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Sample records for abalone haliotis fulgens

  1. Spionid polychaetes infesting cultured abalone Haliotis midae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CA Simon, A Ludford, S Wynne. Abstract. A study was conducted to identify and quantify the spionid polychaetes that infest cultured abalone Haliotis midae at aquaculture facilities on the west (Farm A), south (Farms B and C) and ... The abalone were infested by Dipolydora capensis, Polydora hoplura and a Boccardia sp.

  2. Short Communication Growth of post-weaning abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of five formulated feeds supplemented with fresh wild seaweed on the growth of post-weaning juvenile abalone Haliotis midae (6–20 mm shell length) was investigated by means of a growth trial at a commercial abalone farm over a period of 11 months. The experiment included 10 diet treatments with two ...

  3. The steadily increasing demand for South African abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    of kelp beds, with potentially large ecological and commercial effects. The aims of this investigation were to estimate the potential harvest (standing stock) ...... DAY, E. 1998 — Ecological interactions between abalone (Haliotis midae) juveniles and sea urchins (Parechinus angulosus), off the south-west coast of South Africa.

  4. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide, especially in the Far East. This has en- couraged industries that involve not only harvesting natural populations but also, as such populations have declined, setting up artificial cultures of appropriate species (Lo-Chai Chen 1990, Britz 1996, Knauer et al. 1996).

  5. Assessing the ecosystem effects of the abalone Haliotis midae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African abalone Haliotis midae is commercially exploited and seriously threatened by overfishing. This not only affects the species itself but potentially the functioning of the ecosystem because of associated changes in community structure. The nature of effects that can follow the loss or reduction of a species ...

  6. The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began in 1949 and soon covered approxi- mately 580 km of coastline from Cape Columbine to. Quoin Point (Fig. 1). The catches in the 1960s were extremely high, and certainly greater than were sus- tainable, but fell dramatically in the 1970s. Although.

  7. Mortality of the abalone Haliotis mariae (Haliotidae: Mollusca in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Omani abalone, Haliotis mariae, is the only species of abalone found in Omani waters. Given the rarity of this species and the high price it can fetch on the market (US$ 150 kg-1 dry weight, the wild abalone fishery in the Dhofar region has been regarded as a valuable income source for the past decade. The present study was undertaken set to investigate the mortality of abalone held at the Mirbat Research Center, through bacteriological and histopathological based investigations and challenge tests. Only the adult wild abalone that had been kept for a year in the hatchery, visually, appeared to be clear of disease symptoms. Infected individuals typically were swollen around the mouth, had fluid tinged with blood, bubbles in the intestines, and, very weak adhesive strength. The foot area (muscle of diseased animals was noticeably very soft and individuals that were seen lying upside down on the bottom of the tank subsequently died. On dissection, the intestinal organs released bubbles and a foul smelling odour. Identification of the isolated bacteria using various identification methods indicated that individuals were infected with Staphylococcus sciuri. Histopathology of infected individuals revealed spongiosis of the tissues with evident bacterial infection. Neither of these histopathological conditions were seen in healthy abalone. The study concludes that the bacterium Staphylococcus sciuri may be the likely cause of abalone mortalities.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Chan; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Jee, Young Ju; Park, Jun-Hyung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2015-01-01

    We have sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial DNA of an economically and ecologically important Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Haliotidae, Gastropoda). The mitogenome of the Pacific abalone is 16,886 nt total length with a 39.6% G+C composition. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. We compared the mitogenome of the Pacific abalone to a putative relative species, H. rubra.

  9. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  10. Genome Sequence ofArcobactersp. Strain LA11, Isolated from the AbaloneHaliotis discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yukino; Tanaka, Reiji

    2017-03-16

    Arcobacter sp. strain LA11 was isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus Here, we present the annotation and analysis of the draft genome of this strain, which is involved in nitrogen metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Mizutani and Tanaka.

  11. Tenacibaculum haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, In-Suk; Park, Sooyeon; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, gliding, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated RA3-2T, was isolated from the gut of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) collected from the sea around Jeju island, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. RA3-2T grew optimally at 20 °C and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that RA3-2T fell within the clade comprising the type strains of species of the genus Tenacibaculum, clustering with the type strains of Tenacibaculum soleae, Tenacibaculum ovolyticum and Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi; showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.2-96.8 %. The novel strain exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 93.5-96.9 % to the type strains of the other species of the genus Tenacibaculum. RA3-2T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of RA3-2T were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid and one unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content of RA3-2T was 31.7 mol%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic data, revealed that RA3-2T is separated from other species of the genus Tenacibaculum with validly published names. On the basis of the data presented, RA3-2T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA3-2T (=KCTC 52419T=NBRC 112382T).

  12. FORMULASI PAKAN BUATAN DENGAN BAHAN BAKU RUMPUT LAUT UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN ABALON Haliotis squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu jenis moluska laut yang memiliki potensi ekonomis untuk dikembangkan usaha budidayanya. Teknologi pembenihan abalon Haliotis squamata telah dikembangkan dan berhasil memproduksi benih secara massal. Selain benih, ketersediaan pakan yang sesuai sangat menentukan keberhasilan budidaya pembesaran abalon. Selain makan pakan segar berupa makroalga, abalon juga dapat menerima pakan buatan dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula pakan dengan bahan baku tepung rumput laut untuk pertumbuhan H. squamata. Tiga pakan percobaan diformulasi dengan proporsi tepung rumput laut Ulva sp., Gracilaria sp., dan Sargassum sp. yang berbeda dibuat berbentuk remah dengan kandungan protein dan lemak yang sama.  Sebagai kontrol digunakan pakan Gracilaria sp. segar asal tambak.  Sebanyak 16 buah bak beton berukuran 2,0 x 0,5 x 0,5 m3 dengan ketinggian air 25 cm dan dilengkapi dengan aerasi digunakan sebagai wadah percobaan.  Benih abalon hasil pembenihan di hatcheri dengan ukuran bobot 5,30 ± 1,07 g; panjang cangkang 3,35 ± 0,29 cm ditebar dengan kepadatan 388 ekor per bak.  Abalon diberi pakan percobaan 2 kali sehari selama 168 hari. Jumlah pakan disesuaikan dengan respons makan dari abalon. Percobaan dirancang dengan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan pakan dan setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 4 ulangan.  Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon yang diberi pakan buatan tidak berbeda nyata, tetapi pakan dengan proporsi tepung Ulva sp. 35% cenderung memberikan pertumbuhan yang lebih baik. Pertumbuhan abalon terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan kontrol.  Kandungan protein daging abalon dipengaruhi oleh pakan percobaan. Kandungan protein daging abalon yang diberi pakan buatan signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol.

  13. First attempts to cryopreserve red abalone (Haliotis rufescens oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Torrez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall, few advances in the cryopreservation of complex cells such as oocytes, embryo or tissue have been registered and in less quantity have been reported for aquatic species. Abalone has high economic interest worldwide and the conservation of abalone germplasm may help to enhance its culture and develop repopulation programs. In this work, we reported the cytotoxic effect of two concentration of trehalose (0.2 and 0.4 M on red abalone oocytes incubated for 10, 15 and 20 min. Also, we reported the cryopreservation of red abalone oocytes using a 3-steps cryopreservation protocol and 5 thawing protocols. Significant differences on cytotoxic effect were found (p<0.01. However, none of the cryoprotectant was optimum to cryopreserve red abalone oocyte. In conclusion, it is necessary to find an appropriate method to dehydrate or make the cryoprotectant penetrate on the abalone oocyte before proceeding to cryopreservation.

  14. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). BLACK, GREEN, and RED ABALONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    abalone landings abalones grow fast. Under optimal and ex-vissel value in California, conditions in a laboratory culture , 1965-1982 some juvenile red...Lithothamnion sp. Hymenena sp. Plocamium coccineum Tr i daea sp. Rhodymenia sp. Lithothamnion sp. Porphyra sp. Prionitis sp. Rhodymenia sp...Fecundacion artifi- Abalones, shells, and sea otters: cal y dessarrollo embrionario de dynamics of prey populations in Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1845

  15. Isolation, identification, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the shell of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z L; Liang, H B; Guo, W; Peng, Z F; Chen, J D; Zhang, Q Q

    2014-07-04

    In this study, two antioxidative substances, a homogeneous polysaccharide [abalone shell polysaccharide (ASP-1), corresponding to the first peak by size exclusion chromatography] and a non-polysaccharide compound [abalone shell compound (ACS-2), corresponding to the second peak by size exclusion chromatography], were extracted from the abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) shell. We primarily focused on the investigation of ASP-1. As a heteropolysaccharide, ASP-1 is comprised of 9.3% uronic acid and 86.4% saccharide, the latter including mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and two unknown monosaccharides, NO1 and NO2, with a mass ratio of 9.5:10.1:2.2:18.2:21.8:5.5:16.5:16.2. The antioxidant activity assays indicated that 5.0 mg/mL ASP-1 has significant scavenging effects on superoxide radicals (86.2%) compared to the positive control of ascorbic acid (95.6%).

  16. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  17. Polaribacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, In-Suk; Park, Sooyeon; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated RA4-7T, was isolated from the gut of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) collected from the sea around Jeju island, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. RA4-7T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that RA4-7T represented a member of the genus Polaribacter. RA4-7T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.64 and 97.23 % to Polaribacter atrinae WP25T and Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5T, respectively, and of 93.83-96.99 % to the type strains of the other species of the genus Polaribacter. RA4-7T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids detected in RA4-7T were phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of RA4-7T was 30.5 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of P. atrinae and P. dokdonensis were 16 and 11 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties, in combination with its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that RA4-7T is separated from species of the genus Polaribacter with validly published names. On the basis of the data presented, RA4-7T represented a novel species of the genus Polaribacter, for which the name Polaribacterhaliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA4-7T (=KCTC 52418T=NBRC 112383T).

  18. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  19. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Preparation, characterisation and use for antioxidant oligosaccharides of a cellulase from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Le-Chang; Qiu, Xu-Jian; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2016-07-01

    In China, abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) production is growing annually. During industrial processing, the viscera, which are abundant of cellulase, are usually discarded or processed into low-value feedstuff. Thus, it is of interest to obtain cellulase from abalone viscera and investigate its application for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. A cellulase was purified from the hepatopancreas of abalone by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two-steps column chromatography. The molecular weight of the cellulase was 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis yielded 103 amino acid residues, which were identical to cellulases from other species of abalone. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the cellulase is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. Hydrolysis of seaweed Porphyra haitanensis polysaccharides by the enzyme produced oligosaccharides with degree of polymerisation of two to four, whose monosaccharide composition was 58% galactose, 4% glucose and 38% xylose. The oligosaccharides revealed 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. It is feasible and meaningful to utilise cellulase from the viscera of abalone for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  2. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

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    Wei-Dong Li

    Full Text Available The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and antizyme (AZ are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  3. A microsatellite panel for triploid verification in the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for ploidy verification of triploid and diploid Haliotis midae was developed using molecular microsatellite markers. In all, 30 microsatellite loci were tested in control populations. A final micro satellite multiplex consisting of seven markers were optimised and a complete protocol is reported. This protocol was ...

  4. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  5. Genome sequence of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai): the first draft genome in family Haliotidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kang, Jeong-Ha; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Choul Ji; Yu, Jae Woong; Yoon, Joon; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Kwondo; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lee, SaetByeol; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Chul; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Shin, Ga-Hee; Ka, Sojeong; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2017-05-01

    Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid [ 1 ]. Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal that is considered a highly prized seafood delicacy. The total global supply of abalone has increased 5-fold since the 1970s and farm production increased explosively from 50 mt to 103 464 mt in the past 40 years. Additionally, researchers have recently focused on abalone given their reported tumor suppression effect. However, despite the valuable features of this marine animal, no genomic information is available for the Haliotidae family and related research is still limited. To construct the H . discus hannai genome, a total of 580-G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio platforms were generated with 322-fold coverage based on the 1.8-Gb estimated genome size of H . discus hannai using flow cytometry. The final genome assembly consisted of 1.86 Gb with 35 450 scaffolds (>2 kb). GC content level was 40.51%, and the N50 length of assembled scaffolds was 211 kb. We identified 29 449 genes using Evidence Modeler based on the gene information from ab initio prediction, protein homology with known genes, and transcriptome evidence of RNA-seq. Here we present the first Haliotidae genome, H . discus hannai , with sequencing data, assembly, and gene annotation information. This will be helpful for resolving the lack of genomic information in the Haliotidae family as well as providing more opportunities for understanding gastropod evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    tauropine, as a result of condensation reactions be- tween pyruvate and the amino acids arginine, glycine, alanine and tauropine respectively, catalysed ...... 20: 567–570. JAMES, D. G. and J. OLLEY 1970 — Moisture and pH changes as criteria of freshness in abalone and their relationship to texture of the canned product.

  7. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 TURUNAN KETIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan reproduksi abalon Haliotis squamata dilakukan di hatcheri Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BBRBLPP Gondol, Bali. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh informasi tentang keragaan pertumbuhan dan performansi reproduksi abalon turunan ketiga. Induk H. squamata turunan kedua hasil seleksi yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan benih turunan ketiga mempunyai ukuran panjang cangkang 6,5-7,0 cm. Benih dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 m x 1,2 m x 1,0 m yang diberikan feeding plate sebagai substrat penempelan dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi dan sistem air mengalir. Pakan yang diberikan pada awal pemeliharaan adalah diatom jenis Nitzschia sp. dan Melosira sp. yang telah ditumbuhkan terlebih dahulu pada feeding plate sebelum penebaran benih. Benih F-3 dipelihara sampai menjadi calon induk untuk diamati perkembangan reproduksinya. Pengambilan sampel pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari. Pengamatan reproduksi dilakukan pada saat abalon mulai tumbuh gonad sampai matang gonad stadia-III. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon sangat dipengaruhi ketersediaan pakan pada plate terutama pada hari ke-50. Proporsi jantan-betina abalon F-3 (3,3:1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan F-0 dari alam (2,5:1 menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan jumlah individu yang dapat disebabkan oleh tekanan seleksi. Abalon turunan ketiga pada umur 16 bulan mulai matang gonad dan dapat digunakan sebagai induk untuk pemijahan. Observation on the growth and reproduction development of Haliotis squamata had been undertaken in the hatchery of the Institute for Mariculture Research and Development (IMRAD Gondol, Bali. The research was aimed to study of the growth and reproduction performance of filial-3 abalone in supporting seed production in hatchery. Larvae were obtained from natural spawning of filial-2 abalone broodstock with the length shell of 6.5-7.0 cm in the hatchery. Larvae were reared in 2.5 m x 1.2 m x 1.0 m

  8. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Evidence of green fluorescent protein and growth hormone expression in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla-Sánchez Edgar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a highly appreciated mollusk in the national and international markets. Due to its natural over-exploitation and low growth rate, several genetic improvements were made, however special efforts are needed to increase its production. This study presents transgenic abalone’s larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to Cobia (Rachycentron canadum Growth Hormone (GH using sperm media transgenesis technique (SMT, pAcGFP1-N vector under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Sperms were exposed to three voltages (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 Kv using a micropulser electroporator (Bio-Rad®. The highest GFP-GH expression average (40% was obtained in abalone larvae at 0.75 v. GFP and GH transgenes were positively detected by PCR, western blot and confocal microscope, respectively.

  10. Genomic Characterization of a Novel Phage Found in Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) Infected with Withering Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Langevin, S.; Burge, C. A.; Crosson, L.; White, S.; Friedman, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Withering syndrome (WS), caused by the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsia-like organism (RLO), infects many species of abalone. Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), one of two endangered species of abalone, has experienced high population losses along the California coast due to WS. Recently, we observed reduced pathogenicity and mortality events in RLO-infected abalone when a novel bacteriophage (phage) was also present. To better understand phage-bacterium dynamics and develop more informative diagnostic tools, we sequenced the genome of the novel phage associated with the RLO responsible for WS. Metagenomic sequencing libraries were prepared with extracted genomic DNA from two experimentally infected H. cracherodii and phage sequences were enriched using hydroxyapatite chromatography normalization. Normalized libraries were individually barcoded and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed using VIrominer and de novo assembly produced one single phage-like contig (35.7Kb) from the experimentally infected abalone. This highly divergent genome had closest homology with a virus associated with abalone shriveling syndrome (SS). Of the 34 predicted ORFs, overlapping homology with the SS virus ranged from 20-72%, demonstrating the phage sequenced is genetically distinct from any known phage. The phage-like sequences represented a significant portion of the total reads sequenced ( 2 million of the 12 million paired-end reads; 17%) and we obtained 94,000X coverage across the novel phage genome. Beyond characterization of this novel phage, which appears to reduce pathogenicity of the RLO, the genome enabled us to develop quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization assays as diagnostic tools. These tools allow us to detect and quantify this phage in the endangered H. cracherodii.

  11. Microarray analysis of gene expression in disk abalone Haliotis discus discus after bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus challenged by a mixture of three pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes using a cDNA microarray. Upon bacteria challenge, 68 (1.6%) and 112 (2.7%) gene transcripts changed their expression levels ≥2 or ≤2 -fold in gills and digestive tract, respectively. There were 46 tissue-specific transcripts that up-regulated specifically in the digestive tract. In contrast, only 13 transcripts showed gill-specific up-regulation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify microarray data and results revealed that candidate genes namely Krüppell-like factor (KLF), lachesin, muscle lim protein, thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2), nuclear factor interleukin 3 (NFIL-3) and abalone protein 38 were up-regulated. Also, our results further indicated that bacteria challenge may activate the transcription factors or their activators (Krüppell-like factor, inhibitor of NF-κB or Ik-B), inflammatory cytokines (IL-3 regulated protein, allograft inflammatory factor), other cytokines (IFN-44-like protein, SOCS-2), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin-2 and thioredoxin peroxidase), and apoptosis-related proteins (TNF-α, archeron) in abalone. The identification of immune and stress response genes and their expression profiles in this microarray will permit detailed investigation of the stress and immune responses of abalone genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Abalone (Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828) Along the Dhofar Coast of Oman and Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk Willem Petrus de Waal; Mohammed Balkhair; Ali Al-Mashikhi; Salem Khoom

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were conducted along the eastern Dhofar coast of Oman to investigate densities and habitat preferences of juvenile Haliotis mariae (< 3 cm SL). Average density was 0.62 m-2 (SD 0.56); average urchin density was 3.4 urchins m-2 (SD 3.9). Relationships between juvenile abalone densities and small boulders (

  13. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-06-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization.

  14. KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan populasi lainnya. Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were

  15. Physiological performance of juvenile Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai abalone exposed to the withering syndrome agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roxana C; Brokordt, Katherina; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2012-09-15

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a serious chronic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsiales-like organism (WS-RLO) that affects multiple abalone species in both natural and farmed populations. However, there is no available information regarding the effects of this disease on the physiological performance of infected abalone. We studied the effect of different levels of infection on components of energy balance and physiological indices (rates of absorption and assimilation, O/N ratio, and scope for growth) in the abalone species Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai. Juveniles were exposed to C. X. californiensis transmission for 130 days, during which time the presence/absence of WS-RLOs was evaluated by PCR (following DNA sequencing-based confirmation of 100% identity with the sequence of C. X. californiensis from California), and the prevalence and intensity of infection were evaluated via histological analysis. Among H. rufescens juveniles exposed to the bacterium, 92% became infected (positive by histology), and the intensity of infection ranged from low (degree 1) to moderate (degree 2). In contrast, no H. discus hannai juveniles were positive for WS-RLO by histology, although 23% were positive by PCR, possibly indicating incipient WS-RLO infection that did not develop during the experimental period or to mere presence of WS-RLO DNA in the sample. Infection of H. rufescens juveniles by WS-RLOs negatively affected all components of the energy balance and physiological indices, such as scope for growth and the O/N ratio, in direct relation to the degree of infection. The most strongly affected functions were the rate of ingestion, standard metabolism, and production of feces, which were reduced by 60-80% in the most highly infected individuals. The reduced energy intake in the organisms produced a strong energy imbalance such that the energy available for growth was reduced by 49% in infected

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitory effects of an octameric oligopeptide isolated from abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Ryu, Bomi; Kim, Kil-Nam; Kim, Daekyung; Kim, Young-Mog; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Geun Hyung; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2013-11-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is a marine gastropod, and an important fishery and food industrial resource that is massively maricultured in Asia, Africa, Australia and America. However, its health benefits have rarely been studied for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. In this study, the purified abalone oligopeptide (AOP) with anti-matrix metalloproteinases (anti-MMPs) effects was isolated from the digests of abalone intestine using recycle HPLC with a JAI W253 column and an OHpak SB-803 HQ column. The AOP was identified as Ala-Glu-Leu-Pro-Ser-Leu-Pro-Gly (MW=782.4 Da) with a de novo peptide sequencing technique using a tandem mass spectrometer. The AOP exhibited a specific inhibitory effect against MMP-2/-9 activity and attenuated protein expression of p50 and p65 in the human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells, dose-dependently. The results presented illustrate that the AOP could inhibit MMP-2/-9 expression in HT1080 cells via the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated pathway. This data suggest that the AOP from H. discus hannai intestine may possess therapeutic and preventive potential for the treatment of MMPs-related disorders such as angiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  18. Epipodial Tentacle Gene Expression and Predetermined Resilience to Summer Mortality in the Commercially Important Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2017-04-01

    "Summer mortality" is a phenomenon that occurs during warm water temperature spikes that results in the mass mortality of many ecologically and economically important mollusks such as abalone. This study aimed to determine whether the baseline gene expression of abalone before a laboratory-induced summer mortality event was associated with resilience to summer mortality. Tentacle transcriptomes of 35 greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) were sequenced prior to the animals being exposed to an increase in water temperature-simulating conditions which have previously resulted in summer mortality. Abalone derived from three source locations with different environmental conditions were categorized as susceptible or resistant to summer mortality depending on whether they died or survived after the water temperature was increased. We detected two genes showing significantly higher expression in resilient abalone relative to susceptible abalone prior to the laboratory-induced summer mortality event. One of these genes was annotated through the NCBI non-redundant protein database using BLASTX to an anemone (Exaiptasia pallida) Transposon Ty3-G Gag Pol polyprotein. Distinct gene expression signatures were also found between resilient and susceptible abalone depending on the population origin, which may suggest divergence in local adaptation mechanisms for resilience. Many of these genes have been suggested to be involved in antioxidant and immune-related functions. The identification of these genes and their functional roles have enhanced our understanding of processes that may contribute to summer mortality in abalone. Our study supports the hypothesis that prestress gene expression signatures are indicative of the likelihood of summer mortality.

  19. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  20. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (Pdietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (PDietary treatment had significant effect (Pdietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  1. Abalone, Haliotis mariae (Wood, 1828, Hatchery and Seed Production Trials in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery and seed production trials for the Omani endemic abalone Haliotis mariae were carried out at the land-based Mirbat Abalone Seed Production Station in Oman between 1999 and 2000. The methods developed for broodstock conditioning, induction of spawning and fertilization, larval settlement, and the handling of small juveniles are shown. Abalone collected in the post-monsoon period and held for 2 months matured faster than those collected before the monsoon and held for 6 months. Spawning induction of males and females had 63% and 11% success rates respectively, and the morphology of early larval stages is shown. Survival rates of veliger larvae introduced to settlement plates ranged from 35.9% to 73.7%, but the survival of post-larvae was low at 0.1% to 3.6%. The high mortality rate was attributed to invasions of filamentous green- and coralline algae on settlement plates and occurrence of low quantity of diatoms as food. Juveniles reacted best to 2% ethanol as anaesthetic, dropping off culture plates within 4 min and recovering within 17 min. Cultured abalone reached an average shell length of 52.9 mm over 13 months, which translates to an increment of 4.1 mm.mon-1. The overall conclusion of these preliminary research trials confirms  that H. mariae can be cultured successfully in Oman. Further studies on the standardization of the techniques would help in stock enhancement programmes and commercial farming.

  2. Two ferritin subunits from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): cloning, characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

    2007-09-01

    Ferritin plays a key role in cellular iron metabolism, which includes iron storage and detoxification. From disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, the cDNA that encodes the two ferritin subunits abalone ferritin subunit 1 (Abf1) and abalone ferritin subunit 2 (Abf2) were cloned. The complete cDNA coding sequences for Abf1 and Abf2 contained 621 and 549 bp, encoding for 207 and 183 amino acid residues, respectively. The H. discus discus Abf2 subunit contained a highly conserved motif for the ferroxidase center, which consists of seven residues of a typical vertebrate heavy-chain ferritin with a typical stem-loop structure. Abf2 mRNA contains a 27 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'UTR position. This IRE exhibited 96% similarity with pearl and Pacific oyster and 67% similarity with human H type IREs. However, the Abf1 subunit had neither ferroxidase center residues nor the IRE motif sequence; instead, it contained iron-binding region signature 2 (IBRS) residues. Recombinant Abf1 and Abf2 proteins were purified and the respective sizes were about 24 and 21 kDa. Abf1 and Abf2 exhibited iron-chelating activity 44.2% and 22.0%, respectively, at protein concentration of 6 microg/ml. Analysis of tissue-specific expression by RT-PCR revealed that Abf1 and Abf2 ferritin mRNAs were expressed in various abalone tissues, such as gill, mantle, gonad, foot and digestive tract in a wide distribution profile, but Abf2 expression was more prominent than Abf1.

  3. Genome Sequences of a Novel Picorna-Like Virus from Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Lee, Jong Kyu; Seo, Yong Bae; Lim, Han-Kyu; Kim, Gun-Do

    2017-09-07

    We report the draft genome sequences of a novel member of the Picornavirales isolated from Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai ). The full length of the assembled draft genome sequences, obtained by use of a next-generation sequencing technique, were 8,019 nucleotides, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (5,088 nucleotides) and a capsid protein gene (2,553 nucleotides). This genome sequence will be useful for understanding viral disease of Pacific abalone. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  4. Genetic characterization of five hatchery populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Kim, Hyun Chul; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient F(IS) ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean F(IS) = 0.121 ± 0.056). The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall F(ST) = 0.009, P discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  5. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  7. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  8. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and spatiotemporal expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ha; Kim, Mi Ae; Kim, Kyeong Seop; Kim, Jae Won; Lim, Han Kyu; Lee, Jung Sick; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-07-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key neuropeptide regulating reproduction in humans and other vertebrates. Recently, GnRH-like cDNAs and peptides were reported in marine mollusks, implying that GnRH-mediated reproduction is an ancient neuroendocrine system that arose prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we evaluated the reproductive control system mediated by GnRH in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. We cloned a prepro-GnRH cDNA (Hdh-GnRH) from the pleural-pedal ganglion (PPG) in H. discus hannai, and analyzed its spatiotemporal gene expression pattern. The open reading frame of Hdh-GnRH encodes a protein of 101 amino acids, consisting of a signal peptide, a GnRH dodecapeptide, a cleavage site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. This structure and sequence are highly similar to GnRH-like peptides reported for mollusks and other invertebrates. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Hdh-GnRH mRNA was more strongly expressed in the ganglions (PPG and cerebral ganglion [CG]) than in other tissues (gonads, gills, intestine, hemocytes, muscle, and mantle) in both sexes. In females, the expression levels of Hdh-GnRH mRNA in the PPG and branchial ganglion (BG) were significantly higher at the ripe and partial spent stages than at the early and late active stages. In males, Hdh-GnRH mRNA levels in the BG showed a significant increase in the partial spent stage. Unexpectedly, Hdh-GnRH levels in the CG were not significantly different among the examined stages in both sexes. These results suggest that Hdh-GnRH mRNA expression profiles in the BG and possibly the PPG are tightly correlated with abalone reproductive activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural characterization and osteogenic bioactivity of a sulfated polysaccharide from pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Sufeng; Huang, Lu; Ai, Chunqing; Pan, Jinfeng; Su, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhongfu; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-02-15

    Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to promote osteogenesis. To find novel adjuvants to enhance the activity of BMP-2, the present study investigated the structure BMP-2-induced osteogenic activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from the gonad of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) named AGSP. Through analysis of aldobiouronic acids released from AGSP, monosaccharide composition comparison of AGSP and its reduced product, and methylation analysis and NMR analysis of AGSP and its desulfated derivative, the main structure residue of AGSP was determined as →3)-GlcA(1→3)-Gal(1→ with sulfated branches comprised of prevelant Gal and minor Glc, and →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ residue was also found. AGSP possessed a sulfate content of 12.4% with a relative molecular weight of 6.6kDa. AGSP strengthened alkaline phosphatase activity induced by BMP-2 in a dose dependent manner at 10-200μg/mL with 425% enhancement being observed at 200μg/mL, indicating AGSP could be an adjuvant candidate to enhance osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of polysaccharides from abalone viscera (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) on MGC 803 cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Juan; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Jing; Mao, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Qing-Xi; Wang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    The polysaccharides (AVP) was obtained from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) viscera, using the alkaline protease to enzymolysis, sevage method and repeated freezing and thawing method to remove protein and hydrogen peroxide method to depigment. The total sugar content was 46.27±1.5% and uronic acid, sulfate radical, hexosamine and protein contents were 17.44±0.22%, 16.98±0.15%, 0.65±0.02% and 1.64±0.13% in AVP respectively. The main monosaccharide compositions of AVP were d-galactose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-glucuronic acid. MTT assay showed AVP had a significant anti-tumor activity to gastric carcinoma cells, especially to MGC 803, while it had no influence upon proliferation of normal stomach cells GES 1. The results of Morphological changes, cell migration ability and AO/EB staining indicated that MGC803 cells underwent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner induced by AVP. Moreover, the western blotting results showed that the expressions of survivin, Bcl-2 and VEGF were decreased, while the expression of Bax and p53 were increased in a dose-dependent manner of AVP. The results suggested that AVP might be a potential anti-tumor agent securely and naturally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  14. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  17. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  18. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  19. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular cloning, transcriptional regulation against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-08-01

    Here, we report the identification and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus that was denoted as AbAIF-1. The full-length cDNA of AbAIF-1 consists of a coding region (453 bp) for 151 amino acids with a 17 kDa molecular mass. Analysis of AbAIF-1 sequence showed that it shares characteristic two EF hand Ca(+2)-binding motifs. Results from phylogenetic analysis further confirm that AbAIF-1 is a member of the AIF-1 family similar to invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts suggesting it has high evolutional conservation. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbAIF-1 were analyzed after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immune challenge and during tissue injury by quantitative real-time PCR. It is shown that the expression of AbAIF-1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner showing the highest level in hemocytes. Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, AbAIF-1 showed the significant up-regulation in hemocytes than gills. After the tissue injury in shell and mantle, AbAIF-1 and antioxidant selenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) transcripts were significantly upregulated in abalone hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AIF-1 could response against the pathogenic challenge or tissue injury in abalone like mollusks. Also, AbAIF-1 may involve in wound healing and shell repair after the tissue injury of abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptional up-regulation of a novel ferritin homolog in abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino by dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaojie; Ma, Hongming; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2010-11-01

    A novel cDNA encoding ferritin (HdhNFT) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. The deduced protein contains 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass (MW) about 19.8 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 4.792. Amino acid alignment revealed that HdhNFT shared high similarity with other known ferritins. The HdhNFT contained a highly conserved motif for the ferroxidase center, which consists of seven residues of a typical vertebrate heavy-chain ferritin with a typical stem-loop structure. HdhNFT mRNA contains a 27 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-untranslated region. This IRE exhibited 82.14% similarity with abalone H. discus discus and 78.57% similarity with Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas IREs. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of HdhNFT were found to be higher expressed in kidney, hepatopancreas, gill, mantle and muscle than in haemocytes and gonad. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of HdhNFT in the hepatopancreas and haemocytes were measured by real-time PCR in abalone fed with graded levels of dietary iron (29.2, 65.7, 1267.2 and 6264.7 mg/kg). Results showed that the expression of the HdhNFT mRNA increased with dietary iron contents. Furthermore, the maximum value of the HdhNFT mRNA was found in the treatment with 6264.7 mg/kg of dietary iron. These data indicated that dietary iron can up-regulate HdhNFT at transcriptional level in abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  2. Antibacterial activity and immune responses of a molluscan macrophage expressed gene-1 from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Won, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jehee

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val(131)-Tyr(348)) and transmembrane segment (Ala(669)-Ile(691)) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in

  3. iTRAQ-Based Identification of Proteins Related to Muscle Growth in the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianfang; You, Weiwei; Luo, Xuan; Ke, Caihuan

    2017-10-25

    The abalone Haliotis discus hannai is an important aquaculture species that is grown for human consumption. However, little is known of the genetic mechanisms governing muscle growth in this species, particularly with respect to proteomics. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method allows for sensitive and accurate protein quantification. Our study was the first to use iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate muscle growth regulation in H. discus hannai . Among the 1904 proteins identified from six samples, 125 proteins were differentially expressed in large specimens of H. discus hannai as compared to small specimens. In the large specimens, 47 proteins were upregulated and 78 were downregulated. Many of the significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including these differentially expressed proteins, were closely related to muscle growth, including apoptosis, thyroid hormone signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and viral myocarditis ( p discus hannai .

  4. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Plaza-Sáez, Daniel; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C), in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was det...

  5. Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Abalone (Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828 Along the Dhofar Coast of Oman and Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk Willem Petrus de Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were conducted along the eastern Dhofar coast of Oman to investigate densities and habitat preferences of juvenile Haliotis mariae ( 50 cm Ø, respectively. B values were highest for urchins (6 times that for small boulders, and for boulders <50 cm Ø. B values for boulder habitats decreased as boulder size increased. Urchin utilisation by juvenile abalone as shelter ranged between geographic areas from a minimum of 15.5% to a maximum of 47.6%. The proportion of total habitat that is preferred by more than 97% of juvenile abalone found, including urchins and boulders < 50 cm Ø, comprises 29% of surveyed substratum. While the role urchins play on wild juvenile H. mariae has not proved vital, it is definitely significant. Although juvenile densities are low and are not currently limited by the availability of suitable habitat, it is crucial to identify and conserve those microhabitats that support recruitment of H. mariae. The abundance of these areas should be among the criteria used in selecting protected conservation areas.

  6. Tumor suppressor QM-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis upon immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chulhong; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Yu Cheol; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-jin; Choi, Young-Ung; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-09-01

    We describe molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis of the gene encoding tumor suppressor QM-like protein, AbQM, in the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The full-length cDNA (765-bp) of AbQM was found to consist of a 654-bp ORF coding for a 218 amino acid protein of a 25 kDa molecular mass with a 10.2 isoelectric point. Analysis of AbQM sequence revealed the presence of characteristic motifs, including the ribosomal protein L10 signature, SH3-binding motif and two antibiotic binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that AbQM is closely related to other mollusk QM proteins, and altogether they form a mollusk QM protein sub-family which displays evolutionary conservation from yeast to human. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbQM was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in response to bacterial (Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV) challenge. AbQM transcripts were found to be expressed ubiquitously in all examined tissues in a constitutive manner, as similar expression levels were detected in hemocytes, mantle, digestive tract and muscle. Upon bacterial and VHSV challenge, AbQM showed significant up-regulation in gills, but not in hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AbQM in abalone-like mollusks can respond to and facilitate a defensive effect against pathogenic infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Paraferrimonas haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai and emendation of description of the genus Paraferrimonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingran; Huang, Zhaobin; Shao, Zongze

    2017-12-01

    Two strains, AFRC7-2-1 T and CFD7-4-2, were isolated from the intestine of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. The bacterial cells were Gram-stain-negative, stick-shaped and non-flagellated. They were facultative anaerobic bacteria and could reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II). The 16S rRNA genes of two strains shared 99.7 % sequence similarity, and had the highest similarity of 97.3-97.5 % with Paraferrimonas sedimenticola NBRC 101628 T , and of 5 %) of strains AFRC7-2-1 T and CFD7-4-2 were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C13 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c). The quinone system of strains AFRC7-2-1 T and CFD7-4-2 were quinone-8, menaquinone-6, menaquinone-7, and quinone-7. The predominant polar lipids of strain AFRC7-2-1 T were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), and three minor unidentified lipids (Ls). The genomic DNA G+C contents of two strains were 47.2 mol%. In summary, the two strains represented a novel species of the genus Paraferrimonas, for which the name Paraferrimonas haliotis sp. nov. was proposed, with type strain AFRC7-2-1 T (=MCCC 1A11748 T =KCTC 52632 T =NBRC 112785 T ) and strain CFD7-4-2 (=MCCC 1A11749=KCTC 52631=NBRC 112786).

  8. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus discus: Identification of Genes Involved in Germ Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyun; Xu, Dongdong; Ye, Huan; Yue, Huamei; Ooka, Shioh; Kondo, Hidehiro; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka

    2018-04-03

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing gonadal developmental processes in abalones. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus discus for gene discovery in the brain, ovary, testis, and unfertilized eggs. Among the annotated unigenes, 48.6% of unigenes were identified by Venn diagram analysis as having universal or tissue-specific expression. Twenty-three genes with gonad-biased gene ontology (GO) terms were first obtained. Secondly, 36 genes were found by screening known gene names related to germ cell development. Finally, 17 genes were obtained by querying the annotated unigene database for zygotically expressed gonadal genes (ovary and testis) and maternally expressed gonadal genes (ovary, testis, and unfertilized eggs) using keywords related to reproduction. To further verify tissue distribution pattern and subcellular localization of these genes, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were performed using a unigene encoding a germ cell marker, vasa, as control. The results showed that vasa was expressed mainly in the early developmental stages of germ cells in both sexes. One of the candidate genes, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein 12 (ZP12), was expressed in the primordial germ cells of immature gonad and early developmental stages of germ cells of the adult female. The results obtained from the present study suggest that vasa and ZP12 are involved in germ cell development of Pacific abalone and that ZP12 is an especially useful germ cell-specific marker in immature adults. The current gonadal transcriptome profile is an extensive resource for future reproductive molecular biology studies of this species.

  10. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  11. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

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    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  13. Molecular cloning of metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1 and transcriptional responses to metal and heat stresses in Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1 is a key transcriptional regulator playing crucial roles in metal homeostasis and cellular adaptation to diverse oxidative stresses. In order to understand cellular pathways associated with metal regulation and stress responses in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai, this study was aimed to isolate the genetic determinant of abalone MTF-1 and to examine its expression characteristics under basal and experimentally stimulated conditions. Results The abalone MTF-1 shared conserved features in zinc-finger DNA binding domain with its orthologs; however, it represented a non-conservative shape in presumed transactivation domain region with the lack of typical motifs for nuclear export signal (NES and Cys-cluster. Abalone MTF-1 promoter exhibited various transcription factor binding motifs that would be potentially related with metal regulation, stress responses, and development. The highest messenger RNA (mRNA expression level of MTF-1 was observed in the testes, and MTF-1 transcripts were detected during the entire period of embryonic and early ontogenic developments. Abalone MTF-1 was found to be Cd inducible and highly modulated by heat shock treatment. Conclusion Abalone MTF-1 possesses a non-consensus structure of activation domains and represents distinct features for its activation mechanism in response to metal overload and heat stress. The activation mechanism of abalone MTF-1 might include both indirect zinc sensing and direct de novo synthesis of transcripts. Taken together, results from this study could be a useful basis for future researches on stress physiology of this abalone species, particularly with regard to heavy metal detoxification and thermal adaptation.

  14. Involvement of clip-domain serine protease in the anti-Vibrio immune response of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)-Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Jian; Chen, Yu-Lei; Duan, Xue-Kun; Jin, Teng-Chuan; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) is a major pathogen for abalone, an important economical shellfish in coastal area of China. There is little known about the abalone innate immune system against pathogen infection. Clip-domain serine proteases (cSPs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in host immune defense in invertebrates. In this study, we cloned a cSP (Hdh-cSP) from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). We found out that Hdh-cSP was widely expressed in multiple tissues of abalone, with highest level in the immune-like organ, hepatopancreas. V. parahemolyticus infection induced significantly elevated expression of Hdh-cSP in addition to better-characterized innate immune component genes including Rel/NF-κB, allograft inflammatory factor (ALInFa), macrophage expressed protein (MEP) and caspase-8. Importantly, the silencing of Hdh-cSP reduced the expression of these genes, suggesting that Hdh-cSP was an upstream regulatory factor in V. parahemolyticus infection. Further analysis showed that apoptosis of hemocytes was inhibited when the transcription of Hdh-cSP was knocked down, suggesting that Hdh-cSP participated in cell apoptosis by regulation of caspase 8 expression in V. parahemolyticus infection. Therefore, our study established an important role of cSP in the innate immunity against V. parahemolyticus infection in abalone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ferritin from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai: Analysis of cDNA sequence, expression, and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Kan, Yunchao; Li, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    Ferritin plays an important role in iron homeostasis due to its ability to bind and sequester large amounts of iron. In this study, the gene encoding a ferritin (HdhFer2) was cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full-length cDNA of HdhFer2 contains a 5'-UTR of 121 bp, an ORF of 516 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 252 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence of AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. It also contains a 31 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR position, which is conserved in many ferritins. HdhFer2 consists of 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight (MW) ∼19.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 4.84. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdhFer2 contains two ferritin iron-binding region signatures (IBRSs). HdhFer2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and was dominantly expressed in the gill. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhFer2 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhFer2 (rHdhFer2) purified from Escherichia coli was able to bind ferrous iron in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that HdhFer2 is a crucial protein in the iron-withholding defense system, and plays an important role in the innate immune response of abalone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  19. iTRAQ-Based Identification of Proteins Related to Muscle Growth in the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abalone Haliotis discus hannai is an important aquaculture species that is grown for human consumption. However, little is known of the genetic mechanisms governing muscle growth in this species, particularly with respect to proteomics. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method allows for sensitive and accurate protein quantification. Our study was the first to use iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate muscle growth regulation in H. discus hannai. Among the 1904 proteins identified from six samples, 125 proteins were differentially expressed in large specimens of H. discus hannai as compared to small specimens. In the large specimens, 47 proteins were upregulated and 78 were downregulated. Many of the significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including these differentially expressed proteins, were closely related to muscle growth, including apoptosis, thyroid hormone signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and viral myocarditis (p < 0.05. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses suggested that the alterations in expression levels observed in the differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the alterations observed in the encoding mRNAs, indicating the repeatability of our proteomic approach. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of muscle growth in H. discus hannai.

  20. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant perlucin nucleates the growth of calcium carbonate crystals: molecular cloning and characterization of perlucin from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Lee, Youn-Ho; Lee, Jehee

    2008-02-01

    Perlucin is well known as an important functional protein regulating pearl formation and shell biomineralization. In this study, we cloned the perlucin gene from the abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The full-length cDNA of the abalone H. discus discus perlucin gene consisted of 1038 bp nucleotides, encoding a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and a mature protein of 129 amino acids, which shared 55% identity with the homologous protein in greenlip abalone. The mature protein coding sequence was inserted into pMal-c2X expression vector and it expressed the recombinant protein in E. coli (Rosetta-gammi DE3). The maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion perlucin successfully promoted calcium carbonate precipitation and directed calcite crystal morphological modification. The successful expression of active recombinant perlucin suggested that recombinant perlucin gene transfer has the capability by color modification to improve the pearl's value. In the view of molecular structure, perlucin was a typical C-type lectin, which contained one highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that perlucin gene was expressed not only in the mantle, but also in the gill and digestive tract. Further characterization of perlucin in abalone non-self recognition and disease resistance is promising and anticipated.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Ming-Tai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-07-01

    The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 10(9) cell g(-1) of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher haemocytes, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity and total protein levels were recorded after one week of probiotic administration. On the other hand, mortality after the challenges with V. harveyi in the group fed with control diet ranged from 77 to 80%, while mortality rates observed in the groups fed with diets supplemented with WA64 and WA65 ranged from 27 to 50% and 30-43%, respectively. The results demonstrated potential for S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 to improve innate immunity and disease resistance in H. discus hannai. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-02-01

    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  6. The combination between cations and sulfated polysaccharide from abalone gonad (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiming; Cong, Shuang; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Yingying; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Beiwei; Song, Shuang; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-05-15

    Effects of cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) on the structure of abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) were studied by means of Congo red test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the local ordered helical conformation was observed in AGSP. The cations could combine with anionic groups in AGSP by ionic bonds, which caused the weakening of electrostatic repulsion and crosslinking of molecular chains. Furthermore, the effects of divalent cations on the conformation were more obvious than that of monovalent cations, and divalent cations led to the aggregation of AGSP due to the more interaction sites. In short, AGSP molecular chains were crosslinked through ionic bonds after adding cations, and, divalent cations could induce the aggregation of AGSP by electrostatic interactions. This study will provide valuable insights for the further research on AGSP conformation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  8. Molecular insights of the first gastropod TLR counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), revealing its transcriptional modulation under pathogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Premachandra, H K A; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-characterized pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity, known to induce immune responses against the pathogens by interacting with evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In this study, a novel TLR homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) was identified and characterized at molecular level. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbTLR is 3804 bp in length and encodes a 1268 amino acid peptide with a calculated molecular mass of 143.5 kDa. The deduced protein shows typical TLR domain architecture, with leucine rich repeats (LRR) and the toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship for AbTLR to its invertebrate counterparts, with close clustering to the molluscan homologs. Quantitative real-time PCR detected ubiquitous transcription of AbTLR in healthy tissues, but with highest levels in hemocytes. Differential transcriptional modulation of AbTLR was observed in abalone hemocytes and gills upon immune challenge, whereby Vibrio parahaemolyticus and purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced the transcript level prominently. In addition, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus induced AbTLR transcription in hemocytes and gills, representing the first evidence of viral-induced immune response in mollusks to date. Collectively, our findings support a putative role for AbTLR in abalone antiviral and antibacterial defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for Abalone (Haliotis midae: Validation and Application Using GoldenGate Medium-Throughput Genotyping Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouvay Roodt-Wilding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs . Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%−69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers with a global genotyping success rate of 76%−85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174 were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50 located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  10. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-06-08

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  12. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  13. Molluskan fasciclin-1 domain-containing protein: molecular characterizationand gene expression analysis of fasciclin 1-like protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Wickramaarachchi, W D N; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-06-15

    Cell-to-cell contacts play a key role in multicellular systems and organisms. Fasciclin-1 (FAS-1) is a lipid-linked membrane associated glycoprotein that is a member of a newly recognized family of cell adhesion molecules sharing features with the immunoglobulins, cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a novel FAS-1 domain-containing cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), including its gene expression profile and immune response to bacterial stimuli and tissue injuries. Designated as Abfac1, the 909bp open reading frame (ORF) encodes 303 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33kDa and isoelectric (pI) value of 4.9. The aa sequence contains two FAS-1 domains and three conserved regions, FRa motif, H-box, and FRb motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relation to Jellyfish cell adhesion protein. In healthy abalone, Abfac1 expression is highest in hepatopancreas followed by mantle and lowest in digestive gland. In immune-stimulated abalones, relative Abfac1 mRNA expression was increased in hemocytes by ~11-fold at 48h after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, by 3.1-fold at 6h after the Listeria monocytogenes infection and by ~9-fold at 6h after the LPS injection. Similarly, tissue injuries caused significant increase of relative mRNA expression by 3.5-fold in hemocytes and by ~10-fold in mantle at 12h post-injury. These results suggest that the novel member of the FAS-1 domain-containing protein family, Abfac1, may be involved in immune response and cell adhesion in disk abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural and functional characterization of a novel molluskan ortholog of TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Hyowon; Zoysa, Mahanama De; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    Immune signaling cascades have an indispensable role in the host defense of almost all the organisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is considered as a prominent signaling pathway in vertebrate as well as invertebrate species. Within the signaling cascade, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) has been shown to have a crucial role in the modulation of immune signaling in animals. Here, we attempted to characterize a novel molluskan ortholog of TTRAP (AbTTRAP) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and analyzed its expression levels under pathogenic stress. The complete coding sequence of AbTTRAP consisted of 1071 nucleotides, coding for a 357 amino acid peptide, with a predicted molecular mass of 40 kDa. According to our in-silico analysis, AbTTRAP resembled the typical TTRAP domain architecture, including a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase domain. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed its common ancestral invertebrate origin, where AbTTRAP was clustered with molluskan counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR showed universally distributed expression of AbTTRAP in selected tissues of abalone, from which more prominent expression was detected in hemocytes. Upon stimulation with two pathogen-derived mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), transcript levels of AbTTRAP in hemocytes and gill tissues were differentially modulated with time. In addition, the recombinant protein of AbTTRAP exhibited prominent endonuclease activity against abalone genomic DNA, which was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) in the medium. Collectively, these results reinforce the existence of the TNF signaling cascade in mollusks like disk abalone, further implicating the putative regulatory behavior of TTRAP in invertebrate host pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of ocean acidification with pCO2diurnal fluctuations on survival and larval shell formation of Ezo abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshihiro; Takami, Hideki; Muraoka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yukio; Nakatsubo, Ayumi; Kimura, Ryo; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of constant and diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 on development and shell formation of larval abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The larvae was exposed to different pCO 2 conditions; constant [450, 800, or 1200 μatm in the first experiment (Exp. I), 450 or 780 μatm in the second experiment (Exp. II)] or diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 (800 ± 400 or 1200 ± 400 μatm in Exp. I, 450 ± 80, 780 ± 200 or 780 ± 400 μatm in Exp. II). Mortality, malformation rates or shell length of larval abalone were not significantly different among the 450, 800, and 800 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments. Meanwhile, significantly higher malformation rates and smaller shells were detected in the 1200 and 1200 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments than in the 450 μatm pCO 2 treatment. The negative impacts were greater in the 1200 ± 400 μatm than in the 1200 μatm. Shell length and malformation rate of larval abalone were related with aragonite saturation state (Ω-aragonite) in experimental seawater, and greatly changed around 1.1 of Ω-aragonite which corresponded to 1000-1300 μatm pCO 2 . These results indicate that there is a pCO 2 threshold associated with Ω-aragonite in the seawater, and that pCO 2 fluctuations produce additional negative impacts on abalone when above the threshold. Clear relationships were detected between abalone fitness and the integrated pCO 2 value over the threshold, indicating that the effects of OA on development and shell formation of larval abalone can be determined by intensity and time of exposure to pCO 2 over the threshold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HdhCTL1 is a novel C-type lectin of abalone Haliotis discus hannai that agglutinates Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Reng; Hu, Yong-hua

    2014-12-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition proteins, which play important roles in the innate immunity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized a C-type lectin (named HdhCTL1) from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. HdhCTL1 is composed of 176 amino acid residues and shares low (23.9%) identity with the known CTL of abalone. HdhCTL1 possesses a putative signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) typical of CTLs. The CRD of HdhCTL1 contains four disulfide bond-forming cysteine residues that are highly conserved in CTLs. HdhCTL1 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and expressed abundantly in the digestive gland. Experimental infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhCTL1 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhCTL1 (rHdhCTL1) purified from Escherichia coli was able to agglutinate Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The agglutinating ability of rHdhCTL1 was abolished in the presence of mannose. These results suggest that HdhCTL1 is a novel CTL which is likely to be involved in host defense against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression during metal exposure and thermal stress of copper/zinc- and manganese-superoxide dismutases in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Cho, Young Sun; Bang, In Chul; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Dong Soo; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2007-11-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD; SOD1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; SOD2) were isolated from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frame sequences of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs encoded 154 and 226 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments using the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that both abalone SODs showed considerable sequence similarities with their orthologues from diverse aerobic organisms, in which the amino acid residues forming metal ligands were highly conserved. All phylogenetic trees for both SOD genes inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses presented the monophyletic status of Teleostei and Aves/Tetrapoda clades, and recovered relatively close genetic affiliation of H. discus discus with some molluscan species. Expression of both SODs at mRNA levels were highly modulated in various tissues (gill, muscle and hepatopancreas from juveniles, and haemocytes from adults) by experimental exposures to heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) and also by thermal treatments (elevation of temperature). The mRNA levels of both SODs were increased in general during the metal or thermal treatments; however, the transcriptional responses of SOD genes were quite variable depending upon isoforms and tissues based on semi-quantitative and/or real-time RT-PCR assays.

  19. Ultrastructural description of new Rickettsia-like organisms in the commercial abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) from the NW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Conchas, Ramón F; Tajdari, Jessica; Montes, Jaime

    2006-08-30

    Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) were found in the commercially farmed abalone Haliotis tuberculata in the northwestern region of the Atlantic Coast of Spain and are described from light and transmission electron microscopy observations. The RLOs measured approximately 1.6 x 0.9 microm and were found in intracytoplasmic, spherical to ellipsoidal vacuoles (up to 8 microm) in the epithelial cells of the digestive diverticulae. The morphological ultrastructure of these organisms was typically prokaryotic, including a plasmalemma and a thin Gram-negative type cell wall. Several ultrastructural changes were observed in the epithelial cells of the host containing the RLOs. The nuclei became pycnotic and several basophilic dense inclusions appeared in the cytoplasm. In addition, the host cell appeared lysed and was ruptured in advanced stages of infection. It was impossible to ascertain whether the RLOs are responsible for this disease, as a haplosporidian infection was also present. We can only conclude that the presence of RLOs simultaneously with a haplosporidian parasite may contribute to the mortality of the abalone host.

  20. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  1. Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular identification and functional delineation of a glutathione reductase homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Insights as a potent player in host antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Wickramasinghe, P D S U; Bathige, S D N K; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H 2 O 2 , the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 . Therefore, we conducted the current study to reveal the molecular and functional properties of a GSR homolog in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The identified cDNA sequence (2325 bp) has a 1356 bp long open reading frame (ORF), coding for a 909 bp long amino acid sequence, which harbors a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain (171-246 aa), a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase dimerization domain, and a NAD(P)(+)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily signature domain. Four functional residues: the FAD binding site, glutathione binding site, NADPH binding motif, and assembly domain were identified to be conserved among the other species. The recombinant abalone GSR (rAbGSR) exhibited detectable activity in a standard glutathione reductase activity assay. The optimum pH and optimal temperature for the reaction were found to be 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively, while the ionic strength of the medium had no effect. The enzymatic reaction was vastly inhibited by Cu +2 and Cd +2 ions. A considerable effect of cellular protection was detected with a disk diffusion assay conducted with rAbGSR. Moreover, an MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed the significance of the protective role of rAbGSR in cell function. Furthermore, AbGSR was found to be ubiquitously distributed in different types of abalone tissues. AbGSR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in response to three immune challenges

  4. Molecular characterization of kappa class glutathione S-transferase from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and changes in expression following immune and stress challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandamalika, W M Gayashani; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Liyanage, D S; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lim, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jehee

    2018-04-02

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isoenzymes represent a complex group of proteins that are involved in phase II detoxification in several organisms. In this study, GST kappa (GSTκ) from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus; AbGSTκ) was characterized at both the transcriptional and functional levels to determine its potential capacity to perform as a detoxification agent under conditions of different stress. The predicted AbGSTκ protein consists of 227 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.78. In silico analysis reveals that AbGSTκ is a disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA), consisting of a thioredoxin domain, GSH binding sites (G-sites), and a catalytic residue. In contrast, no hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site), or signal peptides, were detected. AbGSTκ showed the highest sequence identity with the orthologue from pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) (60.0%). In a phylogenetic tree, AbGSTκ clustered closely together with other fish GSTκs, and was evolutionarily distanced from other cytosolic GSTs. The predicted three-dimensional structure clearly demonstrates that the dimer adopts a butterfly-like shape. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that GSTκ was highly expressed in the digestive tract, suggesting it has detoxification ability. Depending on the tissue and time, AbGSTκ showed different expression patterns, and levels of expression, following challenge of the abalone with immune stimulants. Enzyme kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins demonstrated its conjugating ability using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH) as substrates, and suggested it has a low affinity for both substrates. The optimum temperature and pH for the rAbGSTκ GSH: CDNB conjugating activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 8, respectively indicating that the abalone is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Cibacron blue (100 μM) was

  5. Molecular identification of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) tetraspanin 33 and CD63: Insights into potent players in the disk abalone host defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Herath, H M L P B; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lee, Jehee

    2017-10-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins involved in a diverse range of physiological processes including differentiation, adhesion, signal transduction, cell motility, and immune responses. In the present study, two tetraspanins, CD63 and tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33) from disk abalone (AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33), were identified and characterized at the molecular level. The coding sequences for AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 encoded polypeptides of 234 and 290 amino acids (aa) with predicted molecular mass of 25.3 and 32.5 kDa, respectively. The deduced AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 protein sequences were also predicted to have a typical tetraspanin domain architecture, including four transmembrane domains (TM), short N- and C- terminal regions, a short intracellular loop, as well as a large and small extracellular loop. A characteristic CCG motif and cysteine residues, which are highly conserved across CD63 and TSPAN33 proteins of different species, were present in the large extracellular loop of both abalone tetraspanins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 clustered in the invertebrate subclade of tetraspanins, thus exhibiting a close relationship with tetraspanins of other mollusks. The AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA transcripts were detected at early embryonic development stages of disk abalone with significantly higher amounts at the trochophore stage, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in embryonic development. Both AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 were ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues of unchallenged abalones analyzed, with the highest expression levels found in hemocytes. Moreover, significant induction of AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA expression was observed in immunologically important tissues, such as hemocytes and gills, upon stimulation with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and two potent immune stimulators [polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and

  6. Molecular identification and functional analysis of two variants of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Lee, Seongdo; Lee, Jehee

    2018-02-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a crucial adaptor protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways and is involved in a diverse array of inflammatory responses via NF-κB activation. In the present study, two MyD88 variants were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X. The deduced AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X comprised 433 and 354 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48.85 kDa and 40.17 kDa, respectively. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X possessed typical MyD88 domain structural features including an N-terminal death domain (DD) and C-terminal toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain similar to those in mammals. Expression analysis of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA at different early embryonic developmental stages of abalone by qPCR revealed that their constitutive expression at all developmental stages analyzed with the considerably higher values at the 16-cell (AbMyD88-2) and morula stages (AbMyD88-X). In unchallenged disk abalones, AbMyD88-2 was highly expressed in muscles, while AbMyD88-X mRNA was predominantly transcribed in hemocytes. Moreover, AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA were differentially modulated in abalone hemocytes after a challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C). Overexpression of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X in HEK293T cells induced the activation of the NF-κB promoter. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X involvement in inflammatory responses was characterized by their overexpression in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. These results revealed comparatively higher NO (Nitric oxide) production, induction of inflammatory mediator genes (iNOS and COX2), and proinflammatory genes (IL1β, IL6 and TNFα) expression in abalone MyD88s-overexpressing cells than in mock control in the presence or absence of LPS

  7. Disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) expresses a novel antistasin-like serine protease inhibitor: Molecular cloning and immune response against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Oh, Chulhong; Lee, Youngdeuk; Ekanayake, Prashani Mudika; Whang, Ilson; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-04-01

    A novel antistasin-like cDNA homologue named as Ab-Antistasin was isolated from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus normalized cDNA library. The Ab-Antistasin (1398-bp) consisted of an 1185-bp open reading frame encoding 395 amino acid (aa) residues. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of Ab-Antistasin was 44 kDa and 8.5, respectively, and showed highest identity (23.1%) to Hydra magnipapillata antistasin. The most striking feature of Ab-Antistasin is the 12-fold internal repeats (IR) of an antistasin-like domain. Ten of the 12 IR domains (26-27 aa) are highly conserved, with 6 cysteines and 1 glycine. Ab-Antistasin was comprised of three Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitor family motifs. The recombinant Ab-Antistasin (rAb-Antistasin) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a pMAL system. rAb-Antistasin (10 microM) was able to inhibit trypsin activity by 66% in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it exhibited low prolongation activity for coagulation in an APTT assay (86.0 s compared to control 42.0 s) with human blood. Endogenous Ab-Antistasin mRNA was found to be expressed in digestive tract, hepatopancreas, hemocytes, abductor muscle and mantle, with highest expression levels in digestive tract followed by hepatopancreas and hemocytes. Quantitative real time PCR results revealed that Ab-Antistasin transcription was significantly induced at 3 h post-infection (p.i.) after challenged by a mixture of bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in the abalone digestive tract; in the hemocytes, induction occurred at 6 and 12 h. The results indicated that Ab-Antistasin could play an important role in the immune responses of mollusks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two variants of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Whang, Ilson; Won, Seung Hwan; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an essential member of the antioxidant systems of living organisms and may be involved in immune defense against pathogenic invasion. In the current study, two selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (AbSeGPxs) that shared 54.3% identity were identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frames (ORFs) of AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b coded for 222 and 220 amino acids, respectively, with a characteristic selenocysteine residue encoded by an opal stop codon (TGA). The conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was predicted in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of both isoforms, and they were found to form two stem-loop structures. Amino acid comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the AbSeGPxs were closely related to those in other mollusk species and were evolutionarily distinct from those of other taxonomic groups. The SYBR Green qPCR was employed in investigating the transcripts of AbSeGPxs. The expression of AbSeGPxs mRNA was examined in different embryonic developmental stages and differential expression patterns for AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b were noted. Meanwhile, the highest expression of AbSeGPxs was detected in the hepatopancreas of healthy adult animals. Next, transcriptional levels were profiled in hemocytes of adults to determine the immune responses of AbSeGPxs to microbial infections. The results revealed the significant up-regulation of AbSeGPx-a in a time-dependent manner after bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infections. Consequently, these findings indicate that AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b might be involved in the embryonic development of disk abalone and the regulation of immune defense system of adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of a novel molluscan short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) involved in host antibacterial defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2014-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a widely studied group of pattern recognition receptors found in invertebrate as well as vertebrate lineages, and are involved in bacterial pathogen sensing. However, in addition to this principal role, they can also function in multiple host defense processes, including cell phagocytosis and hydrolysis of peptidoglycans (PGNs). In this study, a novel invertebrate short-type PGRP was identified in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) designated as AbPGRP. The complete coding sequence of AbPGRP was 534 bp, encoding a 178-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 20 kDa. The AbPGRP gene had a bipartite arrangement consisting of two exons separated by a single intron. Homology analysis revealed that AbPGRP shares conserved features, including amino acid residues critical for substrate and ion binding as well as for its amidase activity, with homologs of other species. Phylogenetic analysis of AbPGRP revealed that it likely evolved from a common ancestor of invertebrates, having significant homology with other molluscan PGRPs. Recombinant AbPGRP exhibited detectable, dose-dependent PGN-hydrolyzing activity with the presence of Zn(2+), and strong antibacterial activity against Vibrio tapetis, consistent with the functional properties previously reported for PGRPs in other mollusks. Moreover, AbPGRP transcription was induced upon treatment of healthy abalones with bacterial peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, although the expression profiles differed with treatment, suggesting a capacity for discriminating between bacterial pathogens through molecular pattern recognition. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that AbPGRP is a true homolog of invertebrate PGRPs and likely plays an indispensable role in host immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three novel clade B serine protease inhibitors from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Molecular perspectives and responses to immune challenges and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Chul; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) control cellular protease activity in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. The immune and inflammatory responses of invertebrate clade B SERPINs have not been widely reported. In the present study, three proteins with high similarity to clade B SERPINs, referred to as AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3, were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). While AbSERPIN-1 (399 aa) was of a typical size for this protein class, AbSERPIN-2 (506 aa) and AbSERPIN-3 (532 aa) were relatively larger. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the characteristic SERPIN domain in each AbSERPIN. In addition, the N-terminal region of both AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3 contained a predicted low complexity region (LCR) and a signal peptide, suggesting that these proteins are secretory proteins and are, thus, novel peptides. Tertiary structural models of the AbSERPINs highlighted their structural and functional conservation. Ubiquitous expression of AbSERPIN transcripts was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis in seven tissue types. AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2, and AbSERPIN-3 transcript levels were highest in mantle, hemocytes, and muscles, respectively. Temporal expression analysis revealed that AbSERPINs were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in hemocytes during the early/middle stages following the injection of a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus or Listeria monocytogenes) or an immuno-stimulant (lipopolysaccharide). Moreover, mantle tissue injury led to significant changes in the temporal expression of AbSERPIN mRNA. Specifically, transcription of AbSERPIN-1 and AbSERPIN-3 was considerably up-regulated, while expression of AbSERPIN-2 was suppressed. These results suggest a potential role of AbSERPINs in response to pathogen invasion and tissue injury in disk abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  12. Molecular insights into a molluscan transferrin homolog identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) evidencing its detectable role in host antibacterial defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-11-01

    The basic function of transferrin is to bind iron (III) ions in the medium and to deliver them to the locations where they are required for metabolic processes. It also takes part in the host immune defense mainly via its ability to bind to iron (III) ions. Hence, transferrin is also identified as an important acute-phase protein in host immunity. Abalones are major shellfish aquaculture crops that are susceptible to a range of marine microbial infections. Since transferrin is known to be a major player in innate immunity, in the present study we sought to identify, and molecularly and functionally characterize a transferrin-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) named as AbTrf. AbTrf consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 728 amino acid (aa) protein. The putative amino acid sequence of AbTrf harbored N- and C-terminal transferrin-like domains, active sites for iron binding, and conserved cysteine residues. A constitutive tissue specific AbTrf expression pattern was detected by qPCR in abalones where mantle and muscle showed high AbTrf expression levels. Three immune challenge experiments were conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and LPS as stimuli and, subsequently, AbTrf mRNA expression levels were quantified in gill and hemocytes in a time-course manner. The mRNA expression was greatly induced in both tissues in response to both challenges. Evidencing the functional property of transferrins, recombinant AbTrf N-terminal domain (AbTrf-N) showed dose-dependent iron (III) binding activity detected by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay system. Moreover, recombinant AbTrf-N could significantly inhibit the growth of iron-dependent bacterium, Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. However, AbTrf-N was unable to show any detectable bacteriostatic activity against iron-independent bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) even at its highest concentration. Collectively, our results suggest that Ab

  13. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  14. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  15. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  16. First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lambert, Christophe; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    The disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell Turbo cornutus are edible gastropod species of high economic value, mainly in Asia. Mortality outbreaks and variations in worldwide stock abundance have been reported and suggested to be associated, at least in part, with pathogenic infections. Ecology, biology and immunology of both species are currently not well documented. The characterisation of the immune systems of these species is necessary to further assess the responses of H. discus discus and T. cornutus to environmental, chemical and disease stresses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and immune-related activities of hemocytes in both species using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of hemocytes were identified in the disk abalone hemolymph, blast-like cells and hyalinocytes; whereas four main hemocyte types were distinguished in the spiny top shell, blast-like cells, type I and II hyalinocytes, and granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed differences between cell types in immune-related activities. Three subsets of hemocytes, defined by differing lysosomal characteristics, were observed in the hemolymph of the spiny top shell, and only one in the disk abalone. Phagocytic activity was higher in H. discus discus hemocytes than in T. cornutus hemocytes, and the kinetics of PMA-stimulated oxidative activity was different between hemocytes of the disk abalone and the spiny top shell. Finally our results suggest for the first time a predominant mitochondrial origin of oxidative activity in gastropod hemocytes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  18. A bifunctional invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: genome organization, transcriptional profiling and biological activities of recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Lysozyme is an important enzyme in the innate immune system that plays a vital role in fighting microbial infections. In the current study, we identified, cloned, and characterized a gene that encodes an invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus (abLysI). The full-length cDNA of abLysI consisted of 545 bp with an open reading frame of 393 bp that encodes 131 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature abLysI was 12.3 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.03. Conserved features in other homologs, such as catalytic sites for lytic activity (Glu(30) and Asp(41)), isopeptidase activity (His(107)), and ten cysteine residues were identified in abLysI. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that abLysI was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative promoter region. Homology and phylogeny analysis of abLysI depicted high identity and closer proximity, respectively, with an annelid i-type lysozyme from Hirudo medicinalis, and indicated that abLysI is a novel molluscan i-type lysozyme. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that abLysI is mainly transcribed in hepatopancreas followed by mantle. In addition, abLysI mRNA expression was induced following bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) challenges. Recombinantly expressed abLysI [(r)abLysI] demonstrated strong lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, isopeptidase activity, and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, (r)abLysI showed optimum lytic activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C, while exhibiting optimum isopeptidase activity at pH 7.0. Taken together, these results indicate that abLysI is potentially involved in immune responses of the disk abalone to protect it from invaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji Young; Park, Eun Hee; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; An, Chul Min; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2016-12-14

    Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2). By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C -terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs.

  20. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  3. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  4. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  6. Three novel C1q domain containing proteins from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Genomic organization and analysis of the transcriptional changes in response to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Godahewa, G I; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-09-01

    The globular C1q (gC1q) domain containing proteins, commonly referred as C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins, are an essential family of proteins involved in various innate immune responses. In this study, three novel C1qDC proteins were identified from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) transcriptome database and designated as AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3. The cDNA sequences of AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3 consisted of 807, 1305, and 660 bp open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 269, 435, and 220 amino acids (aa), respectively. Putative signal peptides and the N-terminal gC1q domain were identified in all three AbC1qDC proteins. An additional predicted motif region, known as the coiled coil region (CCR), was identified next to the signal sequence of AbC1qDC2. The genomic organization of the AbC1qDCs was determined using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. It was found that the CDS of AbC1qDC1 was distributed among three exons, while the CDSs of AbC1qDC2 and AbC1qDC3 were distributed between two exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the AbC1qDC proteins shared <40% identity with other counterparts from different species. According to the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, the proteins were grouped within an invertebrate group with high evolutionary distances, which suggests that they are new members of the C1qDC family. Higher expression of AbC1qDC1 and AbC1qDC2 was detected in hepatopancreas, muscle, and mantle tissues compare to the other tissues analyzed, using reverse transcription, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green, whereas AbC1qDC3 was predominantly expressed in gill tissues, followed by muscles and the hepatopancreas. The temporal expression of AbC1qDC transcripts in gills after bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation indicated that AbC1qDCs can be strongly induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species with different

  7. Boulders or urchins? Selecting seeding sites for juvenile Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent to which the relationship between juvenile abalone Haliotis midae and sea urchins Parechinus angulosus is induced by their physical habitat along the Namaqualand coast of South Africa was investigated. Correlation analyses between the proportion of abalone utilising sea urchins for refuge and the proportion ...

  8. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLafferty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO, is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii. Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm in Santa Barbara, California, discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based abalone farms discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  9. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine

    2018-03-27

    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  12. First report on the gastropod proapoptotic AIF3 counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) deciphering its transcriptional modulation by induced pathogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein that is involved in oxidative phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. There are three isozymes of AIF that have been identified to date, designated as AIF1, AIF2, and AIF3; the human AIF3 is also known as an AIF-like protein (AIFL). This study aimed to identify and characterize a homologue of AIF3 from disk abalone (AbAIF3) that belongs to the phylum Mollusca. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbAIF3 is 1749 base pairs (bp) in length and encodes a protein of 583 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 63.14 kDa. Based on our in-silico analysis, the AbAIF3 protein harbored the typical domain architecture as that of the known AIF family proteins, consisting of N-terminal Rieske and pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain. Comparative protein sequence analysis confirmed that AbAIF3 is a homolog of AIF3. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbAIF3 had a close evolutionary relationship with the molluscan counterparts. Interestingly, AbAIF3 was shown to induce apoptosis in HEK293T cells using transfection assays followed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, we found that AbAIF3 mRNA expression was ubiquitous in physiologically important tissues, and significantly modulated upon experimental immune stimulations in hemocytes. Collectively, our study illustrates the indispensable role of AbAIF3 in inducing apoptosis in disk abalones, which in turn might be involved in hosts' immune defense mechanisms against microbial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S

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    Alfonso Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September and increase during the austral summer (December-January. Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  14. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  15. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  16. Differential susceptibility to the Withering Syndrome agent and renal coccidia in juvenile Haliotis rufescens, Haliotis discus hannai and the interspecific hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roxana; Lohrmann, Karin B; Pizarro, Javiera; Brokordt, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    Withering Syndrome (WS) is a pathogenic chronic disease caused by the intracellular rickettsial-like bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (WS-RLOs), which affects many abalone species. The renal coccidium (Margolisiella haliotis) has often been observed concurrent with WS infection. The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a very susceptible species to WS and is also infected by the coccidium M. haliotis. In contrast, the Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai is not infected by these parasites. Interspecific hybridization is a method for improving important traits in animal husbandry. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibility to WS-RLO and M. haliotis infection in the hybrid generated from a cross between red and Japanese abalones. Juveniles from both species and the interspecific hybrid were challenged by exposure to effluent from red abalone adults infected with both parasites. The animals were analyzed by histology at 130days post-challenge. A 33% prevalence WS-RLOs was observed in the red abalone H. rufescens, whereas a 20% prevalence was observed in the hybrid. Infections were graded on a scale of 0-3. Of these red abalones infected, 53% presented grade 1 infection intensity, 10% had grade 2 infections, and 50% had grade 3 infections. However, the hybrids only presented intensities at the extremes of the scale; of those infected 33% showed grade 1 infections and 66% had grade 3 infections. The coccidium prevalence was 7% in red abalone individuals and 13% in the hybrid abalone. In contrast, the Japanese abalone did not present infections with either parasite. As with the prevalence, the infection intensities for the coccidium were higher in the hybrid abalone; of those infected 25% had grade 2 infections, and 75% had grade 3 infections, but the red abalone presented only grade 2 infection intensities. Therefore, the hybrid did not inherited non-susceptibility or resistance characteristics of the parental H. discus hannai and

  17. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

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    Rio Ary Sudarmawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang

  18. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  19. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... physical stress and predation (Davies and Hawkins,. 1998). On occasions, such products from several different types of mucocyte combine to produce multifunctional mucus (Shirbhate and Cook, 1987). The mucocyte is a type of gland cell, which has many physiological func- tions. Mucous cells secrete ...

  20. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  1. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  2. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  3. [The detection of living triploid of Haliotis discus hannai--directly making chromosome sample of mantle and epipedium tentacle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Juan; Mao, Lian-Ju; Li, Xia; Wang, Zi-Chen; Song, Jian

    2002-06-01

    Ploidy detection method of living body is a very important component part in polyploid breeding. There were few reports about chromosome ploidy detection of adult abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), except preparing adult abalone chromosome by means of chopping method using gill tissues and squashing method using gonad, also with these methods the abalone should be killed for getting these tissues. In polyploid breeding living triploid abalones are needed, so ploidy detection technique of living abalone is especially important. In this paper the orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels L9(3(4)) using mantle and epipodium tentacle as material of living tissues which were vido immersing in PHA solution for preparing chromosome and count the frequence of cell division was first reported. Three factors and three levels were raising temperature: 16 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 20 degrees C; PHA concentration: 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%; sampling time: 5:00-6:00, 17:00-18:00, 23:00-24:00, respectively. The tests were repeated two times. The test results showed that the optimal patterns effecting the mitotic frequency of three factors and three levels in triploid abalone detection of chromosome from mantles and epipodium of living bodies were: raising temperature 20 degrees C, PHA concentration 1.0%, and sampling time 17:00-18:00. The order of three factors was: raising temperature-->PHA concentration-->sampling time. Under optimal pattern of three factors and three levels many clear, proper in length and well-scattered metaphase chromosomes could be obtained. The advantages of preparing chromosome using mantles and epipodium tentacle were sampling convenient, no body size restriction and no influence of survival of abalone. After using PHA treated tissues, mitotic frequency could be improved and 1.00% PHA concentration was the best. The key of chromosome preparation was the cells in mitotic metaphase, so the time of sampling was important. During 17:00-18:00, sampling of

  4. Immune priming and portal of entry effectors improve response to vibrio infection in a resistant population of the European abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubief, Bruno; Nunes, Flavia L D; Basuyaux, Olivier; Paillard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Since 1997, populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata suffer mass mortalities attributed to the bacterium Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities occur at the spawning season, when the abalone immune system is depressed, and when temperatures exceed 17 °C, leading to favorable conditions for V. harveyi proliferation. In order to identify mechanisms of disease resistance, experimental successive infections were carried out on two geographically distinct Brittany populations: one that has suffered recurrent mortalities (Saint-Malo) and one that has not been impacted by the disease (Molène). Furthermore, abalone surviving these two successive bacterial challenges and uninfected abalone were used for several post-infection analyses. The Saint-Malo population was found to be resistant to V. harveyi infection, with a survival rate of 95% compared to 51% for Molène. While in vitro quantification of phagocytosis by flow cytometry showed strong inhibition following the first infection, no inhibition of phagocytosis was observed following the second infection for Saint-Malo, suggesting an immune priming effect. Moreover, assays of phagocytosis of GFP-labelled V. harveyi performed two months post-infection show an inhibition of phagocytosis by extracellular products of V. harveyi for uninfected abalone, while no effect was observed for previously infected abalone from Saint-Malo, suggesting that the effects of immune priming may last upwards of two months. Detection of V. harveyi by qPCR showed that a significantly greater number of abalone from the susceptible population were positive for V. harveyi in the gills, indicating that portal of entry effectors may play a role in resistance to the disease. Collectively, these results suggest a potential synergistic effect of gills and hemolymph in the resistance of H. tuberculata against V. harveyi with an important involvement of the gills, the portal of entry of the bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  6. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  7. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  8. The effects of feeding Lactobacillus pentosus on growth, immunity, and disease resistance in Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Gao; Mo, Zhang; Xian, Li; Yin, Han; Fucun, Wu; Ying, Liu

    2018-04-04

    To study the effects of probiotic-added food on the survival and growth of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes and the anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were examined. During an 8-week culturing experiment in an indoor aquarium and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment, the control group was fed with untreated food once a day, while the experimental groups (L1, L2 and L3) were fed with Lactobacillus pentosus added food. The concentration of probiotics in the experimental food was 10 3  cfu/g (L1), 10 5  cfu/g (L2) and 10 7  cfu/g (L3), respectively. The results showed that the survival rate, shell length-specific growth rate, and the food conversion rate (FCR) of abalones in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than the control group. The food intake of abalones in L3 was significantly lower than that in L1, L2 and the control group, but there was no significant difference in FCR identified between L1, L2 and L3. In the L. pentosus-added groups, the total number of blood lymphocytes, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, and expression levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TP x ) were significantly higher than the control group, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower than the control group. The phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, catalase activity and the expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of abalones in the control group were significantly lower than that in L1 and L2, but there was no significant difference when compared with L3. The levels of O 2 - , NO produced by respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes and the expression levels of catalase (CAT) in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than both L3 and the control group. Seven days after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, all abalones in the control group were dead. After 14 days the cumulative mortality rate of abalones in the L

  9. [Construction of SSH library from haemocyte of variously colored abalone challenged with bacteria and differential expression analysis of macrophage expressed protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Qiao, Kun; Cai, Ling; Huang, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Nai; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2008-08-01

    Abalones are considered to be the most precious delicacy from the sea, and become very important commercial seafood in aquaculture worldwide. Variously colored abalone (Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, 1846) has been widely cultured on the southeast coast for more than twenty years. However, abalone culture frequently suffers from bacterial infection and mass mortality of reared abalones causes serious economic losses. Unfortunately, knowledge of the defense mechanism in this animal is still lacking. In this study, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology, a forward SSH library was constructed from haemocytes of H. diversicolor, with the content of 1.37x10(6) pfu and the recombinant rate of 98.18%. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, partial cDNA of macrophage expressed protein (MEP) was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with the size of 1,551 bp, and continuously encoding 517 amino acids. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that MEP cDNA was distinctly up-regulated in haemocytes of the bacterial-challenged group compared to the unchallenged group. The gene information obtained from this library will provide new insights into the immune mechanism of H. diversicolor and facilitate future study of target genes involved in the response to invading microorganisms.

  10. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  11. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K.; Reddy, P. Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90?% of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to ac...

  12. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  14. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-02-01

    The sequence of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene of Haliotis discus hannai (designated HdCpi) was determined using the RACE method. The full-length HdCpi cDNA is 1049 bp long, and contains an open reading frame of 813 bp, encoding a 271-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.83 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdCpi contains two cystatin-like domains, and each has the structural features of the cystatin family, including three evolutionarily conserved motifs known to interact with the active sites of cysteine peptidases: the Gly residue at the N-terminus (Gly(65) and Gly(160)), the Gln-X-Val-X-Gly motif (Q(106)IVSG(110) and Q(202)VVAG(206)), and the less conserved motif at the C-terminus (S(136)W(137) and A(254)W(255)). Many putative transcription-factor-binding sites involved in the immune system and cancer occur in the promoter region of HdCpi. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR detected HdCpi expression in all the tissues examined and in the gills of abalone challenged with the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. HdCpi transcripts were expressed in the mantle, gill, digestive tract, hemocytes, and muscle, and increased HdCpi expression was observed after bacterial stimulation. These results suggest that HdCpi is a biologically active protease inhibitor that is likely to be involved in the antibacterial response of the abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel small heat shock protein of Haliotis discus hannai: characterization, structure modeling, and expression profiles under environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a class of chaperones with low molecular weight, feathered by a C-terminal α-crystallin domain (ACD). They participate in reestablishing the stability of partially denatured proteins and therefore contribute to cellular homeostasis. In this work, we identified a sHsp homolog (designated as sHsp19) from Haliotis discus hannai, an economically important farmed mollusk in East Asia. sHsp19 possesses a sHsp hallmark domain, which exhibits the typical fold of ACD as revealed by a three-dimensional model constructed through an iterative threading assembly refinement method. The amino acid sequence sHsp19 shares low identities with any other known sHsps, with percentages below 35 %. Besides, sHsp19 shows relatively distant phylogenetic relationships with sHsps of various mollusks, including two other identified sHsps of abalone subspecies. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of sHsp19 occurred in multiple tissues. Upon exposure to thermal, oxidative, and multiple toxic metal stresses, the level of sHsp19 mRNA was rapidly elevated in a persistent fashion, with the maximum increase up to 170.58-, 405.84-, and 361.96-fold, respectively. These results indicate sHsp is a novel sHsp that possesses the distinguishing structural feature of sHsps but has remote homologies with known sHsps. It is likely to be important in stress adaptation of abalone and may be applied as a bioindicator for monitoring pollution or detrimental changes of environment in abalone culture.

  16. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  17. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Sandie M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2012-02-17

    Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope), mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development) and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue). We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  18. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  19. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.Y.M.; Brunner, R.; Chen, P.Y.; Talke, F.E.; Meyers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter (∼200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  1. Effects of a probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis) on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Mo; Li, Xian; Han, Yin; Wu, Fucun; Liu, Ying

    2018-02-17

    To study the effects of a probiotic (Bacillus lincheniformis) on the survival and growth of Haliotis discus hannai Ino, the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes and the resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were assessed. Abalones (shell length: 27.64 ± 1.59 mm, body weight: 4.17 ± 0.32 g) were selected for use in an 8-week culture experiment and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment. In both experiments, the control group (C) was fed with a basal feed and the experimental groups were fed with experimental food prepared by spraying the probiotic on the basal feed at different concentrations: 10 3 (B1), 10 5 (B2), and 10 7 (B3) cfu/mL. The survival rate, total number of blood lymphocytes, activity of acid phosphatase, and expression level of heat shock protein 70 were significantly higher in B1, B2, and B3 than in C (P < 0.05). The specific growth rate of shell length, food intake, food conversion rate, phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, activities of myeloperoxidase and catalase (CAT), and expression levels of CAT and thioredoxin peroxidase of abalones in B2 were significantly higher than those in B1 and C (P < 0.05). Although the level of O 2 - produced by the respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes in B2 was not significantly different from those in B1 and B3, they were significantly higher than that in C (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the nitric oxide levels produced by the respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes, and the expression levels of Mn-SOD in B1 and B3 were significantly higher than those in C but significantly lower than those in B2 (P < 0.05). Fourteen days after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, the cumulative mortality of abalones in B2 was significantly lower than those in B1 and C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the food containing 10 5  cfu/mL Bacillus licheniformis promoted food intake and growth of abalones and also improved

  2. RADIOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RED PANDAS ( AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2018-03-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy in red pandas to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen was performed in nine captive red pandas during their annual health examinations. Seven of nine animals had six lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum consisted mainly (8/9) of three fused segments. Hypaxial muscles were easily seen in animals weighing 5 kg and above. The pylorus was located to the right of the midline and cranially to the fundus in 8/9 individuals. Bunching of small intestine in the right central abdomen occurred in animals weighing 6 kg and above. The spleen was prominent. Knowledge of the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy of red pandas is important in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations.

  3. Heat inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of temperature and heat treatment duration on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) from both viral cell culture lysate (7-8 log10 PFU) and experimentally contaminated abalone meat and viscera (5-6 log10 PFU) as a model of human norovirus (NoV). MNV-1 titers in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 1.93-4.55, 1.79-3.00, and 2.26-3.26 log10 PFU/ml, respectively, after treatment at 70 °C for 1-10 min. Treatment at 85 °C for 1-5 min gradually reduced MNV-1 titers in abalone meat to 2.71-4.15 log10 PFU/ml. MNV-1 titers in abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 2.91-3.46 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 85 °C for 1-3 min. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in MNV-1 titers in the abalone meat and viscera among treatment groups (70 °C for 5 min, 70 °C for 3 min, and 85 °C for 1 min). Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in cell culture lysate was determined at 85 °C for ≥1 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min. Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in abalone was determined at 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for meat, and 85 °C for 5 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for viscera. At treatments at 70 °C, the Td-values (3 log reduction time) were significantly lower (P 0.05) between abalone meat (1.78) and abalone viscera (1.33) at treatments at 85 °C. This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera.

  4. Short Communication Towards an abalone weaning diet: evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of post-settlement abalone when 'weaning' them from diatoms onto macroalgae/artificial feed remains unpredictable for farmers. It is hypothesised that spirulina algae, which are high in protein, may be a suitable feed ingredient for weaning abalone. Over a period of 27 days, the growth and survival of juvenile (4–6 ...

  5. Identification and characterization of molluscan caveolin-1 ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Possible involvement in embryogenesis and host defense mechanism against pathogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayantha, H M V; Bathige, S D N K; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2018-01-01

    Caveolins are principal membrane proteins of caveolae that play a central role in signal transduction, substrate transport, and membrane trafficking in various cell types. Numerous studies have reported the crucial role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in response to invading microbes; yet, very little is known about molluscan CAV1. In this study, we identified and characterized CAV1 ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus (HdCAV1). The cDNA sequence of HdCAV1 is 826 bp long and encodes a 127-amino acid polypeptide. Characteristic caveolin superfamily domain (Glu 3 - Lys 126 ) and two possible transmembrane domains (Cys 48 - Tyr 67 and Ile 103 - Phe 120 ) were identified in the HdCAV1 protein. Homology analysis revealed that HdCAV1 shared higher identity (>47%) with molluscans, but lower identity with other species. Phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method revealed a distinct evolutionary pathway for molluscans. Transcriptional analysis by SYBR Green qPCR showed the highest expression of HdCAV1 mRNA in late veliger stage, as compared to that in other embryonic developmental stages of disk abalone. In adult animals, gill tissue showed highest HdCAV1 transcript levels under normal physiological condition. Stimulations with two bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and two pathogen-associated molecular patterns (LPS and poly I:C) significantly modulated the expression of HdCAV1 transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that CAV1 plays an important role in embryogenesis and host immune defense in disk abalone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  7. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  8. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (H O ) and mean inbreeding (F IS ) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  10. Beheersing en bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea en van Penicillium in Euphorbia fulgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Hazendonk, A.; Bosker, I.; Slootweg, C.; Hoope, ten M.

    2002-01-01

    De bloeiwijze van Euphorbia fulgens kent twee belangrijke schimmelbelagers, die problemen in de teelt veroorzaken: Botrytis cinerea en Penicillium. B. cinerea geeft schade in de vorm van smet of pokken, die op de bloemblaadjes verschijnen. Dit zijn kleine donkerbruine/zwarte plekjes van ongeveer 1

  11. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  12. NUTRITION REQUIREMENT OF CULTURED ABALONE POST LARVAE AND JUVENILES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone aquaculture attracts wide attention nowadays because of its high market value and depleted of wild stocks. China and Japan are the main producer of abalone from aquaculture followed by other countries such as New Zealand, Australia and US. Most of cultured abalone are temperate species but considerable research efforts have been made to culture tropical abalone in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Most of abalone culture still depends on natural food but recent studies have been conducted to develop artificial diet for abalone. This will not only reduce wild harvest of macrolagae but also develop high nutrition diet at low cost. Successful abalone aquaculture is determined by correct nutrition supplement in the diet. As other cultured animal, abalone requires balanced nutrition of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, and minerals. As herbivores, abalone can utilize carbohydrate efficiently as energy source and thus only requires low level of protein (range from 27%—40%. Lipid requirements range from 3%—5% while some minerals such as calcium and phosphorus in artificial feed are only needed in small amount, 0.5% of calcium in diets and 0.7% of phosphorus in the diet can improve the growth rate of abalone. There is not available information of vitamin upplementation in the diet but it is suggested that natural food meets the requirement.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  15. Book Review: Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture. Book Authors: Edited by S.A. Shepherd, M.J. Tegner & S.A. Guzman del Proo. Fishing News Books (Division of Blackwell Scientific. Publications Ltd.) Oxford, U.K. (1992). 608 pages. ISBN 0-85238-181-6.

  16. Book Review Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although this book originated from the First International. Symposium on Abalone Biology, which was held in La Paz,. Mexico in 1989, it is far more than a collection of symposium papers. The symposium papers are included in the volume but, in addition to this, the editors solicited review articles on several of the more ...

  17. Book Review Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by S.A. Shepherd, M.J. Tegner and S.A.. Guzman del Proo. Fishing News Books (Division of Blackwell Scientific. Publications ltd.) Oxford, U.K. (1992). 608 pages. Price: £65. ISBN 0-85238-181-6. Although this book originated from the First International. Symposium on Abalone Biology, which was held in La Paz,.

  18. Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... *CS, Cold shock; HS, heat shock; HPS, hydropressure shock; CB, cytochlasin B; 6-DMAP, 6-dimethylaminopurine. ..... Induction of gynogenetic diploid by inhibiting second meiosis in the Pacific abalone. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 56: 1755-1763. Fujino K, Arai K, Kudo M, Suzuki T, Masumori M, Takahashi K ...

  19. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  20. Effects of livestock on occurrence of the Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens in Rara National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Hari Prasad; Belant, Jerrold L.; Swenson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens is endemic to the Himalayas. Anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, have degraded the species’ habitat but the effects of livestock have not been examined. We assessed the effects of illegal livestock activity on the presence of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal. The probability of detecting red panda faecal pellets decreased with livestock occurrence but not with elevation or aspect. The presence of bamboo ...

  1. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these areas could be a viable resource conservation strategy as they serve as reproductive reserves to supply larvae for continued productivity of the f ishing grounds. Abalone mariculture following the Farmer Field School (FFS concept was explored to address both resource management and economic needs. As a resource enhancement activity, mariculture guarantees that cultured abalone are allowed to grow to maturity before harvested, while some are retained to restock a marine sanctuary. Sincemariculture makes possible the aggregation of individuals, the probability that fertilization would take place is increased. As supplemental source of livelihood, abalone is a high value commodity and its culture can help augment the income of f ishers. Small abalone (3-4 cm can be cultured further for 3-4 months to increase their size and weight. Mariculture should be done from November to May to avoid the rainy season and improve survivorship. The experiential activity was successful because it became a means for the f ishers to experienceresource management. Under the FFS, the researcher became a facilitator and mentored the cooperators in learning from their experience. The lessons sharpened the f ishers’ skills in observation, problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking. This enabled them to gain an appreciation of their resource.

  2. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  3. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

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    Modesta Makungu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  4. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Makungu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  5. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  6. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  7. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  8. Life history of the terrestrial snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae under laboratory conditions

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    Zaidett Barrientos

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude 1900 were studied under laboratory conditions in Costa Rica for 16 months. The lifespan of this snail in captivity was about nine months (N= 22 and it could lay viable eggs without mating (N= 40. Oviposition began 42 days after eclosion, when shell diameter averaged 5.12 mm (N= 24. Clutches had about three eggs each (N= 252. One clutch was laid daily over periods of one to four days, with intervals of one to two days (N= 252. Age, shell diameter and clutch size were positively correlated (N= 1097 as were shell diameter of adult, egg diameter and shell diameter of the offspring (N= 136. Oviposition took place between crevices of the soil and in the leaf litter. Eggs had a soft egg shell and were laid semi-hydrated; they hydrated by absorbing water from the surroundings (N= 21. This strategy may be the evolutionary compromise between a mechanical limitation (small body size and the advantage of producing bigger eggs with a larger amount of nutritive substances. At room temperature (mean = 21°C egg eclosion took place in 14 days (N= 67 and in 11 days at 28 °C (N= 32. Egg shell dissolution was not uniform (N= 107, it began in a local area, that usually was the side on which it rested (N= 46. The fact that eggs with and without an embryo (N= 5 underwent the same process of egg shell's calcium dissolution suggested a chemical mechanism. Embryos did not induce the process, but accelerated it. Egg viability was decreased by the tannins of the surrounding leaf litter (N= 50. Juveniles could feed on leaves of Persea americana (Lauraceae (N= 299.Durante 16 meses se estudió en laboratorio la biología básica de Ovachlamys fulgens en Costa Rica. Esta especie se reprodujo sin copular (N= 40 y su longevidad fue de nueve meses (N= 22. La oviposición inició a los 42 días de haber eclosionado y con 5.12 mm de diámetro de concha (N= 24. Los huevos fueron depositados en camadas diarias de alrededor de tres

  9. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Fei

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342 in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406, with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17, more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  10. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion.

  11. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204–0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331–0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves. PMID:28306740

  12. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  13. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II Kim Jae

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB. Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining. Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  14. From untargeted LC-QTOF analysis to characterisation of opines in abalone adductor muscle: Theory meets practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Leonie; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Loots, Du Toit; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Zander

    2017-12-15

    Abalone have a unique ability to use pyruvate, various amino acids and dehydrogenases, to produce opines as means to prevent the accumulation of NADH during anaerobic conditions. In this study, the theoretical masses, formulae and fragment patterns of butylated opines were used to predict which of these compounds could be found in the abalone adductor muscle using untargeted liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of flight-mass spectrometry. These findings were validated using synthesised opine standards. In essence alanopine, lysopine, strombine and tauropine produced in abalone adductor muscle could be characterised using the highest identification confidence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  17. Más sobre Abalone y algo sobre tuercas: los tetrahexos

    OpenAIRE

    Rupérez, José Antonio; García, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Comentamos los problemas planteados en anterior artículo sobre jugadas del ABALONE, describiéndolo de nuevo y presentamos el puzle de los Polihexos, fácil de construir y entretenido de resolver; útil para plantear ejercicios de combinatoria y simetrías.

  18. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  19. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Tripathy, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Choudhary, Alka [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Aili, Pavan Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Chatterjee, Anupam [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Singh, Inder Pal [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Banerjee, Uttam Chand, E-mail: ucbanerjee@niper.ac.in [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India)

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0} and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC{sub 50} value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic

  20. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Tripathy, Debabrata; Choudhary, Alka; Aili, Pavan Kumar; Chatterjee, Anupam; Singh, Inder Pal; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag + to Ag 0 and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC 50 value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic apoptosis effect of

  1. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  2. Large anthropogenic impacts on a charismatic small carnivore: Insights from distribution surveys of red panda Ailurus fulgens in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Panthi

    Full Text Available Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal. We conducted field surveys forindirect signs of red pandas along forest trails in 25-km2 sampling grid cells (n = 54 of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, and confronted a set of ecological hypotheses to the data using hierarchical occupancy models. We estimated overall occupancy at Ψ(SE = 0.41 (0.007, with relatively high site-level detectability [p = 0.93 (SE = 0.001]. Our results show that despitebeing a subsistence form of small-scale resource use, extraction of bamboo and livestock grazing negatively affected panda occurrence, albeit at different intensities. The amount of bamboo cover,rather than the overall proportion of forest cover, had greater influence on the panda occurrence. Despite availability of bamboo cover, areas with bamboo extraction and anthropogenic disturbances were less likely to be occupied by pandas. Together, these results suggest that long-term persistence of red pandas in this reserve and elsewhere across the species' range will require preventing commercial extractionof bamboo, coupled with case-specific regulation of anthropogenic exploitation of red panda habitats.

  3. Genetic structuring and recent demographic history of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Guo, Yu; Qi, Dunwu; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Hua; Bruford, Michael W; Wei, Fuwen

    2011-07-01

    Clarification of the genetic structure and population history of a species can shed light on the impacts of landscapes, historical climate change and contemporary human activities and thus enables evidence-based conservation decisions for endangered organisms. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species distributing at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline, thus representing a good model to test the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a plateau edge species. We combined nine microsatellite loci and 551 bp of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA CR) to explore the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. A total of 123 individuals were sampled from 23 locations across five populations. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. Phylogeographic analyses indicated little geographic structure, suggesting historically wide gene flow. However, microsatellite-based Bayesian clustering clearly identified three groups (Qionglai-Liangshan, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong-Tibet). A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was detected only after removing Xiaoxiangling. For mtDNA data, there was no statistical support for a historical population expansion or contraction for the whole sample or any population except Xiaoxiangling where a signal of contraction was detected. However, Bayesian simulations of population history using microsatellite data did pinpoint population declines for Qionglai, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong, demonstrating significant influences of human activity on demography. The unique history of the Xiaoxiangling population plays a critical role in shaping the genetic structure of this species, and large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation is hampering gene flow among populations. The implications of our findings for the biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, subspecies classification and

  4. Large anthropogenic impacts on a charismatic small carnivore: Insights from distribution surveys of red panda Ailurus fulgens in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Khanal, Gopal; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Aryal, Achyut; Srivathsa, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal. We conducted field surveys forindirect signs of red pandas along forest trails in 25-km2 sampling grid cells (n = 54) of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, and confronted a set of ecological hypotheses to the data using hierarchical occupancy models. We estimated overall occupancy at Ψ(SE) = 0.41 (0.007), with relatively high site-level detectability [p = 0.93 (SE = 0.001)]. Our results show that despitebeing a subsistence form of small-scale resource use, extraction of bamboo and livestock grazing negatively affected panda occurrence, albeit at different intensities. The amount of bamboo cover,rather than the overall proportion of forest cover, had greater influence on the panda occurrence. Despite availability of bamboo cover, areas with bamboo extraction and anthropogenic disturbances were less likely to be occupied by pandas. Together, these results suggest that long-term persistence of red pandas in this reserve and elsewhere across the species' range will require preventing commercial extractionof bamboo, coupled with case-specific regulation of anthropogenic exploitation of red panda habitats.

  5. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Encrusting corallines have long been implicated in the settlement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    DAY, E. 1998 — Ecological interactions between abalone (Haliotis midae) juveniles and sea urchins (Parechinus angulosus), off the south-west coast of South Africa. Ph.D. thesis,. University of Cape Town: 174 pp. DAY, E. and G. M. BRANCH 2000 — Evidence for a positive rela- tionship between juvenile abalone Haliotis ...

  7. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Henry T Y; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force–displacement–velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators

  8. The Phantom Menace for Patients with Hepatobiliary Diseases: Shewanella haliotis, Often Misidentified as Shewanella algae in Biochemical Tests and MALDI-TOF Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Hyunwoong; Kim, Sunjoo

    2017-03-24

    Although Shewanella algae has been known to have weak pathogenicity, case reports on infections with this species have been steadily increasing. S. algae and S. haliotis are difficult to distinguish from each other with conventional phenotypic methods. We reviewed the microbiological and clinical features of S. algae and S. haliotis infections at our institute. Bacterial culture and identification reports from patient samples from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed to screen the cases of Shewanella infections. In addition to conventional biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were performed for 19 stored bacterial isolates. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. All isolates were identified as S. algae by using VITEK 2. MALDI-TOF also identified all isolates as S. algae with a 99.9 confidence value. In contrast, 16S rRNA analysis identified 10 isolates as S. algae and 9 isolates as S. haliotis. Both S. algae (60%) and S. haliotis (77%) infections were strongly associated with diseases of the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas. To distinguish between S. algae and S. haliotis, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis seems more accurate than biochemical tests or MALDI-TOF. Patients with underlying diseases in the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas seem to be susceptible to these marine pathogens.

  9. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of the terrestrial snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae in a tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduced snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae occurs on cultivated land habitats in Costa Rica, where its macrodistribution seems to be limited by annual mean temperature (20 - 27.6°C and annual precipitation (1 530 - 3 034 and 3 420 - 8 000 mm, with no more than six dry months. This species can be found in litter and on vegetation up to 70 cm tall. Random quadrat field sampling was done in leaf litter and understory plants every three months for a total of five dates in Central Costa Rica. At least 150 plots of 25x25 cm were analyzed on each date. Abundance of living specimens and eggs was positively correlated with (1 litter abundance and depth, (2 litter and soil humidity, (3 relative humidity and (4 early morning temperature (6:30 AM, and negatively correlated with temperature later in the morning (10:00 AM. Besides these factors, living snail abundance was correlated with thickness of the herbaceous vegetation and with the occurrence of Yucca elephantiphes (in litter and understory. Egg abundance was also correlated with the sampling date, apparently because of changes in humidity. The correlation pattern of shell abundance was opposite to that of living specimens. Population size and number of empty shells throughout the year parallel the rainfall pattern. Reproduction takes place between May and November (wet season; and up to 92% of the specimens can be found aestivating between December and April (dry season. Clutch size averages three eggs. The maximum density of living specimens was reached in December (43.41 ind/m² and the minimum in March (8.30 ind/m². Shells decompose in an average of five months.El caracol introducido Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae habita regiones cultivadas de Costa Rica y su distribución está limitada por temperaturas anuales entre 20 y 27.6ºC y precipitaciones anuales entre 1530-3034 y 3420-8000 mm con no más de seis meses secos. Esta especie habita en la

  10. Adenovirus carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin induces cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Luo, Jingjing; Li, Gongchu

    2014-06-30

    Lectins exist widely in marine bioresources such as bacteria, algae, invertebrate animals and fishes. Some purified marine lectins have been found to elicit cytotoxicity to cancer cells. However, there are few reports describing the cytotoxic effect of marine lectins on cancer cells through virus-mediated gene delivery. We show here that a replication-deficient adenovirus-carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (Ad.FLAG-HddSBL) suppressed cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, as compared to the control virus Ad.FLAG. A down-regulated level of anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-2 was suggested to be responsible for the apoptosis induced by Ad.FLAG-HddSBL infection. Further subcellular localization studies revealed that HddSBL distributed in cell membrane, ER, and the nucleus, but not in mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. In contrast, a previously reported mannose-binding lectin Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin entered the nucleus as well, but did not distribute in inner membrane systems, suggesting differed intracellular sialylation and mannosylation, which may provide different targets for lectin binding. Further cancer-specific controlling of HddSBL expression and animal studies may help to provide insights into a novel way of anti-cancer marine lectin gene therapy. Lectins may provide a reservoir of anti-cancer genes.

  11. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that Shewanella haliotis Kim et al. 2007 can be considered a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella algae Simidu et al. 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbaum, Nadia; Kellum, Cailin E; Glass, Jennifer B; Janda, J Michael; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Previously, experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between Shewanellahaliotis JCM 14758 T and Shewanellaalgae JCM 21037 T had suggested that the two strains could be considered different species, despite minimal phenotypic differences. The recent isolation of Shewanella sp. MN-01, with 99 % 16S rRNA gene identity to S. algae and S. haliotis, revealed a potential taxonomic problem between these two species. In this study, we reassessed the nomenclature of S. haliotis and S. algae using available whole-genome sequences. The whole-genome sequence of S. haliotis JCM 14758 T and ten S. algae strains showed ≥97.7 % average nucleotide identity and >78.9 % digital DDH, clearly above the recommended species thresholds. According to the rules of priority and in view of the results obtained, S. haliotis is to be considered a later heterotypic synonym of S. algae. Because the whole-genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain MN-01 shares >99 % ANI with S. algae JCM 14758 T , it can be confidently identified as S. algae.

  12. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-01-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12 deg. from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , South Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 22 (2000) - Articles Towards adaptive approaches to management of the South African abalone haliotis midae fishery. Abstract PDF · Vol 35, No 3 (2013) - Articles Can anchovy age structure be estimated from ...

  15. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  16. Population structure and growth of polydorid polychaetes that infest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polydorid polychaetes can infest cultured abalone thereby reducing productivity. In order to effectively control these pests, their reproductive biology must be understood. The population dynamics and reproduction of polydorids infesting abalone Haliotis midae from two farms in South Africa is described using a ...

  17. A molluscan calreticulin ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional evidence for its role in host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayantha, H M V; Godahewa, G I; Bathige, S D N K; Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-05-20

    Calreticulin (CALR), a Ca(2+) binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mainly involved in Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and immune responses of CALR homolog from disk abalone (AbCALR). The full length AbCALR cDNA (1837 bp) had an ORF of 1224 bp. According to the multiple alignments analysis, N- and P-domains were highly conserved in all the selected members of CALRs. In contrast, the C-domain which terminated with the characteristic ER retrieval signal (HDEL) was relatively less conserved. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all the selected molluscan homologs clustered together. Genomic sequence of AbCALR revealed that cDNA sequence was dispersed into ten exons interconnected with nine introns. AbCALR mRNA expression shows the significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of AbCALR transcripts in hemocytes upon bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus), viral (Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus; VHSV) and immune stimulants (LPS and poly I:C) challenges at middle and/or late phases. These results collectively implied that AbCALR is able to be stimulated by pathogenic signals and might play a potential role in host immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of Apoptosis and Reduction of Endogenous Glutathione Level by the Ethyl-Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Roots of Potentilla fulgens in Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Tripathy

    Full Text Available Potentilla fulgens root traditionally used as a folk remedy in Meghalaya, India. However, systematic evaluation of its anticancer efficacy was limited. We investigated the anticancer potentials of the various extracts prepared by partitioning of the methanol extract of the root with the aim to discover major contributing factors from the most effective fractions. Methanol extract of P. fulgens roots (PRE was prepared by maceration which was subsequently fractionated into hexane, ethyl-acetate (EA and n-butanol soluble fractions. Various assays (clonogenic assay, Flow cytometry analysis, western blot, semiquantitative RT-PCR and the level of endogenous glutathione were used to evaluate different parameters, such as Cell survivability, PARP-1 proteolysis, expression pattern of anti-apoptotic and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase heavy subunit (GCSC genes in both MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines. Since the EA-fraction showed most efficient growth inhibitory effect, it was further purified and a total of nine compounds and some monomeric and dimeric flavan-3-ols were identified and characterized. Three compounds viz., epicatechin (EC, gallic acid (GA and ursolic acid (UA were taken on the basis of their higher yield and 10 μg/ml of each was mixed together. The concentration used in this study for PRE, EA- and Hex-fraction was 100 μg/ml, which was higher than the IC50 value. Apoptotic cell death in the PRE, EA-fraction and EC+GA+UA treated cancer cell cultures was significantly greater than in normal cells due to suppression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 following treatment. Depletion of glutathione by downregulating GCSC was also observed. Induction of apoptosis and lowering the level of glutathione are considered to be positive activity for an anticancer agent. Therefore, modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells by PRE and its EA-fraction opened up the possibility of a new therapeutic approach because these plant products are not harmful to

  19. Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Hemocytes were collected at 12 h post injection by centrifugation (700 g, 10 min, 4°C). ... reverse transcribed to synthesize first strand cDNA at 42°C for 1 h. Then first strand cDNA was mixed with ... and purification, double-strand DNA was ligated to TriplEx2 vectors. Then the resulting ligation reaction was ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Haliotis discus hannai fermented with Cordyceps militaris mycelia in RAW264.7 macrophages through TRIF-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hong-Joo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Suck; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-05-01

    In this study, Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai) fermentation was attempted with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using a solid culture. We tried to ferment H. discus hannai to determine the optimal conditions fermentation with regards to its anti-inflammatory effects. The extracts of H. discus hannai fermented with C. militaris mycelia (HFCM-5) showed higher nitric oxide inhibitory effects than H. discus hannai and C. militaris alone. HFCM-5 also decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. HFCM-5 did not affect the MyD88-dependent pathway, but decreased phosphorylation of IRF3 and STAT1 which are involved in TRIF-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that HFCM-5 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via TRIF signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a functional food in the regulation of inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-time isothermal detection of Abalone herpes-like virus and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Wang, Jiang-Yong; Wei, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Abalone herpes-like virus (AbHV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) are two serious viruses that infect animal populations in aquaculture. Both viruses cause diseases associated with high mortality rates, resulting in dramatic economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There are currently no effective treatments for either of these two viral diseases. Thus, early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis plays a fundamental role in disease prevention and control in aquaculture. Traditional methods of diagnosis, such as virus culture, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are either time consuming or require sophisticated temperature control devices. In this study, one sets of specific primers and probes were designed for the real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification (qRPA) detection of AbHV and RGNNV separately. The sensitivity and specificity of detection were evaluated by comparison with detection by conventional PCR and quantitative PCR. The optimal reaction temperature and time for virus detection is 37°C for 20min. The detection limit is 100 copies per reaction, making this approach faster and more sensitive than qPCR in this study. In a field application, the detection percentage of qRPA was higher than that of qPCR for both AbHV and NNV. Additionally, good correlation was found between qRPA and qPCR detection (R 2 >0.8). The methods presented here can be used as alternatives to qPCR for quick and quantitative detection of pathogens infecting aquaculture species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feed on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feeds on abalone growth and gut bacterial communities has not been previously investigated in South Africa. An eight-month on-farm growth trial was conducted with sub-adult Haliotis midae (~43 mm shell length) fed graded levels of kelp in formulated feeds.

  3. The distribution of the West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ranges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Key words: abalone Haliotis midae, Jasus lalandii, predation, sea urchins. * Formerly Marine Biology Research Institute, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; now. 1/19 Alpha Road, Prospect 5082, South Australia. † Formerly Marine Biology Research Institute; now SARDI Aquatic ...

  4. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cleotide repeat markers for the pacific Abalone (Haliotis Discus. Hannai). Conserv. Genet. Resour. 4, 939–941. Williams K. C. 2004 Spiny lobster ecology and exploitation in the South China Sea region. Australian Centre for International. Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra, Australia. Williams K. C. 2009 Spiny Lobster ...

  5. CAN THE END PRODUCTS OF ANAEROBIC METABOLISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether the accumulation of end products of anaerobic metabolism can be used as an early indicator of deteriorating conditions during transport of live abalone Haliotis midae. A first series of experiments revealed that the enzyme tauropine dehydrogenase, responsible for the ...

  6. A decade of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal fishing activities are reported to be on the increase in South Africa, including in its marine protected areas (MPAs). Research is presented on the nature and the scale of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (TMNP) by analysing the numbers of abalone Haliotis midae and West Coast rock lobster Jasus ...

  7. Towards adaptive approaches to management of the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African abalone Haliotis midae resource is widely perceived as being under threat of overexploitation as a result of increased poaching. In this paper, reservations are expressed about using catch per unit effort as the sole index of abundance when assessing this fishery, particularly because of the highly ...

  8. Short Communication Effects of heavy metals on the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a growing abalone Haliotis midae industry in South Africa, few studies have measured the effects of heavy metals on larval survival and growth in the face of recent increases in marine pollution. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of copper on survival and zinc on development of H. midae larvae. Larvae ...

  9. Integrated culture of silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African abalone Haliotis midae farms utilise large volumes of seawater (c. 500–1 500 l s–1) and produce relatively dilute effluents that are potentially suitable for the integrated culture of other species. To test this hypothesis, a marine finfish, silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, and a detritivorous polychaete, bloodworm ...

  10. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  11. Survey estimates of fishable biomass following a mass mortality in an Australian molluscan fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, S; McGarvey, R; Gorfine, H K; Peeters, H; Burch, P; Sharma, S

    2011-04-01

    Mass mortality events are relatively uncommon in commercially fished populations, but when they occur, they reduce production and degrade ecosystems. Observing and documenting mass mortalities is simpler than quantifying the impact on stocks, monitoring or predicting recovery, and re-establishing commercial fishing. Direct survey measures of abundance, distribution and harvestable biomass provide the most tenable approach to informing decisions about future harvests in cases where stock collapses have occurred because conventional methods have been disrupted and are less applicable. Abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) has resulted in high levels of mortality across all length classes of blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra Leach, off western Victoria, Australia, since May 2006. Commercial catches in this previously valuable fishery were reduced substantially. This paper describes the integration of research surveys with commercial fishermen's knowledge to estimate the biomass of abalone on AVG-impacted reefs. Experienced commercial abalone divers provided credible information on the precise locations of historical fishing grounds within which fishery-independent surveys were undertaken. Abalone density estimates remained low relative to pre-AVG levels, and total biomass estimates were similar to historical annual catch levels, indicating that the abalone populations have yet to adequately recover. Survey biomass estimates were incorporated into harvest decision tables and used with prior accumulated knowledge of the populations to determine a conservative harvest strategy for the fishery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Population dynamics can be more important than physiological limits for determining range shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Damien A; Mellin, Camille; Russell, Bayden D; Akçakaya, Reşit H; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Caley, Julian M; Connell, Sean D; Mayfield, Stephen; Shepherd, Scoresby A; Brook, Barry W

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that species' responses to climate changes are best predicted by modelling the interaction of physiological limits, biotic processes and the effects of dispersal-limitation. Using commercially harvested blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) as case studies, we determine the relative importance of accounting for interactions among physiology, metapopulation dynamics and exploitation in predictions of range (geographical occupancy) and abundance (spatially explicit density) under various climate change scenarios. Traditional correlative ecological niche models (ENM) predict that climate change will benefit the commercial exploitation of abalone by promoting increased abundances without any reduction in range size. However, models that account simultaneously for demographic processes and physiological responses to climate-related factors result in future (and present) estimates of area of occupancy (AOO) and abundance that differ from those generated by ENMs alone. Range expansion and population growth are unlikely for blacklip abalone because of important interactions between climate-dependent mortality and metapopulation processes; in contrast, greenlip abalone should increase in abundance despite a contraction in AOO. The strongly non-linear relationship between abalone population size and AOO has important ramifications for the use of ENM predictions that rely on metrics describing change in habitat area as proxies for extinction risk. These results show that predicting species' responses to climate change often require physiological information to understand climatic range determinants, and a metapopulation model that can make full use of this data to more realistically account for processes such as local extirpation, demographic rescue, source-sink dynamics and dispersal-limitation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Environ: E00356 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Magnesium, Iron, Sulfate, Phosphate, Chloride, Iodine Haliotis diversicolor [TAX:36095], Haliotis discus [T...AX:36094], Haliotis ovina [TAX:36099], Haliotis gigantea [TAX:37743] ... Haliotidae Haliotis shell Compound(Haliotis discus

  14. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  15. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  16. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanli Kong

    Full Text Available The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16 and captive (n = 6 red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  17. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanli; Zhao, Jiangchao; Han, Shushu; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Jiandong; Si, Xiaohui; Yang, Benqing; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16) and captive (n = 6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  18. Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization, triploidization and genetic mapping were also briefly reviewed as aquaculture-oriented genetic techniques to improve growth and other commercially important traits. Cryopreservation and other biotechnologies potentially applicable on genetic improvement were also briefly mentioned as supporting tools for ...

  19. Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... quantity of fertilized eggs and very expensive “French. Press” is required for hydrostatic pressure treatment. Mass treatment is easier when the fertilized eggs are soaked into the chemical solution. But, CB and 6-DMAP are required to consider the risk-control for environment and workers in hatchery and are ...

  20. Marine tumor vaccine carriers: structure of the molluscan hemocyanins KLH and htH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, J; Lieb, B; Gebauer, W; Altenhein, B; Meissner, U; Harris, J R

    2001-10-01

    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a well-established immune stimulant and hapten carrier, and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) is a related product. Biologically, KLH and HtH are blue copper proteins which serve as oxygen carriers in the blood of the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata and the abalone H. tuberculata, respectively, two marine gastropods. Both hemocyanins occur as two distinct isoforms, termed KLH1 KLH2, HtH1, and HtH2. Each of these molecules is based on a very large polypeptide chain, the subunit (molecular mass ca 400 kDa), which is folded into a series of eight globular functional units (molecular mass ca 50 kDa each). Twenty copies of this subunit form a cylindrical quaternary structure (molecular mass ca 8 MDa). This article reviews the recent data on the biosynthesis, quaternary structure, subunit architecture, amino acid sequence, gene structure, and recombinant production of KLH and HtH.

  1. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  2. PRODUCCION DE ABALONES MONOSEXO MEDIANTE INACTIVACION NUCLEAR GAMETICA Y DESARROLLO DE UNA TECNICA PARA LA IDENTIFICACION SEXUAL: SOLUCIONES BIOTECNOLOGICAS PARA LA INDUSTRIA DEL ABALON

    OpenAIRE

    GALLARDO ESCARATE, CRISTIAN JORGE

    2012-01-01

    La producción de abalón en Chile desde su introducción en la década de los 80’s, ha crecido de manera significativa, llegando a producir cerca de 550 toneladas durante el año 2009. Este incremento productivo ha sido sostenido principalmente por cultivos de abalón en sistemas terrestres, lo cual conlleva a importantes limitaciones en la industria como el escalamiento productivo, elevados costos de inversión y falta de diversificación productiva en concesiones marinas. A pesar que l...

  3. National Strategic Environmental Assessment for aquaculture development in South Africa: GIS analysis for identifying optimal areas for marine and freshwater aquaculture development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman-van der Walt, Luanita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available + rationale •10 areas -> 8 areas 20 Suitable area screening Durban-Richards Bay Dusky kob East London Dusky kob Abalone Port Elizabeth Dusky kob Abalone Oysters Mussels Mossel Bay Abalone Oysters Mussels Hermanus-Arniston Abalone Atlantic salmon Velddrif...-Saldanha Atlantic salmon Abalone Oysters Mussels Strandfontein- Lamberts Bay Atlantic salmon Abalone Orange-Hondeklip Bay Atlantic salmon Abalone Oysters 21 Conclusion & way forward • Specialist investigation Biodiversity & Ecology Heritage Visual &aesthetic...

  4. Technetium and the European ormer (Haliotis tuberculata): experimental and in-situ data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Germain, P.; Aprosi, G.

    1986-01-01

    World production of ormers is estimated at 22 000 t (13 species are fished, mainly for consumption in Japan and California). Only 5-6 t/a are caught in French waters. With a view to seeing whether the European ormer H. tuberculata is a bioindicator for Tc, determinations have been made on specimens caught near La Hague and the results are compared with those obtained by an American team on the American ormer. (UK)

  5. Black abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  6. White abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  7. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  8. Occurrence of Perkinsus olseni in the Venus clam Protothaca jedoensis in Korean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Ngo, Thao T T; Choi, Sang-Duk; Cho, Moonjae; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2006-10-01

    This is the first report of the occurrence of Perkinsus olseni in the Venus clam Protothaca jedoensis off the western and southern coasts of South Korea. Histological observations revealed Perkinsus-like organisms in the mantle, gills, digestive tubules, and gonad. Haemocytic infiltration and tissue necrosis were also observed in heavily infected clams. Hypnospore formation of the Perkinsus-like organism was confirmed with Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay (RFTM). When incubated in filtered and aerated seawater, the hypnospore gave rise to cell division and subsequently discharged hundreds of motile zoospores. Genus- and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the Perkinsus sp. isolated from the Venus clam were identical to those of P. olseni reported from the Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes)philippinarum. Based on the DNA sequences and microscopic data, the Perkinsus-like pathogen isolated from P. jedoensis was identified as P. olseni, which parasitizes the Manila clam in European and Asian waters and Haliotis rubra (abalone) in Australian waters. The prevalence and infection intensity of a clam population collected from Yosu, Korea, was determined using RFTM and Choi's 2M NaOH digestion technique. The intensities averaged 10,768 and 7438 Perkinsus cells per gram tissue in 2003 and 2004, and the prevalence ranged from 37.0 to 53.9%, respectively.

  9. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... comments. Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, Corel WordPerfect... ``positive 90-day finding''), we are required to promptly commence a review of the status of the species... indicating the species may meet the ESA's requirements for listing is not required to make a positive 90-day...

  10. Recovery of Coastal Fauna after the 2011 Tsunami in Japan as Determined by Bimonthly Underwater Visual Censuses Conducted over Five Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Masuda

    Full Text Available Massive tsunamis induce catastrophic disturbance in marine ecosystems, yet they can provide unique opportunities to observe the process of regeneration. Here, we report the recovery of fauna after the 2011 tsunami in northeast Japan based on underwater visual censuses performed every two months over five years. Both total fish abundance and species richness increased from the first to the second year after the tsunami followed by stabilization in the following years. Short-lived fish, such as the banded goby Pterogobius elapoides, were relatively abundant in the first two years, whereas long-lived species, such as the black rockfish Sebastes cheni, increased in the latter half of the survey period. Tropical fish species were recorded only in the second and third years after the tsunami. The body size of long-lived fish increased during the survey period resulting in a gradual increase of total fish biomass. The recovery of fish assemblages was slow at one site located in the inner bay, where the impact of the tsunami was the strongest. Apart from fish, blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. occurred only in the first two years after the tsunami, whereas the abundances of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and abalone Haliotis discus hannai increased after the second year. Although we lack quantitative data prior to the tsunami, we conclude that it takes approximately three years for coastal reef fish assemblages to recover from a heavy disturbance such as a tsunami and that the recovery is dependent on species-specific life span and habitat.

  11. Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Nick; Kangas, Mervi; Denham, Ainslie; Feng, Ming; Pearce, Alan; Hetzel, Yasha; Chandrapavan, Arani

    2016-06-01

    An extreme marine heat wave which affected 2000 km of the midwest coast of Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies of 2-5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave was influenced by a strong Leeuwin Current during an extreme La Niña event at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This event had a significant effect on the marine ecosystem with changes to seagrass/algae and coral habitats, as well as fish kills and southern extension of the range of some tropical species. The effect has been exacerbated by above-average SST in the following two summers, 2011/12 and 2012/13. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied. A 99% mortality of Roei abalone ( Haliotis roei ) and major reductions in recruitment of scallops ( Amusium balloti ), king ( Penaeus latisulcatus ) and tiger ( P. esculentus ) prawns, and blue swimmer crabs were detected with management adapting with effort reductions or spatial/temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and restocking being evaluated. This study illustrates that fisheries management under extreme temperature events requires an early identification of temperature hot spots, early detection of abundance changes (preferably using pre-recruit surveys), and flexible harvest strategies which allow a quick response to minimize the effect of heavy fishing on poor recruitment to enable protection of the spawning stock. This has required researchers, managers, and industry to adapt to fish stocks affected by an extreme environmental event that may become more frequent due to climate change.

  12. A spatial- and age-structured assessment model to estimate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , thereby indirectly negatively impacting juvenile abalone which rely on the urchins for shelter. A model is developed for abalone that is an extension of more standard age-structured assessment models because it explicitly takes spatial effects ...

  13. Settlement pattern and survival of a shell-infesting sabellid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tested whether abalone diet influences larval settlement success of the shell-dwelling sabellid polychaete Terebrasabella heterouncinata and their survival over the first 96h after settlement on host abalone. Shell area preferences of the sabellid were also investigated. Abalone diet (fresh kelp, Ecklonia maxima or ...

  14. Shepherd and Turner 1985, Prince et al. 1988, Tutschulte and Connell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    size-based relationships between abalone and habitats were examined, within the specified size range of. “juveniles” ... ecological associations of abalone juveniles: Millers. Point, Boordjiesrif, Buffels Bay, Betty's Bay and Gans. 146 ...... plants and sea urchins. In Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review 13.

  15. The distribution of the West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ranges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    preferred over sea urchins. This contrast in feeding behaviour could be a result of differences in experi- mental procedure or possibly locality. The presence of kelp Ecklonia maxima also appears to influence the activity patterns of juvenile abalone. Day and Branch. (2002b) showed that, in aquaria, juvenile abalone were.

  16. The effect of low-level kelp supplementation on digestive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteomic identification of proteins in abalone gut sections showed that exogenous enzymes associated with the gut microbiome aid in bacterial utilisation of digested molecules, whereas abalone endogenous enzymes degrade the macronutrients in formulated feeds. Keywords: digestion, exogenous enzymes, gastropod, ...

  17. AQUARIUM EXPERIMENTS COMPARING THE FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... even in the presence of kelp Ecklonia maxima. There was no significant difference (F3.92 = 0.09, p > 0.1) in abalone consumption by rock lobsters between the two sites. Therefore, at least in the absence of preferred prey such as mussels, sea urchins appear to provide only limited protection to juvenile abalone from rock ...

  18. Publications | Page 82 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 811 - 820 of 6389 ... Symptoms are similar to other febrile syndromes such as malaria and typhoid fever and it is often easily misdiagnosed, resulting in underreporting and misdirected... Illegal abalone trade in the Western Cape (restricted access). Criminal governance in the abalone trade takes various forms.

  19. Poliploidia en moluscos de importancia comercial (almeja catarina Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby ii, 1842; almeja mano de leon Nodipecten subnodosus Sowerby 1835; y abulón rojo Haliotis rufescens Swainson 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Amparo, Rosalío

    2003-01-01

    La poliploidía ha sido una de las biotecnologías más empleadas en la ultima década para el mejoramiento genético de moluscos bivalvos por ser una de las mejores alternativas a corto plazo para incrementar la producción. Los organismos triploides presentan tres juegos completos de cromosomas homólogos que afectan la sinapsis, lo cual da como resultado una esterilidad parcial o total, la cual teóricamente repercute favorablemente en el crecimiento. Sin embargo, la inducción a la triploidía pres...

  20. Effects of nacre-coated titanium surfaces on cell proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-02

    Lacefield, 1988). Nevertheless, ... and shell of a seawater abalone (Fritz et al., 1994). In light of these findings, we previously ..... Effect of water-soluble matrix fraction extracted from the nacre of Pinctada maxima on the alkaline ...

  1. Vegetatieve vermeerdering van Nidularium in vloeibare media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Steegmans, H.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Het snel en veilig opbouwen van Nudilarium blijkt niet eenvoudig te zijn (dikwijls ontstaat callus waaruit adventieve scheuten ontstaan). Nidularium fulgens, die tot de Nudilariumceae behoort, kan nu in vitro gekloond worden zonder dat mutaties optreden, zodat deze soort op grote schaal veilig in de

  2. The morphology–diet relationship and its role in the coexistence of two species of annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppeler, F. W.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Rolon, A. S.; Stenert, C.; Lehmann, P.; Reichard, Martin; Maltchik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 77-90 ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Austrolebias minuano * Cynopoecilus fulgens * niche overlap * sexual dimorphism * ontogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2015

  3. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxazole and indole based heterocyclic photochromic fulgides were synthesized from their corresponding fulgenic acid derivatives by clay catalysed microwave irradiation methodology. Improved yields of fulgides were observed by the microwave irradiation method as compared other chemical methods employed so far ...

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of photochromic fulgides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxazole and indole based heterocyclic photochromic fulgides were synthesized from their corresponding fulgenic acid derivatives by clay catalysed microwave irradiation methodology. Improved yields of fulgides were observed by the microwave irradiation method as compared other chemical methods employed so far ...

  5. Lights and shades on an historical vaccine canine distemper virus, the Rockborn strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martella, V.; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Elia, G.

    2011-01-01

    to differ from the commonly used vaccine strain, Onderstepoort (93.0% nt and 91.7% aa), and to resemble more closely (99.6% nt and 99.3% aa) a CDV strain detected in China from a Lesser Panda (Ailurus fulgens). An additional four CDV strains matching (>99% nt identity) the Rockborn virus were identified...

  6. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  7. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  8. Food habits and conservation threats of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Hari Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with issues of conservation threats to the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), specifically regarding foraging resources and anthropogenic activities i.e. livestock grazing. I studied the diet components of red panda during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of this herbivorous carnivore. I evaluated the diet of red panda through micro-histological study of fecal matters to determine the composition of diets. The results indicated that the red panda feeds primarily on bam...

  9. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss.) from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE)

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-01-01

    Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss.), kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE) are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv.) Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel) Maxim...

  10. Ontogenetic variations and feeding habits of a Neotropical annual fish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.

  11. Short Communication Chromosome number of the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comprising South African, Australian and New Zealand species, and corroborates the hypothesis of the radiation of the genus into the Southern and Northern hemispheres from the Indo-Pacific area. Keywords: chromosome number; Haliotis midae; Tethys model. African Journal of Marine Science 2008, 30(1): 195–198 ...

  12. On the occurrence of Haliotes pourtalesii Dall, 1881, off Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1969-01-01

    Haliotis pourtalesii Dall, 1881 has so far only been reported from the Gulf of Mexico. The localities are given in fig. 1. The following material has been reported upon in the literature: The holotype (Dall, 1881: 79) was found in: "bed of the Gulf Stream in 200 fathoms, near the Florida reefs".

  13. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  14. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... dynamics of black abalone, may influence retention or dispersal rates of eggs, sperm, fertilized eggs and...; available via our Web site at http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov , via the Federal eRulemaking Web site at http://www... Bay ( http://www.sanctuarysimon.org/monterey/sections/beaches/b_overview_map.php ). Historical data...

  15. Large-scale changes in the spatial distribution of South African West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological, fisheries and resource management implications of these shifts have been severe and are likely to cause challenges in the future management of both the rock lobster and abalone Haliotes midae resources. The temporal coincidence of the shifts in lobster distribution with events such as the onset of reduced ...

  16. 78 FR 50107 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... one mostly dark banded stone. Both stones have four inlays, three of which are turquoise and a fourth abalone. These inlays are located at the wider end of the stones and are arranged in a quadrate pattern... bordered with an inlay of green turquoise chips. In 1979, H. Jackson Clark, Sr., owner of the Toh-Atin...

  17. 77 FR 64320 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding... about a week before going on their first feeding trip. Females will alternate feeding trips with nursing... circumstances, the risk of injury, serious injury, or death to hauled-out animals is very low. Thus, abalone...

  18. Case studies on the socio-economic characteristics and lifestyles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of harvested resources increased west to east, following biogeographic trends. The resources could be divided into those of high value (rock lobsters, abalone and, to a lesser extent, fish) and those of lower value (such as limpets, mussels and bait organisms). It is argued that high-value resources are best used to ...

  19. 25 CFR 309.11 - What are examples of jewelry that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of jewelry that are Indian products... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.11 What are examples of jewelry that are Indian products? (a...) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: ivory and baleen scrimshaw bracelets, abalone shell...

  20. Environmental Assessment. Proposed Air Force Space Division Housing Project, White Point, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Missile Defense center. Portions of the vintage Japanese abalone industry site andsubsequent Sepulveda hotel resort could be restored to reflect the...median, sig - nalized intersection and limited direct access. Daily traffic volumes on I Western Avenue at 25th Street were 16,400 and at Paseo del Mar

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Space Division Proposed Housing, White Point, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Defense center. Portions of the vintage Japanese abalone industry site andsubsequent Sepulveda hotel resort could be restored to reflect the area’s...a major arterial with two lanes in each direction, a median, sig - nalized intersection and limited direct access. Daily traffic volumes on Western

  2. Case studies on the socio-economic characteristics and lifestyles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resources could be divided into those of high value (rock lobsters, abalone and, to a lesser extent, fish) and those of lower value (such as limpets, mussels and bait organisms). It is argued that high-value resources are best used to create micro- and small-scale commercial enterprises that can serve to uplift poor fishers.

  3. Biology of Alkylphosphonic Acids. A Review of the Distribution, Metabolism, and Structure of Naturally Occuring Alkylphosphonic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-22

    been found in an echinoderm (Quin, 1965), a salt water crab (de Koning, 1970), the abalone (de Koning, 1966), the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii ...Dearborn, D.G., and Wright, P.1., 1974. Lipophosphonoglycan ofthe plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii : Isolation from whole amoebae and identificato

  4. 75 FR 78227 - Endangered Species; File No. 14400

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... black abalone, a species listed as endangered on February 13, 2009. The objective of this monitoring is...) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  5. 77 FR 25742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... bear penis bones, 2 gravers, 13 perforated elk teeth, 2 abalone gorgets, 6 copper pendants, 5 worked... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a...

  6. 75 FR 58429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... bear penis bones, 2 gravers, 13 perforated elk teeth, 1 abalone gorget, 6 copper pendants, 5 worked... reasonably believed to have been placed with or near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Lastly, officials of the Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture...

  7. Laju Pertumbuhan Rumput Laut Gracilaria sp Melalui Budidaya IMTA (Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture di Pantai Geger, Nusa Dua, Kabupaten Badung, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Yudiastuti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria sp is red alga which belong to class rhodophyceae. It can grow in shallow salt water with a general characteristic is having a cylindrical and branched thallus form. Seaweed cultivation can be performed through IMTA (Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture method. The basic principle of cultivation through the IMTA method is utilizing service of the low thropic level species in marine ecosystems, such as shells and seaweed.  This method is believed to be able to overcome the environmental problems caused by cultivation activities, such as feces and uneaten feed. This research was perfomed 45 days, from February 25 to April 11, 2017. It was held at Geger Beach, Nusa Dua, Badung Regency, Bali, using a complete randomized design method that consist of three treatments and three repetition for each treatment. Treatment control (T1 consisted of 10 bunches of seaweed 100 grams without the abalone, treatement 2 (T2 consisted of 10 bunches of seaweed 100 grams and 20 abalones and treatement 3 (T3 consisted of 10 bunches of seaweed 100 grams and 40 abalones. The result showed that specific growth rate in Gracilaria sp.  was highest in treatment T1, compared to treatment T2 and T3. This was caused by the cage construction of abalone amd the present of small mesh size net to cover the seaweed  planting, which made the growth was not optimal.  However, the use of a nets system in seaweed cultivation could minimize the loss of thallus. It was proved by the survival rate of seaweed in first, second and third, that is averagely high, ranging from 90% to 100%. Physical and chemical water quality parameters are also measured, and It showed that the water quality was suitable for the cultivation of both, seaweed and abalone.

  8. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from calcite biominerals in recent gastropod shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean Pierre; Cusack, Maggie

    2011-04-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a microscopy technique that reveals in situ crystallographic information. Currently, it is widely used for the characterization of geological materials and in studies of biomineralization. Here, we analyze high resolution EBSD data from biogenic calcite in two mollusk taxa, Concholepas and Haliotis, previously used in the understanding of complex biomineralization and paleoenvironmental studies. Results indicate that Concholepas has less ordered prisms than in Haliotis, and that in Concholepas the level of order is not homogenous in different areas of the shell. Overall, the usefulness of data integration obtained from diffraction intensity and crystallographic orientation maps, and corresponding pole figures, is discussed as well as its application to similar studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lectins with Potential for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Yau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews lectins of animal and plant origin that induce apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells and hence possess the potential of being developed into anticancer drugs. Apoptosis-inducing lectins encompass galectins, C-type lectins, annexins, Haliotis discus discus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, mistletoe lectin, and concanavalin A, fucose-binding Dicentrarchus labrax lectin, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, and mistletoe lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, autophagy inducing lectins include annexins and Polygonatum odoratum lectin.

  10. Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    ilium Right femur .4. Left femur - broken but complete -4- Heads ( epiphyses ) of aoth femora 173 -A ~’.. 1 - Right tibia - proximal 1/3 "" Left tibia ...upecten, clam, haliotis"), fire fractured . % 14 rock, and possibly hematite. The midden was also observed in the bank of the western island, about...bearing deposit, and controlled excavation with wet screening resumed. More of the shells in this level (50-60 cm) were whole, rather than fractured

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15363-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -43 EU436091_1( EU436091 |pid:none) Australosepsis niveipennis voucher... 177 4e-43 EF050359_1( EF050359 |pi...one) Haliotis kamtschatkana isolate H22... 172 1e-41 EU436098_1( EU436098 |pid:none) Dicranosepsis olfactori... 9e-40 AY125267_1( AY125267 |pid:none) Phobaeticus heusii histone 3 gene,... 166 9e-40 EU436102_1( EU436102 |pid:none) Microsepsis

  12. Mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae from Neotropical birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bochkov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of parasitic mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae are described from Neotropical birds, N. chlorospingus sp. n. from Chlorospingus pileatus (Passeriformes, Emberizidae from Costa Rica, N. mironovi sp. n. from Dacnys cayana (Passeriformes, Thraupidae and N. tangara sp. n. from Tangara cayana (Thraupidae both from Brazil. Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus (Fain is recorded from 3 new hosts of the family Trochilidae (Apodiformes, Panterpe insignis and Eugenes fulgens from Costa Rica, and Amazilia lactea from Brazil. Emended diagnosis of the genus and a key to species are provided; all records of Neharpyrhynchus species are summarized.

  13. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae from Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardene Maria de Sousa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas dez espécies do gênero Aechmea no Estado de Pernambuco: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. eurycorymbus Harms, A. fulgensBrongn., A. lingulata (L. Baker, A. mertensü(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordii L. B. Sm., A. murícata(Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa M&z e A. werdermannii Harms. Duas espécies são endêmicas (A. murícata e A. werdermannii e uma nova ocorrência (A. stelligerd foi referida para Pernambuco. São apresentados chave, descrições, ilustrações e comentários das espécies estudadas.A taxonomic study of the genus Aechmea ofPernambuco, Brazil was done. Ten species were found: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. euryccrymhusHarms, A.fulgensBrongn., A. lingulataXL. Baker, A. mertensii(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordiih. B. Sm., A. murícata (Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa Mez and A werdermannii Harms. Aechmea murícata and A. werdermannii are endemic, and A. stelligera is a new records for Pernambuco State. Key, descriptions, comments and illustrations of the species are included.

  14. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, Elena; Rybin, Viacheslav; Gorovoy, Petr; Gavrilenko, Irina; Doudkin, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), ecdysone (3), 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4) has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan) system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandriumsachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae). Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis. PMID:26109770

  15. Investigations on mechanism of self-healing and cavity filling in case of steel inoculated with seashell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah, Parvaiz; Siddiqui, Ghazala; Saleem, Yasir

    2017-05-01

    Seashells are comprised largely of a brittle ceramic material (calcite, the stuff of chalk) in the form of microscopic slates. Shells, such as the abalones, reinforced with a kind of protein mortar in efforts to evaluate on how seashells repair themselves. We have identified the protein and mechanism on how the protein mortar stretches itself into ligaments that bridge the gap, with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  16. Africa’s Irregular Security Threats: Challenges for U.S. Engagement (Strategic Forum, Number 255, May 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    connected to known drug trafficking orga- nizations in Colombia and Mexico control the import of cocaine to countries such as Guinea and Guinea...illegal fishing in tuna and shrimp can net $94 million per year. In Tanzania, a single long-line fishing operation by Taiwan vessels in 2001 reportedly...took in $21 mil- lion in tuna . In South Africa, 500 metric tons of abalone worth $325 million are illegally caught and shipped to China each year

  17. Genetically-Engineered Proteins For Functional Nanoinorganics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Chem. Int. Ed., 43, 1512-1516 (2004). 26. E. DiMasi and M. Sarikaya, “Synchrotron x-ray microbeam diffraction from abalone shell”, J. Mater. Res., 19...Biomimetic Processing (Nagoya, Japan), Bionanotechnology (Istanbul, Turkey), and many conferences (e.g., Fall and Spring Meetings of MRS, Annual... Conferences , etc.). Some of the Invited Presentations are as follows (chronologically): 1. Sarikaya, M., American Chemical Society, 234th Meeting

  18. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  19. Are the anticipatory pathways in lecithotrophic larvae that delay metamorphosis adaptations? (A review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    During anticipatory development in lecithotrophic larvae that delay metamorphosis, the growth and differentiation of features of the adult action system continue to develop at a slow pace even though they do not become functional. After metamorphosis occurs, the larger size and advanced development of these components may allow juveniles to initially grow at a faster rate than they normally would. Anticipatory development has been demonstrated in archeogastropods, some solitary ascidians and a hydrozoan. In the gastropod Haliotis and the hydrozoan Phialidium anticipatory development increases the initial growth rate of juveniles. In Haliotis and ascidians all of the larvae of a given female that live long enough exhibit anticipatory development. In Phialidium, the ability of a given female to produce larvae that can exhibit anticipatory development is a maternal polymorphic character. In Haliotis and solitary ascidians that exhibit anticipatory development, it appears to be a slower version of the rapid developmental changes that occur in parts of the adult action system at metamorphosis. In Phialidium, developmental changes in relative sizes of the different presumptive regions of the polyp are slowly altered prior to and independently of metamorphosis. Anticipatory development is not linked to the decrease in the size or nutrient reserves of older larvae but to the length of their larval period. From an evolutionary perspective, the mechanisms that operate during anticipatory development are probably of adaptive significance for lecithotrophic larvae of species that spend variable amounts of time in the water column because of a patchy distribution of appropriate settlement cues. The developmental mechanisms that underlie anticipatory development may have been used during the transition from lecithotrophy to planktotrophy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  1. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambienteHummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes

  2. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambiente

  3. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  4. Toxicant- and response-specific comparisons of statistical methods for estimating effective concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M R; Bailer, A J; Denton, D L

    2001-06-01

    Standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) statistical analyses of whole effluent toxicity tests involve the estimation of the concentration associated with a specified level of inhibition relative to control responses. Current U.S. EPA estimation methods (linear interpolation or probit-based methods) are compared to a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition concentration estimator RIp. The RIp estimation technique, with level of inhibition p = 25%, is applied to a series of chronic toxicity test data from a U.S. EPA Region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Tests on marine species are conducted with one reference toxicant, while the freshwater tests are conducted with several reference toxicants. While the U.S. EPA estimators and the RIp estimator are highly correlated for red abalone larval shell development, the degree of correlation for fathead minnow responses varies with reference toxicant tested. The strength of the relationship between the RIp and the standard U.S. EPA estimators varies as a function of the reference toxicant. Correlations range between 0.67 and 0.99. For all biological responses included in this evaluation (fathead minnow growth or survival and red abalone larval development), experiments occurred where the RIp is estimable, while the standard U.S. EPA estimators are not. Nonestimability of the standard EPA methods appears to be related, in part, to the failure of models to account for enhanced responses, such as a hormesis effect prior to toxicity being manifest. The ability to account for such enhanced responses is a strength of the RIp method. Finally, a variance component analysis suggests that lab-to-lab variability is relatively low for the red abalone but relatively high for the fathead minnow.

  5. Laser Imaging Polarimetry of Nacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Metzler, Rebecca A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Burgess, Carrie; Regan, Brian; Spano, Samantha; Cvarch, Ben A; Galvez, Enrique J

    2018-03-25

    Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius). We sent polarized light from a laser through thin samples of nacre and did imaging polarimetry of the transmitted light. We observed clear distinctions between the structures of bivalve and gastropod, due to the spatial variation of their birefringence. The patterns for cephalopod were more similar to bivalve than gastropod. Bleaching of the samples disrupted the transmitted light. Subsequent refilling of the bivalve and gastropod nacre samples with oil produced optical patterns similar to those of unbleached samples. In cephalopod samples we found that bleaching produced irreversible changes in the optical pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimized adhesives for strong, lightweight, damage-resistant, nanocomposite materials: new insights from natural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansma, P K; Turner, P J; Ruoff, R S

    2007-01-01

    From our investigations of natural composite materials such as abalone shell and bone we have learned the following. (1) Nature is frugal with resources: it uses just a few per cent glue, by weight, to glue together composite materials. (2) Nature does not avoid voids. (3) Nature makes optimized glues with sacrificial bonds and hidden length. We discuss how optimized adhesives combined with high specific stiffness/strength structures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets could yield remarkably strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant materials

  7. Optimized adhesives for strong, lightweight, damage-resistant, nanocomposite materials: new insights from natural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansma, P K [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Turner, P J [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2007-01-31

    From our investigations of natural composite materials such as abalone shell and bone we have learned the following. (1) Nature is frugal with resources: it uses just a few per cent glue, by weight, to glue together composite materials. (2) Nature does not avoid voids. (3) Nature makes optimized glues with sacrificial bonds and hidden length. We discuss how optimized adhesives combined with high specific stiffness/strength structures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets could yield remarkably strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant materials.

  8. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio bacteriophage VH7D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Yu, Yan-Ping; Jost, Günter; Xu, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ling

    2015-12-01

    A Vibrio sp. lytic phage VH7D was isolated from seawater of an abalone farm in Xiamen, China. The phage was capable of lysing Vibrio rotiferianus DSM 17186(T) and Vibrio harveyi DSM 19623(T). The complete genome of this phage consists of 246,964 nucleotides with a GC content of 41.31%, which characterized it as a giant vibriophage. Here we report the complete genome sequence and major findings from the genomic annotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  10. Insights into the Effect of Geometrical Parameters in the Mechanical Properties of the Radular Teeth of the Cryptochiton Stelleri – A 3D print Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Chan; Escobar, Enrique; Zavattieri, Pablo, Dr.

    2013-01-01

    The Cryptochiton Stelleri is known to have ultra-hard radular teeth that have one of the largest hardness (9-12GPa) and stiffness (90-125GPa) among other biological materials such as Enamel and Abalone shell. The ultrastructure of the teeth is formed by a bundle of highly mineralized rods composed of iron oxides and organic material. The main method to measure the material properties has been through nanoindentation. However there are limitations to nanoindentation of the Chiton’s teeth such ...

  11. Characterization of Biochemical Composition for Different Types of Spent Mushroom Substrate in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Aziera Abd Rasib; Zarina Zakaria; Mohammad Fahrurrazi Tompang; Ridzwan Abdul Rahman; Hakimah Othman

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to identify the amount and changes of biochemical composition of different types of Malaysian spent mushroom substrate (SMS) before and after several cycle of mushroom cultivation. The characterization of SMS involved the analysis of crude protein, carbohydrate, fat, lignin and ash for selected mushrooms namely as white oyster (Pleuratos oestrous), grey oyster (Pleuratos sajor-caju), abalone (Pleuratos cystidiosus), ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidium) and black jelly (Auricularia polytricha). Overall trend showed that there were increment for crude protein and fat, whereas carbohydrate and lignin showed reduction in the content. Significant results were showed on protein increment where ganoderma attained the highest value, 36.6 g, followed by black jelly, white oyster, grey oyster and abalone. Contradictory, lowest carbohydrate reduction was observed in ganoderma at 70.42 g and the most was in black jelly. Increment in fat and reduction in lignin was almost similar for each SMS. There was an increment in the ash percentage resulted from sterilization process. Clearly cultivation by mushroom had changed biochemical value especially in increasing the protein content that might be useful in protein required industry such as animal feeding. (author)

  12. Effect of different combining patterns of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the environmental factors (level of radioactivity in sea water, salinity, temperature, etc.), the biological factors (growth stage, species of organism, etc.), and the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms should be taken into account so as to understand the mechanism of radioactive contamination of marine organisms. From this viewpoint, the combining of radionuclides with constituents in marine organisms was studied, indicating the differences as follows: (a) Different appearances of radioactive cobalt in the liver of the abalone due to chemical forms: From the gel filtration profiles on Sephadex it was observed that 57 Co accumulated in the liver of the abalone from sea water labelled by complexed 57 Co combines with a constituent in the liver that has a molecular weight of about 40,000. However, 60 Co taken up from sea water containing ionic 60 Co combines with other constituents in the liver. (b) Appearance of radionuclides in fish due to pathways (sea water and food): In fish liver, most 137 Cs from both sea water and food combines with only one constituent substance; the molecular weight of this substance was estimated at 1100-1300. Cobalt-60 from both sea water and food associates with two different molecular weight constituents, but 65 Zn made a considerable difference in the gel filtration profiles between sea water and food. These results indicate that the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms may possibly be varied by the chemical forms of radionuclides in sea water and the pathways of radionuclides. (author)

  13. Halioticida noduliformans infection in eggs of lobster (Homarus gammarus) reveals its generalist parasitic strategy in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Corey; Foster, Rachel; Daniels, Carly L; van der Giezen, Mark; Feist, Stephen W; Stentiford, Grant D; Bass, David

    2018-03-16

    A parasite exhibiting Oomycete-like morphology and pathogenesis was isolated from discoloured eggs of the European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and later found in gill tissues of adults. Group-specific Oomycete primers were designed to amplify the 18S ribosomal small subunit (SSU), which initially identified the organism as the same as the 'Haliphthoros' sp. NJM 0034 strain (AB178865.1) previously isolated from abalone (imported from South Australia to Japan). However, in accordance with other published SSU-based phylogenies, the NJM 0034 isolate did not group with other known Haliphthoros species in our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies. Instead, the strain formed an orphan lineage, diverging before the separation of the Saprolegniales and Pythiales. Based upon 28S large subunit (LSU) phylogeny, our own isolate and the previously unidentified 0034 strain are both identical to the abalone pathogen Halioticida noduliformans. The genus shares morphological similarities with Haliphthoros and Halocrusticida and forms a clade with these in LSU phylogenies. Here, we confirm the first recorded occurrence of H. noduliformans in European lobsters and associate its presence with pathology of the egg mass, likely leading to reduced fecundity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial action of new antibacterial peptides, Nod1 and Nod2, isolated from Nordotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Young; Lee, Jong-Kook; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-07-11

    Abalone is a valuable seafood in the aquaculture industry worldwide as it is rich in protein. However, to date, research on the functional proteins of abalone is lacking. Herein, we report two peptides with antibacterial activity from Nordotis discus discus . The purification of peptides was performed by solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the isolated antibacterial peptides, named as Nod1 and Nod2, were identified by Edman degradation and did not show any similarity to other proteins and peptides in databases based on results of BLAST homology analysis. Molecular masses of Nod1 and Nod2 were 6145.06 and 6360.07 Da, respectively, as determined by mass spectrometric analysis. The two peptides displayed pH-dependent antibacterial activity against various bacteria that was more potent at pH 5.4 than pH 7.4, but they did not inhibit fungal growth at either pH levels. Their antibacterial activity was due to membranolytic action, which was assayed by SYTOX-green uptake. In addition, both peptides were virtually noncytolytic for human erythrocytes and mammalian cells.

  15. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  16. Potential biocontrol agents for biofouling on artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of biofouling on coastal structures can lead to operational impacts and may harbour problematic organisms, including non-indigenous species. Benthic predators and grazers that can supress biofouling, and which are able to be artificially enhanced, have potential value as augmentative biocontrol agents. The ability of New Zealand native invertebrates to control biofouling on marina pontoons and wharf piles was tested. Caging experiments evaluated the ability of biocontrol to mitigate established biofouling, and to prevent fouling accumulation on defouled surfaces. On pontoons, the gastropods Haliotis iris and Cookia sulcata reduced established biofouling cover by >55% and largely prevented the accumulation of new biofouling over three months. On wharf piles C. sulcata removed 65% of biofouling biomass and reduced its cover by 73%. C. sulcata also had better retention and survival rates than other agents. Augmentative biocontrol has the potential to be an effective method to mitigate biofouling on marine structures.

  17. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta, a new definitive host of the canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gillis-Germitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiostronglyus vasorum is a cardiopulmonary nematode infecting mainly canids such as dogs (Canis familiaris and foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Natural infections have also been reported in mustelids and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens. We report the occurrence of natural A. vasorum infections in a group of captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta, housed at a university facility in Switzerland. A. vasorum first-stage larvae (L1 were initially identified in a pooled faecal sample. Individual samples, investigated with the Baermann-Wetzel technique, revealed that 41% (7/17 of the meerkats were infected, with ranges of 2–125 L1/g faeces. PCR and sequencing of part of the ITS-2 region resulted in 100% identity with A. vasorum. Infected animals did not show clinical signs. One meerkat died two days after diagnosis. Upon necropsy one adult specimen was recovered; histological examination of the lung revealed granulomatous pneumonia caused by A. vasorum larvae and eggs as well as intima and media hyperplasia and isolated arteriosclerosis of larger lung vessels. However, the cause of death was a spleen rupture with associated blood loss. All meerkats were topically treated with 10 mg imidacloprid/2.5 mg moxidectin per animal, after which they became negative in all follow up faecal examinations. Potential intermediate (gastropods and paratenic hosts (birds were collected from within or outside the meerkats enclosure. Gastropods were examined by PCR and bird samples by digestion. Four out of 193 (2.1% gastropod samples were positive for A. vasorum, whereas none of the bird samples were positive. Meerkats, belonging to the Herpestidae, therefore are suitable definitive hosts for A. vasorum, with production and excretion of live L1. Meerkats kept in captivity in areas where A. vasorum is endemic and with potential contact to intermediate hosts are at risk of infection. Regular faecal examinations including Baermann-Wetzel technique should be considered

  18. Highly ordered self-assembling polymer/clay nanocomposite barrier film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ray; Chen, Yihong; Beall, Gary W

    2015-05-27

    Efforts to mimic complex-structured biologically based materials such as abalone shell have occupied substantial research time and effort in science and engineering. The majority of the efforts involve tedious and expensive techniques and processes. Layer-by-layer (LBL) is one such technique that can produce materials with quite unique physical properties, approaching, and in some cases surpassing, those seen in nature. The LBL technique, however, is quite tedious and difficult to implement commercially. We report here the discovery of an organic/inorganic spontaneous self-assembling system that forms a highly structured nanocomposite. The driving force behind this self-assembly appears to be entropy. This discovery should open up completely new avenues to designing hierarchical composites and structures. The films have been studied by X-ray diffraction and the barrier properties for oxygen diffusion measured.

  19. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Fisher, L W; Hansma, P K

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface, and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence. PMID:18843380

  20. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Hansma, P K [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fisher, L W [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: adams@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: fantner@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lfisher@dir.nidcr.nih.gov, E-mail: prasant@physics.ucsb.edu

    2008-09-24

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence.

  1. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, K; Hansen, B; Jacobsen, R

    2005-01-01

    in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial......: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, and Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In all, 100 hypercholesterolaemic but otherwise healthy subjects were included in the study of which 89 completed it. INTERVENTIONS......: Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF...

  2. Outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive Siberian tigers and red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Shan, Fen; Zhou, Xia; Li, Bing; Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-08-15

    In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used. However, about two months later, CDV re-emerged and caused the death among red pandas. Based on the vaccination records, the live combination vaccine could be considered an ideal weapon against CDV in zoo carnivore animals. Although the recombinant combination CDV vaccine was safe for red pandas, its protection effectiveness remains to be further investigated. Moreover, according to the outbreak interval time and sequence characterization, we suspected that stray cats circulating in the zoo were the intermediate host, which contributed to CDV spread from stray dogs to zoo animals. This study revealed the importance of vaccination and biosecurity for zoo animals.

  3. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LARA, Vanessa MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO, Jessica BRAVO-CADENA, Salvador LORANCA, Alex CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo, Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strigmacoccus and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such resources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens. Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively [Current Zoology 57 (1: 56–62, 2011].

  4. Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Langland, Kathleen M; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Graham, Catherine H; Tobalske, Bret W

    2017-12-01

    At high temperature (greater than 40°C) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed ( Cynanthus latirostris , 3.0 g), black-chinned ( Archilochus alexandri , 3.0 g), Rivoli's ( Eugenes fulgens , 7.5 g) and blue-throated ( Lampornis clemenciae , 8.0 g) hummingbirds in southeastern Arizona and calliope hummingbirds ( Selasphorus calliope , 2.6 g) in Montana. Thermal gradients driving passive heat dissipation through eye, shoulder and feet dissipation areas are eliminated between 36 and 40°C. Thermal gradients persisted at higher temperatures in smaller species, possibly allowing them to inhabit warmer sites. All species experienced extended daytime periods lacking thermal gradients. Broad-billed hummingbirds lacking thermal gradients regulated the mean total-body surface temperature at approximately 38°C, suggesting behavioural thermoregulation. Blue-throated hummingbirds were inactive when lacking passive heat dissipation and hence might have the lowest temperature tolerance of the four species. Use of thermal refugia permitted hummingbirds to tolerate higher temperatures, but climate change could eliminate refugia, forcing distributional shifts in hummingbird populations.

  5. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals convergent evolution between the bamboo-eating giant and red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Wu, Qi; Ma, Shuai; Ma, Tianxiao; Shan, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Yonggang; Ning, Zemin; Yan, Li; Xiu, Yunfang; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-01-31

    Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution. Limb development genes DYNC2H1 and PCNT have undergone adaptive convergence and may be important candidate genes for pseudothumb development. As evolutionary responses to a bamboo diet, adaptive convergence has occurred in genes involved in the digestion and utilization of bamboo nutrients such as essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Similarly, the umami taste receptor gene TAS1R1 has been pseudogenized in both pandas. These findings offer insights into genetic convergence mechanisms underlying phenotypic convergence and adaptation to a specialized bamboo diet.

  7. Impact of huge tsunami in March 2011 on seaweed bed distributions in Shizugawa Bay, Sanriku Coast, revealed by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sasa, Shuji; Sawayama, Shuhei; Tsujimoto, Ryo; Terauchi, Genki; Yagi, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2012-10-01

    Seaweed beds are very important for abalones and sea urchins as a habitat. In Sanriku Coast, these animals are target species of coastal fisheries. The huge tsunami hit Sanriku Coast facing Pacific Ocean on 11 March 2011. It is needed for fishermen to know present situation of seaweed beds and understand damages of the huge tsunami on natural environments to recover coastal fisheries. We selected Shizugawa Bay as a study site because abalone catch of Shizugawa Bay occupied the first position in Sanriku Coast. To evaluate impact of tsunami on seaweed beds, we compared high spatial resolution satellite image of Shizugawa Bay before the tsunami with that after the tsunami by remote sensing with ground surveys to know impact of the tsunami on seaweed beds. We used two multi-band imageries of commercial high-resolution satellite, Geoeye-1, which were taken on 4 November 2009 before the tsunami and on 22 February 2012 after the tsunami. Although divers observed the tsunami damaged a very small part of Eisenia bicyclis distributions on rock substrates at the bay head, it was not observed clearly by satellite image analysis. On the other hand, we found increase in seaweed beds after the tsunami from the image analysis. The tsunami broke concrete breakwaters, entrained a large amount of rocks and pebble from land to the sea, and disseminated them in the bay. Thus, hard substrates suitable for attachment of seaweeds were increased. Ground surveys revealed that seaweeds consisting of E. bicyclis, Sargassum and Laminaria species grew on these hard substrates on the sandy bottom.

  8. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  9. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Marcela P

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  10. Holocene evolution of coastal chalk cliffs in Normandy (NW France) as evidenced by onshore-offshore high resolution geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, Timothée; Duperret, Anne; Costa, Stéphane; Regard, Vincent; Maillet, Grégoire

    2017-04-01

    take into account detailed rock lithology and rock resistance, large and small-scale structural deformation and fractures occurrences versus the sea level variations during the Holocene. A numeric watersheds analysis has been performed inland to highlight the morphometric properties and the maturity status of each quaternary valley. They appear to be immature, even if their downstream areas demonstrate slopes varying between 0.5 and 2°. Paleo-rivers stopped to incise the chalk before reaching their equilibrium level base. We thus consider that the equilibrium point where the paleo-rivers and the past sea level were connected is located on the shore platform i.e. today located offshore. Therefore we project offshore the V-shaped valley base level, using Hack's law to estimate the paleo-coastline location. It will be correlated to the sea level fluctuations from the last interglacial period and to the Holocene shoreline recession rates known from the 10Be cosmogenic dating. References DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG1 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/13120080 DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG3 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/13120100 MAILLET Grégoire (2014) SPLASHALIOT-2 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/14011800

  11. High photobiont diversity in the common European soil crust lichenPsora decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ulrike; Brunauer, Georg; Türk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of green algal photobionts (chlorobionts) in soil crust forming lichens was studied as part of the SCIN-project (Soil Crust InterNational). A total of 64 lichen samples were collected from four different sites along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe (Tabernas/Spain; Hochtor-Großglockner/Austria; Gynge Alvar/Sweden; Ruine Homburg/Germany). The dominant lichen species at all four sites was Psora decipiens , often occurring with Buellia elegans, Fulgensia bracteata, F. fulgens and Peltigera rufescens. Genetic identification of chlorobionts was carried out using the nuclear marker (nrITS) and a chloroplast marker ( psb L-J). We found P. decipiens to be associated with several different species of Trebouxia and Asterochloris , although previously described to only have Asterochloris sp. The phylogenetic analyses revealed a high chlorobiont diversity with 12 well supported clades, including Trebouxia asymmetrica , T. jamesii , T. impressa and other, as yet taxonomically unidentified clades ( Trebouxia sp. URa1-4, T . sp. URa6, T . sp. URa7-13). Additionally, five clades of Asterochloris were identified ( A. magna, A. sp. URa14 -17). Most of the chlorobiont species appeared to be cosmopolitan, but five clades were unevenly distributed between the sampling sites with only Trebouxia being found in the warm and dry Spanish habitats and combinations of Trebouxia and Asterochloris in the cooler and more humid habitats. The wide range of chlorobiont species might contribute to the observed domination of P. decipiens at all four research sites of the SCIN project which range from a desert in Spain to an alpine site in the Alps of Austria.

  12. Medwall, notre contemporain ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Debax

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Le texte Fulgens et Lucres de H. Medwall, joué en 1989 à Toulouse, était très largement fidèle à celui de 1494, en vers rimés, la rime étant un véhicule du charme et du comique tout à la fois. Les chevilles ont été scrupuleusement conservées, pour leur effet comique et phatique. Le metteur en scène s’est refusé à reconstituer les formes anciennes, et s’est gardé de tout exotisme, s’efforçant de gérer l’écart entre la mise en scène d’aujourd’hui et la réalisation censée avoir été celle du Moyen Âge. La différence entre les protagonistes historiques et les serviteurs-amuseurs a été soulignée par les costumes, le rapport au public et l’utilisation d’un livret tenu à la main par les premiers. Ce qui est recherché est un équilibre entre pratiques médiévales et contemporaines, et non point un compromis, qui aurait pour résultat de balloter le spectateur dans un univers incohérent. La connaissance des conditions initiales ne peut-être qu’un point de départ pour la réflexion, ce sont les conditions réelles et présentes de la représentation qui ont guidé les choix du metteur en scène d’aujourd’hui.

  13. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

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    Damber Bista

    Full Text Available In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2 of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2 of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  14. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Sangay; Vernes, Karl; Rajaratnam, Rajanathan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl), with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  15. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  16. Analysis of Genomic DNAs from Nine Rosaceae Species Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiu; Lang, Tao; Fan, Shuguo; Chen, Wen; Zang, Deqing; Chen, Jing; Shi, Minzhen

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of genomic DNA was used to determine genetic relationships and species identification of nine plants from three subfamilies of Rosaceae. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the SERS spectra were obtained by using a nanosilver collosol at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. Adenine and ribodesose were the active sites of genomic DNAs in the silver surface-enhanced Raman spectra. The strong peak at 714 cm(-1) was assigned to the stretching vibration of adenine, the strong peak at 1011cm(-1) contributed to the stretching vibration of the deoxyribose and the scissoring vibrations of cytosine, and the strong peak at 625 cm(-1) is the stretching vibration of glycosidic bond and the scissoring vibrations of guanine. The three-dimensional plot of the first, second, and third principal components showed that the nine species could be classified into three categories (three subfamilies), consistent with the traditional classification. The model of the hierarchical cluster combined with the principal component of the second derivative was more reasonable. The results of the cluster analysis showed that apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and cherry (Prunus seudocerasus Lindl.) were clustered into one category (Prunoideae); firethorn (Firethorn fortuneana Li.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), apple (Malus pumila Mill.), and crabapple (Malus hallianna Koehne.) were clustered into a second category (Pomoideae); and potentilla (Potentilla fulgens Wall.), rose (Rosa chinensis Jacd.), and strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne.) were clustered into a third category (Rosoideae). These classifications were in accordance with the traditional classification with a correction rate of clustering of 100%. The correct rate of species identification was 100%. These five main results indicate that the genetic relationship and species identification of nine Rosaceae species could be determined by using SERS spectra of their genomic DNAs.

  17. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  18. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  19. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis) and its effect in territorial contest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Islas, Verónica; Lara, Carlos; Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as "owners win." We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird ( Hylocharis leucotis ) in a fir forest from central Mexico. Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models) were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity). In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird ( Eugenes fulgens ) or the green violetear hummingbird ( Colibri thalassinus ) on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Initially, the rule that "the resident always wins" was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to specific circumstances.

  20. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis and its effect in territorial contest resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mendiola-Islas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as “owners win.” We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis in a fir forest from central Mexico. Methods Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity. Results In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens or the green violetear hummingbird (Colibri thalassinus on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Discussion Initially, the rule that “the resident always wins” was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to

  3. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Sherpa, Peema; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Kokh, Manish; Lama, Sonam Tashi; Khanal, Kapil; Thapa, Arjun; Jnawali, Shant Raj

    2017-01-01

    In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2) of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2) of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  4. Lineage-specific evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in the giant and red pandas implies dietary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Wang, Le; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Fuwen

    2018-03-01

    Taste 2 receptors (TAS2R) mediate bitterness perception in mammals, thus are called bitter taste receptors. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution has occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift. Here, we characterized 195 TAS2R genes in 9 Carnivora species and examined selective pressures on these genes. We found that both pandas harbor more putative functional TAS2R genes than other carnivores, and pseudogenized TAS2R genes in the giant panda are different from the red panda. The purifying selection on TAS2R1, TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 in the giant panda, and TAS2R62 in the red panda, has been strengthened throughout the course of adaptation to bamboo diet, while selective constraint on TAS2R4 and TAS2R38 in the red panda is relaxed. Remarkably, a few positively selected sites on TAS2R42 have been specifically detected in the giant panda. These results suggest an adaptive response in both pandas to a dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory, and TAS2R genes evolved independently in the 2 pandas. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of mammalian sensory evolution and the process of adaptation to new ecological niches. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery.

  6. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siglreitmeier, Maria; Wu, Baohu; Kollmann, Tina; Neubauer, Martin; Nagy, Gergely; Schwahn, Dietmar; Pipich, Vitaliy; Faivre, Damien; Zahn, Dirk; Fery, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS) showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material. PMID:25671158

  7. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siglreitmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material.

  8. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  9. Nitrogen Isotope Analyses in Mollusk Shell: Applications to Environmental Sciences and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, C. F. T.; Bassett, C.; Black, H. D.; Payne, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several recent studies demonstrate that nitrogen isotope analysis of the organic fraction of mollusk shells can serve as a proxy for anthropogenic environmental impacts, including sewage input into estuaries. Analysis of δ15N in shells from archaeological sites permits construction of time-series proxy data from the present day to pre-industrial times, yielding insight into the history of some human environmental influences such as waste input and land use changes. Most such studies utilize a single bulk analysis per valve, combining shell material grown over time periods of one or more years. However, large, fast-growing species (e.g. some scallops and abalone) may permit sub-annual sampling, potentially yielding insight into seasonal processes. Such sclerochronological sampling of archaeological shells may enable researchers to detect variation at a finer temporal scale than has been attempted to date, which in turn may facilitate analysis of seasonal resource procurement strategies and related actions. This presentation will incorporate new and published data from the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America to assess how sclerochronological δ15N data can be useful to better understand pre-industrial human-environmental interaction and change, and also address diagenesis and other preservational concerns commonly found in archaeological samples.

  10. Using Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh from southern Chile as a source of applied biological compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of seaweeds in Chile has been carried out for more than 60 years. More recently, seaweeds have been used for the production of alginate, agar and carrageenan, agricultural fertilizers and industrial aquaculture (feed for abalone and sea urchins, increasing the added value of this natural resource. In the Magellan Region (56ºS, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh presents the most extensive kelp forest, reaching a biomass of approximately 12 kg.m-2. Recent studies have shown potential benefits from adding M. pyrifera- derived flour to salmonid feed. Research is currently underway to evaluate the useof brown algae-derived products for marine aquaculture feed of Oncorhynchus mykiss in tanks. There was no apparent adverse effect on the evaluated parameters that can be attributed to the incorporation of M. pyrifera meal in the diets fed to salmonids. Even when the control diet had numerically the best performance in zootechnical terms, the analysis of variance of all parameters evaluated showed no significant differences with regard to diets containing M. pyrifera meal. These results demonstrated that seaweed meal has important benefits for animal health and nutrition that could be applied or tested in other marine organisms of commercial importance.

  11. Using Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh from southern Chile as a source of applied biological compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of seaweeds in Chile has been carried out for more than 60 years. More recently, seaweeds have been used for the production of alginate, agar and carrageenan, agricultural fertilizers and industrial aquaculture (feed for abalone and sea urchins, increasing the added value of this natural resource. In the Magellan Region (56ºS, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh presents the most extensive kelp forest, reaching a biomass of approximately 12 kg.m-2. Recent studies have shown potential benefits from adding M. pyrifera- derived flour to salmonid feed. Research is currently underway to evaluate the useof brown algae-derived products for marine aquaculture feed of Oncorhynchus mykiss in tanks. There was no apparent adverse effect on the evaluated parameters that can be attributed to the incorporation of M. pyrifera meal in the diets fed to salmonids. Even when the control diet had numerically the best performance in zootechnical terms, the analysis of variance of all parameters evaluated showed no significant differences with regard to diets containing M. pyrifera meal. These results demonstrated that seaweed meal has important benefits for animal health and nutrition that could be applied or tested in other marine organisms of commercial importance.

  12. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical, Thermal, and Microstructural Analysis of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Allison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural biomaterials such as nacre, bone, and fish scales possess unique structures that have hierarchical spatial configurations, which provide excellent mechanical properties when compared to their individual constituents. These observations have been the motivation for designing and characterizing bioinspired materials with high strength, high stiffness, and corrosion-resistant properties while at the same time being environmentally friendly. It has been demonstrated that polymer-clay nanocomposites can simulate the behavior of nacreous biomaterials such as abalone shell. Mechanical, thermal, and microstructural analyses characterized solution-cast polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposite properties over compositions ranging from the neat polymer to 25% volume fraction of MMT nanoclay. Uniaxial tensile experiments were performed at displacement rates of 1 mm/min and 50 mm/min. Strength values are similar to those shown by nacre and represent a homogeneous dispersion of the MMT in the polymer matrix. Strength-to-weight ratios are similar to many structural metals.

  14. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  15. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  17. FY 1983 report on the results of the verification test on the methanol conversion for oil-fired power plant. Part 1. Verification test on the environmental safety; 1983 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken seika hokokusho. Kankyo anzensei jissho shiken (Sono 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As to the verification test on the environmental safety in the use of methanol as power generation use fuel, the following were summed up: review of the verification test and the interim evaluation, state of implementation of the FY 1983 verification test, study/evaluation of the results of the FY 1983 test, survey of research trends, plan of the FY 1984 verification test, record of the committee, etc. Concerning the interim evaluation, high evaluation was obtained as described below: Testing facilities were constructed as planned at first to make the implementation of various tests possible; Tests were smoothly conducted, and among the acute test using monkey, test on mock flue gas using monkey/rat, test on mutagenicity and test on the effect on aquatic animals, tests using oryzias latipes and abalone on the fatal concentration, avoidance behavior and chronic effect were finished by the end of FY 1983 almost as planned; The long-term inhalation test using monkey and rat/mouse has been smoothly in progress. In the survey of research trends, the paper introduced the outlined literature on the methanol metabolism of monkey, changes in the methanol concentration in blood/urine in the case of drinking methanol by mistake. (NEDO)

  18. Mollusks in the Mangrove Rehabilitation Areas in Western Pangasinan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene B. De Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mollusks are predominantly found inmangrove ecosystems. Nowadays, these are declining due to habitat disturbances. This study was conducted in Western, Pangasinan, with mangrove rehabilitation projects under Community Based Forest Management Agreement. Four mangrove rehabilitation areas were looked into: Pilar and Victory, Bolinao; and Awile and Tori-tori, Anda, Pangasinan. Purposive sampling was done in selecting the mangrove rehabilitation areas. Ten percent sampling of the areas using the belt transect quadrat method was employed. Diversity, dominance , richness and evenness indices for mollusks were determined. Mann Whitney test, Student’s t-test and Kruskal Wallis test were used. A total of fourteen kinds of mollusks species were identified. The species were Tectusfenestratus (fenestrate top, Terebraliasulcata (Sulcate swamp perith, Haliotisovinagemelin (oval abalone, Neritaplanospiraanton (flat spired nerite, Clithionoualensis(dubious nerite, Fasciolaria trapezium (trapezium horse conch, Nasarriuspullus (ribbed dog whelk, Trochusmaculatus (maculated top, Rhinoclavisvertagus (Common vertagus , Telescopium telescopium (Telescope Snail, Isognomonephippium (saddle tree oyster Crassostriairedali (slipper oyster, Strombuslabiatus (Plicate conch and Polymesodaexpansa (Yellowish mangrove clam. The highest mollusks species diversity and richness indeces were observed in Victory, Bolinao. Mollusks species dominance and evenness indeces were highest in Pilar, Bolinao and Tori-tori, Anda, respectively. The study revealed a significant difference in the probability of gathering mollusks species in the four mangrove rehabilitation areas. It is recommended that fisherfolkand coastal communities be educated about the need for mollusks conservation and habitat protection. It is expected that this study may provide light to future research on mangrove fauna particularly mollusks in Pangasinan.

  19. Bioaccessibility of 12 trace elements in marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-05-01

    We conducted a large scale investigation of the bioaccessibility of 12 trace elements from 11 marine mollusc species (scallop, oyster, clam, abalone, snail, and mussel) collected from five locations in Chinese coastal waters. The bioaccessibility of all the 12 trace elements was generally high, with the average values ranging from 42.5% to 90.7%. The highest bioaccessibility was observed for As, Cu, Ni and Se, and the lowest for Fe, Co and Pb. Steaming decreased the bioaccessibility of all 12 trace elements and thus diminished their risks. No correlation was observed between the bioaccessibility and the total concentration of the 12 elements. However, there was a significant correlation between the bioaccessibility of the 12 elements and their subcellular distribution. For most trace elements, a significantly negative relationship was demonstrated between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in the metal-rich granule fraction or in the cellular debris fraction, and a significantly positive correlation was observed between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in the heat-stable protein fraction and in the trophically available fraction. Hence, the elemental subcellular distribution, especially the elemental partitioning in the trophically available fraction, might be a good predictor of the bioaccessibility and risks of trace elements in molluscs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ximing; Ford, Susan E

    2016-03-05

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. [A case of occupational contact urticaria and oral allergy syndrome due to seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Junko; Inomata, Naoko; Hirokado, Michiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman was referred for evaluation after about 2 years of recurrent episodes of localized urticaria during handling of several kinds of raw fish in a sushi shop, where she had worked part-time for 2 years. She had also experienced allergic symptoms such as itching and swelling of her lips, generalized urticaria, laryngeal tightness, stridor and dyspnea immediately after ingestion of raw and cooked seafood, including sole, horse mackerel, sea eel and shellfish, over the previous 1 year before referral. Skin prick tests and blood test for specific IgE antibodies were positive for many kinds of seafood, including sole, horse mackerel, sea eel, eel, crab, and abalone, which belonged to different taxonomic phyla, including Chordata, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. A challenge with a piece of broiled sole induced swelling of the lips, obstruction of the larynx, difficulty with deglutition, and abdominal pain. In addition, serum-specific IgE antibodies to two major fish allergens, parvalbumin and collagen, were detected by ELISA, suggesting that allergic symptoms could be induced by many kinds of seafood in the present patient. She was therefore diagnosed with occupational contact urticaria and oral allergy syndrome due to seafood. At the time of this report, the present patient had been followed for one year and no reactions have occurred since she started to avoid the causative types of seafood.

  2. Extreme accumulations of natural polonium-210 in certain marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.; Wong, K.M.; Hodge, V.F.

    1972-01-01

    Concentration levels of polonium-210 reported for sea water are reviewed, and activities accumulated by various marine plant and animal species are discussed. Special mention is made of detailed studies of one giant algae upon whose outer surfaces intense accumulations of polonium have been discovered recently. Some concentrations found in two organisms intimate with algae, the abalones and the sea hares, are reported. Concentrations are listed pertaining to organisms selected from the open ocean in order to show that intense polonium concentrations are not restricted to organisms living near the continents where precursors of polonium originate. A brief discussion of conditions on one of the marine mammals, the dolphin, next is made. Then comments are made upon a benthic species (the sable fish) that prefers to live close to the deep sea floor, presumably so as to eat detritus. They also eat many of the smaller organisms that compete for the natural deep sea fallout of food, and many of these live in close contact with the muds and clays of the sea floor that are rich in radium. Some of the behavior and anatomical features and polonium-210 distribution in one of the most interesting and valuable of fishes, the North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is described. This species has been used previously to tell us something about nuclear fallout distributions in the North Pacific Ocean during the past decade and repeatedly has directed attention to features of this ocean that might hardly be detected otherwise. (U.S.)

  3. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  4. Distinct Tensile Response of Model Semi-flexible Elastomer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Mercado, Bernardo M.; Cohen, Claude; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2011-03-01

    Through coarse-grained molecular modeling, we study how the elastic response strongly depends upon nanostructural heterogeneities in model networks made of semi-flexible chains exhibiting both regular and realistic connectivity. Idealized regular polymer networks have been shown to display a peculiar elastic response similar to that of super-tough natural materials (e.g., organic adhesives inside abalone shells). We investigate the impact of chain stiffness, and the effect of including tri-block copolymer chains, on the network's topology and elastic response. We find in some systems a dual tensile response: a liquid-like behavior at small deformations, and a distinct saw-tooth shaped stress-strain curve at moderate to large deformations. Additionally, stiffer regular networks exhibit a marked hysteresis over loading-unloading cycles that can be deleted by heating-cooling cycles or by performing deformations along different axes. Furthermore, small variations of chain stiffness may entirely change the nature of the network's tensile response from an entropic to an enthalpic elastic regime, and micro-phase separation of different blocks within elastomer networks may significantly enhance their mechanical strength. This work was supported by the American Chemical Society.

  5. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  7. Marine Lectins DlFBL and HddSBL Fused with Soluble Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Facilitate Adenovirus Infection in Cancer Cells BUT Have Different Effects on Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bingbing; Mei, Shengsheng; Cui, Lianzhen; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jianhong; Wu, Tao; Li, Gongchu

    2017-03-14

    Cancer development and progression are usually associated with glycosylation change, providing prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, for various cancers. In this work, Dicentrarchus labrax fucose binding lectin (DlFBL) and Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (HddSBL) were genetically fused with soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR), and produced through a bacterial expression system. Results showed that recombinant sCAR-DlFBL not only facilitated adenovirus Ad-EGFP infection in K562/ADR and U87MG cells, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of adenovirus harboring gene encoding Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) or DlFBL (Ad-PPA or Ad-DlFBL) on U87MG cells through inducing apoptosis. Recombinant sCAR-HddSBL facilitated Ad-EGFP infection, but dramatically counteracted the cytotoxicity of both Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL in U87MG cells. Further analysis revealed that sCAR-HddSBL, but not sCAR-DlFBL, significantly upregulated transcription factor E2F1 levels in U87MG cells, which might be responsible for the adverse effect of sCAR-HddSBL on Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL. Taken together, our data suggested that sCAR-DlFBL could be further developed to redirect therapeutic adenoviruses to infect cancer cells such as U87MG, and the sCAR-lectin fusion proteins for adenoviral retargeting should be carefully examined for possible survival signaling induced by lectins, such as HddSBL.

  8. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  9. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    sites. Lichen species are also analysed to investigate the variability within their morphological and physiological traits and whether this is site specific. From the transplant experiment lichen samples are analysed to find whether lichen species can readily switch their photobiont to a locally adapted symbiont and whether the morphological and physiological parameters change in order to acclimatise to the new conditions. This work is currently ongoing and here the initial results from the lichen species Psora decipiens, Fulgensia fulgens (green algal lichens) and Peltigera rufescens (cyanolichen) are presented.

  10. Lichens show that fungi can acclimate their respiration to seasonal changes in temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L; Green, T G Allan

    2005-01-01

    Five species of lichens, the majority members of a soil-crust community ( Cladonia convoluta, Diploschistes muscorum, Fulgensia fulgens, Lecanora muralis, Squamarina lentigera) showed seasonal changes of temperature sensitivity of their dark respiration (DR) to such an extent that several substantially met the definition of full acclimation, i.e. near identical DR under different nocturnal temperature conditions during the course of the year. C. convoluta, for example, had maximal DR at 5 degrees C of -0.42, -1.11 and -0.09 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1) in autumn, winter, and summer, respectively, a tenfold range. However, at the mean night temperatures for the same three seasons, 9.7 degrees C, 4.2 degrees C and 13.6 degrees C, maximal DR were almost identical at -1.11, -0.93, and -1.45 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1). The information was extracted from measurements using automatic cuvettes that continuously recorded a sample lichen's gas exchange every 30 min under near-natural conditions. The longest period (for L. muralis) covered 15 months and 22,000 data sets whilst, for the other species studied, data blocks were available throughout the calendar year. The acclimation of DR means that maximal net carbon fixation rates remain substantially similar throughout the year and are not depressed by increased carbon loss by respiration in warmer seasons. This is especially important for lichens because of their normally high rate of DR compared to net photosynthesis. We suggest that lichens, especially soil-crust species, could be a suitable model for fungi generally, a group of organisms for which little is known about temperature acclimation because of the great difficulty in separating the organism from its growth medium. Fungi, whether saprophytic, symbiotic or parasitic, including soil lichens, are important components of soil ecosystems and contribute much of the respired CO(2) from these systems. Temperature acclimation by fungi would mean that expected increases in carbon

  11. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  12. Introducción de especies en ambientes marinos chilenos: no solo exóticas, no siempre evidentes Introduction of species in Chilean marine environments: not only exotic, not always evident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El éxito económico del cultivo de especies marinas exóticas en Chile y el amplio desarrollo de la acuicultura en toda la costa, están convirtiendo la introducción de especies en una práctica frecuente. Algunas acciones han tenido impactos ecológicos importantes, y otras más recientes como el cultivo de abalones ya estarían provocándolos de forma indirecta, por la fuerte extracción de macroalgas usadas como alimento. Sin embargo, el fenómeno de introducción no se limita a especies exóticas, y puede abarcar la introducción accidental o intencional de cualquier especie nativa o con distribución en Chile, a cualquier ambiente donde no está presente por causas naturales. En este sentido, sería un fenómeno más común y con mayor extensión geográfica de lo supuesto, practicada por largo tiempo en la acuicultura y actividades relacionadas, involucrando también a organismos seleccionados o modificados genéticamente. Por otra parte, la normativa nacional e internacional parece ser insuficiente o poco eficaz para regular estas actividades, y hasta puede estar en conflicto con grandes intereses económicos. Potencialmente, el impacto histórico conjunto de estas prácticas sería alto, pero en general no se ha evaluado o es poco conocido. Conviene notar que la introducción no es infrecuente en la investigación marina científica o tecnológica, pero su efecto es tan desconocido como en otros ámbitos. Sería deseable que la comunidad científica del área de biología marina chilena tomara una posición más clara ante el problema, ya que la acuicultura comienza a verse como una disciplina en conflicto con la conservaciónThe economical success associated to the cultivation of exotic marine species in Chile, and the high development of aquaculture along the whole coast, are converting the introduction of species into a frequent practice. Some of these actions have had important ecological impacts, and others, more recent, such as

  13. Reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha e mancha amarela e responsividade a fungicidas Reaction of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and responsiveness to fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédio Rodrigo Tormen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, e mancha amarela, causada por Drechslera tritici-repentis, e sua responsividade ao controle químico com fungicidas, foi conduzido experimento de campo durante os invernos de 2009 e 2010, Itaara-RS. As cultivares avaliadas foram 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD 114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' e 'OR Pampeano'; na safra 2010, a cultivar 'CD 114' foi substituída pela OR Quartzo. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: P1 - testemunha sem aplicação de fungicida; P2 - fempropimorfe (560g ha-1 de i.a.; P3 - azoxistrobina + ciproconazol (60+24g ha-1 de i.a.; e P4 - piraclostrobina + metconazol (60+97,5g ha-1 de i.a.. Após a segunda aplicação, efetuaram-se avaliações semanais de severidade das doenças, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo da Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso da Doença (AACPD. Também foram determinados a produtividade e o peso do hectolitro. No que se refere à suscetibilidade às doenças, as cultivares estudadas apresentaram respostas distintas de um ano para o outro. Para ferrugem, o comportamento mostrou-se similar em ambos os anos, enquanto que, para mancha amarela, houve variação. Quanto à resposta ao controle químico, ocorreram variações de acordo com o patógeno e com o grau de suscetibilidade das cultivares. O uso integrado de resistência genética e controle químico mostrou-se mais efetivo para ferrugem da folha.Aiming to evaluate the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and their responsiveness to chemical fungicides, two field trials were carried out, during 2009 and 2010 winter's. The cultivars evaluated were: 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' and 'OR Pampeano'. In 2010, the 'CD 114' cultivar was replaced by Quartzo

  14. IOOS: Aiding Aquaculture Industries and Their Harvest with Near Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, H.; Shandy Buckley; Jan Newton; Julie Thomas

    2011-12-01

    West Coast aquaculture accounts for over 3000 jobs and brings in over 117 million in revenue to mostly small coastal communities. Larvae recruitment and growth in these systems are very susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and acidic waters (low pH). Since 2005, aquaculturists have observed a significant reduction in shellfish larvae production and recruitment. In 2008 and 2009, the Taylor Shellfish Company (Dabob Bay, WA) observed a loss of 80% in their hatchery production. Likewise in 2008, Whiskey Creek Shellfish Company (Netarts Bay, OR) produced only 25% of their normal crop. These businesses and local scientists suspect low pH to be the culprit in the declines. In 2007, the Monterey Abalone Company suffered a 60K loss in their harvest. After contacting local scientists it was determined that the abalone crop died from a harmful algal bloom event. In response, the three West Coast Regional Associations under the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (NANOOS, CeNCOOS and SCCOOS) are working in collaboration with the Ocean Science Trust, Ocean Protection Council, CA Sea Grant, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project to develop an observing and near real-time data delivery network focused on harmful algal blooms, the Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Alert Program and on ocean acidification, the California Current Acidification Network. The above organizations have participated in a number of workshops with members of the aquaculture community helping to design the network. It is clear that a spatial and temporal disconnect between the data needs of both groups exists. Aquaculture experts require daily and hourly data streams in the near-shore environment with a high degree of reliability in the data but not necessarily a high degree of accuracy. Conversely, scientists collect highly accurate data in the continental shelf and oceanic environment and model predictions on decadal scales. The

  15. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  16. An endo-beta-1,4-mannanase, AkMan, from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahura, Umme Afsari; Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Inoue, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Takao

    2010-09-01

    A mannan-degrading enzyme was isolated from the digestive fluid of the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatography. The purified enzyme, named AkMan in the present paper, showed a single band with an approximate molecular mass of 40,000 Da on SDS-PAGE and preferably degraded a linear beta-1,4-mannan from green algae Codium fragile producing tri- and disaccharides. The optimal temperature of AkMan was 55 degrees C at pH 7.0 and temperature that caused 50% inactivation of AkMan during a 20-min incubation was 52 degrees C. AkMan retained high activity at pH 4.0-7.5 and was not inactivated in such acidic pH range by the incubation at 40 degrees C for 20 min. AkMan could degrade glucomannan from konjak root and galactomannan (tara gum and guar gum) as well as the linear beta-1,4-mannan, while not carboxymethyl cellulose, agarose, dextran and xylan. These results indicate that AkMan is a typical endo-beta-1,4-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) splitting internal beta-1,4-mannosyl linkages of mannan. The N-terminal and internal amino-acid sequences of AkMan shared approximately 55% amino-acid identity to the corresponding sequences of an abalone beta-1,4-mannanase, HdMan, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5). Thus, AkMan was also regarded as a member of GHF5 beta-1,4-mannanases. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fishnet model for failure probability tail of nacre-like imbricated lamellar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Bažant, Zdeněk P.

    2017-12-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material of the shells of pearl oysters and abalone, consists mostly of aragonite (a form of CaCO3), a brittle constituent of relatively low strength (≈10 MPa). Yet it has astonishing mean tensile strength (≈150 MPa) and fracture energy (≈350 to 1,240 J/m2). The reasons have recently become well understood: (i) the nanoscale thickness (≈300 nm) of nacre's building blocks, the aragonite lamellae (or platelets), and (ii) the imbricated, or staggered, arrangement of these lamellea, bound by biopolymer layers only ≈25 nm thick, occupying engineering applications, however, the failure probability of ≤10‑6 is generally required. To guarantee it, the type of probability density function (pdf) of strength, including its tail, must be determined. This objective, not pursued previously, is hardly achievable by experiments alone, since >10^8 tests of specimens would be needed. Here we outline a statistical model of strength that resembles a fishnet pulled diagonally, captures the tail of pdf of strength and, importantly, allows analytical safety assessments of nacreous materials. The analysis shows that, in terms of safety, the imbricated lamellar structure provides a major additional advantage—˜10% strength increase at tail failure probability 10^‑6 and a 1 to 2 orders of magnitude tail probability decrease at fixed stress. Another advantage is that a high scatter of microstructure properties diminishes the strength difference between the mean and the probability tail, compared with the weakest link model. These advantages of nacre-like materials are here justified analytically and supported by millions of Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2012-06-05

    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA: Prospects and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Rimmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture is an important component of Indonesian fisheries and aquaculture production, directly contributing an estimated US$ 320 million in 2008. Because most mariculture production is focussed on producing for export markets, mariculture production is an important source of foreign earnings for the Indonesian economy. This paper reviews the current status and prospects for continuing development of mariculture in Indonesia. Currently the major mariculture commodity in Indonesia is seaweed for carrageenan production. Seaweed production accounts for 98% of total Indonesian mariculture production and 84% of value. The other major commodity groups are marine finfish and pearl oysters. Commodities being developed for mariculture in Indonesia include abalone and spiny lobsters. Prospects for continued development of mariculture in Indonesia appear positive. Indonesia has several advantages for mariculture development, including many potential mariculture sites, a stable tropical climate, and does not suffer from cyclonic storms. The Government of Indonesia is planning to increase aquaculture production substantially over the next four years, including mariculture production. Globally, demand for seafood products is expanding due to increasing population and increased per capita consumption of fish products. Constraints to the continued development of mariculture in Indonesia include: limited seed supply, particularly of species which cannot be economically produced in hatcheries, such as spiny lobsters; need to develop more efficient production systems for some marine finfish; the need to improve environmental sustainability by improving feeds and reducing environmental impacts; and market issues relating to environmental sustainability.

  20. Variation in Orthologous Shell-Forming Proteins Contribute to Molluscan Shell Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Reim, Laurin; Randow, Clemens; Cerveau, Nicolas; Degnan, Bernard M; Fleck, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Despite the evolutionary success and ancient heritage of the molluscan shell, little is known about the molecular details of its formation, evolutionary origins, or the interactions between the material properties of the shell and its organic constituents. In contrast to this dearth of information, a growing collection of molluscan shell-forming proteomes and transcriptomes suggest they are comprised of both deeply conserved, and lineage specific elements. Analyses of these sequence data sets have suggested that mechanisms such as exon shuffling, gene co-option, and gene family expansion facilitated the rapid evolution of shell-forming proteomes and supported the diversification of this phylum specific structure. In order to further investigate and test these ideas we have examined the molecular features and spatial expression patterns of two shell-forming genes (Lustrin and ML1A2) and coupled these observations with materials properties measurements of shells from a group of closely related gastropods (abalone). We find that the prominent "GS" domain of Lustrin, a domain believed to confer elastomeric properties to the shell, varies significantly in length between the species we investigated. Furthermore, the spatial expression patterns of Lustrin and ML1A2 also vary significantly between species, suggesting that both protein architecture, and the regulation of spatial gene expression patterns, are important drivers of molluscan shell evolution. Variation in these molecular features might relate to certain materials properties of the shells of these species. These insights reveal an important and underappreciated source of variation within shell-forming proteomes that must contribute to the diversity of molluscan shell phenotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Designing and overproducing a tandem epitope of gp350/220 that shows a potential to become an EBV vaccine

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    Widodo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV can cause cancer in people from around the world. There is no EBV vaccine available for use on a global scale. However, emerging evidence suggests that the epitope on the gp350/220 capsid protein may be developed into an EBV vaccine. Nevertheless, the production of small, single epitope is challenging of stability issues and possible alteration of peptide structure. In this study, a tandem epitope was developed consisting of three single epitopes, aimed to improve stability, antigenicity and preserve epitope structure. Materials and methods: A tandem epitope was designed using bioinformatics based on the epitope structure of the gp350/220 protein. The tandem epitope structure was analyzed using a protein folding method with Abalone software, which was further refined via YASARA force field and molecular repairing using a FoldX method. Immunogenicity was examined with Epitopia software, whereas allergen properties were tested using AlgPred. The pattern of the tandem epitope binding with anti-gp350/220 antibodies was performed using Z-dock and snugDock. The tandem epitope was then overproduced in E. coli strain BL21 as a host cell. Result: Our model demonstrated a successfully designed and overproduced tandem epitope. The tandem epitope demonstrated a similar structure compared with the epitope of whole protein gp350/220. Our epitope also demonstrated non-allergen and antigenicity properties, and possessed antibody binding patterns consistent with whole protein gp350/220. Conclusion and recommendation: These data suggest a novel tandem epitope composed of three similar epitopes demonstrates antigenicity, structure, and binding properties consistent with whole protein gp350/220. We also demonstrate successful production of the tandem epitope using E. coli strain BL21 as a host. Future in vivo experimental animal research is necessary to test the ability of this tandem epitope to stimulate antibody production

  3. Molecular characterization of the 30-AA N-terminal mineral interaction domain of the biomineralization protein AP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Won; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-12-21

    The AP7 protein is one of several mollusk shell proteins which are responsible for aragonite polymorph formation and stabilization within the nacre layer of the Pacific red abalone, H. rufescens. Previously, we demonstrated that the 30-AA N-terminal domain of AP7, denoted as AP7-1, exists as an unfolded sequence and possesses the capability of inhibiting calcium carbonate crystal growth in vitro via growth step frustration or interruption. However, very little is known with regard to the interactive capabilities of this sequence with Ca(II) and with calcium carbonates. Using multidisciplinary techniques, we determine that the AP7-1 polypeptide interacts with Ca(II) ions at the -DD- sequence clusters, yet retains its unfolded, conformationally labile structure in the presence of Ca(II) ions. Further, NMR experiments reveal that the extended structured sequence blocks, -GNGM-, -SVRTQG-, and -ISYL, exhibit motional, chemical exchange, and/or backbone geometry perturbations in response to Ca(II) interactions with AP7-1. Solid-state NMR magic angle spinning studies verify that during the course of in vitro calcium carbonate crystal growth, AP7-1 becomes bound to calcite fragments and cannot be entirely displaced from the mineral fragments using competitive Ca(II) washing. Finally, using a scrambled sequence version of the AP7-1 polypeptide, we observe that sequence scrambling does not adversely affect the crystal growth inhibitory activity of AP7-1, suggesting that the amino acid composition of AP7-1 may be more critical to growth step inhibition than the linear ordering of amino acids.

  4. Molecular and morphological phylogeny of hooded shrimps, genera Betaeus and Betaeopsis (Decapoda, Alpheidae): testing the center of origin biogeographic model and evolution of life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Baeza, J Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the alpheid shrimp genera Betaeus (Dana, 1852) (15 species) and Betaeopsis (Yaldwyn, 1971) (three species), collectively known as hooded shrimps, are analyzed with morphological, molecular (16S and H3) and combined "total evidence" (morphology+DNA) datasets. The tree topology resulting from morphological and combined analyses places Betaeus jucundus as sister to all the remaining species of Betaeus and Betaeopsis, rendering Betaeus paraphyletic. On the other hand, Betaeopsis is recovered as monophyletic. Betaeus australis is positioned as sister to the remaining species of Betaeus s. str. (excluding B. jucundus), which is composed of three well-supported and resolved clades. Mapping of biogeographic traits on the combined tree suggests at least two possible historic scenarios. In the first scenario, the North-East Pacific harboring the highest diversity of hooded shrimps (seven species of Betaeus), acted as the "center of origin", where species appeared, matured and eventually migrated toward peripheral regions. In the second scenario, Betaeus+Betaeopsis originated in the southern Indo-West Pacific and subsequently colonized the North-East Pacific, where a major radiation involving dispersal/vicariance events took place. The mapping of life history traits (symbiosis vs. free living and gregariousness vs. single/pair living) in the combined tree suggests (1) that different types of symbioses with dissimilar host organisms (sea urchins, abalones, other decapods, spoon worms) evolved independently more than once in the group (in B. jucundus and in various lineages of Betaeus s. str.), and (2) that gregariousness was ancestral in the Betaeus s. str. -Betaeopsis clade and later shifted toward single/pair living in several lineages. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration.

  7. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eva; Guth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2012-01-01

    Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3) (-) as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+). The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  8. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Weber

    Full Text Available Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3 (- as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+. The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  9. A comparison of five methodological variants of emoji questionnaires for measuring product elicited emotional associations: An application with seafood among Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Jaeger, Sara R

    2017-09-01

    Product insights beyond hedonic responses are increasingly sought and include emotional associations. Various word-based questionnaires for direct measurement exist and an emoji variant was recently proposed. Herein, emotion words are replaced with emoji conveying a range of emotions. Further assessment of emoji questionnaires is needed to establish their relevance in food-related consumer research. Methodological research contributes hereto and in the present research the effects of question wording and response format are considered. Specifically, a web study was conducted with Chinese consumers (n=750) using four seafood names as stimuli (mussels, lobster, squid and abalone). Emotional associations were elicited using 33 facial emoji. Explicit reference to "how would you feel?" in the question wording changed product emoji profiles minimally. Consumers selected only a few emoji per stimulus when using CATA (check-all-that-apply) questions, and layout of the CATA question had only a small impact on responses. A comparison of CATA questions with forced yes/no questions and RATA (rate-all-that-apply) questions revealed an increase in frequency of emoji use for yes/no questions, but not a corresponding improvement in sample discrimination. For the stimuli in this research, which elicited similar emotional associations, RATA was probably the best methodological choice, with 8.5 emoji being used per stimulus, on average, and increased sample discrimination relative to CATA (12% vs. 6-8%). The research provided additional support for the potential of emoji surveys as a method for measurement of emotional associations to foods and beverages and began contributing to development of guidelines for implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  11. Comparative Genomics of Thalassobius Including the Description of Thalassobius activus sp. nov., and Thalassobius autumnalis sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pujalte

    2018-01-01

    , Thalassobius sensu stricto (T. mediterraneus, T. autumnalis sp. nov., and T. gelatinovorus, Thalassobius aestuarii plus the three Shimia spp (S. marina, S. haliotis, and Shimia sp. SK013 and finally, Thalasobius maritimus plus T. activus sp. nov. Thalassococcus halodurans remained apart from the two genera. Phenotypic inferences from explored genomes are presented.

  12. Hillslope surface deformation on chalky landscape under the influence of Quaternary tectonics coupled with periglacial processes, Picardy (NW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperret, Anne; Vandycke, Sara; Colbeaux, Jean-Pierre; Raimbault, Celine; Duguet, Timothée; Van vliet-lanoe, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Chirp seismic) help to better define the morphology and depth of penetration of this type of faults in the chalk and to answer the question of guidance by pre-existing fractures of the Picardy coastline orientation, on a kilometer scale. DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG1 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/13120080

  13. Nature's Mechanisms for Tough, Self-healing Polymers and Polymer Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Spider silk^2 and the natural polymer adhesives in abalone shells^3 and bone^4,5 can give us insights into nature's mechanisms for tough, self-healing polymers and polymer adhesives. The natural polymer adhesives in biomaterials have been optimized by evolution. An optimized polymer adhesive has five characteristics. 1) It holds together the strong elements of the composite. 2) It yields just before the strong elements would otherwise break. 3) It dissipates large amounts of energy as it yields. 4) It self heals after it yields. 5) It takes just a few percent by weight. Both natural polymer adhesives and silk rely on sacrificial bonds and hidden length for toughness and self-healing.^6 A relatively large energy, of order 100eV, is required to stretch a polymer molecule after a weak bond, a sacrificial bond, breaks and liberates hidden length, which was previously hidden, typically in a loop or folded domain, from whatever was stretching the polymer. The bond is called sacrificial if it breaks at forces well below the forces that could otherwise break the polymer backbone, typically greater than 1nN. In many biological cases, the breaking of sacrificial bonds has been found to be reversible, thereby also providing a ``self-healing'' property to the material.^2-4 Individual polymer adhesive molecules based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length can supply forces of order 300pN over distances of 100s of nanometers. Model calculations show that a few percent by weight of adhesives based on these principles could be optimized adhesives for high performance composite materials including nanotube and graphene sheet composites. ^2N. Becker, E. Oroudjev, S. Mutz et al., Nature Materials 2 (4), 278 (2003). ^3B. L. Smith, T. E. Schaffer, M. Viani et al., Nature 399 (6738), 761 (1999). ^4J. B. Thompson, J. H. Kindt, B. Drake et al., Nature 414 (6865), 773 (2001). ^5G. E. Fantner, T. Hassenkam, J. H. Kindt et al., Nature Materials 4, 612 (2005). ^6G. E. Fantner, E. Oroudjev, G

  14. Mg and 18O Variations in the Shell of the Chilean Gastropod Concholepas concholepas Reflect SST and Growth Rate variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Poitrasson, F.; Cuif, J.; Ortlieb, L.

    2004-12-01

    To validate the use of fossil mollusc shells as recorders of environmental conditions, a primary calibration study was carried out on modern shells of the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas, the so-called southern hemisphere abalone which is particularly abundant in Holocene archaeological sites. Organisms were maintained in culture tanks and feed with live mytilids. The sea water temperature in the tank was recorded every half-an-hour by an automatic device. The experiment lasted several months. Periodical marking with calcein provided a precise chronological control of the shell growth. Thus, well-dated high resolution chemical profiles could be directly compared with temperatures during shell formation. Geochemical analyses of the calcite layers include Mg, Sr and 16O/18O composition. Trace elements were analysed using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Electron Microprobe while stable isotopes were measured on a Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). The shell growth rate during two months of formation varied between 30 and 140 µm/day which allows us to reach a temporal resolution for chemical profiles between a few hours and three days. The growth rate variations do not seem to be related to temperature fluctuations. Only Mg content was analytically reproducible and showed significant variations across the shells. The Mg high-resolution profiles display a grossly sinusoidal shape. Shells from different sites along the coasts of Chile showed mean Mg contents of 300 ppm and 500 ppm for mean temperatures of 17 and 20° C, respectively. This suggests a gross correlation between Mg and temperature. However, high resolution Mg results do not show an exact fitting neither with temperature nor with growth rates. Other parameters, like shell ageing as suggested by an amplitude increase observed near the edge of one of the shells, or other complex biological factors, may influence Mg incorporation into the shell. \\delta 18O values of the calcite vary between -1,5 and 2

  15. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  16. Strategies for commercialization of cryopreserved fish semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence R. Tiersch

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial success in sperm cryopreservation occurred at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50 plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species remains a research activity with little commercial application despite work in more than 90 species and more than 200 published reports. Most research work has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmon, trout, carp, and catfish, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a few studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes such as zebrafish, or in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varied levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, a lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  17. Hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of snake (Naja atra) and turtle (Ocadia sinensis) eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin; Chen, Po-Yu

    2016-02-01

    After hundreds of million years of evolution, natural armors have evolved in various organisms, and has manifested in diverse forms such as eggshells, abalone shells, alligator osteoderms, turtle shells, and fish scales. Eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis, such as protection, moisture control and thermal regulation. Unlike calcareous avian eggshells which are brittle and hard, reptilians have leathery eggshells that are tough and flexible. Reptilian eggshells can withstand collision damages when laid in holes and dropped onto each other, and reduce abrasion caused by buried sand. In this study, we investigate structure and mechanical properties of eggshells of Taiwan cobra snake (Naja atra) and Chinese striped-neck turtle (Ocadia sinensis). From Acid Fuchsin Orange G (AFOG) staining and ATR-FTIR examination, we found that both eggshells are mainly composed of keratin. The mechanical properties of demineralized snake and turtle eggshells were evaluated by tensile and fracture tests and show distinctly difference. Turtle eggshells are relatively stiff and rigid, while snake eggshells behave as elastomers, which are highly extensible and reversible. The exceptional deformability (110-230% tensile strain) and toughness of snake eggshells are contributed by the wavy and random arrangement of keratin fibers as well as collagen layers. Multi-scale toughening mechanisms of snake eggshells were observed and elucidated, including crack deflection and twisting, fibers reorientation, sliding and bridging, inter-laminar shear effect, as well as the α-β phase transition of keratin. Inspirations from the structural and mechanical designs of reptilian eggshells may lead to the synthesis of tough, extensible, lightweight composites which could be further applied in the flexible devices, packaging and bio-medical fields. Amniotic eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis. The avian eggshells have been extensively

  18. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    synthetic indicator, is average. Moreover, on a scale from 0 to 1, the AMERBs score best in institutional aspects (0.54, followed by social aspects (0.49, and finally economic aspects (0.30. Thus, the institutional development and the social situation are at the moment "good", unlike the economic situation, which is, at the moment, "average" to "poor". Globally, the organizations of Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué and Totoral have good socioeconomic situations, whereas the other organizations are in average or bad shape. The study indicates that the cause of the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs is mostly economic results. Indeed, per capita income appears to be highly correlated with success, followed in importance by the antiquity of the AMERB and whether it is in a zone of urban influence. Finally, the species captured do not determine the socioeconomic success and, unexpectedly, the AMERBs with abalone (Concholepas concholepas obtain, on average, worse results than those exploiting other species.

  19. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Seaweed is a potential source of green raw materials. They are used for human consumption, contain specific thickening agents such as alginates and carrageenans, and can be applied as growth-promoting fertilizers, in animal feed and for the cultivation of shellfish (abalones). In addition, extracts from seaweed are used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products and seaweeds also constitute a possible source of biofuels. Seaweed can possibly also serve as a protein platform for catering to the steadily growing demand for fish protein and soy protein. Though the Netherlands has a good reputation in offshore and hydraulic engineering as well as in seed cultivation and improvement, the knowledge of cultivating and harvesting seaweed is very limited. With the advent of wind farms in the North Sea and the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf, the opportunities for cultivating seaweed are now also being explored. Both extensive and intensive cultivation systems as used in agriculture and horticulture are being considered. Certain applications of seaweed require more controlled cultivation conditions. This is the case with specific plant substances, nutritional factors and with the propagation of seaweed for large-scale cultivation. Wherever the value of the cultivated seaweed increases, and hence the need for harvest security and risk control, closed systems are probably the best approach. As the cultivation conditions can be more easily controlled in closed systems, the yields are expected to be bigger, the quantities of plant substances more consistent and the overall quality better. In addition, pests are easier to control or prevent. In contrast with land-based seaweed cultivation, closed systems benefit from the abundant availability of clean and relatively low-mineral seawater. This makes it possible to control the temperature with the aid of seawater. The concept of seaweed in closed systems is in some ways comparable to greenhouse horticulture. Given