia bauhinia (0.693), B. monosperma (0.611), E. jambolana (0.601), Moringa oleifera (0.565), Dalbergia sissoo (0.498), T indica (0.488), Morus alba (0.415), F religiosa (0.291), Eucalyptus sp. (0.232) and T grandis (0.181). It was concluded that tree species in coal mining areas had diverse effects on their respective rhizosphere microbial processes, which could directly or indirectly determine the survival and performance of the planted tree species in degraded coal mining areas. Tree species with higher RSMI values could be recommended for re-vegetation of degraded coal mining area.

  9. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  10. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  11. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  12. An Approach for Understanding and Promoting Coal Mine Safety by Exploring Coal Mine Risk Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capturing the interrelations among risks is essential to thoroughly understand and promote coal mining safety. From this standpoint, 105 risks and 135 interrelations among risks had been identified from 126 typical accidents, which were also the foundation of constructing coal mine risk network (CMRN. Based on the complex network theory and Pajek, six parameters (i.e., network diameter, network density, average path length, degree, betweenness, and clustering coefficient were employed to reveal the topological properties of CMRN. As indicated by the results, CMRN possesses scale-free network property because its cumulative degree distribution obeys power-law distribution. This means that CMRN is robust to random hazard and vulnerable to deliberate attack. CMRN is also a small-world network due to its relatively small average path length as well as high clustering coefficient, implying that accident propagation in CMRN is faster than regular network. Furthermore, the effect of risk control is explored. According to the result, it shows that roof collapse, fire, and gas concentration exceeding limit refer to three most valuable targets for risk control among all the risks. This study will help offer recommendations and proposals for making beforehand strategies that can restrain original risks and reduce accidents.

  13. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  14. Risk of injuries among coal mine workers and its hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Парханьски

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of employment in coal mining, levels of extraction and injuries among the coal mine operators in Poland over a span of time from 1954 through to 2010. The injury indicators, such as the incidence rate, severity and the generalized loss index, have been assessed for a period of coal mining sector restructuring from 1993 to 2010. Diverging trends have been revealed, resulting in a need to extend the time span of the analysis. Analysis of records from 1954 to 2010 has shown a multiple cyclicity of trends of change in the values used to derive coefficients. The definition of the Injury Risk has been justified, along with a new way for its representation and its interpretation as a new method with account of the previous studies. Based on this method the injuries at the coal mines of Poland during a period of their restructuring have been investigated with analyzed database expansion to include records from 1954 to 2010.As a result a new dependency, namely the injury risk hysteresis, has been identified. A proposed new method for assessing the injury risk is universal and can be applied not only to the coal mines, but to any facility of any sector within the country and even at the inter-state level. The method can be used to analyze data on the injury incidence rate per 1000 people and the injury severity rate over any span of time.

  15. Question marks of the Czech coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.; Pesek, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of brown and black coal mining in the Czech Republic is presented, and problems of the extent of coal reserves and of the profitability of deep black coal mining are discussed. Costs of coal mining in foreign countries are given. Coal mining in the Czech Republic can be expected to be loss-making unless coal prices are increased. Since coal resources in the Czech Republic are limited, additional nuclear power plants will have to be constructed or else coal for power generation will have to be imported. The environmental aspects of coal mining and burning are discussed. Medium-term and long-term solutions to reduce the environmental burden include thermal power plant desulfurization, application of the fluidized-bed combustion regime to coals with large ash and/or sulfur contents, and introduction of gas in towns and power plants. In the short run, large-scale consumers in towns and coal basins should be obliged to accumulate reserves of low-sulfur coal for later use. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  16. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  17. Aquatic ecosystems in the coal mining landscape of the upper Olifants River, and the way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available can provide guidance on managing water ecosystems in the future at various stages of mining operations, which include understanding the interface between water ecosystems and coal mining activities, assessing the likelihood of coal mining activities...

  18. The application of geophysics in South African coal mining and exploration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available and miners has resulted in a shift in attitude towards the application of geophysics in local coal mining and exploration. Furthermore, technological advances have contributed to geophysics being embraced more readily by the coal mining industry, compared...

  19. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... restoring land and water resources adversely affected by past mining. This program is funded by a... aside accounts, water supply projects, State share payments, re-mining incentives, and minimum program... Program; Part 879, Management and Disposition of Lands and Water; Part 882, Reclamation on Private Land...

  20. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  1. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  2. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  3. Simulating the Various Subsystems of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Okolnishnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.

  4. Fuzzy risk assessment for mechanized underground coal mines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iphar, Melih; Cukurluoz, Ali Kivanc

    2018-04-11

    The decision matrix method is preferred as a measure of risk evaluation considering the risk value obtained by two risk factors such as the likelihood and severity of a hazard. However, it has some deficiencies since a crisp risk score is assigned for likelihood and severity. In this article, a fuzzy logic-based safety evaluation method to enhance the risk assessment process is introduced to overcome the uncertainties encountered in the classical decision matrix risk assessment method. The proposed method is a more realistic evaluation of the risks which may be available in mechanized coal mines in Turkey. In this way, risky situations and operations in mechanized underground coal mines have been determined by expert knowledge and engineering judgement in linguistic forms. Thus, such an evaluation will be a valuable guide for coal mines in which fully mechanized coal production is expected in the near future.

  5. Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asmarhansyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate   appropriate   land   development measures and amelioration  strategies for  utilization of mined  areas  for crop  production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general  food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana  L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.

  6. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  7. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  8. Use of ground penetrating radar in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Johnathon C.; Hainsworth, David W.

    2000-04-01

    This paper reports on a novel application of ground penetrating radar to a longwall steering problem in the coal mining industry. The main goal of the work was to determine whether a radar-based system could be used to detect coal-rock interfaces in order to establish a suitable mining horizon within the coal seam. We investigated the feasibility of the radar unit and determined that a positive correlation exists between the radar data and known coal-rock interface geology. We also highlight some of the unique challenges encountered when attempting to develop electrical equipment that is suitable for hazardous underground coal mining environments.

  9. Impact assessment of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district using geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S A; Katpatal, Y B

    2008-10-01

    The industrial development and growing population in India is in demand of more energy. Coal based thermal power generation is a major source of energy and is expanding at a very high rate leading to over exploitation of coal reserves, which is causing adverse impacts on the environment. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been found to be useful in mapping and monitoring of dynamic changes taking place due to mining activity. Satellite based environmental impact assessment involves various aspects, such as land use, water resources, land degradation, etc. These studies help in formulating environmental management plan for the mining sector. Coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district so far have lost 2139.68 hectares of land constituting a fertile agriculture land, reserve forest, protected forest and natural river course of Erai river, Upsa nala and Motaghat nala severely affecting the watershed eco-system. Therefore, an in-depth impact assessment study of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district was carried out using geoinformatics and the results are presented in this paper.

  10. Mathematical models of gas-dynamic and thermophysical processes in underground coal mining at different stages of mine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Грязев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New trends have been traced and the existing ones refined regarding filtration and diffusive motion of gases in coal beds and surrounding rock, spontaneous heating of coal and transport of gas traces by ventilation currents in operating coal mines. Mathematical models of gas-dynamic and thermophysical processes inside underworked territories after mine abandonment have been justified. Mathematical models are given for feasible air feeding of production and development areas, as well as for the development of geotechnical solutions to ensure gas-dynamic safety at every stage of coal mine operation. It is demonstrated that the use of high-performance equipment in the production and development areas requires more precise filtration equations used when assessing coal mine methane hazard. A mathematical model of pressure field of non-associated methane in the edge area of the coal seam has been justified. The model is based on one-dimensional hyperbolic equation and takes into consideration final rate of pressure distribution in the seam. Trends in gas exchange between mined-out spaces of high methane- and CO2-concentration mines with the earth surface have been refined in order to ensure environmental safety of underworked territories.

  11. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

  13. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  14. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  16. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  17. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  18. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  19. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall...

  1. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  3. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  4. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  5. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  6. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations. ...

  7. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning June 24, 1996, one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  8. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  9. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  11. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  12. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  13. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Safety Standards--Underground Coal Mines Section 75.823 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machines; Scope... High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... of high-voltage continuous mining machines in underground coal mines. It also revises MSHA's design...

  14. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal mine rescue teams. (a) For each mine rescue team designated to provide mine rescue coverage at an underground...

  15. 76 FR 35801 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... and 104 RIN 1219-AB75, 1219-AB73 Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of... Underground Coal Mines (Examinations of Work Areas) and for Pattern of Violations. DATES: The hearings will be... Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines' submissions, and with ``RIN 1219-AB73'' for Pattern of...

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  17. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule for Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due... Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31, 2011. DATES: The public hearing dates and locations are listed...

  18. 78 FR 35975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Request; Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation--Belt Entry Used as an Intake Air Course... collection related to the Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation--Belt Entry Used as an... Administration. Title: Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation--Belt Entry Used as an Intake Air...

  19. 78 FR 45566 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices,'' to the Office of Management...) determine the concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for...

  20. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety... INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines are based on section 311(a) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act). 30 CFR 75.1100 requires that each coal mine...

  1. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  2. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  3. Elemental composition of vegetables cultivated over coal-mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO J. ZOCCHE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce, Beta vulgaris L. (beet, Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control. Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area. Concentrations of P, K, and Cu were increase after chronic consumption of lettuce from the coal-mining area, whereas the levels of Si, P, K, Fe, and Zn were higher in the group consuming kale from the coal-mining area. Our data suggests that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health, since these plants contain both essential and toxic metals in a wide range of concentrations, which can do more harm than good.

  4. Utilization prospects for coal mine methane (CMM in Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailakov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine methane (CMM is a considerable, relatively unused, resource in Russia. With the second largest proven coal reserves in the world, behind the USA, Russia has a tremendous coalbed methane (CBM resource. The coal mine methane (CMM emissions which are created from the CBM resource by way of coal mining yield a significant fraction of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Developing CMM utilization projects will mitigate at least some of these emissions. Having evaluated the CMM resources at various underground coal mines in Kuzbass, it has been determined that it is economically viable to apply a variety of CMM utilization technologies in Russia. CMM use for electricity production was found to be quite capital intensive. Although economically viable, this option was the least attractive of the four technologies which were considered. Thermal energy production from boilers and delivering liquefied CMM at vehicle fueling stations were of intermediate potential. The most attractive option is the fueling of vehicles with compressed CMM. This required the lowest capital investment and had the highest paybacks, including a very rapid 2 ½ year payback.

  5. Undeground Coal Mine Supervisory and Management Training. Phase I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustaunau, Paul; And Others

    A project was conducted to develop a safety-oriented supervisory and management training program for the underground coal mining industry. The first phase of the project involved research to determine relevant training materials that are available and in use, assessment of supervisory and management training needs, and development of objectives…

  6. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  7. 75 FR 17511 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... underground coal mines in terms of ergonomics and durability. The testing verified that the device achieved... to miners from an ergonomics standpoint, and was sufficiently durable to withstand the conditions of... sampling device and the prevalence of work shifts exceeding 8 hours in duration. The final rule, like the...

  8. A life-cycle description of underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M. L.; Borden, C. S.; Duda, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An initial effort to relate the major technological and economic variables which impact conventional underground coal mining systems, in order to help identify promising areas for advanced mining technology is described. The point of departure is a series of investment analyses published by the United States Bureau of Mines, which provide both the analytical framework and guidance on a choice of variables.

  9. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  10. 78 FR 27442 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On April 30, 2013, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published a notice in the Federal Register...

  11. Development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land abandonment in a semi-arid ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Kooijman, A.M.; van Wesemael, B.

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate erosion on abandoned fields in semi-arid ecosystems, it is important to understand how vegetation and soil properties and patterns develop after land abandonment. Our objective was to investigate the development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land

  12. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  13. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  14. 30 CFR 916.25 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plan amendments. 916.25 Section 916.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE KANSAS § 916.25 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following..., -16-4 through -8; policy and procedures for project ranking and selection; organization structure...

  15. 30 CFR 920.25 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Funds. August 19, 1993 December 9, 1994 Chapter 1 of Plan—Project Ranking & Selection. [62 FR 9945, Mar... reclamation plan amendments. 920.25 Section 920.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE MARYLAND § 920.25 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

  16. 30 CFR 913.25 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plan amendments. 913.25 Section 913.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE ILLINOIS § 913.25 Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... participation, ranking and selection of reclamation projects, liens, bids and contracts. August 13, 1992 January...

  17. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection; (c)3—Coordination... reclamation plan amendments. 936.25 Section 936.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

  18. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plan amendments. 901.25 Section 901.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The..., 1990 Emergency program. June 26, 1992 January 12, 1993 Ranking and selection of AML projects. October 1...

  19. Effect of vegetation manipulation of abandoned arable land on soil microbial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maly, S.; Korthals, G.W.; Van Dijk, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; De Boer, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of vegetation composition on various soil microbial properties in abandoned arable land was investigated 2 years after agricultural practice had terminated. Microbial numbers and processes were determined in five replicate plots of each of the following treatments: continued agricultural

  20. Large herbivores in novel ecosystems - Habitat selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøcher, Peder Klith; Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    After centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of Europe. One example is the red deer (Cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. Herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. Knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems emerging in post-industrial landscapes. In this study, red deer habitat selection was studied in a former brown-coal mining area in Denmark. Here, natural settings were severely changed during the mining activity and its current landscape is in large parts managed by hunters as suitable deer habitat. We assessed red deer habitat preferences through feces presence and camera traps combined with land cover data from vegetation sampling, remote sensing and official geographic data. Red deer occurrence was negatively associated with human disturbance and positively associated with forage availability, tree cover and mean terrain height. Apparently, red deer are capable of recolonizing former industrial landscapes quite well if key conditions such as forage abundance and cover are appropriate. In the absence of carnivores, human disturbance, such as a hunting regime is a main reason why deer avoid certain areas. The resulting spatial heterogeneity red deer showed in their habitat use of the study area might be a tool to preserve mosaic landscapes of forest and open habitats and thus promote biodiversity in abandoned post-industrial landscapes. PMID:28505192

  1. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Arif Setiawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust particles, the erosion, siltation of the river, the pollution of heavy metals and the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD. The high acid conditions cause the faster heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni present in the coal dissolved and carried to the waters. Coal stockpile activity also causes pollution in the air, soil, and water. At the time the coal is burned as an energy source causes the emission of hazardous materials into the air of Hg, As, Se and CO2 gas, NOx, SO2. This condition has an impact on the environment and ultimately on human health.

  2. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  3. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales.......0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts...

  4. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V; Müller, Daniel; Radeloff, Volker C; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km 2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  5. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  6. Environmental impact of coal mine methane emissions and responding strategies in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.P.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2011-01-15

    The impact on global climate change from coal mine methane emissions in China has been drawing attention as coal production has powered its economic development. Data on coal mine methane emissions from the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety of China has been analyzed. It is estimated that the methane emission from coal mining in China reached 20 billions of cubic meters in 2008, most of which comes from state-owned coal mines with high-gas content. China releases six times as much of methane from coal mines as compared to the United States. However, Chinese methane emission from coal production accounts for only a very small proportion on the environmental impact when compared to emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption. The Chinese government has shown environmental awareness and resolution on the mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane emissions. Measures have been taken to implement the programs of mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane, and at the same time, to ensure mining safety. Nearly 7.2 billions of cubic meters of methane were drained from the coal mines, and 32% of it was utilized in 2008. The slow advancement of technologies for the drainage and utilization of low-concentration methane from ventilation air hinders the progress of mitigation of atmospheric methane and the utilization of coal mine methane emissions.

  7. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. The spatiotempora variations rules of Songzao coal mining subsidence based on numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand of coal, coal mining at Songzao makes the area of land subsidence growing larger. Land subsidence in coal mining area not only made large subsided farmland out of production and caused the enormous loss to local agricultural production, but also brought a number of serious problems to the local social economy and ecology Environment. To use Probability-integral Method based on numerical simulation of Songzao Mine, its subsidence simulation data from 1999 to 2009 was obtained. Hence, overlay analysis between Goaf data and the simulation data in 2009, and between field investigation and the simulation data in 2009 were carried out. After the coal mining underground was identified as the crucial cause of surface subsidence. Therefore, the accuracy and feasibility of the simulation data had been verified, and the spatial pattern and spatiotemporal variations conforming to the actual values have been obtained. The results show five main findings. The first indicated that the surface subsidence is mostly located at the top of the Goaf, where the overlap areas between Goaf data and subsidence simulation data have accounted for 93.05 % of Goaf and 65.19 % of subsidence simulation data respectively. The second finding indicated that by end of 2009, the mining subsidence extent had reached about 5087.50 hm2. This area accounts for about 40 % of total of the mining area. The third finding indicated that within 10 years from 1999 to 2009, the influence range of subsidence has expanded about 2340.54 hm2, and the coal mining subsidence rate in Songzao Mine has increased gradually with time. Moreover, average increasing speed of the extent area in the second five years was larger than the first five years (about 75.08 hm2 yr−1 more. The fourth finding indicated that maximum subsidence has increased from 2.0 m in 1999 to 2.5 m in 2004, and then 3.0m in 2009 with subsidence rate of about 0.1 m yr−1. At the same time, the area

  9. Performance of underground coal mines during the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 costs 242 000 lives and was responsible for 164 000 serious injuries and structural damage of immense proportion. The area has eight coal mines, which together form the largest underground coal mining operation in China. Approximately 10 000 miners were working underground at the time of the earthquake. With few exceptions they survived and returned safely to the surface, only to find their families and belongings largely destroyed. Based on a comprehensive survey of the miners' observations, subsurface intensity profiles were drawn up. The profiles clearly indicated that seismic damage in the underground mines was far less severe than at the surface. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  11. Inertisation strategies and practices in underground coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available and Safety Executive (UK) LEL Lower Explosion Limit LTR Last Through Road PS Polystyrol PVC Polyvinyl chloride TIC Total Incombustible Content USA United States of America USBM United States Bureau of Mines MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration... DRAFT FINAL REPORT Inertisation strategies and practices in underground coal mines J J L du Plessis D J van Niekerk Research Agency : CSIR Miningtek Project No. : COL 701 (EC 01-0157) Date : January 2002 2 Executive Summary The purpose...

  12. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  13. Population Cancer Risks Associated with Coal Mining: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Wiley D.; Christian, W. Jay; Mueller, Georgia; Robbins, K. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. Methods We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality). Results Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor) but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase) for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric). However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none), and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none). The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. Conclusions The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill’s criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk. PMID:23977014

  14. Trust and safety in the coal mining sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Gunningham; Darren Sinclair [Gunningham and Associates (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    This report examines the relationship between trust (and mistrust) and occupational health and safety (OHS) in the Australian coal mining sector. Previous research in Australian coal mining companies indicated that mistrust is deep-seated at a number of mines, and that these mines are usually the worst performers in terms of OHS. Mistrust also handicaps the ability of inspectors to worker together with mines sites to improve OHS outcomes. Given this, there is a compelling need to understand how mistrust comes about, and to identify practical steps that can be adopted by companies, mines sites and the inspectorate to foster the development of trust. The report builds on these earlier findings by investigating trust in a much more detailed and sophisticated fashion, drawing on an in-depth analysis at mines, across a number of coal mining companies, and in two state jurisdictions. Research revealed that a 'cluster of characteristics' are associated with the formation and maintenance of mistrust at mines with a lower OHS track-record. These findings, together with an analysis of the characteristics of mines with better OHS outcomes, enabled the report to outline a variety of ways in which mines may build trust within and between management and the workforce. It also considers the at times fractious relationship between trade unions and management, and flags some of the challenges confronting these two groups in working together to improve OHS performance in the coal mining sector. Finally, the report examines the rise and impact of mistrust on the operations of the New South Wales and Queensland inspectorates, and suggests ways in which a fairer and more just enforcement policy may help foster greater trust between inspectors and mines.

  15. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  16. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from the sediment pond after a coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Eko; Sudrajat, Putri, Junita Susilaning

    2017-02-01

    Title isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is a group of microbes that can be used to improve the quality of sediment former coal mine. In the metabolic activities, the SRB can reduce sulfate to H2S which immediately binds to metals that are widely available on mined lands and precipitated in the form of metal sulfides reductive. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Mulawarman, Samarinda. Postgate B is a liquid medium used for isolation through serial dilution. Physiological and biochemical characterization was done by Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Six isolates of sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda. Several groups of bacteria can grow at 14 days of incubation, however, another group of bacteria which takes 21 days to grow. The identification results showed that two isolates belong to the genus Desulfotomaculum sp., and each of the other isolates belong to the genus Desulfococcus sp., Desulfobacter sp., Desulfobulbus sp. and Desulfobacterium sp.

  17. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  18. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  19. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  20. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1 which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants are more affected by land abandonment; (2 at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3 whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4 how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001 plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  1. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  2. Situational approach to the choice of information systems for business management for various organizational structures of deep coal mines. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendkowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Organizational models of business management in 65 underground black coal mines in Poland are evaluated. The following problems are discussed: development of black coal mining, organizational structures of underground mining and their changes from 1950 to 1983, information needs of a coal mine depending on position of the mine in organizational structures, analyses of mining and geologic conditions in underground coal mines, comparative evaluations of operation and profitableness of coal mines, investigations into information needs of coal mines, a model of information needs of a coal mine, recommendations for development of a computerized control systems for business management in underground mining, recommendations for hardware and software. Following a critical evaluation of information systems used in coal mines, recommendations are made for information and control systems which would correspond with the needs of coal mines. 68 references.

  3. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  4. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  5. Participatory Communication and Sustainability Development: Case Study of Coal Mining Environment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Fitryarini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyze about participatory communication, especially those currently practiced in coal mining communities in Samarinda, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. In addition, specific practices to facilitate participatory communication are identified and discussed. This essay is based on the author's research on environmental conflicts in coal mining areas. The conclusion of this essay is that community participatory communication in coal mining industry area is still at a pseudo participatory stage.

  6. The technology and method of coal mining in the Czechoslovakia in 1918-1938

    OpenAIRE

    Jureková, Dominika

    2012-01-01

    The content of this thesis is an analysis of coal mining in Czechoslovakia in 1918-1938. The accent is focused on technical and technological aspects of coal through to economic, political, mining law and other conditions that influence it. The technical part of mining has been for better visibility of work is divided into several stages. The thesis presents a summary of the regions of coal mining, the quantity of extracted coal and methods of coal mining. Keywords: The Czechoslovakia, coal m...

  7. Protective and control relays as coal-mine power-supply ACS subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, V. N.; Minakova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents instantaneous selective short-circuit protection for the cabling of the underground part of a coal mine and central control algorithms as a Coal-Mine Power-Supply ACS Subsystem. In order to improve the reliability of electricity supply and reduce the mining equipment down-time, a dual channel relay protection and central control system is proposed as a subsystem of the coal-mine power-supply automated control system (PS ACS).

  8. Study on Load-displacement Test of Rubber Pads of Coal Mine Roadway Constructed by Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Xiaoguo; Yang, Liyun

    2017-12-01

    Shield method construction of coal mine roadway is the future trend of the development of deep coal mining. The main shaft supporting is the segment. There is rubber pads between segment and segment. The performance of compression deformation of rubber pad is essential for the overall stability of lining. Through load test, displacement of the rubber pad under load, the thrust force law of the rubber pad deformation, and provide a theoretical basis for the stability analysis of coal mine tunnel shield construction.

  9. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  10. Accuracy criteria recommended for the certification of gravimetric coal-mine-dust samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Bartley, D.L.; Breuer, G.M.; Doemeny, L.J.; Murdock, D.J.

    1984-07-01

    Procedures for testing bias and precision of gravimetric coal-mine-dust sampling units are reviewed. Performance criteria for NIOSH certification of personal coal-mine dust samplers are considered. The NIOSH criterion is an accuracy of 25% at the 95% confidence interval. Size distributions of coal-mine-dust are discussed. Methods for determining size distributions are described. Sampling and sizing methods are considered. Cyclone parameter estimation is discussed. Bias computations for general sampling units are noted. Recommended procedures for evaluating bias and precision of gravimetric coal mine dust personal samplers are given. The authors conclude that when cyclones are operated at lower rates, the NIOSH accuracy criteria can be met

  11. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiwati, Arie; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, N.; Komai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Total concentration of Cd, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, As, Pb, Sb, Cu and Ba was determined in 20 soil samples by the bulk analysis. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to observe the classification of trace elements and contamination sources. The results suggest that contamination loading is contributed by Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use. Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MODEL FOR MINING METHOD SELECTION IN A FUZZY ENVIRONMENT; CASE STUDY: TAZAREH COAL MINE, SEMNAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadi Ooriad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining method selection (MMS for mineral resources is one of the most significant steps in mining production management. Due to high costs involved and environmental problems, it is usually not possible to change the coal mining method after planning and starting the operation. In most cases, MMS can be considered as an irreversible process. Selecting a method for mining mainly depends on geological, geometrical properties of the resource, environmental impacts of exploration, impacts of hazardous activities and land use management. This paper seeks to develop a novel model for mining method selection in order to achieve a stable production rate and to reduce environmental problems. This novel model is illustrated by implementing for Tazareh coal mine. Given the disadvantages of the previous models for selecting coal mining method, the purpose of this research is modifying the previous models and offering a comprehensive model. In this respect, TOPSIS method is used as a powerful multi attribute decision-making procedure in Fuzzy environment. After implementation of the presented model in Tazareh coal mine, long wall mining method has been selected as the most appropriate mining method.

  13. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-22

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km 2 of urban gain and -21,017 km 2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km 2 ) and closed shrubland (60,854 km 2 ) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  14. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and -21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  15. Methane emissions to the global atmosphere from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriss, R.C.; Bensel, T.; Blaha, D.

    1993-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and their contribution to a potential future warming of the Earth's lower atmosphere, are well documented. In this chapter, the authors report the results of a detailed assessment of coal mining and use as a source for atmospheric CH 4 . The results of their study have important implications for the policy process for mitigating the global warming potential from CH 4 . CH 4 is a greenhouse gas which also partially controls the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Ambient air measurements indicate that CH 4 is increasing at an annual rate of about 1%. Future growth in atmospheric CH 4 concentrations is likely to contribute more to a greenhouse warming effect than any other gas except CO 2 . Historical records of atmospheric CH 4 indicate that preindustrial concentrations varied over a range of approximately 0.30 to 0.70 ppM, compared to the present average concentration of 1.7 ppM. Contemporary atmospheric CH 4 concentrations and the currently observed rates of increase are unprecedented. There is a strong correlation between increasing atmospheric CH 4 and human population growth during the past 150 years. CH 4 is emitted to the atmosphere from flood soils, ruminant animals, fires, termites, natural gas exploitation, and coal mining. Annual CH 4 release from these sources has been estimated to be 400 to 640 x 10 12 g (10 12 g = Tg). The annual emission rates for individual sources of atmospheric CH 4 are highly uncertain by factors of 2 to 25. If annual CH 4 emissions from coal mining are approximately 25 to 45 Tg, as suggested by preliminary estimates, they may represent one of the CH 4 sources potentially most amenable to control in any future program to stabilize the composition of the atmosphere

  16. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Liang-shan; Fu, Gui-xiang [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China)

    2008-09-15

    The technique of data mining was applied to predict gas disasters in view of the characteristics of coal mine gas disasters and feature knowledge based on gas disasters. The rough set theory was used to establish a data mining model of gas disaster prediction, and rough set attributes relations were discussed in a prediction model of gas disaster to supplement the shortages of the rough intensive reduction method by using information entropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the prediction of gas disaster is confirmed through practical application. 7 refs., 11 tabs.

  17. Inertisation of sealed coal mine panels using microbial organisms.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Creedy, DP

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available .3.2 Selected area treatment 8 3.3 Remote gas monitoring 8 4 A practical technology for South African coal mines 9 4.1 The preferred approach 9 4.2 Selection of micro-organisms for immobilisation 9 4.3 Development of the bio-curtain technology 9 4... or selected areas in which gas hazards and risks have been identified. Current reasoning favours the bio-curtain approach applied to selected areas together with an irrigation facility through which water, nutrients and fresh culture can be sprayed...

  18. Loosewall stability in United Kingdom surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D.; Singh, R. (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1989-05-01

    In order to successfully exploit surface coal mine reserves, a database was compiled over the last 10 years containing information on loosewall slope failures such as mine locality information, failure date, failure height, failure slope angle, failure depth, failure length, failure volume, assumed failure mechanism, pavement dip, failure surface type, water data, curvature of slope in plan and section, and mining method. Both the Bishop's simplified and the biplanar wedge methods were used to conduct a detailed two-dimensional limit equilibrium back. 11 figs., 31 refs.,

  19. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarek, M; Orzech, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  20. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  1. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  2. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions...

  3. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  7. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  8. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  9. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  11. A Manual of Competency Matched Instructional Materials for Developing Coal Mining Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Douglas S.; Oglesby, Elizabeth H.

    To assist in the development of secondary level coal mining curricula, this report identifies sixty-four competencies considered by coal mining companies and instructors to be of major or moderate importance. Also, four tables are used to aid curriculum planners. Table 1 contains occupational competencies ranked in importance for the secondary…

  12. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  13. Impact of Coal Mining on Self-Rated Health among Appalachian Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Shannon M; Youk, Ada O; Bear, Todd M; Balmert, Lauren C; Talbott, Evelyn O; Buchanich, Jeanine M

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of coal mining, measured as the number of coal mining-related facilities nearby one's residence or employment in an occupation directly related to coal mining, on self-rated health in Appalachia. Unadjusted and adjusted ordinal logistic regression models calculated odds ratio estimates and associated 95% confidence intervals for the probability of having an excellent self-rated health response versus another response. Covariates considered in the analyses included number of coal mining-related facilities nearby one's residence and employment in an occupation directly related to coal mining, as well as potential confounders age, sex, BMI, smoking status, income, and education. The number of coal mining facilities near the respondent's residence was not a statistically significant predictor of self-rated health. Employment in a coal-related occupation was a statistically significant predictor of self-rated health univariably; however, after adjusting for potential confounders, it was no longer a significant predictor. Self-rated health does not seem to be associated with residential proximity to coal mining facilities or employment in the coal industry. Future research should consider additional measures for the impact of coal mining.

  14. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  15. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  16. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  18. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  19. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2017.

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  1. 26 CFR 1.187-1 - Amortization of certain coal mine safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of certain coal mine safety... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.187-1 Amortization of certain coal mine safety equipment. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In...

  2. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams; alternate...

  3. Mathematical model for water quality impact assessment and its computer application in coal mine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.; Chakraborty, M.K.; Gupta, J.P.; Saxena, N.C.; Dhar, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to assess the Water Quality Impact in coal mine or in river system by accurate and rational method. Algorithm, flowchart and computer programme have been developed upon this model to assess the quality of coal mine water. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 76 FR 25277 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... Areas) and for Pattern of Violations. Each hearing will cover the major issues raised by commenters in... of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines' submissions, and with ``RIN 1219-AB73'' for Pattern of...

  5. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units... Personal Sampler Unit § 74.5 Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. (a) The National Institute for... tests and evaluations to determine whether the pump unit of a CMDPSU that is submitted for approval...

  6. 75 FR 63864 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... transmission for comments (mail, fax, or E-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Black Lung... miners who are totally disabled by black lung disease arising out of coal mine employment, and their... used to establish whether the miner is totally disabled due to black lung disease caused by coal mine...

  7. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    impacts on the ecology and environment. There- fore, the coal mining industry is being placed under the red category, meaning it is in the top bracket of environmental degradation (Chaoji. 2002), and coal mining is being considered for inclusion under the national superfund scheme. The chief environmental impacts due to ...

  8. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on...

  9. Assessing the Impact of Removing Select Materials from Coal Mine Overburden, Central Appalachia Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of readily soluble components of overburden materials from surface coal mining to air and water results in mineral oxidation and carbonate mineral dissolution, thus increasing coal mine water conductivity. A conductivity benchmark of 300 µS/cm for mine water dischar...

  10. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: sales and foreign trade. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, refinement, employees; part II: sales in domestic and foreign trade.

  11. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  12. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  13. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 70mm black and white infrared photography acquired in March 1973 at an approximate scale of 1:115,000 permits the identification of areas of mine subsidence not readily evident on other films. This is largely due to the high contrast rendition of water and land by this film and the excessive surface moisture conditions prevalent in the area at the time of photography. Subsided areas consist of shallow depressions which have impounded water. Patterns with a regularity indicative of the room and pillar configuration used in subsurface coal mining are evident.

  14. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  15. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  16. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  17. Dust collection capacity of plants growing in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant can act as living filter of dust pollution in coal mining areas, where the amount of suspended particulate matter and dust fall rate is very high. Therefore, plant species growing in coal mining areas are classified as evergreen or deciduous with simple and compound leaf basis. The dust arresting capacity of each leaf is measured and expressed in g/m 2 . The study indicated that evergreen plants with simple, pilose surface, like - Alstonia, Ficus cunea, F. benghalensis and Mangifera indica are good dust catcher than evergreen compound leaves of Cassia siamea, Acacia arabica and Leucaena leucocephala. Deciduous with simple leaves, such as Zizyphus mauritiana, F. religiosa, Psidium guyava are also good dust collectors. Suitable plant species also help in quick reclamation of mined out areas; one practical difficulty for establishment of trees as green belts or reclamation purpose, has been incidence of cattle grazing. This study suggested a systematic way of selecting plant species on the basis of their efficiency in dust control and resistance to cattle grazing. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  18. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  19. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act of Congress. 761.200 Section 761.200 Mineral... to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act of Congress. OSM has adopted the following... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of surface...

  20. 75 FR 81165 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... underground coal mines with fewer than 20 employees, which MSHA and the mining community have traditionally... Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards... for preshift, supplemental, on-shift, and weekly examinations of underground coal mines. The proposed...

  1. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  2. Contamination of settling ponds of coal mines caused by natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Skubacz, K.; Wysocka, M.; Mielnikow, A.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of a discharge of the radium-bearing waters from coal mines into settlement ponds and later into rivers a significant increase of radium concentration in bottom sediments can be observed. Sometimes also a contamination of river banks, soils and vegetation occurs. Mine waters contain mainly radium isotopes i.e. 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Due to chemical properties of such brines, these waters contain usually no uranium, no thorium and rather seldom elevated concentration of other isotopes as lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po). The deposition or adsorption of radium on bottom sediments may take place on a distance of several kilometers from the discharge points. After a deposition or adsorption of radium isotopes the built-up of the activity of their progeny begins. Therefore concentrations of radium isotopes are higher than the decay products. We are able to measure the disequilibrium in 226 Ra decay chain as well as in 228 Ra decay chain, which shows the approximate age of the deposit. The paper describes results of investigation of sediments with enhanced natural radioactivity occurring in settlement ponds, where mine waters have been dumped. The results of measurements show that these deposits contain mainly 226 Ra and 228 Ra and their progeny. Influence of bottom sediments with enhanced radium concentration on the natural environment in the vicinity of settlement ponds was studied on the example of two different water reservoirs where radium-bearing mine waters type A and B are released. The results show clearly enhanced radioactivity of bottom sediments and water in the settling ponds and in the rivers, but no evident enhancement was found in the adjacent land. Both coal mines are located in the drainage area of Vistula river, and bottom sediments with enhanced radium concentrations were found in Vistula up to 70 km downstream from the discharge point. (author)

  3. Terrestrial Carbon Losses from Mountaintop Coal Mining Offsets Regional Forest Carbon Sequestration in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, P. M.; Campbell, J. E.; Fox, J.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for predicting future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025 to 2033 with a 30% to 35% loss is terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining of forest carbon by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the offsetting effects of CO2 fertilization and enhanced soil respiration result in a 15% to 24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical land-use component of regional carbon budgets.

  4. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the

  5. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  6. Plant pathogens but not antagonists change in soil fungal communities across a land abandonment gradient in a Mediterranean landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, L.; Lacatena, F.; Varlese, R.; Nocerino, S.; Cristinzio, G.; Russo, D.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether the presence and abundance of plant pathogens and antagonists change in soil fungal communities along a land abandonment gradient. The study was carried out in the Cilento area (Southern Italy) at a site with three different habitats found along a land abandonment gradient: agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. For all microbiological substrates the colony forming units were about 3.1 × 106 g-1 soil for agricultural land and about 1.1 × 106 g-1 soil for Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. We found the following genera in all habitats: Cladosporium, Mortierella, Penicillium and Trichoderma. In agricultural land, the significantly most abundant fungus genera were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon and Nectria; in Mediterranean shrubland, Rhizopus and Trichoderma; and in woodland, Bionectria, Mortierella, Cladosporium, Diplodia, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma. We found a total of 8, 8 and 9 species of fungal antagonist, and 16, 6 and 6 species of fungal plant pathogens in agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland respectively. Fungal plant pathogens decreased significantly over a land abandonment gradient, while we no found significant differences among fungal antagonists in the three habitats. We conclude that a decrease in the number of fungal pathogen species occurs when formerly cultivated areas are abandoned. On the other hand, fungal antagonists seem not to be affected by this process.

  7. Impacts of land-use history on the recovery of ecosystems after agricultural abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Arneth, Almut

    2016-09-01

    Land-use changes have been shown to have large effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles, but so far most studies have focused on the effects of conversion of natural vegetation to croplands and pastures. By contrast, relatively little is known about the long-term influence of past agriculture on vegetation regrowth and carbon sequestration following land abandonment. We used the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model to study the legacy effects of different land-use histories (in terms of type and duration) across a range of ecosystems. To this end, we performed six idealized simulations for Europe and Africa in which we made a transition from natural vegetation to either pasture or cropland, followed by a transition back to natural vegetation after 20, 60 or 100 years. The simulations identified substantial differences in recovery trajectories of four key variables (vegetation composition, vegetation carbon, soil carbon, net biome productivity) after agricultural cessation. Vegetation carbon and composition typically recovered faster than soil carbon in subtropical, temperate and boreal regions, and vice versa in the tropics. While the effects of different land-use histories on recovery periods of soil carbon stocks often differed by centuries across our simulations, differences in recovery times across simulations were typically small for net biome productivity (a few decades) and modest for vegetation carbon and composition (several decades). Spatially, we found the greatest sensitivity of recovery times to prior land use in boreal forests and subtropical grasslands, where post-agricultural productivity was strongly affected by prior land management. Our results suggest that land-use history is a relevant factor affecting ecosystems long after agricultural cessation, and it should be considered not only when assessing historical or future changes in simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle but also when establishing long-term monitoring networks and

  8. Roof instability characteristics and pre-grouting of the roof caving zone in residual coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Liu, Changyou

    2017-12-01

    Abandoned roadways and roof caving zones are commonly found in residual coal, and can destroy the integrity of the coal seam and roof. Resulting from mining-induced stress, continuous collapse and fracture instability in roof caving zones (RCZs) jeopardize the safety and efficiency of residual coal mining. Based on the engineering geology conditions of remining face 3101 in Shenghua Mine, the roof fracture and instability features of the RCZ were analyzed through physical simulation, theoretical analysis, and field measurements. In this case, influenced by the RCZ, the main roof across the RCZ fractured and rotated towards the goaf, greatly increasing the working resistance, and crushing the supports. The sudden instability of the coal pillars weakened its support of the main roof, thus resulting in long-key blocks across the RCZ and hinged roof structures, which significantly decreased the stability of the underlying immediate roof. This study establishes a mechanical model for the interactions between the surrounding rock and the supports in the RCZ, determines the reasonable working resistance, and examines the use of pre-grouting solidification restoration technology (PSRT) to solidify the RCZ and reinforce the coal pillars—thus increasing their bearing capacity. Field measurements revealed no roof flaking, inhomogeneous loading or support crushing, indicating that the PSRT effectively controlled the surrounding rock of the RCZ.

  9. Capabilities of Multispectral Satellite Data in an Assessment of the Status of Abandoned Fire Hazardous and Rewetting Peat Extraction Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Vozbrannaya, A. E.; Sirin, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The capabilities of several multispectral satellite data types to identify the status of peatlands affected by peat extraction and abandoned deposits are examined to assess potential fire dangers and rewetting effectiveness. The available level of detail of describing land/vegetation cover for monitoring abandoned peat extraction sites using Spot-5 HRG, Spot-6 HRG, and Landsat-7 ETM+ satellite images has been demonstrated using the example of peatlands in the Meschera National Park (Vladimir oblast). The results reflect the pros and cons of using different data types to analyze the status of abandoned peat-extraction lands for purposes of peatland inventory, land-cover monitoring, and the prioritization of sites subject to rewetting and mire restoration, as well as for an evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

  10. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.; Michalik, B.

    2002-01-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish coal mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. This system works since 1989 in all coal mines. It gives a very good basis for further epidemiological investigation and assessment of the health detriment within the population of the mines as a result of the exposure for natural radiation. It is very important problem, due to the fact of the presence in the mines another factors, which probably have a synergetic effects on the respiratory tracts. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31 sampling probe was developed in our laboratory. This device was accomplished to regular dust sampler and simultaneous measurements of dust content and potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny are obligatory in all underground mines in Poland. But the microcyclone used a separator of the respirable fraction which causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of radon progeny, On the other hand measurements of the unattached fraction of short lived radon progeny play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. During field experiments the use of the alpha spectroscopy system is necessary, while measurements are done not in the vacuum chambers but under normal pressure. It leads to situation, when particular peaks in alpha spectrum are very wide and interfere with other peaks of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. Such instrumentation was designed and completed, and a survey in several underground mines was performed. The analysis of the obtained results must be done very carefully; in other case it may cause a very big uncertainty of the result. In this paper a new approach to the analysis of the alpha spectra has been described. This approach can be used also in other applications of alpha spectroscopy, in which the analysis of energy of alpha peaks in spectrum is needed. The method of the analysis is based on a non-linear regression

  11. Rural Districts between Urbanization and Land Abandonment: Undermining Long-Term Changes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates changes in the rural landscapes of a Mediterranean country (Greece over a long time period (1970–2015 encompassing economic expansions and recessions. Using a spatial distribution of 5 basic agricultural land-use classes (arable land, garden crop, vineyards, tree crop and fallow land derived from official statistics at 6 years (1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, a quantitative analysis based on correlation and multivariate techniques was carried out to identify recent changes in the Greek agricultural landscape at prefectural level during different economic waves. Empirical results evidenced both intuitive and counter-intuitive landscape transformations, including: (i a progressive, spatially-homogeneous reduction of cropland; (ii a (more or less rapid decrease in the surface of high-input crops, including arable land, horticulture and vineyards; (iii a parallel increase in the surface of tree crops, especially olive; (iv a spatially-heterogeneous decrease of fallow land concentrated in metropolitan and tourism districts, especially in the last decade; and, finally, (v increasingly diversified landscapes in rural, accessible areas close to the sea coast. Based on a correlation analysis with background socioeconomic indicators, our findings reflect the multiple impacts of urbanization and land abandonment on the composition and diversity of rural landscapes. Changes in agricultural land-use were moulded by multiple drivers depending on latent transformations in rural systems and inherent conflicts with expanding urban regions. Together with market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy subsidy regime, social contexts and the economic cycle are important when identifying long-term changes in agricultural landscapes, especially in transitional socio-ecological systems.

  12. Development of a Universal Safety Behavior Management System for Coal Mine Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Jizu; LI, Yuejiao; LIU, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application. Methods: Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees. Results: The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character. Conclusion: The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment. PMID:26258088

  13. Terrestrial carbon losses from mountaintop coal mining offset regional forest carbon sequestration in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Fox, James F.; Acton, Peter M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for the prediction of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates, grassland reclamation, and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025-33 with a 30%-35% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the effect of CO2 fertilization result in a 15%-24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while power plant stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle stage in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical component of regional carbon budgets.

  14. Terrestrial carbon losses from mountaintop coal mining offset regional forest carbon sequestration in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J; Fox, James F; Acton, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for the prediction of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates, grassland reclamation, and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025–33 with a 30%–35% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the effect of CO 2 fertilization result in a 15%–24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while power plant stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle stage in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical component of regional carbon budgets. (letter)

  15. Impact of rent-seeking on productivity in Chinese coal mine safety supervision: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Zhu, Dandan; Han, Shuai; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    During the “golden decade” (2001–2011) of the coal industry in China, rent-seeking increased in coal mine safety supervision alongside significant improvements in coal mine safety status and increased economic benefits in the coal industry. To explore this internal relationship, we developed a Matlab simulation system and simulated the impact of rent-seeking from each level of the supervision department on coal mine productivity in different scenarios. The results showed the following. (1) Rent-seeking had no significant influence on the average level of material productivity but it had an adverse effect on the average level of mental productivity. Due to the effects of rent-seeking, productivity tended to exhibit unstable and destructive fluctuations, and rent-seeking had the dual effect of promoting and restraining productivity in a wide range with a high frequency. (2) In the supervision scenario, supervision by the high-level department was efficient, and productivity was promoted more by the national and provincial supervision department. (3) In the rent-seeking scenario, each level of the department had an intensity threshold above which coal mine accidents occurred. We also propose suggestions that focuses on the improved supervision of Chinese coal mine safety in three areas based on the “new normal” safety concept. - Highlights: •We discussed rent-seeking behavior in Chinese coal mine safety supervision. •We explored the characteristics of coal mine productivity. •We investigated the impact of rent-seeking on coal mine productivity in three scenarios. •We found rent-seeking led to great fluctuations in productivity with a dual effect. •We proposed a model strategy for Chinese coal mine safety supervision in three areas.

  16. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Deployment of self-contained self rescuers in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie-Wood, P.; Baafi, E.Y.; Aziz, N.I.; Tague, I.; Sun, Y. [Mine Rescue Service of NSW, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Field trials at three New South Wales and one Queensland coal mines were carried out to gather data on oxygen `run out` times of Self-Contained Self Rescuers (SCSRs), time taken to escape from the mine, distances travelled and the average heart rate of subjects wearing SCSRs. The study has led to a method of predicting the duration of oxygen supply from a SCSR as a function of the wearer`s body weight, physical fitness and the prevailing environmental conditions. Escapeway design, planning for emergencies, familiarity with SCSRs and experiential escape training are critical to control panic and maximise the likelihood of survival of a person attempting to escape in an emergency involving fire or explosion. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Causes of Coal Mine Accidents in the World and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Filiz Çağla Uyanusta; Ilgaz, Aslıhan

    2015-04-01

    Occupational accidents and occupational diseases are common in the mining sector in Turkey and throughout the world. The most common causes of accidents in coal mining are firedamp and dust explosions, landslips, mine fires, and technical failures related to transport and mechanization. An analysis of occupational accidents in the consideration of social and economic factors will let understand the real causes behind these accidents, which are said to happen inevitably due to technical deficiencies or failures. Irregular working conditions, based on profit maximization and cost minimization, are related to strategic operational preferences and public policies. Proving that accidents in mines, where occupational health and safety measures are not implemented and inspections are not done properly or at all, are caused by the fact that production is imposed to be carried out in the fastest, cheapest, and most profitable way will allow us to take steps to prevent further mine accidents.

  19. Research on water pollution induced by coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Dong, D.; Fu, Y.; Bai, X.; Sun, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2002-01-01

    Water environment problems induced by mining were studied. Influences of coal mining on runoff of rivers and on water sources were discussed. And the forming mechanism of acid water was analysed. The result shows that the mining activity is gradually changing the co-environment of adjacent areas, especially the water. With the water sources being continually polluted, the underground water has some poisonous or harmful ions in the process of dynamic exchange of water. The falling level of water table results in an increase of depression cone, and the seepage of rivers and the increasing range of acid water have more or less influence on water sources. All these are threatening the normal life of human beings. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Controlled Roof Collapse during Secondary Mining in Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Hutchinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered is an investigation of the possible collapse of the roof between the pillar next to be mined in secondary coal mining and the first line of pillar remnants called snooks. The roof rock between the pillar, which is the working face, and the snook is modelled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam acted on at each end by a horizontal force and by its weight per unit length. The beam is clamped at the pillar and simply supported (hinged at the snook. The dimensionless differential equation for the beam and the boundary conditions depend on one dimensionless number . We consider the range of values of before the displacement and curvature first become singular at =1. The model predicts that for all practical purposes, the beam will break at the clamped end at the pillar. The failure of the beam for values of greater than 1 is investigated computationally.

  1. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  2. Noise variability in underground room and pillar coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szary, Marek L; Chugh, Yoginder P; Hirschi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Noise in an underground coal mine has dominant components generated mainly from 3 sources: (a) continuous mining machines, (b) roof bolters, and (c) cars/vehicles used to transport personnel and/or coal. Each of these 3 noise sources also has a number of well-defined sub-sources with their own noise characteristics. Sound level meters were used to collect noise data in the form of instantaneous readings and also to check calibration of other sound measuring instruments. The most useful information was obtained from a spectrum analysis of continuous digital recordings of noise over time. This paper discusses the variability or dynamics of generated noise in both frequency and time domains in relation to several independent variables related to coal extraction and transportation processes.

  3. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  4. Accurate thermodynamic characterization of a synthetic coal mine methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Gómez, R.; Tuma, D.; Villamañán, M.A.; Mondéjar, M.E.; Chamorro, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accurate density data of a 10 components synthetic coal mine methane mixture are presented. • Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated from the GERG-2008 equation of state. • Relative deviations in density were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K. • Densities at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations. -- Abstract: In the last few years, coal mine methane (CMM) has gained significance as a potential non-conventional gas fuel. The progressive depletion of common fossil fuels reserves and, on the other hand, the positive estimates of CMM resources as a by-product of mining promote this fuel gas as a promising alternative fuel. The increasing importance of its exploitation makes it necessary to check the capability of the present-day models and equations of state for natural gas to predict the thermophysical properties of gases with a considerably different composition, like CMM. In this work, accurate density measurements of a synthetic CMM mixture are reported in the temperature range from (250 to 400) K and pressures up to 15 MPa, as part of the research project EMRP ENG01 of the European Metrology Research Program for the characterization of non-conventional energy gases. Experimental data were compared with the densities calculated with the GERG-2008 equation of state. Relative deviations between experimental and estimated densities were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K, while data at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations

  5. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Sino-U.S. Coal Mining Industry Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Guiling Wei

    2011-01-01

    Both China and the United States are large countries in coal production and consumption, however, the safety conditions of coal mining production in China are much worse than that of the U.S.. Although the Chinese Administration of Coal Mine Safety improved safety measures to tighten control on coal mining industry, the number of accidents, death toll and fatality rate per million tons were much higher than those of the U.S. in recent years. Based on the statistical analysis of Sino-U.S. coal...

  7. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, K.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR) [de

  8. Application of a life cycle assessment to compare environmental performance in coal mine tailings management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiansyah, Joni Safaat; Haque, Nawshad; Rosano, Michele; Biswas, Wahidul

    2017-09-01

    This study compares coal mine tailings management strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and land-use area metrics methods. Hybrid methods (the Australian indicator set and the ReCiPe method) were used to assess the environmental impacts of tailings management strategies. Several strategies were considered: belt filter press (OPT 1), tailings paste (OPT 2), thickened tailings (OPT 3), and variations of OPT 1 using combinations of technology improvement and renewable energy sources (OPT 1A-D). Electrical energy was found to contribute more than 90% of the environmental impacts. The magnitude of land-use impacts associated with OPT 3 (thickened tailings) were 2.3 and 1.55 times higher than OPT 1 (tailings cake) and OPT 2 (tailings paste) respectively, while OPT 1B (tailings belt filter press with technology improvement and solar energy) and 1D (tailings belt press filter with technology improvement and wind energy) had the lowest ratio of environmental impact to land-use. Further analysis of an economic cost model and reuse opportunities is required to aid decision making on sustainable tailings management and industrial symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  10. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; PSports.

  11. NEWS RELEASE - Agencies Agree to Joint Regulatory Framework for Processing Applications for Surface Coal Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    News release from February 10, 2005 announcing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that offers a joint framework to improve permit application procedures for surface coal mining operations that place dredged or fill material in waters of the United States.

  12. Comparison of Mortality Disparities in Central Appalachian Coal- and Non-Coal-Mining Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Shannon M; Meacham, Susan L; Balmert, Lauren C; Talbott, Evelyn O; Buchanich, Jeanine M

    2015-06-01

    Determine whether select cause of death mortality disparities in four Appalachian regions is associated with coal mining or other factors. We calculated direct age-adjusted mortality rates and associated 95% confidence intervals by sex and study group for each cause of death over 5-year time periods from 1960 to 2009 and compared mean demographic and socioeconomic values between study groups via two-sample t tests. Compared with non-coal-mining areas, we found higher rates of poverty in West Virginia and Virginia (VA) coal counties. All-cause mortality rates for males and females were higher in coal counties across all time periods. Virginia coal counties had statistically significant excesses for many causes of death. We found elevated mortality and poverty rates in coal-mining compared with non-coal-mining areas of West Virginia and VA. Future research should examine these findings in more detail at the individual level.

  13. The Dangers of "Proofiness” in the Evaluation of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of ecological and human health impacts from coal mining in West Virginia presents challenges for agencies responsible for permitting and evaluating those impacts. These challenges include correctly identifying, locating and diagnosing stressor sources and understandin...

  14. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  15. The effects of coal mining on the landscapes of the Ostrava Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Schejbalová, Božena; Hortvík, Karel; Maníček, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2005), s. 13-26 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Ostrava region * coal mining * methane emission * mine waters Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  18. Is there an association of circulatory hospitalizations independent of mining employment in coal-mining and non-coal-mining counties in west virginia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Sharma, Ravi K; Buchanich, Jeanine; Stacy, Shaina L

    2015-04-01

    Exposures associated with coal mining activities, including diesel fuel exhaust, products used in coal processing, and heavy metals and other forms of particulate matter, may impact the health of nearby residents. We investigated the relationships between county-level circulatory hospitalization rates (CHRs) in coal and non-coal-mining communities of West Virginia, coal production, coal employment, and sociodemographic factors. Direct age-adjusted CHRs were calculated using West Virginia hospitalizations from 2005 to 2009. Spatial regressions were conducted to explore associations between CHR and total, underground, and surface coal production. After adjustment, neither total, nor surface, nor underground coal production was significantly related to rate of hospitalization for circulatory disease. Our findings underscore the significant role sociodemographic and behavioral factors play in the health and well-being of coal mining communities.

  19. The effect of China's globalisation on the South African coal mining equipment (OEM) industry / Ramona Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    The study looks at the mining equipment industry as coal mining equipment is a subsector within this industry. This study seeks to create an understanding of how the coal mining equipment industry in South Africa is affected by the emergence of China as a mining equipment supplier. China's globalisation is set to continue and will impact all industries. China's African Policy will also impact the African continent, as China will continue to invest and use Africa's mineral resources. Sourcing ...

  20. Development of an illumination system for longwall coal mines. Report for 1973--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedline, G.; Gartley, M.; Ketler, A.; Pellmann, R.

    1975-11-06

    The report describes the development of a lighting system beginning with a prototype longwall mockup followed by the design, fabrication, and testing of the system in an operating coal mine. Details of the design, installation, operation, and performance are given. The results have provided the basic technology needed to illuminate longwall sections. The existence of the technology is part of the prerequisite to promulgation of illumination standards as required by the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. (GRA)

  1. Early Warning System for Seismic Events in Coal Mines Using Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bogucki, Robert; Lasek, Jan; Milczek, Jan Kanty; Tadeusiak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This document describes an approach to the problem of predicting dangerous seismic events in active coal mines up to 8 hours in advance. It was developed as a part of the AAIA'16 Data Mining Challenge: Predicting Dangerous Seismic Events in Active Coal Mines. The solutions presented consist of ensembles of various predictive models trained on different sets of features. The best one achieved a winning score of 0.939 AUC.

  2. Hazards and occupational risk in hard coal mines - a critical analysis of legal requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    This publication concerns the problems of occupational safety and health in hard coal mines, the basic elements of which are the mining hazards and the occupational risk. The work includes a comparative analysis of selected provisions of general and industry-specific law regarding the analysis of hazards and occupational risk assessment. Based on a critical analysis of legal requirements, basic assumptions regarding the practical guidelines for occupational risk assessment in underground coal mines have been proposed.

  3. Application and Prospects of High-strength Lightweight Materials used in Coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pan

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes some high-strength lightweight materials used in coal mine, and if their performance can meet the requirements of underground safety for explosion-proof, anti-static, friction sparks mine; and reviewed the species, characteristic, preparation process of high-strength lightweight materials for having inspired lightweight high-strength performance by modifying or changing the synthesis mode used in coal mine equipment.

  4. Comparison of Methane Control Methods in Polish and Vietnamese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Borowski Marek; Kuczera Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Methane hazard often occurs in hard coal mines and causes very serious accidents and can be the reason of methane or methane and coal dust explosions. History of coal mining shows that methane released from the rock mass to the longwall area was responsible for numerous mining disasters. The main source of methane are coal deposits because it is autochthonous gas and is closely related with carbonification and forming of coal deposits. Degree of methane saturation in coal deposits depends on ...

  5. Characterization of phosphorus in the sedimentary environments of inundated agricultural soils around the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Xie, Kai; Sun, Pengfei; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-02-15

    Extensive coal mining in the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui China, in light of the local hydrology and geology, has resulted in extensive land subsidence and submergence around the mines. This has led to the formation of large (>100 km(2)) lakes. Three representative lakes were selected to study the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) unavailability for primary production from the perspective of sedimentary environments, which in turn owe their formation to permanently inundated agricultural soils. Two important issues were considered: (1) potential of P transport from the cultivated soil column toward surface sediments and (2) characterization of P behavior in view of regional ecological rehabilitation and conservation. Accordingly, we conducted field sediment analyses, combined with simulation experiments of soil column inundation/submergence lasting for four months. Enrichment of Fe-(hydr)oxides in surface sediments was verified to be the main reason for limitations in regional P availability in water bodies. Iron (Fe), but not its bound P, moved upward from the submerged soil column to the surface. However, an increasing upward gradient in the contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (TP), and different P fractions was caused by spatial heterogeneity in soil properties. Phosphorus was unable to migrate upward toward the surface sediments as envisioned, because of complex secondary reactions within soil minerals. Phosphorus bound to Fe and/or Al comprised over 50% of TP, which has important implications for local ecological rehabilitation and water conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration in opencast coal mine dumps located in a loess area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Wang, Hongdan; Cao, Yingui; Bai, Zhongke; Qin, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in improving and restoring fragile ecological environments. In the Antaibao opencast coal mine, located in a loess area, the eco-environment has been substantially disturbed by mining activities, and the relationship between the vegetation and environmental factors is not very clear. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration to improve the fragile ecosystems of damaged land. An investigation of the soil, topography and vegetation in 50 reclamation sample plots in Shanxi Pingshuo Antaibao opencast coal mine dumps was performed. Statistical analyses in this study included one-way ANOVA and significance testing using SPSS 20.0, and multivariate techniques of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) using CANOCO 4.5. The RDA revealed the environmental factors that affected vegetation restoration. Various vegetation and soil variables were significantly correlated. The available K and rock content were good explanatory variables, and they were positively correlated with tree volume. The effects of the soil factors on vegetation restoration were higher than those of the topographic factors. PMID:26916152

  7. Effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration in opencast coal mine dumps located in a loess area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Wang, Hongdan; Cao, Yingui; Bai, Zhongke; Qin, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in improving and restoring fragile ecological environments. In the Antaibao opencast coal mine, located in a loess area, the eco-environment has been substantially disturbed by mining activities, and the relationship between the vegetation and environmental factors is not very clear. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration to improve the fragile ecosystems of damaged land. An investigation of the soil, topography and vegetation in 50 reclamation sample plots in Shanxi Pingshuo Antaibao opencast coal mine dumps was performed. Statistical analyses in this study included one-way ANOVA and significance testing using SPSS 20.0, and multivariate techniques of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) using CANOCO 4.5. The RDA revealed the environmental factors that affected vegetation restoration. Various vegetation and soil variables were significantly correlated. The available K and rock content were good explanatory variables, and they were positively correlated with tree volume. The effects of the soil factors on vegetation restoration were higher than those of the topographic factors.

  8. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  9. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  10. Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings.

  11. Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescue mission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10 meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.

  12. Evaluation of Ecological Environmental Quality in a Coal Mining Area by Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effective method of the comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area. Firstly, we analyzed the ecological environmental effect of the coal mining area according to Pigovian Tax theory and, according to the results of the analysis and the demand for the selection of evaluation indices by the comprehensive evaluation, built the corresponding comprehensive evaluation index system. We then used the correlation function method to determine the relative weights of each index. We determined the basic standards of a comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area according to the actual situation of ecological environmental quality assessments in coal mining areas in our country and the relevant provisions of the government. On this basis, we built the two-level extension comprehensive evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological environmental quality in mining areas. Finally, we chose a certain coal mining area of Yanzhou Coal Mining Company Limited as the specific case. We used the relevant statistic data, technical and economic indices and the extension evaluation model to do the applied research of the comprehensive evaluation and tested the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation model.

  13. Booster fans : some considerations for their usage in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, S.; Slaughter, C. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Calizaya, F. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wu, H.W. [Gillies Wu Mining Technology Pty Ltd., Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the conditions under which booster fans can be used safely and efficiently in underground coal mines. Booster fans are installed in series with a main surface fan and are used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation air passing through it. Several coal mining countries use booster fans, but in the United States, they are only used in metal/non-metal mines due to concerns of uncontrolled recirculation. This study investigated installations of booster fans in non-US underground coal mines where safe and efficient atmospheric conditions are achieved. The purpose was to collect reliable information on airway resistances and flow requirements typical in large US coal mines. The study showed that safe booster fan installations are found in both high and low gas conditions, and sometimes where workings are located at great depths. The interlocking systems within the booster fan can control the underground fans and avoid recirculation when surface fans are unexpectedly turned off. Another purpose of the study was to determine when booster fans become a more viable solution in coal mines due to increases in air requirements at higher production rates. It was concluded that a new fan selection algorithm to produce recirculation-free ventilation designs will be developed to enable US coal mine operators to develop ventilation designs to extract coal seams from depths greater than 1000 m. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  15. Long-term liablities of coal mining; Ewigkeitslasten im Kohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [GDMB Gesellschaft der Metallurgen und Bergleute e.V., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The closer the end of coal mining in 2018, the more the issue of groundwater re-emergence in the Ruhr area is also being considered. This is especially the case because currently the subject of restitution and liability issues in the area of contaminated sites of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is discussed. In addition, the companies concerned lost considerable value on the stock market. For this reason, the question of whether the financial provisions in the created foundation are sufficient to shoulder the expected responsibilities and measures also arises with regard to coal mining. The question is which measures are to be taken and where damages can occur. Additional impulses are given by the Meggen judgment of the BVerwG of 18.12.2014, which interpreted the responsibility of the mining companies very widely. In the Rhineland, an earthquake hit 2.4 on 22.12.2015 - probably due to a rise in groundwater around the closed opencast mine Bergheim. All these questions are included in the colloquium on economics and environmental law on 26 January 2016. This also includes experiences and problems from other federal states such as Brandenburg and Saxony. [German] Je naeher das Ende des Steinkohlenbergbaus 2018 rueckt, desto eher geraet auch die Frage des Grundwasserwiederanstiegs im Ruhrgebiet ins Blickfeld. Das gilt zumal deshalb, weil aktuell ueber Rueckstellung und Haftungsfragen im Bereich der Altlasten der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie diskutiert wird. Zudem verloren die betroffenen Gesellschaften an der Boerse erheblich an Wert. Daher stellt sich auch in Bezug auf den Steinkohlenbergbau die Frage, ob die finanziellen Rueckstellungen in der geschaffenen Stiftung ausreichen, um die zu erwartenden Verantwortlichkeiten und Massnahmen schultern zu koennen. Vorgelagert ist die Frage, welche Massnahmen zu ergreifen sind und wo Schaeden auftreten koennen. Zusaetzliche Impulse bekommt diese Frage durch das Meggen-Urteil des BVerwG vom 18.12.2014, welches die

  16. Analysis and Prevention of Geo-Environmental Hazards with High-Intensive Coal Mining: A Case Study in China’s Western Eco-Environment Frangible Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to address the problems of major geo-environmental hazards caused by high-intensive coal mining in China’s western eco-environment frangible area including strong mining pressure, surface subsidence, soil and water loss, and land desertification. Using the high-intensive mining at the Xiao-jihan Coal Mine, this paper investigates the compaction characteristics of aeolian sand-based backfilling materials, and then the evolution of water-conducting fractures and surface deformation laws with different backfill material’s compression ratios (BMCRs by using physical simulation and numerical simulation analysis methods. This study presents the technical system of water-preserved and environmental protection with rapid-backfilling methods in China’s western eco-environment frangible area. The backfill coal mining technique and application prospects are assessed and discussed. The results will be helpful for coordinated development of coal resources exploitation and environmental protection in China’s western eco-environment frangible area.

  17. Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rait, R.; Trumm, D.; Pope, J.; Craw, D.; Newman, N.; MacKenzie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  19. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case; Mineracao de carvao e a qualidade da agua: o caso de Criciuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Lincoln

    1999-07-01

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following

  20. Rescue and emergency support services in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.; Brenkley, D.; Burrell, R.A.; Bennett, S.C. [Mines Rescue Service Limited (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an extensive review of the current scientific, technical and organisational knowledge appropriate to mine emergency and rescue response. The report examines and contrasts organisation of Mines Rescue at national level and identifies trends in organisational models. Subsequent sections of the report examine the issues relating to self-escape, life support in irrespirable atmospheres, and systems to ensure that effective communications, location of personnel and environmental monitoring are available after an incident. It is identified that there is scope to improve the current technologies in all of these areas, albeit that cost is an issue. The study identifies outstanding research requirements and examines barriers to the supply of equipment and successful transfer of best practice. One observation is that the resources for research and development have declined in a number of coal mining industries and that technological stagnation is a possible consequence. However, there is evidence to suggest that international collaboration is increasing and that best practice is shared, at least informally, between mines rescue organisations. 235 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  2. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  3. Natural radioactivity associated with bituminous coal mining in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogun, F.A.; Mokobia, C.E.; Fasasi, M.K.; Ogundare, F.O.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopic method was used to determine the natural radioactivity associated with the mining of Nigerian bituminous coal for the purpose of determining the radiological implications of coal mining in the country. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides detected range from 0.20±0.002 to 48.42±5.32 Bq kg -1 . The overall natural radionuclide contribution to the radioactivity of the environment was found to be 404.16±23.44 Bq kg -1 . Of this, coal waste (tailing) alone contributed 49.5% representing the largest contribution. Coal contributed just 5.5%. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work for coal with those from other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the Nigerian bituminous coal is not significantly different. The outdoor and indoor exposure rates in air 1 m above the ground are estimated to be (6.31±1.20)x10 -8 and (7.57±1.20) x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively, for the mining environment. These values compare very well with the global values reported by UNSCEAR: 5x10 -8 and 6x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively. The resulting annual effective dose equivalent estimated is (4.49±0.74)x10 -4 Sv yr -1 . This also compares favourably with the global value -4x10 -4 Sv yr -1 , reported by UNSCEAR

  4. Respirable quartz hazard associated with coal mine roof bolter dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, G.J.; Beck, T.W.; Listak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis has been reported to be increasing among underground coal miners in the Southern Appalachian Region. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to examine the particle size distribution and quartz content of dust generated by the installation of roof bolts in mines. Forty-six bulk samples of roof bolting machine pre-cleaner cyclone dump dust and collector box dust were collected from 26 underground coal mines. Real-time and integrated airborne respirable dust concentrations were measured on 3 mining sections in 2 mines. The real-time airborne dust concentrations profiles were examined to identify any concentration changes that might be associated with pre-cleaner cyclone dust discharge events. The study showed that bolter dust is a potential inhalation hazard due to the fraction of dust less than 10 μm in size, and the quartz content of the dust. The pre-cleaner cyclone dust was significantly larger than the collector box dust, indicating that the pre-cleaner functioned properly in removing the larger dust size fraction from the airstream. However, the pre-cleaner dust still contained a substantial amount of respirable dust. It was concluded that in order to maintain the effectiveness of a roof bolter dust collector, periodic removal of dust is required. Appropriate work procedures and equipment are necessary to minimize exposure during this cleaning task. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  6. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  7. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  8. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockie, Stewart; Franettovich, Maree; Petkova-Timmer, Vanessa; Rolfe, John; Ivanova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects-the resource community cycle-was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies, and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  9. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions after land-use abandonment in relation to carbon, nitrogen, and microbial community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Former agricultural land-use has strong legacy effects on biogeochemical cycles as well as on plant and microbial community composition in secondary ecosystems. Since many forests and grasslands have previously been cultivated it is important to understand long-term effects of former arable land use on these ecosystems. We studied the temporal dimension of the impact of former agricultural land use on soil total organic C (TOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) fractions, and microbial community structure in two chronosequences of abandoned vineyards, differing in exposition and slope. We found that more TOC accumulated in soils of south- than in southwest-exposed sites, which can be attributed to the drier microclimate that decreases organic matter decomposition. TOC concentrations were significantly positive correlated with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (R=0.99, pland use-abandonment. A linear relation between microbial C and TOC (R=0.83, pland-use abandonment, indicating a quick recovery of AMF most likely due to the fast colonization of the sites by herbaceous plants. Along with an increase in the abundance of trees the ratio of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)/bacteria decreased again. No changes were found in the total fungi/bacteria ratio during secondary succession. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOM is an effective intermediate storage of fertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P, but still contains high amounts of P even more than 100 years after land-use abandonment. This has important implications for conservation management as it shows that organic P stocks have to be taken into account for estimating the development potentials of formerly cultivated sites for plant conservation.

  10. Cellulomonas carbonis sp. nov., isolated from coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zunji; Luo, Guosheng; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T26(T), was isolated from subsurface soil of Tianjin coal mine, China. Colonies were yellow-white, convex, circular, smooth and non-transparent on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T26(T) was closely related to members of the genus Cellulomonas and a member of the genus Actinotalea with 96.8-94.7% and 96.7% gene sequence similarities, respectively. The peptidoglycan type of strain T26(T) was A4β, containing l-ornithine-d-glutamic acid as the interpeptide bridge. The cell-wall sugars were rhamnose, galactose, xylose and inositol. The major fatty acids (>10%) were anteiso-C(15:0) (33.6%), anteiso-C(15:1) A (22.1%), C(16:0) (14.4%) and C(14:0) (12.1%). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 74.4 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol-mannosides and phosphatidylinositol. Comparison of phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics between strain T26(T) and related organisms revealed that the new isolate represented a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas carbonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T26(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10786(T) = KCTC 19824(T) = CCTCC AB2010450(T)).

  11. Miners’ return to work following injuries in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW following a miner’s injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person’s social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners’ injuries. Material and Methods: A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000–2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners’ return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. Conclusions: The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6:729–742

  12. Reduction of personnel vibration hazards in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, X.; Middlin, A. (Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd. (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) due to the 'rough ride' in vehicles is a major source of back and neck injury in underground coal mines. Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV) from hand held equipment can also cause long term health damage. Surveys in three collieries in NSW have been conducted to measure the vibration levels to which miners are being exposed and to assess them according to the two relevant Australian Standards namely AS2670 and AS2763. WBV results indicated that shock loadings must be the source of back and neck injuries that are occurring due to 'rough ride'. Existing off-the-shelf seat suspensions were demonstrated to be inadequate for providing effective shock isolation, due to them being prone to bottoming out under rough conditions, and due their scissor action mechanism becoming rapidly jammed by dirt to the point where they become rigid. Commercially available seats were evaluated and tested on a hydraulic shaker, but none proved able to provide the required vibration isolation. A prototype seat suspension was developed by Vipac. This suspension was shaker tested and trialled in low loaders at two collieries. The seat proved capable of cushioning shock loads without bottoming out, as well as attenuating the dominant vibration at 2.5 Hz and higher. This suspension with encapsulated mechanism could be readily adapted to suit a wide range of underground vehicles. The HAV survey results identified the Wombat roof-bolter as the major item requiring vibration level reductions. Extensive investigations resulted in the design of a prototype vibration isolated handle. During field tests this prototype handle reduced the HAV level such that the Exposure Time (10th percentile) was increased from 7 to 11.5 years. Guidelines are presented for additional developments which would further improve this performance and result in a handle design suitable for retrofitting to existing roof bolters.

  13. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirten, D.

    1994-01-01

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.) [de

  14. Boron toxicity of coal mining areas in southwestern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.L. [Idaho Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise, ID (United States); Smith, P.W. [Wyoming Dept. of Environmental Quality, Cheyenne, WY (United States); Smith, J.A. [Wyoming Dept. of Environmental Quality, Lander, WY (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Boron tolerance of native plant species is not generally known. This study was conducted to determine the B tolerance of thickspike wheatgrass [Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.], a species commonly used to reclaim minelands in the semiarid and arid West. Pre-germinated thickspike wheatgrass seeds were planted in three soil materials obtained from a coal mine in southwestern Wyoming. Soils were taken from an undisturbed bottomland (clay), a topsoil stockpile (sand), and a carbonaceous shale outcrop (shale) with inherent hot water extractable-B (HWE-B) levels of 2.8, 1.3, and 3.5 mg/kg soil, respectively. Each soil material was treated with boric acid solutions to produce seven different HWE-B levels. B levels ranged from inherent conditions up to 57.9 mg/kg. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 100 days in pots containing 2.9 kg of clay or shale or 3.4 kg sand. Wheatgrass shoot and root dry matter production were measured. Toxicity symptoms (leaf tip necrosis) were observed in all treatments but the controls during the study. Levels of 11.6 and 20.5 mg/kg HWE-B produced an average of 10 and 20% reductions in shoot production, respectively. Ten and 20% reductions in root growth were observed with 3.8 and 6.6 mg/kg HWE-B, respectively. Plants grown in the sand were most B sensitive. This is postulated to be a result of the drier conditions attendant in that soil. Results indicate that thickspike wheatgrass can tolerate HWE-B levels in excess of 5 mg/kg. However, actual field tolerance levels will be dependent on climatic and soil environmental conditions, particularly moisture availability.

  15. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  16. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  17. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  18. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  19. Selected Black-Coal Mine Waste Dumps in the Ostrava-Karviná Region: An Analysis of Their Potential Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Dominik; Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Marschalko, Marian; Kubáč, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims to analyse the options for the use of selected black-coal mine waste dump bodies in the Ostrava-Karviná Region. In the Czech Republic there are approximately 70 mine waste dumps, out of which 50 are located in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District. The issue is highly topical, particularly in the region, because the dump bodies significantly affect the landscape character of the Ostrava-Karviná Region and pose ecological risks. In such cases, their redevelopment and land reclamation are not easy either from the environmental or economic points of view. It is clear that the redevelopment of such geological environment is difficult, and it is vital to make the right decisions as for what purposes the mine waste dumps should be used. Next, it is important to take into account all the economic and environmental aspects of the locality in question.

  20. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  1. [Thermal load at workstations in the underground coal mining: Results of research carried out in 6 coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słota, Krzysztof; Słota, Zbigniew; Kułagowska, Ewa

    Statistics shows that almost half of Polish extraction in underground mines takes place at workstations where temperature exceeds 28°C. The number of employees working in such conditions is gradually increasing, therefore, the problem of safety and health protection is still growing. In the present study we assessed the heat load of employees at different workstations in the mining industry, taking into account current thermal conditions and work costs. The evaluation of energy cost of work was carried out in 6 coal mines. A total of 221 miners employed at different workstations were assessed. Individual groups of miners were characterized and thermal safety of the miners was assessed relying on thermal discomfort index. The results of this study indicate considerable differences in the durations of analyzed work processes at individual workstations. The highest average energy cost was noted during the work performed in the forehead. The lowest value was found in the auxiliary staff. The calculated index of discomfort clearly indicated numerous situations in which the admissible range of thermal load exceeded the parameters of thermal load safe for human health. It should be noted that the values of average labor cost fall within the upper, albeit admissible, limits of thermal load. The results of the study indicate that in some cases work in mining is performed in conditions of thermal discomfort. Due to high variability and complexity of work conditions it becomes necessary to verify the workers' load at different workstations, which largely depends on the environmental conditions and work organization, as well as on the performance of workers themselves. Med Pr 2016;67(4):477-498. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Thermal load at workstations in the underground coal mining: Results of research carried out in 6 coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Słota

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statistics shows that almost half of Polish extraction in underground mines takes place at workstations where temperature exceeds 28°C. The number of employees working in such conditions is gradually increasing, therefore, the problem of safety and health protection is still growing. Material and Methods: In the present study we assessed the heat load of employees at different workstations in the mining industry, taking into account current thermal conditions and work costs. The evaluation of energy cost of work was carried out in 6 coal mines. A total of 221 miners employed at different workstations were assessed. Individual groups of miners were characterized and thermal safety of the miners was assessed relying on thermal discomfort index. Results: The results of this study indicate considerable differences in the durations of analyzed work processes at individual workstations. The highest average energy cost was noted during the work performed in the forehead. The lowest value was found in the auxiliary staff. The calculated index of discomfort clearly indicated numerous situations in which the admissible range of thermal load exceeded the parameters of thermal load safe for human health. It should be noted that the values of average labor cost fall within the upper, albeit admissible, limits of thermal load. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that in some cases work in mining is performed in conditions of thermal discomfort. Due to high variability and complexity of work conditions it becomes necessary to verify the workers’ load at different workstations, which largely depends on the environmental conditions and work organization, as well as on the performance of workers themselves. Med Pr 2016;67(4:477–498

  3. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  4. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  5. The influence of subsidence attributable to coal mining on the environment, development and restoration: some examples from western Europe and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, F.G.; Genske, D.D. [University of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Geology & Applied Geology

    2001-02-01

    One of the consequences of coal mining is subsidence, and it is associated with past and present mine workings. Indeed, old abandoned coal mines worked by the room-and-pillar method, which occur at shallow depth, often present a potential hazard as pillars collapse or voids migrate to the surface. Frequently, the situation is compounded by the fact that such workings are unrecorded. Subsidence prediction in such cases is impossible. In longwall mining, the total extraction of panels takes place, the working face being supported, while support is removed from behind the working face allowing the roof to collapse. Subsidence consequent on longwall mining can be regarded as more or less contemporaneous with mining and is normally predictable. This means that it is possible to develop an area after subsidence due to longwall mining has occurred or to incorporate features into the design of buildings and structures that will accommodate ground movements generated by subsidence. The nature of subsidence can be affected by discontinuities in the surface strata or the presence of superficial deposits. Of course, subsidence can adversely affect existing buildings and structures which do not incorporate special design features. In severe cases of subsidence damage, buildings may have to be demolished. Important buildings may be restored. Another problem associated with subsidence is flooding due to notable lowering of the ground surface. Examples of such problems and solutions are highlighted by the examples given.

  6. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  7. Application of modified extended method in CREAM for safety inspector in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhe; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Jianchao

    2018-01-01

    Safety inspector often performs duties in circumstances contributes to the oc currence of human failures. Therefore, the paper aims at quantifying human failure pro bability (HFP) of safety inspector during the coal mine operation with cognitive reliabi lity and error analysis method (CREAM). Whereas, some shortcomings of this approa ch that lacking considering the applicability of the common performance condition (C PC), and the subjective of evaluating CPC level which weaken the accuracy of the qua ntitative prediction results. A modified extended method in CREAM which is able to a ddress these difficulties with a CPC framework table is proposed, and the proposed me thodology is demonstrated by the virtue of a coal-mine accident example. The results a re expected to be useful in predicting HFP of safety inspector and contribute to the enh ancement of coal mine safety.

  8. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  9. Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrović, Dejan; Denić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje; Milić, Vitomir

    2012-12-01

    Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 20700 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... coal mining industry. MSHA estimates that the monetized benefit to underground coal mine operators, in.... 75.1722(a)--guarding moving machine parts; and Sec. 75.1731(a)--maintenance of belt conveyor... protected. They added that the proposal would allow operators to learn about such conditions at an earlier...

  11. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  12. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  13. Conceptual development of a method to determine the principal stresses around coal mine workings to ensure safe mine design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, S

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to identify or to develop methods or procedures for the determination of the principal stresses in coal mine workings, which in turn would provide improved criteria for mine design layouts in coal mines. To address...

  14. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... in terms of mine design, site and materials management, or water treatment systems, consistent with... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental... Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and...

  15. PROBLEMY I PERSPEKTIVY ISPOL'ZOVANIYA SHAKHTNOGO METANA [PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COAL MINE METHANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogileva Ye.M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coal mine methane ensures the implementation of the principle of integrated development of the deposit. The urgency of the problem of coal mine methane is determined by the fact that the Presidential Decree of September 30, 2013 № 752 "On the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions" is to bring to the 2020 decrease in emissions. The article substantiates the necessity of cardinal growth of the volumes of utilization of mine methane, as well as the strengthening of the role of degassing methods. The main reasons for the low level of utilization in the Russian Federation are noted. The main directions of using coal mine methane at present are considered, among which are: heat generation (fuel in boilers and other heat generators; generation of electricity (fuel for diesel engines of alternators; fuel for motor vehicles; raw materials for the chemical industry. The analysis of the main methods of utilization of methane-air mixtures is presented. Three perspective technologies for recycling methane from the ventilation streams of coal mines to the atmosphere are singled out: a thermal reactor with reversible flows "VOCSIDIZER", developed by MEGTEC Systems; a thermal reactor with reversible flows "VAMOX", developed by the company "Biothermica Technologies Inc."; a catalytic reversible reactor developed by Canadian Mineral and Energy Technologies. International practice shows that the implementation of projects for the utilization of coal mine methane, as a rule, requires the economic stimulation of such works. The article gives the main incentives and identifies the main directions for solving the problem of coal mine methane utilization.

  16. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rosangela; Pires, Marcal; Azevedo, Carla M.N.; Fagundes, Leandro; Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C 1 ) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C 1 to C 5 ), while only C 1 and C 2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C 1 to C 4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C 1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C 2 -C 3 , with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C 2 was detected in all samples while C 3 -C 5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  17. From explosions to black lung: a history of efforts to control coal mine dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J L

    1993-01-01

    Highlights in the history of efforts to prevent occupational lung disease among coal miners in the United States are reviewed. The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 is summarized, and the sources and effects of its provisions to prevent coal workers' pneumoconiosis are examined. Descriptions follow of the identification of coal workers' pneumoconiosis as a disease, identification of respirable coal mine dust as its cause, and establishment and enforcement of an exposure limit. The development of prevention efforts focusing on surveillance of both exposure and outcome and of enforcement of dust control methods is examined.

  18. Improving Occupational and Industrial Safety Management System at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Svetlana; Kadnikova, Oksana; Demidenko, Ksenia; Chistyakova, Galina; Rolgayzer, Anastasia

    2017-11-01

    The article highlights the problem of mine workers occupational safety. The foreign and domestic experience of the field is analyzed. Some areas, activities and methods that meet modern requirements for ensuring occupational safety and production development, which are aimed at improving the quality of occupational safety management system, are described. The possibilities of their use in industrial safety of Kuzbass coal mining enterprises are considered. The proposed methods were implemented by JSC "Shakhta Yuzhnaya", "Kiselevsky Razrez" Ltd., the coal mining enterprises of the Kemerovo region.

  19. A study of leakage rates through mine seals in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzel, Steven J; Krog, Robert B; Mazzella, Andrew; Hollerich, Cynthia; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-04-07

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study on leakage rates through underground coal mine seals. Leakage rates of coal bed gas into active workings have not been well established. New seal construction standards have exacerbated the knowledge gap in our understanding of how well these seals isolate active workings near a seal line. At a western US underground coal mine, we determined seal leakage rates ranged from about 0 to 0.036 m 3 /s for seven 340 kPa seals. The seal leakage rate varied in essentially a linear manner with variations in head pressure at the mine seals.

  20. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  1. Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.M.; Gero, A.J.; Parobeck, P.S; Tomb, T.F. [US Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Occupational quartz exposure data gathered from the Mine Safety and Health Adminsitration`s respirable dust enforcement program and a program to monitor quartz exposure in several mining occupations were compiled and analyzed to assess the status of quartz exposures in the coal mining industry. The analysis showed that, in underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz. Occupations that showed a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter, continuous miner operator, and continuous miner operator helper. In surface coal mines the highwall drill operator and helper, bulldozer operator, scraper operator, and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  4. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  5. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  6. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  8. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.17 Bonding requirements for...

  9. Geohydrology and potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the Rapid Creek Basin, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management may lease additional coal tracts in the Rapid Creek basin, Colorado. Springs in this basin are used as a water supply for the town of Palisade. The geohydrology of the basin is described and the potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the basin summarized. Geologic formations in the basin consists of Cretaceous sandstone and shale, Tertiary sandstone, shale, and basalt, and unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. Some sandstone and coal beds are permeable, although bedrock in the basin typically is a confining bed. Unconsolidated deposits contain aquifers that are the source of spring discharge. Stream discharge was measured on Rapid and Cottonwood Creeks, and inventories were made of 7 reservoirs, 25 springs, and 12 wells. Specific conductance of streams ranged from 320 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 7.8 to 8.6. Specific conductance of springs ranged from 95 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.3. Discharge from the basin includes about 18,800 acre-ft/yr as evapotranspiration, 1,300 acre-ft/yr as springflow, 1,280 acre-ft/yr as streamflow, and negligible groundwater flow in bedrock. With appropriate mining methods, underground mining would not decrease flow in basin streams or from springs. The potential effects of mining-caused subsidence might include water-pipeline damage and temporary dewatering of bedrock adjacent to coal mining. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  11. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  12. Analysis and Application of Coal Seam Seismic Waves for detection of Abandoned Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Yancey, Daniel Jackson

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon for underground coal mining to be conducted in the proximity of abandoned underground mines that are prone to accumulate water, methane or other toxic gases, and are often either poorly mapped or without good surface survey control. Mining into such abandoned voids poses a great safety risk to personnel, equipment, and production from inundation or toxic/explosive gas release. Often, surface or underground drilling is employed to detect the mine void and e...

  13. Modeling the effect of abandonment process of cultivated land on water quantity and quality using SWAT in a hilly watersheds of western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Onodera, S. I.; Matsumori, K.

    2016-12-01

    Some of previous studies argued that the total area of cultivated land has already passed through its peak at the global scale, and increase of abandoned cultivated land will be projected. The problems result from the abandonment on water quantity and quality could be revealed next 20 to 30 years. Although Japan has same with this trend, the situation could be more serious owing to its topographical characteristic. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of the abandonment process of cultivated land on water quantity and quality at the watershed scale. Several scales of watersheds (2.6 km2 - 2,670 km2) located in the Chugoku Region in western Japan were the target in this study. To examine the effect of abandoned cultivated land on water quality, we used Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2012 Rev632. The parameters related water cycle, sediment, and nutrient yields were calibrated using the river discharge and water quality that are observed at outlets of the watersheds using SWATCUP version 5.1.6 with SUFI2 method. The result of the analysis that cultivated land in the watershed will be abandoned, increasing of maximum river discharge and fluxes of organic nitrogen and particulate phosphorus were found under heavy rainfall events. Some difference on the magnitude of fluxes was found between crop types and tillage conditions of the abandoned land. Although the surface is undergoing afforestation process that could stabilize the river discharge by vegetation cover after the abandonment, it takes more than 10 years to become rewilding condition. The results indicate that the beginning of several years which begin to be abandoned is the most critical period of discharge water quantity and quality. Furthermore, climate change effect such as increasing rainfall intensity could enhance this trend so that it is possible to be a trigger to cause a disaster such as a landslide or flood if cultivated land locates in hilly and mountainous area will be abandoned

  14. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sares, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  15. "Canary in a coal mine" : monitoring air quality and detecting environmental incidents by harvesting Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.; Mast, P.; Tromp, M.; Winterboer, A.; Evers, V.

    2011-01-01

    We present an application that facilitates environmental monitoring by and for the general public. 'Canary in a Coal Mine' (CIACM) gathers and analyses pollution-related tweets in real-time from the micro-blogging platform Twitter and visualizes temporal and spatial characteristics of the data.

  16. Screening of metal-resistant coal mine bacteria for biofabrication of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... or capping of reduced silver nanocrystal or both.Thus, majority of the bacteria found in the coal mines have the resistance against the antimicrobial metal ion, and the potential to reduce the ion into nano- or micro-particles. Hence, the bacteria can be used as a single cell factoryfor production of silver nanomaterial.

  17. 77 FR 25205 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Roof Control Plans for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... Information Collection; Roof Control Plans for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...

  18. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas... Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in...

  19. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines; Certified Person...

  20. Screening of metal-resistant coal mine bacteria for biofabrication of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Green synthesis approaches for nanoparticle synthesis are considered as nontoxic, eco-friendly and cost-effective approaches than other physical and chemical approaches. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using the bacteria from the habitat of relatively metal-rich coal mine dust. The bacteria ...

  1. Career Orientations of High School Seniors in an Appalachian Coal Mining County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John Leslie

    An exploratory study focusing upon the career choosing patterns of high school seniors in a relatively isolated, coal-mining county of West Virginia is reported in this paper. The 2 basic hypotheses examined were that rural youth from upper status family backgrounds will have higher status career orientations than those from lower status family…

  2. Information Resources for Coal Mining and Related Subjects. A Bibliographic Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha Li, Comp.

    This bibliography lists materials on coal mining and related resources contained in the library of Southeast Community College (Kentucky). The guide is organized in six sections. The first section lists reference materials and is annotated. The second section lists books. Subject headings include coal miners, mines, and trade; mine safety; mineral…

  3. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function downstream from mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining has altered the physicochemical landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the U.S. Increased specific conductance and levels of component ions downstream from valley fill sites are toxic to aquatic life and can negatively impa...

  4. "Sticking Together!" Policy Activism from within a UK Coal-Mining Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, N. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some aspects of a doctoral ethnographic study of young people disaffected from schooling in a post-industrial space of ruin in a former coal-mining community in England. It considers how their experiences of resistance and refusal of schooling can, in the relational ethos of non-school support settings, come to speak back…

  5. Development and Dissemination of a Manual for Developing Coal Mining Curricula. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Elizabeth H.; Katz, D. S.

    This report describes and summarizes the purposes, activities, major findings, and recommendations of three coal-related study reports: (1) An Assessment of Employment and Training needs for Coal and Gasification Occupations, (2) A Manual for Competency-Matched Instructional Resources for Developing Coal Mining Curricula, and (3) The Preparation…

  6. Screening of metal-resistant coal mine bacteria for biofabrication of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Additionally, IR study provided information about the bacterial proteins involved in either reduction of Ag(I) into silver nanoparticle or capping of reduced silver nanocrystal or both.Thus, majority of the bacteria found in the coal mines have the resistance against the antimicrobial metal ion, and the potential to reduce the ion ...

  7. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, D. G.

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  8. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  9. Black coal mining in the Ruhr area - development, political framework, regional involvement and diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.; Storchmann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Whenever mention is made of public budget cost cutting measures by reducing subsidies, the German black coal industry also attracts attention. The ensuing discussions general consist of at least two explosive aspects: Energy policy, because hard coal-along with brown coal - is the only energy source largely available in the Federal Republic of Germany; regional policy, because the nature of coal mining makes is very concentrated in certain areas. The resolutions made in November 1991 towards a new concept of coal mining are secure grounds enough to take stock of the meaning of hard coal mines in the largest German coal reserve - The Ruhr Area. There are four main aspects: Firstly, the development of the Ruhr mines since the end of the war is sketched out (Section I); the related political implications will be explored in Section 2; due to the particular importance of coal mines in the Ruhr area, Section 3 is concerned with the sector's regional relationship; the final section (No. 4) explores the question of diversification in the production programme at Ruhrkohle AG, one of the several Ruhr mining industry businesses. (orig.) [de

  10. Review of practices for the prevention, detection and control of underground fires in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holding, W

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical review is given of the frequency of fires and flammable gas ignitions in South African underground coal mines, both on a simple numerical basis and in relation to underground coal production, for the years 1970-1992.previously...

  11. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study. J Dowarah H P Deka Boruah J Gogoi N Pathak N Saikia A K Handique. Volume 118 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 597-608 ...

  12. Managerial Accounting Principles and Cost Calculation Used by Economic Entities in the Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boca (Rakos) Ileana – Sorina; Vatasoiu Cristian Ionel

    2011-01-01

    Considering the specialized work in managerial accounting, this paper aims to show which cost calculation principles are actually applied in the coal mining industry today. The methodology used in this scientific approach is of qualitative nature, using the following methods: direct observation and interview.

  13. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  14. Technique of complex slime water treatment of coal-mining branch

    OpenAIRE

    Solodov, G. А.; Zhbyr, Е. V.; Papin, А. V.; Nevedrov, А. V.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of complex slime water treatment at coal-mining and coal-treating plants producing marketable products: power-generating concentrate, coal-water fuel, magnetic fraction, industrial water is shown. A basic process flowsheet of slime water treatment presenting a united technological complex is suggested.

  15. The Increase of Power Efficiency of Underground Coal Mining by the Forecasting of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, Vladimir; Belyaevsky, Roman; Skrebneva, Evgeniya

    2017-11-01

    In article the analysis of electric power consumption and problems of power saving on coal mines are considered. Nowadays the share of conditionally constant costs of electric power for providing safe working conditions underground on coal mines is big. Therefore, the power efficiency of underground coal mining depends on electric power expense of the main technological processes and size of conditionally constant costs. The important direction of increase of power efficiency of coal mining is forecasting of a power consumption and monitoring of electric power expense. One of the main approaches to reducing of electric power costs is increase in accuracy of the enterprise demand in the wholesale electric power market. It is offered to use artificial neural networks to forecasting of day-ahead power consumption with hourly breakdown. At the same time use of neural and indistinct (hybrid) systems on the principles of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms is more preferable. This model allows to do exact short-term forecasts at a small array of input data. A set of the input parameters characterizing mining-and-geological and technological features of the enterprise is offered.

  16. Discriminant Model of Coal Mining Microseismic and Blasting Signals Based on Waveform Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, there are two important types of microseismic (MS signals caused by mining and blasting activities at coal mines. The waveform characteristics of MS signals using FFT, STA/LTA method, and envelope analysis were studied to distinguish these two types of MS signals. The main results are as follows: the dominant frequency and duration of two types of signals are significantly different. The following peak envelope curves of two types of MS signals fit a power function. The power exponent was obtained to describe the attenuated speed of the MS signals. The attenuation of the coal mining MS signals is slower and more fluctuant than that of the blasting signal. Waveform characteristics consisting of the dominant frequency, duration, and attenuation coefficient were extracted as the discriminating parameters. The discriminating performance of these parameters was compared and discussed. Based on the waveform characteristics, a discriminant model for coal mining MS and blasting signals was established by using Fisher linear discriminant method and its performance was checked. The results show that the accuracy of the discriminant model is more than 85%, which can meet the requirements of MS monitoring at coal mines.

  17. Long-hole destress blasting for rockburst control during deep underground coal mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Singh, R.

    -, č. 61 (2013), s. 141-153 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ostrava - Karvina Coal basin * longwall mining * rockbursts * destress blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1365160913000348

  18. Application of the coal-mining waste in building ceramics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    Full Text Available In the process of construction ceramics production a substantial quantity of non-renewable natural resources - clays - are used. One of the ways of science development in building materials production is investigation of the possibility of regular materials production using technogenic waste. Application of coal-mining waste (technogenic raw material in charge composition for production of ceramic products provides rational use of fuel, contributes to implementation of resource saving technologies on construction materials production enterprises. Though science development on revealing new raw material sources should be conducted with account for safety, reliability, technical, ecological and economical sides of the problem, which is especially current. The article deals with the problem of coal-mining waste usage in building ceramics production instead of fresh primary component (clay, fluxes, thinning agents and combustible additives. The interdependence between the density and shrinkage of the ceramic products and the amount and quality of coal-mining waste in its composition was established. The optimal proportion of coal-mining waste and clay in building ceramics production was estimated.

  19. [Soil organic pollution characteristics and microbial properties in coal mining areas of Mentougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-Li; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chen; Li, Dong; Liu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Le; Yang, Si-Qi

    2011-03-01

    Soil micro-ecosystem including organic pollution characteristics, basic physicochemical parameters, and microbial properties was analyzed which contaminated with organic pollutants in coal mining area. Results showed that the organic pollution level in coal mining area soils distributed from 0.4 to 1.5 mg/g dry soil, which was 1. 5-6 times as much as the background sample. Furthermore, the column chromatography and GC-MS analysis revealed that content of lightly components including saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded 40%, specifically was alkenes (> C15), hydrocarbon derivatives, and a small amount aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally, the components of organic pollutants extracted in soils were similar to which in coal gangue samples, illustrating the source of soil pollution to a certain extent in coal mining areas. The physicochemical factors such as nutrient level and moisture contents were not conducive to the growth and reproduction of microbe except pH level, which might show inhibition to microbial activities. Microbial density of pollutant soils in coal mining areas was totally low, with specific amount 10(4)-10(5) cell/g dry soil and FDA activity 2.0-2.9 mg/(g x min). Generally, the microbial density and activity were decreased as the enhancing pollution level. However, in-depth analysis was needed urgently because of the complex impact of environmental conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrition.

  20. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, I.; Mazurkiewicz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  1. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  2. Investigate the causes of transport and tramming accidents on coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rushworth, AM

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport and tramming accidents on coal mines in South Africa are a major component in the overall pattern of colliery accidents. Furthermore, there is now a widespread acceptance that human error is a common cause of failure in accident patterns...

  3. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  4. 78 FR 72717 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Black Lung Benefits Act of 1977, as amended, 30 U.S.C. 901 et seq., provides for the payment of benefits to coal miners who are totally disabled by black lung disease arising... black lung disease caused by coal mine employment. This information collection is currently approved for...

  5. 76 FR 24918 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Proposed Renewal of Existing Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... concerning the proposed collection: Miner's Claim for Benefits under the Black Lung Benefits Act (CM-911) and... Coal Mine Workers' Compensation administers the Black Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S.C. 901 et seq.), which... miner who applies for black lung benefits must complete the CM-911 (application form). The completed...

  6. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... proposed rule is an important element in MSHA's Comprehensive Initiative to ``End Black Lung--Act Now..., and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  7. 75 FR 51488 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... order to carry out its responsibility to administer the Black Lung Benefits Act. Agency: Office of...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation administers the Black Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S.C. 901 et seq.), which provides benefits to coal miners totally disabled due...

  8. 76 FR 24919 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Proposed Renewal of Existing Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... administer the Black Lung Benefits Act. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs. Type of Review...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation administers the Black Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S.C. 901 et seq.), which provides benefits to coal miners totally disabled due...

  9. [Changes in the blood concentrations of interleukins and electrolytes in miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, E B; Rebrov, B A; Rebrova, O A; Stroilo, N G; Voloshinovich, A R

    2001-01-01

    Miners working in deep coal mines, engaged in hard physical work under most harsh mine conditions demonstrate a striking imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and a rise in the blood levels of electrolytes K+ and Na+ as well. The analysis performed revealed a direct correlation between the level of blood concentration of IL-6 and that of K+, Na+.

  10. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  11. Failure Mode Analysis and Dynamic Response of a Coal Mine Refuge Chamber with a Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A gas and coal dust explosion is potential hazard in majority coal mines. A coal mine mobile refuge chamber is a new class of device for miners those who are unable to escape after an accident which can provide basic survival conditions. In this paper, in order to study the propagation law of an underground methane/air mixture explosive wave, and check the failure mode of a coal mine mobile refuge chamber, a full-sized underground tunnel model and a refuge chamber model have been established in ANSYS/LS-DYNA (LSTC, R7.0.0, Livermore, CA, USA, 2014. The simulation results show that the reflected wave pressure on the front surface of the refuge chamber was about twice as high than the incident wave. The pressure on various locations of the chamber was also analyzed. When the peak pressure of the explosive shockwave reached 0.64 MPa, the maximum displacement and stress occur at the center of the front door and the joint of stiffeners and the front plate, respectively. Most parts of the coal mine mobile refuge chamber were in a plastic failure state and the refuge chamber could be defined as damaged. The front door, the front plate, the connecting flange, and the stiffeners on each side were the primary key components. In the end, suggestions were proposed for the refuge chamber.

  12. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday, April 6, 2010, make the following correction...

  13. Underground coal mines as sources of water for public supply in northern Upshur County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobba, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water use for the public supply in northern Upshur County, West Virginia exceeds the 1930 drought flow of its water source, the Buckhannon River. Three underground flooded coal mines near Buckhannon store about 1,170 acre-ft of water. This stored water , plus an additional 500 gal/min of groundwater infiltration into the mine, is enough to supply current public water needs of the area (1,500 gal/min) for 265 days, and projected needs (2 ,500 gal/min) for the year 2018 for about 135 days. This is also adequate enough for the year 2018 during droughts comparable to those in 1953 and 1930, for which 1900 gal/min and 2400 gal/min would be needed, respectively, to augment the surface-water source. Water from the flooded mines is chemically similar to water from nearby wells; however, nearby coal mining or pumpage from the mines may cause roof falls or subsidence, turbidity, changes in water quality, or leakage into or from the mines. More than 70 communities in West Virginia use water from coal mines for public supply. The flooded coal mines near Buckhannon could supply the public-water supply needs of northern Upshur County for about 265 days, but the water will require treatment to remove dissolved substances. (USGS)

  14. Rationalization of production structure by integrated mechanization in Miike Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Tetsuyoh

    1991-01-01

    The Miike Coal Mine, the largest and oldest coal mine in Japan, has to cope with such problems, as the extension and deepening of mining areas. This mine has maintained a policy of giving priority to increasing coal production for many years. However, this mine, like other coal mines in Japan, is obliged to reduce production according to The 8th Coal Policy of the Japanese Government. In this difficult economic environment the Miike Coal Mine has been making extensive efforts to rationalize mining operation by integrated mechanization. The results of this rationalization are summarized as follows. (1) The shift of production structure of 4.5 million tons (salable) from 3 pits comprising 10 coal faces, to 2.5 million tons from 1 pit comprising 2 coal faces. (2) Improving of overall productivity from 106.3 tons/man.month in 1986 to 127.3 tons/man.month in 1989. (3) Production cost savings of 10 %. (4) Improving of safety from an accident rate of 35/million workers in 1986 to 26/million workers in 1989. (author)

  15. VRLane: a desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Chen, Jingzhu; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Pengpeng; Wu, Daozheng

    2008-10-01

    VR technologies, which generate immersive, interactive, and three-dimensional (3D) environments, are seldom applied to coal mine safety work management. In this paper, a new method that combined the VR technologies with underground mine safety management system was explored. A desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine, called VRLane, was developed. The paper mainly concerned about the current research advance in VR, system design, key techniques and system application. Two important techniques were introduced in the paper. Firstly, an algorithm was designed and implemented, with which the 3D laneway models and equipment models can be built on the basis of the latest mine 2D drawings automatically, whereas common VR programs established 3D environment by using 3DS Max or the other 3D modeling software packages with which laneway models were built manually and laboriously. Secondly, VRLane realized system integration with underground industrial automation. VRLane not only described a realistic 3D laneway environment, but also described the status of the coal mining, with functions of displaying the run states and related parameters of equipment, per-alarming the abnormal mining events, and animating mine cars, mine workers, or long-wall shearers. The system, with advantages of cheap, dynamic, easy to maintenance, provided a useful tool for safety production management in coal mine.

  16. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  17. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... With Constitutionally Protected Property Rights E. Executive Order 12988: Civil Justice Reform F... poverty of families and children. This ETS impacts only the underground bituminous coal mine industry... analysis is required. E. Executive Order 12988: Civil Justice Reform This ETS was written to provide a...

  18. The coal mining: perspectives and future; La mineria del Carbon perspectivas y realidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Castano Merediz, C.

    1997-04-01

    The article analyzes the situation of coal mining after the publication of Law for the regulation of Electric System in Spain, and the publication of the decision 1072/94 CECA to authorize the subsidies for Spanish coal. The production, consumption and perspectives are analyzed.

  19. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  20. Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Yuan, Zijiao; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    Coal mining area is highly subject to lead (Pb) pollution from coal mining activities. Several decades of coal mining and processing practices in dozens of coal mines in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA) have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of coal gangue, which piled in dumps. In order to investigate the impacts of coal gangue dumps on Pb level in the supergene media of the HCMA, a systematic sampling campaign comprising coal gangue, soil, wheat, and earthworm samples was conducted. The average Pb content in the coal mining area soil is 24 mg/kg, which is slightly higher than the associated coal gangues (23 mg/kg) and markedly higher than reference region soil (12.6 mg/kg). Soil in the HCMA present a slight to moderate Pb contamination, which might be related to the weathering and leaching of coal gangue dumps. Lateral distribution of Pb in HCMA soil differed among individual coal mines. The soil profile distribution of Pb depends on both natural and anthropogenic contributions. Average Pb content is higher in roots than in stems, leaves, and wheat husks, while the Pb level in seeds exceeded the maximum Pb allowance for foods (Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods of China, GB 2762-2012). Earthworms in the selected area are significantly enriched in Pb, suggesting higher bio-available Pb level in soil in the HCMA.

  1. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  2. An Improved Approach to Estimate Methane Emissions from Coal Mining in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Bian, Wenjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Di, Pingkuan; Nie, Baisheng

    2017-11-07

    China, the largest coal producer in the world, is responsible for over 50% of the total global methane (CH 4 ) emissions from coal mining. However, the current emission inventory of CH4 from coal mining has large uncertainties because of the lack of localized emission factors (EFs). In this study, province-level CH4 EFs from coal mining in China were developed based on the data analysis of coal production and corresponding discharged CH4 emissions from 787 coal mines distributed in 25 provinces with different geological and operation conditions. Results show that the spatial distribution of CH 4 EFs is highly variable with values as high as 36 m3/t and as low as 0.74 m3/t. Based on newly developed CH 4 EFs and activity data, an inventory of the province-level CH4 emissions was built for 2005-2010. Results reveal that the total CH 4 emissions in China increased from 11.5 Tg in 2005 to 16.0 Tg in 2010. By constructing a gray forecasting model for CH 4 EFs and a regression model for activity, the province-level CH 4 emissions from coal mining in China are forecasted for the years of 2011-2020. The estimates are compared with other published inventories. Our results have a reasonable agreement with USEPA's inventory and are lower by a factor of 1-2 than those estimated using the IPCC default EFs. This study could help guide CH 4 mitigation policies and practices in China.

  3. MONITORING SOIL MOISTURE IN A COAL MINING AREA WITH MULTI-PHASE LANDSAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Kong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4 (corresponding to the band4 is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  4. Polonium-210 accumulates in a lake receiving coal mine discharges-anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A W; Eitrheim, E S; Knight, A W; May, D; Wichman, M D; Forbes, T Z; Schultz, M K

    2017-02-01

    Coal is an integral part of global energy production; however, coal mining is associated with numerous environmental health impacts. It is well documented that coal-mine waste can contaminate the environment with naturally-occurring radionuclides from the uranium-238 ( 238 U) decay series. However, the behavior of the final radionuclide in the 238 U-series, i.e., polonium-210 ( 210 Po) arising from coal-mine waste-water discharge is largely unexplored. Here, results of a year-long (2014-2015) field study, in which the concentrations of 210 Po in sediments and surface water of a lake that receives coal-mine waste-water discharge in West Virginia are presented. Initial measurements identified levels of 210 Po in the lake sediments that were in excess of that which could be attributed to ambient U-series parent radionuclides; and were indicative of discharge site contamination of the lake ecosystem. However, control sediment obtained from a similar lake system in Iowa (an area with no coal mining or unconventional drilling) suggests that the levels of 210 Po in the lake are a natural phenomenon; and are likely unrelated to waste-water treatment discharges. Elevated levels of 210 Po have been reported in lake bottom sediments previously, yet very little information is available on the radioecological implications of 210 Po accumulation in lake bottom sediments. The findings of this study suggest that (Monthly Energy Review, 2016) the natural accumulation and retention of 210 Po in lake sediments may be a greater than previously considered (Chadwick et al., 2013) careful selection of control sites is important to prevent the inappropriate attribution of elevated levels of NORM in lake bottom ecosystems to industrial sources; and (Van Hook, 1979) further investigation of the source-terms and potential impacts on elevated 210 Po in lake-sediment ecosystems is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PERAN REVEGETASI TERHADAP RESTORASI TANAH PADA LAHAN REHABILITASI TAMBANG BATUBARA DI DAERAH TROPIKA (The Role of Revegetation on the Soil Restoration in Rehabilitation Areas of Tropical Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-05-01

    causes land degradation, so they need land rehabilitation through re-vegetation programs. The study was conducted in the PT Berau Coal area of Binungan, Lati and Sambarata site, Berau regency, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Research using a randomized completely block design with the age of re-vegetation as treatments, three replication and three sites as blocks. Sampling unit was selected using a purposive sampling method that is based on the re-vegetation management, including: (i S1: forest area without mining activities (baseline, (ii S2: initial re-vegetation, plant age 5 years. Soil sample was collected from 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil depth in each treatment at three locations, then analyzed for soil  physic and chemistry. Soil of Typic Hapludult on forest land without coal mining has a C-organic (1.87 %, N-total (0.14 %, available-P (31.40 ppm, exchangeable-K (0.11 me/100g, pH (3.98, CEC (10.72 me/100g and base saturation (17 %. Opened coal mining has led the soil layer becomes exposed and a declining in soil quality drastically. Land closure with the top soil media has been quite able to improve soil properties in rehabilitation areas, but not suitable as media for plant growth, and highly susceptible for further degradation. Land rehabilitation and re-vegetation with fast growing and adaptive pioneer plants such as: Sengon, Acacia, Sungkai, Melina, Angsana, Jarak and Legume Cover Crop (LCC in the rehabilitation area of coal mining, gave significant effect on the increasing of  C-organic, N-total and soil pH. Re-vegetation with fast growing species after 5-year-old has returned the soil chemical properties that are equivalent or even better than thier condition in moist tropical forests without open coal mining.

  6. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  7. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  8. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  9. R&D status and the performance of domestic firms in China's coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Coal use accounts for a very large proportion of electricity production in China. Using a recently developed coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique, this paper examines the impact of research and development (R&D) activities on the performance of firms in China's coal mining industry. Our empirical results reveal that firms in China's coal industry that conduct R&D are more productive and their sales are higher. However, as far as the firm profitability and market shares are concerned, whether or not a firm in China's coal industry conducts R&D makes no difference. We find that foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry leads to a significant decrease in the market share of domestic firms and its impact on productivity, sales and profitability of domestic firms is insignificant. The empirical results presented in this paper suggest that policies that encourage domestic firms in China's coal mining industries to conduct R&D can increase domestic production thereby reducing reliance on imports. Furthermore, productivity gains arising from R&D activities can also help Chinese mining firms to improve their competitive position in the international market. However, there is a need for restricting foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry. - Highlights: • R&D status affects firm performance in China's coal mining industry. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D are, on average, 0.2717% more productive. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D experience an increase in sales. • Increase in foreign investment decreases the market share of coal mining firms

  10. The quality of Environmental Management Programmes (EMPRs) within the coal mining industry in South Africa / Casper Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations negatively impact the environment and, as a result, South African legislation requires that, as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment, an Environmental Management Programme (EMPRs) be developed and implemented to manage all the impacts identified. The Coal Mining Sector was selected for this research because of the important role it plays within the South African economy. In this research, the quality of Environmental Management Programmes within the Coal Mining Sector ...

  11. Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface soils in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Feng, Chunting; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Xiang; Zhong, Minzhou; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Xin; He, Xinyue; Fang, Yilong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the pollution degree and spatial distribution of heavy metals and determined their sources in topsoil in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, Hunan Province, China. We collected 6078 soil surface samples in different land use types. And the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, As, Mo, V, Mn, Fe and Cr were measured. The average contents of all heavy metals were lower than their corresponding Grade II values of Chinese Soil Quality Standard with the exception of Hg. However, average contents of twelve heavy metals, except for Mn, exceeded their background level in soils in Hunan Province. Based on one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mo and V were related to the anthropogenic source and there were statistically significant differences in their concentrations among different land use patterns. The spatial variation of heavy metal was visualized by GIS. The PMF model was used to ascertain contamination sources of twelve heavy metals and apportion their source contributions in Lianyuan soils. The results showed that the source contributions of the natural source, atmospheric deposition, industrial activities and agricultural activities accounted for 33.6%, 26.05%, 23.44% and 16.91%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  13. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  14. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Wu Zongmei; Kong Lingli; Shi Jinhua; Li Ying; Jiang Shan; Zhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  15. Some features of the biology of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae) in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konev, V.I.

    1989-09-01

    During a two year program of observations and experiments 437 Norway rats inside coal mines and 250 Norway rats on the surface were captured and the peculiar distribution pattern of Norway rats in mines was established and the habitation conditions of the rodents in the mines and the factors promoting the occupation of those specific habitats (food supply, refuge) were described. The data are given on the intensity and dynamics of these animals in the mines on the whole and depending on the depth of rodent habitation. Ways of occupying the mines by Norway rats, the intensity and direction of their seasonal migrations studied by tagging the animals are discussed. A conclusion is drawn that there is an autonomous population of Norway rats in coal mines. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  17. The impact of the structural features of the rock mass on seismicity in Polish coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2017-11-01

    The article presents seismic activity induced in the coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) in relation to the locations of the occurrence of rockbursts. The comparison of these measurements with the structural features of the rock mass of coal mines indicates the possibility of estimating the so-called Unitary Energy Expenditure (UEE) in a specific time. The obtained values of UEE were compared with the distribution of seismic activity in GZW mines. The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions. Five regions, where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough) which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia were analyzed. It was found out that rock bursts were recorded only in three regions: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough.

  18. Multiparty Evolutionary Game Model in Coal Mine Safety Management and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongwu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine safety management involves many interested parties and there are complex relationships between them. According to game theory, a multiparty evolutionary game model is established to analyze the selection of strategies. Then, a simplified three-party model is taken as an example to carry out detailed analysis and solution. Based on stability theory of dynamics system and phase diagram analysis, this article studies replicator dynamics of the evolutionary model to make an optimization analysis of the behaviors of those interested parties and the adjustment mechanism of safety management policies and decisions. The results show how the charge of supervision of government department and inspection of coal mine enterprise impact the efficiency of safety management and the effect of constraint measures and incentive and other measures in safety management.

  19. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallack, H.W.

    1992-06-01

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m -2 day -1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m -2 day -1 ) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Numerical Simulation of Squeezing Failure in a Coal Mine Roadway due to Mining-Induced Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Stead, Doug; Kang, Hongpu

    2015-07-01

    Squeezing failure is a common failure mechanism experienced in underground coal mine roadways due mainly to mining-induced stresses, which are much higher than the strength of rock mass surrounding an entry. In this study, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of roadway squeezing using a novel UDEC Trigon approach. A numerical roadway model was created based on a case study at the Zhangcun coal mine in China. Coal extraction using the longwall mining method was simulated in the model with calculation of the mining-induced stresses. The process of roadway squeezing under severe mining-induced stresses was realistically captured in the model. Deformation phenomena observed in field, including roof sag, wall convexity and failed rock bolts are realistically produced in the UDEC Trigon model.