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Sample records for abalone haliotis diversicolor

  1. Withering syndrome in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchateng, Thanitsara; Friedman, Carolyn S; Wight, Nathan A; Lee, Pei-Yu; Teng, Ping Hua; Sriurairattana, Siriporn; Wongprasert, Kanokphan; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2010-05-18

    Abalone aquaculture is a small but growing industry in Thailand and is based on both the exotic Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and the native H. asinina. Withering syndrome (WS) in abalone is caused by an infection with the Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis' and has been spread to many countries globally. The present study reports the first observation of the WS-RLO agent in the small abalone, H. diversicolor supertexta in Thailand, Taiwan (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under light microscopy, the RLO was observed as intracytoplasmic inclusions within epithelial cells lining the post-esophagus and, to a minor extent, the intestine of H. diversicolor. Under transmission electron microscopy, inclusions were characterized as colonies of rod-shaped bacteria, 200 x 1800 nm in size, within a vesicle in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The RLO from the small abalone bound with WS-RLO-specific in situ hybridization probes and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers designed from the 16S rDNA sequence of the original WS-RLO from California, USA. The PCR product of RLO samples from both the PRC and Thailand showed extremely high identity with the California WS-RLO (100 and 99%, respectively). These data combined with the history of abalone movements for aquaculture purposes indicate that RLOs observed in Thailand, Taiwan and the PRC are the WS-RLO that originated from California.

  2. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) from small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Rongyao; You, Weiwei; Chen, Jun; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

    2012-10-01

    GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a multifunctional protein participating in autophagy process, is evolutionarily conserved and involves in innate immunity in eukaryotic cells, but currently there is no research on the relationship between GABARAP and innate immunity in mollusc. In the present study, the GABARAP full-length cDNA and its genomic DNA were firstly cloned from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which was named as saGABARAP. Its full-length cDNA is 963 bp with a 354 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 117 aa, a 276 bp 5'-UTR, and a 333 bp 3'-UTR including a poly(A) tail, two typical polyadenylation signals (AATAA) and two RNA instability motifs (ATTTA). The deduced protein has an estimated molecular weight of 13.9 kDa and a predicted PI of 8.73. Its genomic DNA comprises 4352 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that saGABARAP was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas, and was upregulated in hepatopancreas and hemocytes after bacterial challenge. In addition, saGABARAP was ubiquitously expressed at all examined embryonic and larval development stages. These results suggested that saGABARAP could respond to bacteria challenge and may play a vital role in the adult innate immune system against pathogens and the development process of abalone embryo and larvae.

  4. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on enzyme activity and oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and hemolymph of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Xiwei; Zhang Ziping; Wang Shuhong; Lin Peng; Zou Zhihua; Huang Bangqin; Wang Yilei

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of tributyltin (TBT) exposure on the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity levels of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and AKP) enzymes in the small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. We collected samples of the hepatopancreas and hemolymph 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h after exposure to 0.35μg (Sn)/L TBT. In the hepatopancreas, ACP activity was significantly higher in animals exposed to TBT 2, 24, and 96 h post-exposure compared with the control animals. AKP activity was also higher after 2 h, but SOD and CAT activity was unchanged. The concentration of MDA in the hemolymph was significantly higher than the control animals 2 and 6 h post-exposure. In the hemolymph of animals exposed to TBT, ACP activity was significantly lower than in the control animals 192 h post-exposure, whereas AKP activity was significantly lower 2 and 192 h post-exposure. Hemolymph SOD activity and levels of MDA were significantly lower than in the control animals 24 h after exposure but significantly higher after 96 h. Our results demonstrate that exposure to TBT cause rapid changes in ACP and AKP activity as well as altering the concentration of MDA in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph. SOD and CAT do not appear to be involved in the detoxification of TBT in the hepatopancreas of small abalone.

  5. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhihui; ZHANG Xiangjing; CAI Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP,DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of 1-1. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  6. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  7. Structural Changes and Rheological Properties of Dry Abalone Meat (Haliotis diversicolor) During the Process of Water Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and viscosity η1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time (τ1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters (E0, η1, τ1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  8. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  9. Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus%低氧胁迫对九孔鲍免疫防御因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈政强; 陈昌生; 战文斌

    2012-01-01

    为了解低氧胁迫条件下九孔鲍免疫防御因子的变化及机体抗病力变化,将九孔鲍置于不同的溶解氧环境中,观测相关免疫因子变化.结果显示,在水温为(22.1±1.3)℃,盐度为30.72±0.54,pH值为8.20±0.14的海水环境中,溶解氧含量由(7.49±0.14) mg/L下调至(2.53±0.16) mg/L后120 h内,平均体质量为(14.25±2.21)g的九孔鲍未见死亡,而每只鲍注射5.0×105 CFU副溶血弧菌后120 h内实验鲍的累计死亡率高达91.11%±7.70%,比对照组(11.11%±3.83%)累计死亡率高出80%,血淋巴抑菌清除率下降至-(3 340.47%±298.57%),显而易见,低氧胁迫使得九孔鲍拮抗副溶血弧菌感染的抵抗力显著下降.低氧(2.53±0.16)mg/L胁迫下,九孔鲍血淋巴细胞数量(THC)下降30.62%±4.87%、血淋巴细胞吞噬率下降62.77%±5.79%、呼吸爆发产生的超氧阴离子数量下降22.21%±5.89%.低氧胁迫下九孔鲍血淋巴细胞内MPO活性上升(9.63%±7.59%)~(22.90%±13.73%)、CAT活性提高(7.68%±6.83%)~(56.28%±13.96%),反映出低氧胁迫下九孔鲍体内应激反应产生的物质氧化加剧,血淋巴细胞内产生大量的活性氧自由基.溶解氧含量由(7.49±0.14) mg/L下调至(4.51±0.12) mg/L后九孔鲍已明显处于低氧胁迫和应激反应状态,120 h内的累计死亡率达到37.78%±3.85%,血淋巴抑菌率下降至883.56%±123.22%; THC、血淋巴细胞吞噬率、呼吸爆发产生的超氧阴离子O2-数量等最大降幅分别达到12.51%±6.59%、21.90%±15.84%、12.93%±5.74%; MPO活性在原有水平的-(10.61%±4.20%)~(7.13%±6.45%)之间波动,CAT活性在-(5.17%±18.08%)~(16.26%±10.85%)之间变化.%The abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is the most important aquatic species in many marine farms in China. For the purpose of qualitative observation on the variation of immune defense and natural resistance of animals, the abalones were put into

  10. 九孔鲍幼鲍生长性状的遗传参数估计%Genetic parameter estimation of growth traits in small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, intensive culture practices have resulted in genetic degradation (e.g., inbreeding depression). In addition, there has been a recent increase in the mass mortality of H. diversicolor supertexta during the post-larval and grow-out stages, resulting in a decrease in production. To address this, genetic improvement is likely to play an important role in the sustainable development of the H. diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. Narrow-sense heritability(h2) provides an index of additive genetic variation. The index is a key indicator of the degree of ge-netic improvement in an unknown natural population with putative commercial value. We estimated the heritabil-ity of shell length, shell width, and body weight of H.diversicolor supertexta by means of intra group correlation of full-sibs.Twelve half-sib families and thirty-six full-sib families of H. diversicolor supertexta were obtained by artificial fertilization of three females by single males based on an unbalanced nest design. Each full-sib family was reared separately and all families experienced environmental conditions that were as similar as possible. A random sample of 30 individuals from each family was harvested and the shell length, shell width, and body weight of each individual was measured 40, 120, 180, and 240 days after hatching (dph). The genetic parameters for shell length, shell width, and body weight were estimated with a single trait animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities ranged from 0.13±0.09 to 0.56±0.15 for shell length and 0.13±0.06−0.62±0.13 for shell width. The heritability of body weight was between 0.18±0.15 and 0.26±0.08. We observed a significant positive genetic and phenotypic correlation (correlation coefficient ranges:0.85–0.98 and 0.66–0.94, respectively)among shell length, shell width, and

  11. 1. The Occurrence of Tropical Abalone (Haliotis spp.) At Reef Flat of Bonetambu Island, Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifuddin bin Andy Omar; Magdalena Litaay; Nurmila Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This study was first attempt to observe distribution and abundance of tropical abalone (Haliotis spp.) at reef flat at Bonetambu Island, Makassar. Sample collection was donbe using transect method (1 x 10 m) perpendicular to coastline, from October 2005 to Januari 2006. The result shows that five species of tropical abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis crebisculpta, Haliotis ovina, Haliotis sp. 1 and Haliotis sp. 2 presents at the study area. Two species H. asinina and Haliotis sp.2 were wide...

  12. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  13. Effects of different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene on antioxidant enzymes in gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversicolor%不同浓度苯并(a)芘对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 林智勇; 王克坚

    2014-01-01

    为阐释不同浓度苯并(a)芘[B(a)P]对杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)的毒性效应,以0.02、0.04和0.08 mg/dm33个质量浓度的B(a)P对杂色鲍进行水体暴露胁迫,7d后检测肌肉、外套膜、鳃、性腺、肾和肝胰腺的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)活性及还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量.结果显示:0.02 mg/dm3的B(a)P暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化系统的影响不明显,而0.04、0.08 mg/dm3的B(a)P则显著抑制了SOD、CAT和GPx酶活性以及GSH含量,同时对GST酶活性具有显著的诱导作用;实验还发现,不同组织抗氧化酶活性对B(a)P胁迫的敏感性响应存在较大差异,其中鳃、肾脏和肝胰腺的敏感性响应明显高于肌肉和外套膜.上述结果表明,苯并(a)芘暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响具有明显的剂量-效应关系及组织差异性,杂色鲍的鳃、肾脏或者肝胰腺的抗氧化酶响应多环芳香烃胁迫的更敏感,可作为B(a)P污染的生物标志物.%To reveal the ecotoxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P]on gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversi-color,the effects of different concentrations of B(a)P (0.02,0.04 and 0.08 mg/dm3 )were studied on antioxidant defense system of H.diversicolor.The results showed that the antioxidant enzymes activities showed little difference for the animals exposed to 0.02 mg/dm3 B(a)P compared with the control.In 0.04 mg/dm3 and 0.08 mg/dm3 groups,the activities of SOD,CAT,GPx and the contents of GSH were significant inhibited by B(a)P exposure, while the GST activities were significantly induced.The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also significantly dif-ferent among the tissues,suggesting the exist of remarkable different physiological functions and responses to B(a)P content.In summary,the antioxidant enzymes activities of exposure to

  14. Gut microflora of abalone Haliotis discus hannai in culture changes coincident with a change in diet

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Reiji; Sugimura, Itsuro; SAWABE, Tomoo; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Ezura, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Development of gut microflora in abalone Haliotis discus hannai cultured at two abalone farms in Japan was similar: (i) gut microflora of juvenile abalones fed on microalgae matched microflora cultured from seawater; and (ii) gut microflora changed coincident with the abalone switching food sources from microalgae to algal pellets. After abalone reached 4 months of age, the gut microflora was replaced by algal polysaccharide-degrading bacteria, which were almost entirely characterized as facu...

  15. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  16. POTENSI ABALON TROPIS Haliotis asinina L. SEBAGAI SUMBER INOKULUM JAMUR SIMBION PENGHASIL ANTIMIKROBA

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Karlina; Litaay, Magdalena; Haedar, Nur; Risco G. Budji

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian ???Potensi Abalon Tropis Haliotis asinina L. Sebagai Sumber Inokulum Jamur Simbion Penghasil Antimikroba???. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi abalon sebagai sumber inokulum dan karakter isolat jamur yang hidup bersimbion pada H. asinina L. Isolasi jamur abalon H. asinina L. dilakukan dengan menggunakan medium PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar). Karakterisai isolat jamur simbion H. asinina L. meliputi pengamatan makroskopis dan mikroskopis serta uji aktivita...

  17. Cryopreservation of sperm in farmed Australian greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibing; Xu, Tong; Robinson, Nicholas; Qin, Jianguang; Li, Xiaoxu

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated factors important to the development of the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor sperm cryopreservation technique in farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata, including (1) cryoprotectant agent (CPA) toxicity; (2) cooling temperature (height above LN surface); (3) thawing temperature; (4) sperm to egg ratio; and (5) sugar supplementation, using sperm motility, fertilization rate or integrity/potential of sperm components and organelles as quality assessment indicators. Results suggested that among the single CPAs evaluated 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) would be the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation in this species. The highest post-thaw sperm motility was achieved with the sperm that had been exposed to LN vapor for 10min at 5.2cm above the LN surface, thawed and recovered in 60 and 18°C seawater bathes, respectively after at least 2h storage in LN. The highest fertilization rates were achieved at a sperm to egg ratio of 10,000:1 or 15,000:1. Addition of 1% glucose or 2% sucrose produced significantly higher post-thaw sperm motility than 6% Me2SO alone. Among the three cryoprotectant solutions further trialled, 6% Me2SO+1% glucose produced the highest fertilization rate of 83.6±3.7%. Evaluation of sperm has shown that the addition of glucose could significantly improve the sperm plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated a positive role of glucose in the improvement of sperm cryopreservation in farmed greenlip abalone. PMID:24440870

  18. Measuring abalone (Haliotis Spp.) recruitment in California to examine recruitment overfishing and recovery criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers-Bennett, L; Allen, B L; Davis, G E

    2004-01-01

    Abalone populations in southern California have declined dramatically since the 1950s when they supported a multispecies, commercial, and recreational fishery producing more than 3,000 t per year. Today the commercial fishery is closed statewide and the recreational fishery is closed south of San Francisco. In contrast, red abalone, Haliotis rufescens (Swainson, 1822), populations in northern California continue to sustain a 1,100 1 per year free-diving recreational fishery. We used standardi...

  19. THE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS of TROPICAL ABALONE (Haliotis asinina L) IN TANAKEKE ISLAND WATERS, SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Hadijah; Ambo Tuwo; Iqbal Djawad; Magdalena Litaay

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the biological aspects of tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina L) comprising distribution of abalone size, length and weight correlation and feeding habit. The study was conducted in Tanakeke Island waters, Takalar regency, South Sulawesi. The selection of station for samples was based on dissemination of coral reefs around the islands. The data were collected through a survey, and analyzed qualitatively. The results of the study indicated that the size distribution o...

  20. Species identification of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina, Haliotis ovina, and Haliotis varia) in Thailand using RAPD and SCAR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2004-03-31

    A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to identify the species- and population-specific markers of abalone; Haliotis asinina, H. ovina, and H. varia in Thai waters. Fifteen species-specific and six population-specific RAPD markers were identified. In addition, an 1650 bp band (UBC195) that was restricted to H. ovina from the Gulf of Thailand (east) was also found. All of the specific RAPD markers were cloned and sequenced. Twenty pairs of primers were designed and specificity-tested (N = 12 and 4 for target and non-target species, respectively). Seven primer pairs (CUHA1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13, and 14) were specifically amplified by H. asinina DNA, whereas a single pair of primers showed specificity with H. ovina (CUHO3) and H. varia (CUHV1), respectively. Four primer pairs, including CUHA2, CUHA12, CUHO3, and CUHV1, were further examined against 216 individuals of abalone (N = 111, 73, and 32, respectively). Results indicated the species-specific nature of all of them, except CUHO3, with the sensitivity of detection of 100 pg and 20 pg of the target DNA template for CUHA2 and CUHA12 and CUHV1, respectively. The species-origin of the frozen, ethanol-preserved, dried, and boiled H. asinina specimens could also be successfully identified by CUHA2.

  1. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  2. Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat dari induk abalon (Haliotis asinina yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat dari induk abalon (Haliotis asinina yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik. Bioteknologi 7: 99-106. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengisolasi, menyeleksi dan mengkarakterisasi Bakteri Asam Laktat (BAL dari induk abalon yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik pada sistem budidaya abalon. Isolasi selektif BAL dilakukan menggunakan media de Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar. Isolat BAL yang berpotensi sebagai probiotik diskrining. Pemilihan ini didasarkan atas kemampuannya dalam menekan pertumbuhan bakteri patogen, resistensi terhadap kondisi asam, resistensi terhadap bile salt (empedu. Selanjutnya dilakukan karakterisasi dan identifikasi untuk mengetahui spesiesnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 2 di antara 10 isolat yang berhasil diisolasi dari abalon berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi bakteri probiotik karena mempunyai kemampuan menghambat beberapa bakteri patogen yaitu Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, mampu tumbuh pada kondisi asam dan toleran terhadap cairan empedu selama inkubasi 24 jam. Berdasarkan uji API Kit, kedua isolat teridentifikasi sebagai anggota spesies Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  3. The Reproductive Aspect of Tropical Abalone (Haliotis asinina L) in the Waters of Tanakeke Islands at South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Hadijah; Ambo Tuwo; Magdalena Litaay; Erni Indrawati

    2015-01-01

    The Objective of research was to analyze the reproductive aspect of abalone (Haliotis asinina L.) which included the beginning of gonad maturity, the peak of spawning season, the comparison of male and female abalone caught in the nature, the reproductive potential, and abalone fecundity. Research was located at the waters of Tanakeke Islands, Takalar District, South Sulawesi. Method of research was field survey. Sampling stations were determined based on the distribution of coral reef in the...

  4. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  5. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xuguang; SUN Xiuqin; ZHENG Minggang; QU Lingyun; ZAN Jindong; ZHANG Jinxing

    2008-01-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals' acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  6. DIETARY PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF YOUNG ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭北平; 麦康森; 刘付志国

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23%-1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0%-1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9%-1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  7. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrates Sources on Lipids Compositions in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifang; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; YAO Chunfeng; LI Huitao

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm±0.09 mm; initial weight. 3.42 g±0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05)higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly (P<0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  8. MANAJEMEN PEMELIHARAAN INDUK ABALON (Haliotis asinina HASIL TANGKAPAN DARI ALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septyan Andriyanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan satu jenis kekerangan yang mempunyai nilai gizi yang cukup tinggi serta kelezatan rasanya. Usaha budidaya abalon memiliki nilai ekonomis yang tinggi, namun untuk produksinya sebagian masih mengandalkan hasil tangkapan dari alam. Dalam rangka menghasilkan induk dengan tingkat produksi yang tinggi diperlukan pengetahuan terkait manajemen pemeliharaan induk terutama yang berasal dari alam. Manajemen pemeliharaan induk yang sesuai prosedur meliputi pengumpulan induk, seleksi induk, penanganan induk, pengelolaan pakan dan penyakit, serta pengelolaan air media pemeliharaan. Apabila seluruh aspek tersebut dijalankan sesuai standar dan prosedur yang ditetapkan, diharapkan akan diperoleh induk dengan tingkat produksi yang tinggi serta benih yang berkualitas, sehingga produksi tidak selalu mengandalkan dari alam.

  9. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪; 束婧; 赵翠; 刘士凯; 孔令锋; 郑小东

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences,after redundancy elimination.Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed.The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17,with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus.The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922,respective...

  10. Characterization of mucus-associated proteins from abalone (Haliotis) - candidates for chemical signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Stewart, Michael J; York, Patrick S; Degnan, Bernard M; Sobhon, Prasert; Hanna, Peter J; Chavadej, Jittipan; Cummins, Scott F

    2012-02-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. For free-spawning aquatic animals, such as the abalone (Haliotis), being in the close proximity to potential mating partners enhances reproductive success. In this study, we investigated whether chemical cues could be present in abalone mucus that enable species-specific aggregation. A comparative MS analysis of mucus obtained from trailing or fixed stationary Haliotis asinina, and from seawater surrounding aggregations, indicated that water-soluble biomolecules are present and that these can stimulate sensory activity in conspecifics. Purified extracts of trail mucus contain at least three small proteins [termed H. asinina mucus-associated proteins (Has-MAPs)-1-3], which readily diffuse into the surrounding seawater and evoke a robust cephalic tentacle response in conspecifics. Mature Has-MAP-1 is approximately 9.9 kDa in size, and has a glycine-rich N-terminal region. Has-MAP-2 is approximately 6.2 kDa in size, and has similarities to schistosomin, a protein that is known to play a role in mollusc reproduction. The mature Has-MAP-3 is approximately 12.5 kDa in size, and could only be identified within trail mucus of animals outside of the reproductive season. All three Has-MAP genes are expressed at high levels within secretory cells of the juvenile abalone posterior pedal gland, consistent with a role in scent marking. We infer from these results that abalone mucus-associated proteins are candidate chemical cues that could provide informational cues to conspecifics living in close proximity and, given their apparent stability and hydrophilicity, animals further afield.

  11. 杂色鲍血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子 SNP密度的分析%SNP density of hemocyanin HtH1 intron 16 in Haliotis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠; 陈军; 游伟伟; 王德祥; 柯才焕

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are a new generation of genetic marker systems.EPIC was used to analyze the SNP of the hemocyanin HtH1 gene 16 intron (H1 intron 16) from 45 samples of Haliotis diversicolor.These 45 individuals came from three different wild or breeding populations in Japan, Taiwan and the Shantou Sea.There were three alleles in H1 intron 16 of the Japanese abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which showed length polymorphism.The lengths of the three alleles were 1 900 bp, 780 bp and 440 bp.However, the H1 intron 16 of the breeding populations of Taiwan and Shantou abalone were only 1 900 bp.Sequence analysis indicated that there was a self-heterozygous SNP locus of approximately 96 bp in the Japanese abalone, but that the Taiwan and Shantou abalone contained loci of 133 bp and 153 bp, respectively.The SNP density of 13 Taiwan abalone was 31 bp, while the SNP density of 23 Shantou abalone was 21 bp.These data indicated that the existing cultured population of abalone contained rich SNP loci, and it was feasible to construct a high density genetic map using SNP markers.%单核苷酸多态性(SNPs)是继RFLP和SSR多态性标记之后的新一代遗传标记系统.本文采用EPIC的方法,分析了45个杂色鲍样品的血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子(H1 intron 16)的SNP数据.这45个个体分别来自日本、台湾和汕头3个不同海域的野生或养殖群体.日本群体的血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子呈现出长度多态性,共有3种不同长度,分别是1 900、780、440 bp,测序结果表明3个等位基因可以互相比对;而台湾和汕头杂色鲍养殖群体的均为1 900 bp.初步研究结果表明日本杂色鲍个体大约96 bp长的片段含有1个自身杂合SNP位点;台湾杂色鲍个体约133 bp含有1个自身杂合SNP位点;汕头杂色鲍个体约153 bp含有1个自身杂合SNP位点.13个台湾杂色鲍个体包含的SNP密度为约31 bp含有1个SNP;23个汕头杂色鲍个体包含的SNP密度为约 21 bp

  12. 杂色鲍的遗传育种研究进展%Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Haliotis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯才焕; 游伟伟

    2011-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important shellfish speices in southern China. However, massive mortality of the Haliotis diversicolor has occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of Haliotis diversicolor has dramatically reduced in recent years. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for Haliotis diversicolor aquaculture industry. This review concentrated on advances in genetic and breeding in Haliotis diversicotor , such as biological characteristics , selective breeding,crossbreeding,gynogenesis, molecular markers, genetic linkage map and QTL mapping, functional genes and transgenosis. The further reseach directions in these topics were also proposed.%杂色鲍是我国南方重要的海水养殖种,但近年来因种质退化等原因导致暴发性病害频发,杂色鲍的遗传改良研究对于杂色鲍养殖产业的可持续健康发展十分重要.综合厦门大学贝类遗传育种课题组近10年的研究成果,评述了近年来杂色鲍的生物学特征、选择育种、杂交育种、雌核发育、DNA分子标记开发和利用、遗传图谱构建和QTL定位、功能基因及转基因鲍等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后杂色鲍遗传育种研究的发展思路.

  13. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  14. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  15. Genetic diversity and molecular markers of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, S; Pripue, P; Khamnamtong, N; Puanglarp, N; Tassanakajon, A; Jarayabhand, P; Hirono, I; Aoki, T; Menasveta, P

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of abalone in Thailand, Haliotis asinina, H. ovina, and H. varia, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S and 16S rDNAs, with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Species-specific RAPD markers were found in each abalone species. Restriction analysis of 18S (nuclear) ribosomal DNA with Alu I, Taq I, and Hae III and 16S (mitochondrial) rDNA with Bam HI, Eco RI, Hae III, and Alu I gave 12 and 13 digestion patterns, respectively. A total of 49 composite haplotypes were found. A dendogram obtained by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, constructed from divergence between pairs of composite haplotypes, revealed reproductively isolated gene pools of these abalone and indicated that H. asinina and H. ovina are genetically closer than H. varia. When H. varia was discovered owing to small sample sizes, geographic heterogeneity analysis and FST estimate indicated clear genetic differentiation between H. ovina originating from the Andaman Sea (west) and the Gulf of Thailand (east, Pasinina samples (Pasinina and H. varia but not in H. ovina.

  16. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2011-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  17. 杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F1的早期生物学表现%Early-stage performance of hybrid between Haliotis diversicolor and H. discus discus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 郭峰; 王桂忠; 王志勇; 王艺磊

    2011-01-01

    比较研究杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)(S)与盘鲍(H.discus discus)(J)正反交F1及其亲本自繁后代的卵裂速度和孵化速度,以及杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F及杂色鲍自繁幼体的成活率.在22~23℃下,杂色鲍自繁后代的早期发育速度快于盘鲍自繁后代.杂色鲍和盘鲍2细胞期分别为授精后45.3 min±8.9 min和59.3min±8.9min.卵裂间隔时间分别为21.7min±2.9min和27.0min±2.6min,孵化时间分别为授精后563.4 min和711.8 min.SJ和JS杂交F的第一次卵裂速度均比他们的双亲慢,2细胞期分别为69.3min±17.5 min和71.7 min±5.8 min;而卵裂间隔时间(τ)表现出较强的母本效应,略长于母本,分别为22.2 min±4.7 min和31.3 min±6.1 min;孵化速度均慢于其母本自繁后代,分别为授精后632.7 min和授精后874.3 min.计算结果表明,自繁和杂交胚胎过程发育经历细胞周期数相当,SS、SJ、JJ和JS的从2细胞到孵化经历时间分别相当于23.9τ、25.4τ、24.1τ和24.8τ.另一方面,SJ杂交F在附着变态阶段大量畸形、死亡,变态后成活率仅为母本自繁组合的1.2%,显现出较高程度的杂交不亲和.本文的研究结果为杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F的后续应用开发提供了依据,也为进一步研究杂交F的遗传本质及父母本的基因互作关系奠定基础.%In present study, mitotic intervals, hatching speed and survival rate of embryos produced from reciprocal hybrid cross and pure cross of small abalone (S, Haliotis diversicolor) and Japanese abalone (J, H. discus discus) were investigated. At 22~23 ℃, the small abalone developed faster than the Japanese abalone at early stage. The times to reach the two-cell stage were 45.3 min ± 8.9 min post insemination (p.i.) for the small abalone and 59.3 min ± 8.9 min for the Japanese abalone. The small abalone took 21.7 min ± 2.9 min to complete a cleavage cycle and 563.4 min to hatch out, while the Japanese abalone took 31.3 min ± 6.1 min and 711.8 min

  18. AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SELECTED INORGANIC PHOSPHATES TO JUVENILE ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭北平; 麦康森; 徐玮

    2002-01-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relativelyconstant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone.A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juvenilesof similar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shelllength (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganiccompounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and77%, respectively. ``

  19. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (Palkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (Pdiets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  20. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  1. Growth and Survival Studies on Hybridization Between Cultured Stock and Wild Stock of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta%九孔鲍养殖群体与野生群体杂交一代生长比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, genetic degradation, such as inbreeding depression, becomes more and more serious. In addition, massive mortality of the H.diversicolor supertexta occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of H.diversicolor supertexta dramatically reduced in recent year. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for H.diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. F1 generation of four groups, Shanwei(BD)♀×Shenzheng(YS)♂, YS♀×BD♂, BD♀×BD♂and YS♀×YS♂were obtained from mating and crossing within and between Cultured stock and Wild stock of H. diversicolor supertexta. We comparison of egg size, fertilization rate, larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth among four groups in 40-280 days. The results revealed that the egg size of wild populations were 12.14% bigger than cultured populations.(p<0.01). The hybridization groups also bigger than self-fertilized groups on fertilization rate、larval settlement rate、larval metamorphosis rate (p<0.05). The hybridization groups showed heterosis of various degrees on larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth compared to self-fertilized groups. Heterosis of the survival rate in juvenile abalone ranged from(14.89 ± 3.60)%to(43.00±2.15)%. Heterosis of shell length in juvenile abalone ranged from (5.18 ± 1.46)%to (18.52±2.12)%, Heterosis of shell width in juvenile abalone ranged from (6.17 ± 1.09)%to (16.72±1.26)%, Heterosis of body weight in juvenile abalone ranged from (9.86 ± 1.25)%to (12.55 ± 1.26)%, It is indicated that the cross between geographically different stocks may be an effective way for genetic improvement of H. diversicolor supertexta.%  利用九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)汕尾养殖群体(BD)和深圳野生群体(YS)进行群体

  2. Cloning and Characterization of an Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Actin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hongming; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; LIUFU Zhiguo; CHEN Hong

    2004-01-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3' untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5' untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin(β-actin)than to human muscle actin.

  3. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  4. Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits at early stage of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for juvenile growth traits of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. The estimates were calculated from shell length and shell width measurements on progeny resulting from 12 half-sib families and 36 full-sib families obtained using artificial fertilization of mating three females to each male. The measurements were taken at 10, 20 and 30 d after fertilization. It was found that heritability estimates based on sire component ranged from 0.23 to 0.36 for shell length and 0.21 to 0.32 for shell width. Heritability estimates from dam component were larger than those from sire component at three ages, indicating presence of maternal effects, non-additive genetic effects and common environmental effects. Phenotypic correlations were significant at three ages (P < 0.05), with values of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Genetic correlations from the paternal half-sib correlation analysis were highly positive at three ages, with values of 0.50, 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. The results suggest that selective breeding is an effective approach to improving growth traits of Pacific abalone stocks.

  5. Sequences Characterization of Microsatellite DNA Sequences in Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannat)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; Kijima Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber(1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats(13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (< 20 repeats) were most abundant,accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatetlite isolation in other abalone species.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  7. Isolation and characterization of testis-specific DMRT1 in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak

    2009-02-01

    The Doublesex Male abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor-1 (DMRT1) gene encodes a protein containing the DNA-binding motif called the DM domain, involved in the sexual development of various species. To gain insight into its implications for gonadal differentiation in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina), a DMRT1 homolog was identified and characterized. The full length cDNA of HADMRT1 (1,740 bp with an ORF of 732 bp corresponding to a putative polypeptide of 243 amino acids) and its DM domain-less variant (HADMRT1-like, 1,430 bp with an ORF of 312 bp, 103 amino acids) were successfully isolated and reported for the first time in molluscs. HADMRT1 was specifically expressed in the testes of adult H. asinina (N = 16) but not in whole juveniles (2, 3, 5 months old, N = 6 for each group) and ovaries (N = 16), and pooled hemocytes (from 50 individuals) of adults. Tissue distribution analysis further revealed testis-specific expression of HADMRT1. Semiquantitative RT-PCR illustrated that the relative expression level of HADMRT1 in developed testes (stages II, III, and IV) was significantly greater than that in undeveloped testes (stage I) of abalone broodstock (P < 0.05).

  8. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Alex R; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1)) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1) of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  9. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  10. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  11. Experimental evaluation of heterobeltiosis and heterosis between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yuewen; LIU Xiao; WU Fucun; ZHANG Guofan

    2008-01-01

    A2×2 factorial cross between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino,collected separately from Dalian(D)in China and Miyagi(M)in Japan,was conducted to compare performances in fertilization rate,hatching rate,metamorphosis rate and growth at days 20,43,160 and 330 between purebreds (DD and MM)and crossbreds(DM and MD)and investigate the magnitude of heterobeltiosis(better parent)and heteresis(mid-parent).Heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits analyzed were evidently different between crossbreds DM and MD.Heterobeltiosis in the crossbred DM varied among traits,with values of 2.5%for the fertilization rate.2.2%for the hatching rate,-1.9%for the metamorphosis rate and 7.4%for the growth at the day 330.The crossbred DM displayed positive heterotic values for fertilization rate(5.4%),hatching rate(7.4%),metamor-phosis rate(7.6%)and growth(12.0%)at the day 330.However,both heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits in the crossbred MD were negative except those for the growth at days 20 and 43.The results indicate the importance of selecting superi-or hybrid varieties if the exploitation of hybrid vigor is considered in the Pacific abalone breeding program.

  12. Feeding, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asinina on different benthic diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding behavior, digestive efficiency, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asininafed with 5 species of locally isolated benthic diatom strains (Navicula mollis, N. ramosissima, Stauroneissp., Pleurosigma sp., and Cocconeis sp. were examined in the laboratory. Two 15-day feeding trialsusing 1 mm post-larvae were conducted. No significant differences were observed in sizes of post-larvalabalone after 15 days in all diatom treatments (P>0.05. However, in both trials, Cocconeis sp. resulted inhigh survival rates (88.9±5.6% and 80.0±20.0% for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Cocconeis sp. wasefficiently digested by post-larval abalone, with most of the cells being ruptured during ingestion and/orpassage through the gut. One diatom strain, Pleurosigma sp., resulted to a high survival but producedthe slowest growth rate (<10 ìm.d-1 SL. It was probably not ingested easily during the experiment due toits large size or mobility. For the other diatom strains, N. mollis and N. ramosissima, most cells passedthrough the gut with the cells left intact. Stauroneis sp. is highly digestible, but did not result to highsurvival, although the remaining live post-larval abalone fed on this diatom as well as on N. mollis grewfaster during the second week of both feeding trials. N. ramosissima resulted to poorest survival rate(<10% due to its poor digestibility. Only Cocconeis sp. showed a fairly high growth rate, digestionefficiency, and survival rate. N. mollis which gave a fairly high survival rate and Stauroneis may be addedtowards the later stages of post-larval rearing as well as other large diatoms. The digestion efficiency ofdiatom strains is considered an important factor determining its dietary value, but other factors may alsobe important such as volume contents, biochemical composition, and other physical characteristics.

  13. Development of a monoclonal antibody detection assay for species-specific identification of abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Andreas L; Luijx, Thomas; Fenemore, Bartha; Sweijd, Neville A; Cook, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Species identification based on biochemical and molecular techniques has a broad range of applications. These include compliance enforcement, the management and conservation of marine organisms, and commercial quality control. Abalone poaching worldwide and illegal trade in abalone products have increased mainly because of the attractive prices obtained and caused a sharp decline in stocks. Alleged poachers have been acquitted because of lack of evidence to correctly identify species. Therefore, a robust method is required that would identify tissue of abalone origin to species level. The aim of this study was to develop immunologic techniques, using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, to identify 10 different abalone species and subspecies from South Africa, the United States, Australia, and Japan. The combination of 3 developed monoclonal antibodies to South African abalone (Haliotis midae) enabled differentiation between most of the 10 species including the subspecies H. diversicolor supertexta and H. diversicolor diversicolor. In a novel approach, using antibodies of patients with allergy to abalone, the differentiation of additional subspecies, H. discus discus and H. discus hannai, was possible. A field-based immunoassay was developed to identify confiscated tissue of abalone origin. PMID:14961238

  14. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus) via EST Database Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Aibin; BAO Zhenmin; WANG Mingling; CHANG Dan; YUAN Jian; WANG Xiaolong; HU Xiaoli; LIANG Chengzhu; HU Jingjie

    2008-01-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus) was mined for developing mierosatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more mierosatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, duster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify seorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of Hoand He varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) revealed by RAPD and microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sureerat; Popongviwat, Aporn; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2005-03-31

    Genetic heterogeneity of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina was examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite analyses. One hundred and thirteen polymorphic RAPD fragments were generated. The percentage of polymorphic bands of H. asinina across overall primers was 85.20%. The average genetic distance of natural samples within the Gulf of Thailand (HACAME and HASAME) was 0.0219. Larger distance was observed when those samples were compared with HATRAW from the Andaman Sea (0.2309 and 0.2314). Geographic heterogeneity and F(ST) analyses revealed population differentiation between H. asinina from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea (p asinina (total number of alleles = 26, 5, 23 and observed heterozygosity = 0.84, 0.42 and 0.33, respectively). Significant population differentiation was also found between samples from different coastal regions (p asinina in coastal Thai waters can be genetically divided to 2 different populations; the Gulf of Thailand (A) and the Andaman Sea (B).

  16. Basic nuclear protein pattern and chromatin condensation in the male germ cells of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphamungmee, Worawit; Apisawetakan, Somjai; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Poomtong, Tanes; Sobhon, Prasert

    2005-02-01

    The basic nuclear proteins (BNPs) in spermatozoa of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, were composed of a majority of protamine-like (PL) protein and a small amount of histones H1 and H4. Abalone H1 and PL proteins exhibited strong immunological cross reactivities among themselves as well as with chick H5 and calf thymus H1. Thus, all these proteins may belong to the same family. Immunolocalization by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that H1 and H4 were present in all steps of the male germ cells, however, with decreasing amount in late stage cells, particularly spermatids and spermatozoa. On the other hand, PL was present in middle step cells (secondary spermatocytes) with increasing amount in spermatids and spermatozoa when the chromatin became tightly packed. Thus, PL may be involved in the condensation of chromatin in the spermatozoa of this species.

  17. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27352998

  19. Population structure of tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) in coastal waters of Thailand determined using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S; Tassanakajon, A; Klinbunga, S; Jarayabhand, P; Menasveta, P

    2004-01-01

    Three partial genomic libraries were constructed from genomic DNA of the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) that was digested with AluI, vortexed/sonicated, and digested with mixed enzyme (AluI, HincII, and RsaI). The libraries yielded 0.02%, 0.42%, and 1.46% positive microsatellite-containing clones, respectively. Eleven clones each of perfect, imperfect, and compound microsatellites were isolated. Ten primer pairs (CUHas1-CUHas10) were analyzed to evaluate their polymorphic level. The numbers of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity (H0), and expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 3 to 26 alleles, and varied between 0.27 and 0.85 and between 0.24 and 0.93, respectively. Three microsatellite loci (CUHas2, CUHas3, and CUHas8) were further used for examination of genetic diversity and differentiation of natural H. asinina in coastal waters of Thailand. Genetic variabilities in terms of the effective number of alleles (n(e)), H0, and He were higher in 2 samples from the Gulf of Thailand (n(e)=9.37, 7.66; H0=0.62, 0.78; and He=0.87, 0.86) than those of one sample (n(e)=6.04; H0=0.58; and He=0.62) derived from the Andaman Sea. Assessment of genetic heterogeneity, including allele frequency comparison and pairwise F(ST) analysis, indicated interpopulational differentiation, between natural H. asinina from the Gulf of Thailand and that from the Andaman Sea (P<0.0001).

  20. Nitric oxide is not a negative regulator of metamorphic induction in the abalone Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo eUeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a second messenger molecule synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS that requires the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 for normal enzymatic activity. Past studies have revealed that both NO and HSP90 act as negative regulators (repressors of metamorphosis in a diverse range of marine invertebrates, including several molluscan species. Here, we test the role of NO in the metamorphic induction of a vetigastropod mollusc, the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Specifically, we 1 test the effects of NO-manipulating pharmacological agents, 2 measure the temporal expression of NOS and HSP90 genes through metamorphosis, and 3 assess the spatial expression of NOS and HSP90 in larvae. We find that inhibition of NOS reduces rates of metamorphosis, indicating that NO facilitates, rather than represses, induction of metamorphosis in H. asinina. The marked increase in NOS expression in putative sensory cells localized to the anterior foot of competent larvae is consistent with NO as an inductive molecule for metamorphosis. In contrast to NOS, HSP90 transcript abundance decreases at competence and there is no evidence of NOS and HSP90 transcript co-localization. This study provides the first evidence of NO as an inductive facilitator of molluscan metamorphosis. Our experimental data suggest that NO modulates signals derived from live inductive substrates via the larval foot to regulate metamorphosis. Inter-specific comparisons of spatial NOS expression in molluscs suggest that the localized pattern of NOS or its protein product is related to the regulatory action of NO in metamorphosis.

  1. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. PMID:27371902

  2. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  3. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M

    2008-08-01

    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  4. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  5. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)). PMID:25269848

  6. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  7. VARIASI GENETIK ABALON TROPIS HALIOTIS ASININA L ASAL SULAWESI SELATAN; PROSPEK BUDIDAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Litaay, Magdalena; Agus, Rosana; Ferawati, St.; Rusmidin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Abalone is one of important marine gastropods commodity. Highly demand of these resources has result a depletion of wild stock elsewhere. One of the priorities to optimize the productivity of abalone is the development of a selective method of the parent. Initial efforts are underway to determine the proper method of crossing the parent is to determine the genetic diversity within a population of abalone both in natural (wild type). RAPD-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction Random Ampl...

  8. Expression of POU, Sox, and Pax genes in the brain ganglia of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E K; Degnan, B M

    2000-11-01

    In gastropod mollusks, neuroendocrine cells in the anterior ganglia have been shown to regulate growth and reproduction. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these physiological processes in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, we have identified sets of POU, Sox, and Pax transcription factor genes that are expressed in these ganglia. Using highly degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed to anneal to conserved codons in each of these gene families, we have amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction 2 POU genes (HasPOU-III and HasPOU-IV), 2 Sox genes (HasSox-B and HasSox-C), and two Pax genes (HasPax-258 and HasPax-6). Analyses with gene-specific primers indicated that the 6 genes are expressed in the cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia of both reproductively active and spent adults, in a number of sensory structures, and in a subset of other adult tissues.

  9. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  10. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  11. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  12. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    OpenAIRE

    Alex R Angell; Igor Pirozzi; Rocky de Nys; Nicholas A Paul

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid con...

  13. Genetic diversity of wild and domesticated stocks of Thai abalone, Haliotis asinina (Haliotidae), analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphism of AFLP-derived markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praipue, P; Klinbunga, S; Jarayabhand, P

    2010-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out on representative individuals of wild Haliotis asinina using 64 primer combinations. Nine polymorphic AFLPs were cloned and sequenced. Sequence-specific primers were designed from six AFLP-derived fragments. Three sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (HaSCAR(320), HaSCAR(295), HaSCAR(327)) were selected for genotyping of 8-month-old domesticated stocks of H. asinina cultured separately at Sichang Marine Science Research and Training Station (N = 95) and at a hatchery in Trang province (N = 40) using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Genotypes of wild abalone originating from Talibong Island (N = 25), Cambodia (N = 22), and the P(0) progeny established from Samet Island founders (N = 20) were also investigated. Significant genetic differentiation (Pasinina in Thai waters. Non-overlapping composite genotypes for wild abalone from different coastal regions allow us to determine founder contributions in domesticated abalone stocks. Almost all Sichang Marine Science Research and Training Station and the Trang province hatchery stocks exhibited the east coast genotypes (97% of the 135 samples). We suggest that abalone from the east coast population have better survival rates under cultivated conditions than those from the west coast population.

  14. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  15. Molecular analysis of two FMRFamide-encoding transcripts expressed during the development of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Scott F; Tollenaere, Alina; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are involved in numerous neural functions across the animal kingdom and serve as important models for understanding the evolution of neuropeptides. Gastropod molluscs have proved to be particularly useful foci for such studies, but the developmental expression of FaRPs and the evolution of specific transcripts for different peptides are unclear within the molluscs. Here we show that FaRPs are encoded by two transcripts that appear to be splice variants of a single gene in the abalone, Haliotis asinina, which represents the basal vetigastropods. Has-FMRF1 comprises 1,438 nucleotides and encodes a precursor protein of 329 amino acids that can potentially produce two copies of FLRFamide, one copy each of TLAGDSFLRFamide, QFYRIamide, SDPDLDDVIRASLLAYSLDDSPNN, and SVATAPVEAKAVEAGNKDIE, and 13 copies of FMRFamide. The second 1,241-nucleotide transcript, Has-FMRF2, encodes a 206-amino acid precursor protein with single copies of FLRFamide and FMRFamide along with such extended forms as NFGEPFLRFamide, FDSYEDKALRFamide, and NGWLHFamide, in addition to SDPGEDMLKSILLRGAPSNNGLQY and DTUDETTUNDNAHSRQ. Both transcripts are present early in life and are expressed in different but overlapping patterns within the developing larval nervous system. Mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry demonstrate that FaRPs are cleaved from larger precursors and localize to the developing nervous system. Our results confirm previous evidence that FaRPs are expressed early and potentially play many roles during molluscan development and suggest that the last common ancestor to living gastropods used alternative splicing of an FMRFamide gene to generate a diversity of FaRPs in spatially restricted patterns in the nervous system.

  16. Abalone R&D at AQD

    OpenAIRE

    Castanos, Milagros T.

    1997-01-01

    Details are given of the results of research conducted at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department on abalone (Haliotis asinina). The following areas are covered: reproductive biology; induced spawning; raising abalone in the hatchery; and, cage culture trials.

  17. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiaqi; HE Qingguo; SUN Hui; LIU Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses,especially thermal stress.Here we examined the response of Hsp70gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).For the chronic exposure,abalones were maintained at 8,12,20,and 30℃ for four months and their mRNA levels were measured.The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30℃-acclimated group,followed by the 8℃-acclimated group and then the 12℃- and 20℃-acclimated groups.After the long-term acclimation,gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8℃ and 38℃ for 30 min.Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure.The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups.Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions,through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  18. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  19. Molluskan fasciclin-1 domain-containing protein: molecular characterizationand gene expression analysis of fasciclin 1-like protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Wickramaarachchi, W D N; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-06-15

    Cell-to-cell contacts play a key role in multicellular systems and organisms. Fasciclin-1 (FAS-1) is a lipid-linked membrane associated glycoprotein that is a member of a newly recognized family of cell adhesion molecules sharing features with the immunoglobulins, cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a novel FAS-1 domain-containing cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), including its gene expression profile and immune response to bacterial stimuli and tissue injuries. Designated as Abfac1, the 909bp open reading frame (ORF) encodes 303 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33kDa and isoelectric (pI) value of 4.9. The aa sequence contains two FAS-1 domains and three conserved regions, FRa motif, H-box, and FRb motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relation to Jellyfish cell adhesion protein. In healthy abalone, Abfac1 expression is highest in hepatopancreas followed by mantle and lowest in digestive gland. In immune-stimulated abalones, relative Abfac1 mRNA expression was increased in hemocytes by ~11-fold at 48h after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, by 3.1-fold at 6h after the Listeria monocytogenes infection and by ~9-fold at 6h after the LPS injection. Similarly, tissue injuries caused significant increase of relative mRNA expression by 3.5-fold in hemocytes and by ~10-fold in mantle at 12h post-injury. These results suggest that the novel member of the FAS-1 domain-containing protein family, Abfac1, may be involved in immune response and cell adhesion in disk abalone. PMID:23562785

  20. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. PMID:25463284

  1. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of a GnRH-like peptide in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia of the gastropod Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral ganglion extracts showed a similar retention time to lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (which reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the peripheral region of the cerebral ganglion, and they were observed to send fibers into the neuropil. GnRH-like-ir fibers were also detected in the neuropil of the pedal ganglion, the visceral nerve, and the nerve originating from the pedal ganglion. Chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II)-like-ir fibers (which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II) were also observed in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion. GnRH-like-ir fibers and cGnRH-II-like-ir fibers were distinguishable in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion by double-staining immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides exist in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone. PMID:20695781

  2. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  3. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  4. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  5. The existence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptides in the neural ganglia and ovary of the abalone, Haliotis asinina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Cummins, Scott; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Hanna, Peter; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2010-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the presence and distribution of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in neural ganglia and ovary of reproductively mature female abalone, Haliotis asinina, using immunohistochemistry. We found significant immunoreactivities (ir) of anti-lamprey(l) GnRH-III and anti-tunicate(t) GnRH, but with variation of labeling intensity by each anti-GnRH type. lGnRH-III-ir was detected in numerous type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) throughout the cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was detected in only a few NS1 cells in the dorsal region of cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia. In addition, a small number of type 2 neurosecretory cells (NS2) in cerebral ganglion showed lGnRH-III-ir. Long nerve fibers in the neuropil of ventral regions of the cerebral and pluropedal ganglia showed strong tGnRH-I-ir. In the ovary, lGnRH-III-ir was found primarily in oogonia and stage I oocytes, whereas tGnRH-ir was observed in stage I oocytes and some stage II oocytes. These results indicate that GnRH produced in neural ganglia may act in neural signaling. Alternatively, GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the ovary where it could induce oocyte development.

  6. Identification, characterization, and expression of the genes TektinA1 and Axonemal protein 66.0 in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Amparyup, Piti; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jarayabhand, Padermsak

    2009-06-01

    The genes Tektin A1 and axonemal protein 66.0 were successfully Isolated and characterized in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. The full-length cDNAs of Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were 2166 and 2038 bp long, with ORFs of 1350 and 1683 bp, respectively. Both Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were expressed in the testes but not in the ovaries or hemocytes of H. asinina adults. In addition, HaAxp66.0 was not expressed in H. asinina juveniles (2, 3, and 5 months old). A tissue expression analysis showed Ha-Axp66.0 to be expressed specifically in the testes, whereas Ha-TekA1 was expressed abundantly in the testes but weakly in the foot, gill, digestive gland, left hypobranchial gland, and mantle. The relative expression levels of Ha-TekA1 and Ha-Axp66.0 were significantly lower in undeveloped testes (stage I) than in developed testes (stages II, III, and IV) of H. asinina (P < 0.05).

  7. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size. PMID:26050219

  8. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. PMID:23680646

  9. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. PMID:27474567

  10. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Ary Sudarmawan; Sitti Hilyana; Nunik Cokrowati

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tin...

  11. Three novel C1q domain containing proteins from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Genomic organization and analysis of the transcriptional changes in response to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Godahewa, G I; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-09-01

    The globular C1q (gC1q) domain containing proteins, commonly referred as C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins, are an essential family of proteins involved in various innate immune responses. In this study, three novel C1qDC proteins were identified from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) transcriptome database and designated as AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3. The cDNA sequences of AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3 consisted of 807, 1305, and 660 bp open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 269, 435, and 220 amino acids (aa), respectively. Putative signal peptides and the N-terminal gC1q domain were identified in all three AbC1qDC proteins. An additional predicted motif region, known as the coiled coil region (CCR), was identified next to the signal sequence of AbC1qDC2. The genomic organization of the AbC1qDCs was determined using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. It was found that the CDS of AbC1qDC1 was distributed among three exons, while the CDSs of AbC1qDC2 and AbC1qDC3 were distributed between two exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the AbC1qDC proteins shared muscle, and mantle tissues compare to the other tissues analyzed, using reverse transcription, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green, whereas AbC1qDC3 was predominantly expressed in gill tissues, followed by muscles and the hepatopancreas. The temporal expression of AbC1qDC transcripts in gills after bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation indicated that AbC1qDCs can be strongly induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species with different response profiles. The results of this study suggest that AbC1qDCs are involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens. PMID:27417231

  12. Biomineral repair of Abalone shell apertures

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, M.; Guo, D.; Chung, P.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, ...

  13. Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Lehnert, R; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed. PMID:10491167

  14. Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin type 1 (HtH1). Organization of the approximately 400 kDa subunit, and amino acid sequence of its functional units f, g and h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H; Lieb Bp6; Altenhein, B; Gebauer, D; Richter, S; Stricker, S; Markl, J

    1999-08-01

    We have identified two separate hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) in the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. HtH1/HtH2 hybrid molecules were not found. By selective dissociation of HtH2 we isolated HtH1 which, as revealed by electron microscopy and SDS/PAGE, is present as didecamers of a approximately 400 kDa subunit. Immunologically, HtH1 and HtH2 correspond to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)1 and KLH2, respectively, the two well-studied hemocyanin types of the closely related marine gastropod Megathura crenulata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, SDS/PAGE and N-terminal sequencing, we identified eight different 40-60 kDa functional units in HtH1, termed HtH1-a to HtH1-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated subunit. From Haliotis mantle tissue, rich in hemocyanin-producing pore cells, we isolated mRNA and constructed a cDNA library. By expression screening with HtH-specific rabbit antibodies, a cDNA clone was isolated and sequenced which codes for the three C-terminal functional units f, g and h of HtH1. Their sequences were aligned to those available from other molluscs, notably to functional unit f and functional unit g from the cephalopod Octopus dofleini. HtH1-f, which is the first sequenced functional unit of type f from a gastropod hemocyanin, corresponds to functional unit f from Octopus. Also functional unit g from Haliotis and Octopus correspond to each other. HtH1-h is a gastropod hemocyanin functional unit type which is absent in cephalopods and has not been sequenced previously. It exhibits a unique tail extension of approximately 95 amino acids, which is lacking in functional units a to g and aligns with a published peptide sequence of 48 amino acids from functional unit h of Helix pomatia hemocyanin. The new Haliotis sequences are discussed with respect to their counterparts in Octopus, the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the KLH1 didecamer from electron

  15. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLafferty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO, is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii. Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm in Santa Barbara, California, discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based abalone farms discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  16. Preparation of hemocyanin polyclonal antibody and the identification of 35 kDa hemocyanin fragment in HaHotis diversicolor Reeve%杂色鲍血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体的制备与血蓝蛋白35kDa片段鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敬哲; 韩焘; 王江勇; 杨慧英; 刘金叶

    2012-01-01

    以杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor Reeve)为研究对象,通过密度梯度离心方法纯化得到高纯度血蓝蛋白,以其作为抗原皮下注射免疫新西兰大白兔,从而获得高效价的兔源多克隆抗血清。进一步通过ProteinA抗原亲和纯化的方法对该抗血清纯化,最终获得效价更高、检测特异性更好的血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体。应用该抗体进行Western检测发现,鲍血淋巴中存在着多样的血蓝蛋白衍生产物;进一步结合质谱技术对其中35kDa条带进行鉴定发现,其来源于血蓝蛋白I型亚基的H结构域。%Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, was taken as research material. High purity hemocyanin proteins were puri- fied from the hemolymph of abalone using CsC1 density gradient centrifugation method. By injection of the purified antigen to a rabbit, high titer polyclonal anti-serum was acquired. The anti-serum was further processed with the protein A affinity purification to produce purified antibodies. Finally, the purified polyclonal antibodies with higher titer and specificity were acquired. Further Western blotting with these antibodies, plenty of hemocyanin was found as derivates of various molecular weights in abalone hemolymph.

  17. Non-selective in situ grazing of diatoms by juvenile Green Abalone (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 in the Baja California Peninsula Consumo in situ no selectivo de diatomeas por juveniles de abulón azul (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 en la Península de Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Argumedo Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For experimental or rearing purposes, young abalones are fed benthic diatoms successfully during their early life stages without considering if the diatoms provided are found in the abalone habitat, nor if grazing selectivity exists. Our aim in this study was to gather further evidence that would indicate whether young Haliotis fulgens graze diatoms in situ selectively. Thirty-four specimens of young H. fulgens were collected in a fishing site in BCS, México on two dates. We identified the diatoms in their gut contents (144 species and determined their relative abundances. Fourteen diatoms (80% of the total abundance were considered most important and twelve were among the most important in the diet of young abalone in BCS. The diversity values (H' of the diatoms in their guts ranged from 1.05 to 4.47, depending on dominance, which reflected the structure of diatom assemblages in situ. The above observations and the low similarity measured between samples show that species richness and equitability are similar even if the species composition of diatoms ingested by young abalone differs between specimens. The results lead us to conclude that grazing of diatoms by young H. fulgens is non-selective, and that the structure of diatom assemblages is more important than the particular taxa in their diet.Durante sus etapas tempranas de vida los abulones jóvenes son alimentados exitosamente con diatomeas bentónicas sin considerar si las especies suministradas se hallan en su medio natural, o si existe algún tipo de preferencia o selectividad por ciertas diatomeas. El objetivo de este estudio fue recabar evidencias acerca de si los juveniles de Haliotis fulgens Philippi presentan un consumo selectivo de diatomeas cuando se alimentan in situ. Se recolectaron treinta y cuatro juveniles de H. fulgens en un sitio de pesca de BCS, México en dos fechas. Se disecaron y se examinaron contenidos intestinales. Se identificaron 144 taxa de diatomeas y se

  18. Advances in genetics and breeding in abalone:a review%鲍遗传育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 周时强; 王桂忠

    2004-01-01

    Abalones are important farming species with a high economic value. They have already been farmed for more than 50 years. As problems and new requirements rose continuously in culture industry of abalone, studies on genetic and breeding techniques are needed to improve characteristics and to gain new traits. This review concentrates on advances in genetics and breeding techniques in abalone. As for genetic studies, karyological analyses, allozyme, DNA markers and genetic diversity were reviewed. So far, karyological analyses in abalone have been performed in 12 species that can be divided into three groups according to the chromosome number. In some economically important species, loci of allozymes and. microsatellites have been isolated and applied to investigate the genetic structure of natural and hatchery populations and to identify the result of chromosome set manipulation, but the related reports are only a few yet. The resultsof investigation with DNA markers and allozymes showed that the genetic structure of natural populations presents two characteristics: excessive homozygosity and subdivision. Advances of various breeding techniques, including introduction, selection,hybridization, polyploidy, gynogenesis and gene manipulation, were reviewed in the other part. Although Haliotis discus discus, introduced from Japan, has become one of the most important culture species in China, the economic, social and environmental effects of introduction have been rarely studied. Selection is one of the most important and basic breeding techniques, but the studies on selection are only a few and preliminary, referring to the relations between genetic characteristics and the traits of growth and resistance, genetic diversity and heritability of quantitative traits, and the effect of selection. Interspecific hybridization was the first breeding program carded out in abalone. Experimental hybridization have been carded out for about 20 crosses. Heterosis,such as faster

  19. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. PMID:26471583

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Shewanella sp. Strain UCD-FRSP16_17 and Nine Vibrio Strains Isolated from Abalone Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Ashley; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Carlin, Dylan A; Carruthers, Griselda M; Chac, Adam; Doroud, Ladan; Farris, Samuel J; Gudzeva, Melanya; Jospin, Guillaume; Kintner, John A; Knauss, Jonathon P; Lor, Yi; Pechacek, Randi; Rohner, Eden S; Simmons, Sierra M V; Verescshagina, Mayya; Wirawan, Christian S; Zagal, Leonel; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences for nine strains of Vibrio (V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus, V. tasmaniensis, and three unidentified) and one Shewanella strain. Strains were isolated from red (Haliotis rufescens) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, with and without exposure to "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis," the causative agent of abalone withering syndrome. PMID:27635000

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Shewanella sp. Strain UCD-FRSP16_17 and Nine Vibrio Strains Isolated from Abalone Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Ashley; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Carlin, Dylan A.; Carruthers, Griselda M.; Chac, Adam; Doroud, Ladan; Farris, Samuel J.; Gudzeva, Melanya; Jospin, Guillaume; Kintner, John A.; Knauss, Jonathon P.; Lor, Yi; Pechacek, Randi; Rohner, Eden S.; Simmons, Sierra M. V.; Verescshagina, Mayya; Wirawan, Christian S.; Zagal, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences for nine strains of Vibrio (V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus, V. tasmaniensis, and three unidentified) and one Shewanella strain. Strains were isolated from red (Haliotis rufescens) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, with and without exposure to “Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis,” the causative agent of abalone withering syndrome. PMID:27635000

  2. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair.

  3. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the ear abalone Haliotis asinina (Gastropoda: Haliotidae)%耳鲍精子的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 邓中日; 王小兵; 刘均玲; 周智

    2007-01-01

    本文利用透射电子显微镜对耳鲍(Haliotis asinina Linnaeus)精子的形态及超微结构进行了研究.研究结果表明:耳鲍的精子由头部、中段和尾部三部分组成,全长 41.6 μm.精子头部长 1.8 μm,头部由顶体、顶体下腔和细胞核组成,顶体电子密度比较均匀,呈圆锥形,长 0.6 μm,基部宽度为 0.65 μm,占头部长的 1/3;顶体下腔长 0.03 μm,宽为 0.65 μm,腔中含有中等电子密度物质;细胞核圆棒状,长 1.17 μm,核中部的宽度为 1.0 μm.精子中段较短,长 0.51 μm,宽 1.2 μm,主要由 5 个线粒体包围一对中心粒构成.尾部是一根鞭毛,从前到后逐渐变细,鞭毛是由细胞质膜包被的轴丝组成,轴丝为典型的"9+2"微管结构,即轴丝是由两个中心微管及均匀分布在中心微管周围的 9 对双联体微管组成.因此,耳鲍与其它鲍类精子的基本结构相似,形态结构的主要差异表现在三个方面:一是耳鲍精子的头部似圆锥形,长 1.8 μm,是目前已研究的鲍类中头部最短的种类;二是耳鲍精子顶体长比其基部宽要小,顶体电子密度比较均匀,顶体与核的电子密度差异不明显;三是耳鲍精子中段线粒体的数量为 5 个,没有发现 6 个线粒体现象的存在[动物学报 53(3):552-556,2007].

  4. 鲍鱼内脏中天然牛磺酸的提取与检测%Extraction and determination of taurine from viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章骞; 郑福来; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 曹敏杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:以皱纹盘鲍内脏为原料,优化高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺,并建立用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法。方法经水煮、乙醇抽提、蒸发浓缩、沉淀、活性炭处理、结晶等步骤,获得高纯度天然牛磺酸。用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法为:色谱柱:Discovery C18;流动相:甲醇-0.05 mol/L乙酸钠缓冲液(pH 5.3)(v/v,50:50);流速:1 mL/min;检测波长:330 nm;柱温:室温。结果该提取工艺能从1 kg 鲍鱼内脏中提取得到天然牛磺酸3.07 g。采用该检测方法,牛磺酸的出峰时间为6.037 min,在1~20μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好(R2=0.9999),最低检出限为0.03μg/mL,最低定量限为0.12μg/mL,样品测定的平均回收率为99.44%(RSD=0.25%),方法的精密度和稳定性好(RSD<1%),用该方法检测提取得到的牛磺酸纯度为96.06%。采用红外光谱法(IR)对提取得到的鲍鱼内脏牛磺酸进一步作结构鉴定,发现它与标准品的红外特征吸收峰一致。结论获得了高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺。本方法精密度和稳定性好,回收率高。%Objective The viscera from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) was used as raw materials to isolate natural taurine and an HPLC method for the determination of the purity of taurine was established. Methods Natural taurine was isolated by combining methods of high temperature stewing, activated carbon treatment, ethanol extraction, concentration, precipitation and crystallization. The HPLC method for determination of the purity of taurine was performed on a Discovery C18 column eluted with a mobile phase of 50% methyl alcohol and 50% sodium acetate (pH 5.3) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at room tem-perature and detected by a UV detector at 330 nm. Results Taurine (3.07 g) was isolated from 1 kg ab-alone viscera by the extraction method. The retention time of taurine was at 6.037 min on HPLC and the method showed a good linearity within concentration of

  5. Studies on the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogens Caused Massive Death of Post Larvae of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)%南方九孔鲍鲍苗掉板病原菌的药敏测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志; 徐丽

    2005-01-01

    为提高鲍鱼培苗的成活率,对分离自广东汕尾一养殖场鲍苗掉板池中(包括水、藻膜和变白鲍苗)的、经回归感染试验证明为致病菌的菌株进行了鉴定和药物敏感性测定.API鉴定表明,这些致病菌株由Vibrio alginolyticus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio parahaemolyticus等组成,其中弧菌17株,约占总分离菌株的50%,而溶藻弧菌则为弧菌的优势菌株,有11株,约占弧菌总数的70%.药敏结果显示,绝大多数菌株对链霉素、红霉素和庆大霉素敏感;相反,四环素和新生霉素则对它们没有作用或不敏感.

  6. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志

    2005-01-01

    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  7. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and molecular phylogeny of eight species of abalones in genus Haliotis%中国沿岸几种鲍线粒体16S rRNA基因片段序列比较及鲍属系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹭骁; 柯才焕; 王志勇; 刘波; 蔡明夷; 王艺磊

    2006-01-01

    用PCR技术克隆耳鲍(Haliolis asinina)、羊鲍(H.ovina)和多变鲍(H.varia)的线粒体16S rRNA基因的片段,并将PCR产物直接进行测序,得到长度530 bp左右的片段.将这些序列与杂色鲍(H.diversicolordiversicolor)、九孔鲍(H.diversicolor supertexte)、大鲍(H.gigantea)、盘鲍(H.discus discus)、皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)等5种鲍的相应片段进行序列比较.结果表明,不同种鲍间16S rRNA基因的序列同源性较高,同源性范围为87.36%~90.77%,这说明鲍的这段基因片段在遗传过程中比较保守.序列的A+T含量约为56.68%,G+C含量约为43.32%.8种鲍序列的主要核苷酸变异位点集中在1~25 bp、240~290 bp和320~370bp3个区域.在序列的变异碱基中,碱基的转换大大多于碱基的颠换,转换与颠换之比达到2.33:1,遗传距离的范围为0.002~0.128.用UPGMA法和NJ法绘制出8种鲍的系统发育树.结论认为,大鲍、皱纹盘鲍和盘鲍之间的遗传差异水平为亚种间的差异水平,台湾产的九孔鲍与大陆沿岸产的杂色鲍之间的差异仅仅是种群间的差异.

  8. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Ary Sudarmawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang

  9. 不同密度的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)与仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)混养的研究%Polyculture of Juvenile Abalone(Haliotis discus hannal Ino)with Juvenile Sea Cucumber(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)at Various Stocking Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉桥; 杨义; 程鑫; 王年斌; 张剑诚

    2007-01-01

    在水温13.0~23.0℃、容积50L(45cm×31cm×30cm)的塑料水槽中,分别放养5、10和20个重(2.7±0.7)g的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino),多量投喂海带,再分别混养0和5头重(1.8±0.5)g的仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),不投喂.153 d的饲养表明,在相同密度下,混养鲍的特殊生长率(SGR)和成活率依次比单养高16.6%、5.7%;7.1%、7.1%;1.9%、10.4%;饲料系数降低了11.7%、5.8%、2.4%.与单养池相比,混养池水中氨氮含量低而稳,溶氧量高.文中讨论了鲍与仿刺参混养的适宜比例和方式.

  10. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  11. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S Friedman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS. Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI off Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point (CP in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  12. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  14. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  15. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  16. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  17. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  18. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  19. Predicting the ecological carrying capacity of the Lidao artificial reef zone of Shandong Province for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, (Selenck) and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, using a linear food web model%基于线性食物网模型估算荣成俚岛人工鱼礁区刺参和皱纹盘鲍的生态容纳量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠鑫; 张秀梅; 张磊; 佟飞; 刘洪军

    2013-01-01

    The Lidao reef zone is a typical artificial reef ecosystem for rare marine animal stock enhancement in the coastal sea of North China. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck), and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, are the main enhancement species in the system. Based on the data of biological resources obtained from an investigation of the Lidao artificial reef zone in 2009, a balanced trophic model of the area was con-structed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software package. The effects of uncertainty of input parameters and Ecopath analysis sensitivity were explored. Trophic flow and system attributes of the Lidao artificial reef system were analyzed. The ecological carrying capacity for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were also predicted. The model consisted of 19 functional groups, which covered the main trophic flow in the Lidao artificial reef ecosys-tem. The results showed that the pedigree index of the model was 0.51, and the input parameters having the great-est effects on the output parameters were the production/biomass ratios (P/B) of small demersal fish groups. A–50% change in the production/biomass ratios in small demersal fish groups gave a sensitivity of the biomass (B) of the same group from 100% to 136%. The total system throughput was estimated to be 10 786.680 t/(km2·a), 27% of which flowed to detritus and 17% of which is tranferred out of the ecosystem in the forms of fishing and sediment. Total net primary production was 4131.966 t/(km2·a) and the total energy transfer efficiency was 10.5%. The proportion of the total flow originating from detritus was 39%, and that from primary producers was 61%, indicating that the energy flow was dominated by grazing food chain. The ecological carrying capacity was de-fined as the level of enhancement that could be introduced without significantly changing the major trophic fluxes or structure of the food web. The ecological carrying capacities for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were

  20. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Settlement specifics: Effective induction of abalone settlement and metamorphosis corresponds to biomolecular composition of natural cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Cummins, Scott; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-07-01

    Chemical signaling plays a major role in shaping life history processes that drive ecology and evolution in marine systems, notably including habitat selection by marine invertebrate larvae that must settle out of the plankton onto the benthos.1 For larvae, the identification of appropriate habitats in which to settle and undergo metamorphosis to the adult form relies heavily on the recognition of cues indicative of a favorable environment. By documenting settlement responses of larvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, to a range of coralline algae species, we recently highlighted the species-specific nature of this interaction.2 Here, we demonstrate that this specificity is likely driven by chemical, rather than physical, properties of the algae. Our initial characterization of the surface cell biomarkers from three different algal species shows that inductive cue biomolecular composition correlates with variations in larval settlement response.

  2. Ordering in red abalone nacre

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Coppersmith, Susan N.; P.U.P.A. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Red abalone nacre is an intensely studied biomineral, and yet its formation mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report quantitative measurements probing the degree of order of the aragonite tablets in nacre, and show that order develops over a distance of about 50 microns. These observations indicate that the orientational order of aragonite tablets in nacre is established gradually and dynamically, and we show that a model of controlled assembly based on suppression of the crystal g...

  3. Egg-laying-hormone immunoreactivity in the neural ganglia and ovary of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitongdee, P; Apisawetakan, S; Anunruang, N; Poomthong, T; Hanna, P; Sobhon, P

    2005-11-01

    Immunoreactivity against the abalone egg-laying hormone (aELH) was detected in the fine granules of type 1 and 2 neurosecretory (NS) cells, neurites in the neuropil, and blood sinuses in the connective tissue sheath of the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. The number of positive NS cells, and the intensity of staining in the ganglia, varied and might be related to the stage of ovarian cycle. At any stage, positive cells were most numerous in the pleuropedal, and least numerous in the visceral ganglion. In addition, several cells of the statocyst and associated nerves also exhibited the immunoreactivity. In the ovary, the most intense reactivity was detected in the follicular and granular cells adjacent to mature oocytes, in the trabeculae and the ovarian capsule. The cytoplasm of mature oocytes was also moderately stained. The results indicate that the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia are the main sites of aELH-producing cells. The ovary may also produce aELH locally.

  4. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  5. Rheological Properties and Structural Changes in Different Sections of Boiled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; TANG Zhixu; ZHANG Zhaohui; Ogawa Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components weve exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  6. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly.

  7. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  8. Environmental Metabolism of Pyrene and 1-Methylpyrene by Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    the metabolism of 1-methylpyrene by exposure to the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in laboratory mesocosms. Analyses of worm, water and sediment extracts were performed by use of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV, Fluorescence......Mineral oils from spills contain magnitudes higher proportions of alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs. Despite this, assessments of contaminations are often limited to only consider the “16 USEPA priority PAHs”, which are all unsubstituted. We studied...

  9. Carry-over effect of larval settlement cue on postlarval gene expression in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-11-01

    The drastic shift from pelagic larvae to benthic adult form that occurs during marine invertebrate metamorphosis is often induced by intimate interactions between settling larvae and their benthic environment. Larval experience prior to and during metamorphosis can significantly affect adult fitness, but it is presently unknown whether the exact nature of the inductive cue is an experience that matters, or by what mechanism such carry-over effects are mediated. Here we test for carry-over effects of the specific nature of inductive cues on gene expression in metamorphosing postlarvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina. Postlarvae induced by three different species of coralline algae all successfully undergo metamorphosis, yet the expression profiles of 11 of 17 metamorphosis-related genes differ according to which species of algae the larvae settled upon. Significantly, several genes continue to be differentially expressed for at least 40 h after removal of the algae from the postlarvae, clearly demonstrating a carry-over effect of inductive cue on gene expression. We observe a carryover effect in several genes with varying functions and spatial expression patterns, indicating that each algal species impacts global gene expression in a unique manner. These data unexpectedly reveal that transcriptional modulation of metamorphosis-related genes is contingent upon the precise composition of the benthic microenvironment experienced directly at induction of settlement, and highlight transcription as a mechanism that can mediate between larval and postlarval experiences. For new recruits into an abalone population, metamorphosis clearly does not represent a new transcriptional beginning.

  10. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  11. Widespread transcriptional changes pre-empt the critical pelagic-benthic transition in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Degnan, Bernard M; Gunter, Helen; Jackson, Daniel J; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-03-01

    Larval settlement is a vital transition period for marine invertebrates and can have far-reaching effects on the ecology and evolution of a species. To explore the molecular mechanisms of this critical process in a nonmodel organism, the abalone Haliotis asinina, we employed cDNA microarrays. By comparing gene expression profiles through mid- to late larval development and metamorphosis, we identified 144 genes as candidates for a role in competence and/or metamorphosis. Gene characterization indicates ~60% of these are significantly similar to known genes from other taxa, while ~40% are novel. A high 49.3% of genes are gastropod or abalone specific, but none appears to be Lophotrochozoan specific, even though metamorphosis is thought to have had a separate origin in this group. Differentially expressed larval and postlarval genes can be clustered into five categories that reveal strikingly different temporal transcriptional patterns occurring during this phase of development. Some gene activation is contingent upon exogenous cues and correlates with initiation of settlement. Importantly, there is also extensive gene activity associated with the endogenous attainment of competence, which occurs before, and independent of, the exogenous induction of settlement. Our results show that as the haliotid veliger larva matures, it requires coordinated regulation of temporally different batteries of genes involved in a wide range of physiological and developmental processes associated with benthic colonization. Although the signalling pathways operating at metamorphosis may be conserved across the animal kingdom, it appears they regulate the expression of novel genes specific to abalone, gastropods and molluscs during H. asinina metamorphosis.

  12. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  13. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope), mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development) and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue). We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation. PMID:22339806

  14. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  15. Expression of anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Veronica F; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Richards, Gemma S; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    We report the spatial expression patterns of five anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod mollusc Haliotis asinina, an unsegmented spiralian lophotrochozoan. Molecular alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes are homologues of Drosophila HOM-C genes labial, proboscipedia, zen, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced; the abalone genes are named Has-Hox1, -Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and -Hox5. Has-Hox transcripts are first detected in the free-swimming trochophore larval stage and restricted to the posttrochal ectoderm. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, and -Hox4 are expressed in bilaterally symmetrical and overlapping patterns in presumptive neuroectodermal cells on the ventral side of the trochophore. Has-Hox1 expression is restricted to a ring of cells on the dorsoposterior surface, corresponding to the outer mantle edge where new larval shell is being synthesized. There appears to be little change in the expression domains of these Has-Hox genes in pre- and posttorsional veliger larvae, with expression maintained in ectodermal and neuroectodermal tissues. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and-Hox5 appear to be expressed in a colinear manner in the ganglia and connectives in the twisted nervous system. This pattern is not evident in older larvae. Has-Hox1 and-Hox4 are expressed in the margin of the mantle in the posttorsional veliger, suggesting that Hox genes play a role in gastropod shell formation.

  16. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, A.Y.M., E-mail: albertlin22@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Brunner, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Talke, F.E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter ({approx}200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  17. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Environ: E00356 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00356 Haliotis shell Crude drug Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129], Organic compound, ...Magnesium, Iron, Sulfate, Phosphate, Chloride, Iodine Haliotis diversicolor [TAX:36095], Haliotis discus [TAX:36094], Haliotis... ovina [TAX:36099], Haliotis gigantea [TAX:37743] Haliotidae Haliotis shell Compound(Haliotis...hate, Chloride, Iodine Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks E00356 Haliotis shell ...

  19. Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins.

  20. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

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    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  1. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  2. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

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    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  3. Molecular characterization and analysis of a truncated serotonin receptor gene expressed in neural and reproductive tissues of abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Apisawetakan, Somjai; Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Degnan, Bernard M; Hanna, Peter J; Saitongdee, Porncharn; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2009-05-01

    In molluscs, the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been linked to a variety of biological roles including gamete maturation and spawning. The possible involvement of 5-HT in abalone gamete release was demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in Haliotis rubra gonad contractile bioactivity following 5-HT stimulation. Physiological functions associated with 5-HT, are mediated through binding to 5-HT receptors. A cDNA encoding a putative 5-HT receptor consisting of 359 amino acids was isolated from the tropical abalone H. asinina, termed 5-HT(1 ha). The 5-HT(1 ha) shares G-protein-coupled receptor motifs with metazoan 5-HT receptors, including predicted transmembrane domains, active sites for protein kinase action, and N-linked glycosylation sites. However, the third intracellular loop of 5-HT(1 ha) is relatively short, and only six transmembrane domains are predicted, implying a truncated receptor. Phylogenetic analysis with known 5-HT receptor genes suggests that 5-HT(1 ha) belongs to the type 1 5-HT receptor family. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that 5-HT(1 ha) mRNA was present in all tissues examined, including the neural ganglia and gonad tissues. Immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of 5-HT(1 ha) specifically within the soma of neuronal cells located in the outer cortex of both cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia. In ovarian and testicular tissues, 5-HT(1 ha) immunoreactivity was observed in epithelial cells of the outer capsule and connective tissue of the trabeculae to which the gamete follicles adhere. Whether this receptor transcript is translated to a functional protein needs to be verified, but if so, it could play a role in reproduction.

  4. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

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    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  5. Duplicate abalone egg coat proteins bind sperm lysin similarly, but evolve oppositely, consistent with molecular mimicry at fertilization.

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    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis, some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp., a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d(N/d(S of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14, and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL.

  6. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  7. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  8. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  9. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  10. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

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    F. Conte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (AR of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  11. Antioxidant activity of taste components from abalone viscera peptides prepared by Maillard reaction%美拉德反应制备鲍鱼脏器肽呈味基料及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔路; 周大勇; 李秀玲; 王宏海

    2011-01-01

    采用美拉德反应处理皱纹盘鲍脏器肽制备呈味基料,并通过感官评定实验及体外抗氧化实验评价了美拉德反应处理对鲍鱼脏器肽风味及抗氧化活性的影响.结果表明,鲍鱼脏器肽经美拉德反应处理后,鲜味增加,腥、苦等不良口味下降,总体风味得到显著提升.与反应前相比,美拉德反应产物的DPPH自由基清除活性增强百倍,而羟自由基清除活性及还原活性也增强数十倍.%The peptides prepared from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) viscera were treated by Maillard reaction to produce taste component. The peptides and their Maillard reaction products were tested by sensory evaluation experiment and antioxidant assay in vitro. Results showed that Maillard reaction could increase umami flavor but decrease fishy and bitter flavor, and then significantly enhance the overall taste of the abalone viscera peptides. After Maillard reaction, the DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about a hundred fold, and the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and the reducing capacity was increased tens of times.

  12. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low.

  13. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low. PMID:25364931

  14. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouneyrac, C., E-mail: catherine.mouneyrac@uco.f [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Perrein-Ettajani, H. [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Amiard-Triquet, C. [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. - Fitness, and behaviour in Nereis diversicolor are affected by anthropogenic pressure.

  15. Chemical interactions and textural characteristics of abalone pleopod muscle protein during heating%热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽; 李岩; 董秀萍; 王垚; 辛丘岩; 潘锦锋

    2014-01-01

    为探究蛋白质形成凝胶过程中其化学作用力的变化规律以及与凝胶特性之间的关系,该文以鲍鱼腹足为原料,采用溶液分级提取方法,并结合扫描电镜和红外光谱法,考察热加工中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性的变化情况。结果表明,随着加热温度升高(60、80、100℃),扫描电镜结果显示,鲍鱼腹足中间部位与边缘和过渡部位形成孔洞较小、排列紧密的网络结构,同时红外结果表明,随温度升高,蛋白二级结构发生明显变化, N-H弯曲和C-N伸缩振动较为明显,α-螺旋变为无规则卷曲结构,肌球蛋白疏水性增加,-S-S-形成。此时,对应离子键、氢键含量均呈下降趋势,疏水键相对含量呈先上升后下降趋势,二硫键、非二硫共价键含量呈上升趋势。进一步研究表明,各化学作用力与蛋白凝胶质构特性具有高度相关性。在较低温度下(60℃)离子键、氢键和疏水键对凝胶稳定性起主要作用,此时形成的凝胶较柔软;在较高温度下(80、100℃)二硫键、非二硫共价键为维持凝胶稳定的主要作用力,此时凝胶特性较佳,富有弹性、较好的凝聚性和回复性。该研究为热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白质变化的机理提供参考依据。%Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is an important commercial seafood species. Pleopod muscle is the edible part of abalone, which is rich in protein and mainly composed of myofibril protein and collagen. The change in conformation and aggregation of protein during heating would affect the quality of the product. Chemical interactions including hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, non-disulfide bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobicity have shown great effect on textural properties of muscle protein. This study used the method of grading extraction solution, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to

  16. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-hong; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province,China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 μl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 μl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p>0.05).However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor,in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 μl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 μl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 μl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  18. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  19. Indirect control of the intracellular nitrate pool of intertidal sediment by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Kamp, Anja; Schramm, Angela T.;

    2012-01-01

    for anaerobic respiration processes. The origin and some of the ecological controls of this intracellular nitrate pool were investigated in a laboratory experiment. Sediment microcosms were set up with and without the abundant polychaete Hediste diversicolor that is known to stim- ulate nitrate production...... that of the photopigments chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin, strongly suggesting that diatoms were the main nitrate-storing organisms. Intra- cellular nitrate formation is thus stimulated by the interaction of phylogenetically distant groups of organisms: worms enhance nitrification by feeding on particulate organic matter...

  20. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries. PMID:27322873

  1. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron-, and ionic-Ag on the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    ionic (AgNO3)- Ag on the sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, were compared after 10 days of sediment exposure, using survival, DNA damage (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 g Ag/g dry...

  2. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these a...

  3. Harmful Ciliates and Dominant Genus in Culture Ponds of Young Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 徐润林; 廖家遗

    2004-01-01

    By using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the species composition and dominant genus of harmful, ciliates in young abalone culture ponds are studied. Totally 68 species of ciliates, belonging to 3 classes, 16 orders and 46 genus, are found. The dominant ciliate species are Aspidisca leptaspis, Vorticella sp. and Euplotes rariseta. During the young abalone cultivation, the numbers of young abalones increase first,and then show a trend of decreasing. The relationship between the density and composition of ciliates and the density of algae in the young abalone culture ponds is also discussed.

  4. A novel methodology for the determination of biomarker baseline levels in the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, A; Châtel, A; Marion, J-M; Perrein-Ettajani, H; Bruneau, M; Mouneyrac, C

    2016-07-15

    Identifying environmental damage due to anthropogenic activities is a focal point for scientists and policy makers like those involved in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Many of these approaches focus on ecological endpoints for assessing environmental perturbations, which lead to policies emphasizing mitigation rather than prevention. Biomarkers provide early-warning indicators of stress but it is necessary to distinguish their natural variations from those induced by chemical stress. The global aim of this study was to establish a baseline assessment criterion (BAC) using historical data in a reference site to define toxicity thresholds. We have developed a multiple polynomial regression model (MPR) accounting the influence of salinity, temperature and size of individual on energetic reserves (glycogen and lipids) in the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor. The model identified a complex, orthogonal relationship between confounding factors and glycogen and a linear relationship between lipids and size of individuals. PMID:27184131

  5. Cellular toxicity and bioaccumulationof silver nanoparticles in the marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    In this study, the toxicities of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) were compared with the toxicities of Ag+ ions in the marine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, after 10 d of sediment exposure, using lysosomal membrane stability (neutral red assay), DNA damage...... Ag body burdens were 6.79±6.47, 16.94±22.36 and 7.78±13.73 µg/g dw for worms in ionic, 20 nm and 80 nm Ag-treatments, respectively, but there was no significant difference in Ag bioaccumulation among the three treatments. The size of worms (expressed as dry weight) had a significant effect...... on bioaccumulation, indicating possibly different uptake or excretion abilities of different sizes of worms; smaller worms accumulated more Ag than larger ones....

  6. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    /F), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The 5FS measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene were validated by the more sensitive method HPLC/F. The positive correlation between total PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the polychaete tissues......The possibility of using the pyrene metabolite I-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure was investigated by exposure of the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor to several PAHs in the laboratory. Animals were exposed to pyrene alone and to five different...... PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]flouranthene. After five days of exposure the concentrations of parent PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene were identified using three different analytical methods, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC...

  7. Phylogeography of the sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontine E Becking

    Full Text Available The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3% were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan, while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species.

  8. The in vitro influence of the burrowing polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Franck; Rivet, Lucien; Bertrand, Jean-Claude

    1994-01-01

    International audience The in vitro fate of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction (SF) of Arabian Light crude oil has been studied in PVC cores filled with a coastal marine sediment defaunated by sieving. Experiments were conducted in absence or presence of polychaetes Nereis diversicolor. The luminophore tracer technique was used to quantify the mixing of sediment by worms. Presence of crude oil reduced the building of burrows by polychaetes. This work demonstrates the ability of infaunal or...

  9. 多层抽屉式循环水幼鲍养殖系统及养殖效果%Recirculating aquaculture system with multi-layer drawer culture tanks for juvenile abalone and its effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴垠; 孙建明; 柴雨; 徐长雷

    2012-01-01

    为了提高皱纹盘鲍的养殖效果,该文设计了多层抽屉式循环水养殖幼鲍系统,分析了养殖期间系统的水质指标和耗能量,及不同养殖密度下幼鲍的生长率和成活率.结果表明,该系统适宜的幼鲍养殖密度为150个,屉(70cm×40cm×10cm/屉),为流水式养鲍密度的6~9倍.试验过程中水温、溶解氧、pH值、盐度、NH4+-N和NO2--N指标均达到幼鲍生长条件,NH4+-N和NO2--N体积质量基本稳定在0.023~0.065 mg/L和0.014~0.041 mg/L范围内.试验期间总耗电量为688.88 kW·h,其中海水加热占总耗电量19.62%,相当于每天1.287 kW·h耗电量,大约是流水式养殖加热耗能的1/7.该研究表明,多层抽屉式循环水养鲍系统是一种安全、高效、节能减排的养殖模式.该系统可供选择养鲍设施时参考.%In order to improve the culture efficiency of disk abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with multi-layer drawer abalone culture tanks (70 cm×40 cm× 10 cm per drawer) were designed. The water quality parameters, energy consumption during experiment period, as well as the growth rate and survival of juvenile abalone in different culture densities were monitored. The results showed that the culture density for 150 individuals per drawer in the recirculating systems was appropriate, which was about 6-9 times of the flow-through systems. The temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH value, salinity, NH4VN and NCV-N were all maintained within acceptable ranges for the normal growth of disk abalone. The total NH/-N and NO2-N stabilized around 0.023-0.065 mg/L and 0.014-0.041 mg/L, respectively. The power consumption per day for heating was 1.287 kW-h, where the power consumption for heating sea water accounted for 19.62% of the total power consumption (688.88 kW-h). Compared with conventional flow-through system, it was only one-seventh of energy consumption for heating sea water. The study indicates that it is a kind of

  10. Remedial habitat creation: does Nereis diversicolor play a confounding role in the colonisation and establishment of the pioneering saltmarsh plant, Spartina anglica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, M.

    2000-07-01

    Increasing concerns over global warming and expected sea level rises have led to the adoption of new coastal management strategies around the south-east coast of England. This paper explores the role played by the estuarine invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in limiting the colonisation and establishment of the invasive pioneering salt marsh plant, Spartina anglica. The biology of N. diversicolor is briefly reviewed and data from field experiments are presented demonstrating significant negative effects of worm abundance on transplanted S. anglica biomass. Laboratory-based experiments demonstrated significant negative effects of N. diversicolor abundance on the survival of S. anglica seeds transplanted to sediment cores. The importance of estuarine invertebrates in engineering the mudflat habitat may confound the foreseen ecosystem services and function provided by saltmarsh management schemes.

  11. Developmental expression of two Haliotis asinina hemocyanin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Klaus; Jackson, Daniel; Degnan, Bernard M; Lieb, Bernhard

    2005-09-01

    Hemocyanins are large copper-containing respiratory proteins that play a role in oxygen transport in many molluscs. In some species only one hemocyanin isoform is present while in others two are expressed. The physiological relevance of these isoforms is unclear and the developmental and tissue-specific expression of hemocyanin genes is largely unknown. Here we show that two hemocyanin genes in the gastropod Haliotis asinina, which encode H. asinina hemocyanin (HaH1) and HaH2 isoforms, are developmentally expressed. These genes initially are expressed in a small number of mesenchyme cells at trochophore and pre-torsional veliger stages, with HaH1 expression slightly preceding HaH2. These cells largely are localized to the visceral mass, although a small number of cells are present in head and foot regions. Following metamorphosis the isoforms show overlapping as well as isoform-specific expression profiles, suggesting some degree of isoform-specific function.

  12. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these areas could be a viable resource conservation strategy as they serve as reproductive reserves to supply larvae for continued productivity of the f ishing grounds. Abalone mariculture following the Farmer Field School (FFS concept was explored to address both resource management and economic needs. As a resource enhancement activity, mariculture guarantees that cultured abalone are allowed to grow to maturity before harvested, while some are retained to restock a marine sanctuary. Sincemariculture makes possible the aggregation of individuals, the probability that fertilization would take place is increased. As supplemental source of livelihood, abalone is a high value commodity and its culture can help augment the income of f ishers. Small abalone (3-4 cm can be cultured further for 3-4 months to increase their size and weight. Mariculture should be done from November to May to avoid the rainy season and improve survivorship. The experiential activity was successful because it became a means for the f ishers to experienceresource management. Under the FFS, the researcher became a facilitator and mentored the cooperators in learning from their experience. The lessons sharpened the f ishers’ skills in observation, problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking. This enabled them to gain an appreciation of their resource.

  13. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  14. Why do Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus switch from feeding on Baltic tellin Macoma balthica to feeding on the ragworm Nereis diversicolor during the breeding season?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunskoeke, EJ; Ens, BJ; Hulscher, JB; DeVlas, SJ

    1996-01-01

    Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus breeding on the isle of Schiermonnikoog in the Dutch Wadden Sea: switched from a diet dominated by the bivalve Macoma balthica in late spring to a diet dominated by the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor in early summer. Although all Oystercatchers switched, the ti

  15. Antimicrobial Activity in Hemolymph from Abalone Haliotis asinina Linnaeus%耳鲍血淋巴抗菌活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英霞; 满初日嘎

    2009-01-01

    用溶藻弧菌诱导后,收集耳鲍血淋巴,利用微量测定法进行抗菌活性分析.结果发现,耳鲍血淋巴具有抗革兰氏阴性菌-溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌、河流弧菌、嗜水气单胞菌、大肠杆菌的活性,对革兰氏阳性菌的抑制活性较低.利用胰蛋白酶对耳鲍血淋巴水解后,其抗菌活性消失,表明其中抗菌成分为蛋白质.将耳鲍血淋巴在不同温度(37~95 ℃)和不同pH(2.5~5.0)下保温,发现其抗菌活性成分对热及酸耐受性较强.耳鲍血淋巴在低浓度无溶血活性.该抗菌组分在耳鲍的免疫防御中具有一定的作用.

  16. Ultrastructure of Mature Eggs in Abalone,Haliotis asinina%中国海耳鲍成熟卵的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 王小兵

    2012-01-01

    利用光学和电子显微镜对耳鲍排出体外成熟卵的形态及超微结构进行了观察.耳鲍成熟卵具有卵胶质膜、卵黄膜和细胞膜;卵质中含有线粒体、核糖体、内质网及高尔基体等细胞器;还含有高电子密度的分泌颗粒和吞饮小泡.皮层中含有皮质小泡,但未发现中心粒.耳鲍成熟卵没有明显的卵极标志,卵黄颗粒分布较均匀.

  17. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  18. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples spiked with human pharmaceutical products: Energy status and neuroendocrine effects in marine polychaetes Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of studies about the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical products on marine environment. To predict possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products on benthic biota, polychaetes Hediste diversicolor were exposed for 14-days to pharmaceutical-spiked sediments under laboratory conditions. Carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP) and propranolol (PRO) at concentrations of 500ngg(-1), 50ngg(-1), 5ngg(-1), 0.5ngg(-1) and 0.05ngg(-1), fluoxetine (FX) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations of 100ngg(-1), 10ngg(-1), 1ngg(-1), 0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01ngg(-1), including environmental concentrations (underlined), were spiked in marine sediment samples. After the exposure, cellular energy status (total lipids content - TLP; and mitochondrial electron transport activity - MET), metabolism of monoamines (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO) and inflammation properties (cyclooxygenase activity - COX) were observed in polychaetes. CBZ increased TLP content and MET activity, and decreased MAO activity in polychaetes. IBP did not interfere on the TLP level, but on the MET and MAO activities (environmental concentrations). FX did not cause changes in the energy status. Therefore, environmental concentration diminished MAO activity. EE2 did not affect the energy status, however, MAO activity was significantly lower in polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. PRO increased TLP level in polychaetes, but not MET activity. MAO activity was significantly lower for polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. Except FX, all pharmaceuticals showed anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by the decrease of COX activity. Pharmaceutical products affected H. diversicolor physiology and health. As a benthic top predator, adverse effects on sea-worms can potentially culminate in ecosystem perturbations.

  19. 咖啡因加热休克诱导皱纹盘鲍多倍体的研究%Induction of Polyploid in the Pacific Abalone by Caffeine-Heat Shock Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛连菊; 王子臣; 刘相全; 李雅娟; 高悦勉

    2000-01-01

    Polyploid of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, was induced by blocking Polar body I with caffeine-heat shock treatments. Fertilized eggs were treated with caffeine concentrations at: 2.5mmol/L, 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L; heat shock temperatures at 24℃, 26℃, 28℃, lasting for 10min to 30min, total 5 periods of time,beginning at 10min post-pertilization. Both fertilizing and incubating at 21℃ sea water.The results of studies showed that the effective procedure for inducing triploid appeared to be 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L Caffeine concentration, heat shock tempera- ture 26℃, duration 10min to 15min, all beginning at 10min after insemination. The percentage of triploid was 64.6%~77.8%, Comprehensive efficiency index of polyploid induction was 0.57~0.61. Under the condition of 5mmol/L caffeine conce- ntration and the temperature 26℃ for 30 min duration at 10min post-fertilization, 2.8%~3.6% tetraploid embryos could be produced.%报道了用咖啡因加热休克抑制受精卵的第一极体的释放诱导皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)多倍体的研究结果。皱纹盘鲍的卵在21℃海水中受精,受精后10分钟开始处理,药物浓度分别为2.5mmol/L、5mmol/L、10mmol/L,热休克温度分别为24℃、26℃、28℃,处理的持续时间为10分钟至30分钟,共分5个时间段。结果表明,药物浓度5mmol/L和10mmol/L,处理温度26℃,处理持续时间10~15分钟,其三倍体诱导率可达66.4%~77.8%,综合评价指数为0.57~0.61。在5mmol/L,26℃条件下,处理持续时间30分钟可以产生2.8%~3.6%的四倍体胚胎。

  20. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II Kim Jae

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB. Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining. Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  1. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小强

    2013-01-01

    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  2. Effects of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor on microbial pyrene mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Johnsen, Anders R.;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 2 polychaetes, Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina, on the microbial mineralization of the organic contaminant pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), were followed over 44 d. We also examined whether the effect of the polychaetes was caused by enhanced oxygen supply,...... by the increased oxygen supply due to burrow construction and irrigation. In contrast, these worms decreased pyrene bioavailability and, hence, counteracted to some extent the stimulating effect of irrigation....

  3. 杂色鲍碱性磷酸酶在DMSO溶液中的活力与构象变化的研究%Effect of Dimethyl Sulfxide (DMSO) on Activity and Conformation of Alkaline Phosphatase from Haliotis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧; 洪燕飞; 廖金花; 陈清西

    2005-01-01

    以二甲亚砜(DMSO)为效应物,研究其对杂色鲍碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活力的影响.结果表明:该酶的剩余活力随着DMSO浓度增大而迅速下降,当DMSO浓度达40%,酶活力几乎完全丧失.说明DMSO对杂色鲍ALP有明显的失活作用.导致酶活力丧失50%的DMSO浓度为17%.在较低DMSO浓度(<20%)的失活是可逆的反应过程.动力学研究表明.该酶的失活过程属于混合型.进一步测定游离酶(E)和酶底物络合物(ES)与DMSO的结合常数(K1和K1s),结果表明K1<K1s,说明底物存在对酶被DMSO的失活作用有一定的保护作用.应用荧光发射光谱研究杂色鲍ALP经DMSO微扰后的分子构象变化情况.随着DMSO浓度增大,荧光强度逐渐增强,但发射峰未发生明显变化现象,说明酶分子中的生色基团残基的微环境发生了一定的变化.

  4. 酶解鲍鱼制备增味剂的研究%The flavor enhancer prepared by enzymatic abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳艳; 李卫华

    2011-01-01

    采用Alcalase和Flavourzyme两种蛋白酶对鲍鱼蛋白进行酶解,利用鲍鱼酶解物制备得到的增味剂,经感官评定,具有显著的口感增强作用。%Alcalase and Flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze the protein of abalone.The abalone hydrolysate was prepared for flavor enhancer,which proved to have high flavor-enhance effect by sensory evaluation.

  5. Tolerance to metals and assessment of energy reserves in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in clean and contaminated estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2005-02-01

    Estuaries are subject to anthropogenic activities. Because the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor has ecological characteristics and bioindicator abilities, its use was pertinent in investigating the concepts and cost of tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn). In this context, two approaches were carried out, performing toxicity tests and estimating energy reserves (glycogen and lipids), in populations originating from a contaminated site (Seine estuary) compared with those from a clean site (Authie estuary). Mean lethal times (LT(50)s) of organisms exposed to zinc from the Seine estuary were higher than those from the Authie estuary, but not of organisms exposed to Cd or Cu. The influence of animal weight and salinity on the sensitivity of worms also was studied. The biggest worms were more tolerant to zinc than the smallest ones, and worms survived longer at a reduced salinity (15 per thousand). Concentrations of glycogen and lipids in each sampling season were higher in specimens from the Authie estuary than in worms from the Seine estuary. No influence of salinity on glycogen and lipid levels was observed. Glycogen concentrations were not influenced by the weight of specimens, whereas lipid concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with weight. In conclusion, worms from the Seine estuary exhibited tolerance to Zn, and the depletion of energy reserves observed in this population could be interpreted as a cost of tolerance.

  6. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  7. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  8. Mechanism of fluorescence and conformational changes of the sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein of the sand worm Nereis diversicolor upon Ca2+ or Mg2+ binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillen, Alain; Verheyden, Stefan; Delfosse, Lotte; Braem, Tania; Robben, Johan; Volckaert, Guido; Engelborghs, Yves

    2003-09-01

    The calcium-binding protein isolated from the sarcoplasm of the muscles of the sand worm Nereis diversicolor has four EF-hands and three active binding sites for Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Nereis diversicolor sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein contains three tryptophan residues at positions 4, 57, and 170, respectively. The Wt protein shows a very limited fluorescence increase upon binding of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Single-tryptophan-containing mutants were produced and purified. The fluorescence titrations of these mutants show a limited decrease of the affinity for calcium, but no alterations of the cooperativity. Upon adding calcium, Trp170 shows a strong fluorescence increase, Trp57 an extensive fluorescence decrease, and Trp4 shows no fluorescence change. Therefore mutant W4F/W170F is ideally suited to analyze the fluorescence titrations and to study the binding mechanism. Mutations of the calcium ligands at the z-position in the three binding sites show no effect at site I and a total loss of cooperativity at sites III and IV. The quenching of Trp57 upon calcium binding is dependent on the presence of arginine R25, but this residue is not just a simple dynamic quencher. The role of the salt bridge R25-D58 is also investigated. PMID:12944301

  9. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-β-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC50) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds

  10. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  11. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses measured in the estuarine ragworm (Nereis diversicolor) exposed to dissolved, nano- and bulk-sized silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzari, Margherita; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Pacini, Nicole; Smith, Brian D; Boyle, David; Rainbow, Philip S; Khan, Farhan R

    2015-03-01

    The impact of Ag NPs on sediment-dwelling organisms has received relatively little attention, particularly in linking bioaccumulation to oxidative injury. The polychaete Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediments spiked with dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3), Ag NPs (63 ± 27 nm) and larger bulk Ag particles (202 ± 56 μm), for up to 11 days at sublethal concentrations (nominally 2.5, 5, 10 μg Ag g(-1) sediment (dw)). There were concentration- and time-dependent differences in the accumulation of the three Ag forms, but all three forms elicited an oxidative stress response. In the cases of Ag NPs and bulk Ag particles, changes in antioxidant markers (glutathione, SOD, CAT, GPx, SeGPx, GST and GR) occurred without significant Ag accumulation. Differences in biomarker profiles between the three Ag forms suggest that the mechanism of oxidative stress caused by particulate Ag is distinct from that of dissolved Ag. PMID:25549865

  12. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.; Poulsen, L.

    1996-01-01

    diversicolor in realizing its grazing capacity (estimated at 13.8 m3 m-2 d-1 in the shallow bay of Kertinge Nor, Denmark, in July 1994). Field-growth experiments were performed with worms transferred to U-shaped glass tubes placed at different heights (0, 4, 10 and 20 cm) above the seafloor. A considerably...... reduced specific growth rate of worms at the sea floor (0.2 ± 1.1% d-1), compared to worms elevated just 10 cm above the sediment surface (2.5 ± 0.8% d-1), indicates that extremely meagre food conditions may be prevailing at the bottom. Experimental laboratory data on the development of vertical algal...

  13. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses measured in the estuarine ragworm (Nereis diversicolor) exposed to dissolved, nano-and bulk-sized silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzari, Margherita; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Pacini, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Ag NPs on sediment-dwelling organisms has received relatively little attention, particularly in linking bioaccumulation to oxidative injury. The polychaete Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediments spiked with dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3), Ag NPs (63 ± 27 nm) and larger bulk Ag...... particles (202 ± 56 μm), for up to 11 days at sublethal concentrations (nominally 2.5, 5, 10 μg Ag g−1 sediment (dw)). There were concentration- and time-dependent differences in the accumulation of the three Ag forms, but all three forms elicited an oxidative stress response. In the cases of Ag NPs...... and bulk Ag particles, changes in antioxidant markers (glutathione, SOD, CAT, GPx, SeGPx, GST and GR) occurred without significant Ag accumulation. Differences in biomarker profiles between the three Ag forms suggest that the mechanism of oxidative stress caused by particulate Ag is distinct from...

  14. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  15. Pleiotropic developmental expression of HasPOU-III, a class III POU gene, in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-06-01

    HasPOU-III is expressed in multiple cell types during the first 3 days of development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPOU-III expression begins in two bilaterally symmetrical sets of cells on the ventral ectodermal surface of the trochophore larva; one set are putative foot mucous cells. After torsion, HasPOU-III transcripts transiently appear in the developing ganglia of the central nervous system. At the end of larval morphogenesis, HasPOU-III expression is initiated in dorsoposterior cells of the visceral mass, in the posterior cells of the statocyst and in the developing radular sac. These expression patterns in Haliotis, a spiralian lophotrochozoan, are similar to POU Class III genes in other bilaterians where expression occurs in secretory cells and the developing nervous system.

  16. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  17. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Sawbridge Tim; Wong Frank; Cocks Benjamin G; Savin Keith W; Cogan Noel; Savage David; Warner Simone

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of...

  18. Nanoscale elasticity mappings of micro-constituents of abalone shell by band excitation-contact resonance force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2014-02-21

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.

  19. Impact of ecologically relevant heat shocks on Hsp developmental function in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2008-07-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential for cellular maintenance, normal differentiation and morphogenesis, and protection against a range of environmental stresses. It is unknown which of these roles takes precedence when they are required simultaneously. Here we examined the impact of thermal stress on the complex developmental expression patterns of HasHsp70 and HasHsp90A in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. We find that near-lethal heat shocks do not alter the spatial demarcation of Hsp expression despite such treatments impacting on the external character of the embryos. Using a suite of molecular markers that are both coexpressed with the Hsps (i.e. in ventrolateral ectoderm and prototroch) and expressed in tissues that have lower (basal) Hsp expression (e.g. serotonergic nervous system and shell gland), we determined that Hsp-expressing tissues do not incur markedly less thermal damage than adjacent tissues. To explore the relationship of Hsp expression with sensitivity of specific cell territories to heat shock, we focused on the formation of the prototroch, a tissue where HasHsp70 and HasHsp90A are coexpressed. By heat shocking at specific developmental stages, we determined that the most sensitive period of prototroch development is during its early specification and differentiation, which overlaps with the time the Hsps are expressed at their highest levels in these cells. This correlation is consistent with heat shock impairing the function of Hsps in regions of the H. asinina embryo undergoing morphogenesis.

  20. Ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina and mechanisms of shell regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Green, Kathryn; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a biological system to drive the formation of a microstructure as complex and ordered as the molluscan shell is of immense interest to the fields of nanotechnology and biomedicine. Although recent studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of the genes involved in shell formation, the mechanism by which matrix proteins are regulated and directed to the appropriate region of the shell, a process critical for microstructure control, is still obscure. The formation of microstructure-specific compartments within the extrapallial cavity may be the outcome of precise regulation of the vesicle trafficking of shell components within secretory cells at the mineralization front and/or the overall organization and morphology of the mantle itself. Here, we investigate the ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina as current models put forward to describe molluscan shell formation are primarily based on observations from bivalves despite crystallographic and molecular studies indicating large differences between molluscan classes. We find that the H. asinina mantle is structurally complex and comprised of novel cells packed with a diversity of vesicle types consistent with a complex system to control the secretion of the shell matrix and associated factors.

  1. Developmental expression of Hsp90, Hsp70 and HSF during morphogenesis in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have dual functions, participating in both the stress response and a broad range of developmental processes. At physiological temperatures, it has been demonstrated in deuterostomes (vertebrates) and ecdysozoans (insects) that Hsps are expressed in tissues that are undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis. Here we investigate the developmental expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and their regulatory transcription factor heat shock transcription factor (HSF) in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina, a representative of the 3rd major lineage of bilaterian animals, the Lophotrochozoa. HasHsp70, HasHsp90 and HasHSF are maternally expressed in H. asinina and are progressively restricted to the micromere lineage during cleavage. During larval morphogenesis, they are expressed in unique and overlapping patterns in the prototroch, foot, and mantle. Hsp expression peaked in these tissues during periods of cell differentiation and morphogenesis, returning to lower levels after morphogenesis was complete. These patterns of Hsp and HSF expression in H. asinina are akin to those observed in ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with Hsps being activated in cells and tissues undergoing morphogenesis.

  2. Expression of prohormone convertase 2 and the generation of neuropeptides in the developing nervous system of the gastropod Haliotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Hanna, Peter H; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) belongs to a family of enzymes involved in the proteolytic maturation of neuropeptide precursors into mature peptides that act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones. Here we show that a gene encoding a PC2-like enzyme (HasPC2) is expressed during larval development and in the adult ganglia of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPC2 exhibits high sequence identity to other gastropod PC2s and thus is likely to function in peptide processing. Analysis of HasPC2 expression indicates that it is activated early in nervous system development. During trochophore and early veliger larval stages, HasPC2 is expressed in the vicinity of the forming ganglia of the central nervous system and parts of the putative peripheral nervous system. Later in larval development, at the time the veliger becomes competent to interact with the external environment and initiate metamorphosis, HasPC2 expression largely restricts to cells of the major ganglia and their commissures. Profiling of veliger larvae by bioinformatic approaches suggests the expression of a variety of peptides. Direct MALDI-MS-based peptide profiling of juvenile Haliotis cerebral ganglia (brain) reveals an abundance of neuropeptides, including FMRFamide-related peptides and APGWamide, compatible with PC2 functioning in neuropeptide processing in these regions. These results are consistent with PC2 regulating neuropeptide generation in the earliest functioning of the gastropod nervous system.

  3. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Haliotis ovina 18S rDNA in the Different Geographical Populations of Hainan%海南不同地理群体羊鲍18SrDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 黄勃; 王仁恩; 张钰

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to clone and analyze the sequence of 18S rDNA from Haliotis ovina. [ Method ] TV 18S rRNA genes of two different H. ovina geographical populations,which frum different area of Hainan, were cloned by molecular biology method and sequenced.and then aligned with H. asinina 18S rRNA genes of same sea area. [ Result] 18S rRNA genes of individuals from the same group had no differentiation,the similarity in the 18S rRNA genes neared 100% , whereas partial differentiation between the 2 groups was observed with the similarity up to 99.5% ,and basal substitution took place at some sites. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed from sequence divergence of 18S rRNA genes, which all was built up by waled accurately those sequences according to species of abalone. An unweighted pair-group dendrogram method with a-rithmetic mean was constructed from divergence among the individuals from the 2 groups. [Conclusion] It prepared reliable basis for the genetic diversity,hereditary constitution,germplasm identification,the conservation and utilization of germplasm resource and other aspects of the study of Hainan abalone.H. ovina specially.%[目的]对海南不同地理群体羊鲍18S rDNA进行克隆,并对其进行序列分析.[方法]采用分子生物学的方法,对海南不同海区的2个羊鲍地理群体18S rRNA基因全长进行克隆和序列分析,并将得到的羊鲍18S rRNA基因序列与同海域耳鲍的进行比较.[结果]同一地理群体内羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致;不同地理群体间羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99.5%,仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换,即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换;同时,将这两个不同群体中羊鲍的18S rRNA基因与同一海域耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现,它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.[结论]为海南鲍鱼特别是羊鲍的遗传多样性、遗传结构、种质鉴定及其种质资源的保护和

  5. 食品中鲍鱼过敏源基因成分的检测%Detection of allergen gene of abalone in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨; 孙瑶; 杜影; 战晓微; 郑秋月

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a real-time fluorescent PCR method for detection of abalone gene anaphylactogen in food. Methods Genomic DNA of abalone muscle tissue was extracted by proteinase K digestion method. Specific primers and the probe were designed based on 16S rRNA genes of abalone. After PCR reaction system and conditions were optimized, the rapid real-time PCR detection method of abalone anaphylactogen was developed. The seafood including squid, sea cucumber and so on, was tested for specificity. The samples that contained abalone-derived components of 100%,10%,1%,0.1%,0.01%,and 0.001%respectively were made by blend method for sensitivity test. Results It was of high specificity by testing non abalone products, and the sensitivity test showed that the lowest amount of detecting was 0.01%. Conclusion The detection method of allergic abalone gene anaphylactogen with high specificity and sensitivity was established in this research.%目的:本文建立食品中鲍鱼过敏源基因成分实时荧光PCR检测方法。方法采用蛋白酶K消化法提取鲍鱼肌肉组织中基因组DNA,针对鲍鱼管家基因16S rRNA基因设计特异性引物和探针,确定实时荧光PCR反应体系和反应条件,建立了鲍鱼过敏源基因成分实时荧光 PCR 快速检测方法。选用鱿鱼、海参等海产品进行特异性试验;采用添加方法制备灵敏度试验样品,分别制备了鲍鱼过敏源基因成分含量分别为100%、10%、1%、0.1%、0.01%、0.001%的样品。结果对非鲍鱼类食品进行检测,结果显示出良好的特异性;灵敏度试验表明,本文建立方法的最低检测下限为0.01%。结论本文建立了特异性好,灵敏度高的鲍鱼过敏源基因成分检测方法。

  6. Rapid Immersion Freezing Mechanism of Abalone and its Experimental Verification%鲍鱼浸入式快速冷冻理论及实验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪锦; 顾锦鸿; 沈建

    2013-01-01

    计算流体力学(CFD)可准确预测鲍鱼冷冻过程中的传热传质变化,鲍鱼冷冻过程中内部温度变化和冷冻所需时间的预测对品质研究具有重要意义.本文以鲍鱼为研究对象,研究鲍鱼的浸入式快速冷冻,基于计算流体力学建立鲍鱼的三维非稳态数值计算模型,选用冻结计算模式,建立鲍鱼热物性的多项式计算方法,提高鲍鱼冷冻过程的计算精度,利用CFD计算获得鲍鱼冷冻过程的温度分布状态,获得鲍鱼质量与冷冻时间的关系,并开展了实验验证,结果表明鲍鱼的数值计算结果是可信的,能够较为准确的预测鲍鱼快速冷冻过程中温度的变化与冷冻所需时间.%Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology can predicts heat and mass transfer during rapid freezing. In this paper, the immersion rapid freezing of abalone was investigated and computational fluid dynamics technology was employed to establish three-dimension unsteady numerical calculation model of abalone rapid freezing. Solidification model was selected and the polynomial calculation method was developed for calculating abalone thermal properties in order to improve numerical solving accuracy. The distribution of abalone temperature during the freeze process and the relationship between abalone mass and frozen time were got by using CFD technology. It was found that numerical calculation model and the simulation methods for abalone rapid immersion freezing were reliable, which could predicate abalone freeze process and freeze time.

  7. Parasitic castration by the digenian trematode Allopodocotyle sp. alters gene expression in the brain of the host mollusc Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Tamika; McGraw, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Reverter, Antonio; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2006-06-26

    Infection of molluscs by digenean trematode parasites typically results in the repression of reproduction -- the so-called parasitic castration. This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. Here we analyse the expression levels of 10 members of POU, Pax, Sox and Hox transcription factor gene families, along with genes encoding FMRFamide, prohormone convertase and beta-tubulin, in the brain ganglia of actively reproducing (summer), non-reproducing (winter) and infected Haliotis asinina (a vetigastropod mollusc). A number of the regulatory genes are differentially expressed in parasitised H. asinina, but in only a few cases do expression patterns in infected animals match those occurring in animals where reproduction is normally repressed.

  8. Gene structure and hemocyanin isoform HtH2 from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata indicate early and late intron hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhein, Benjamin; Markl, Jürgen; Lieb, Bernhard

    2002-11-13

    We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs coding for the complete primary structure of HtH2, the second hemocyanin isoform of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The deduced protein sequence comprises 3399 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular mass of 392 kDa. It shares only 66% of structural identity with the previously analysed first isoform HtH1, and according to a molecular clock, the two isoforms of Haliotis hemocyanin separated ca. 320 million years ago. By genomic polymerase chain reaction and 5' race, we have also sequenced the complete gene of HtH2 (18,598 bp), except of the 5' region in front of the secreted protein. It encompasses 15 exons and 14 introns and shows several microsatellite-rich regions. It mirrors the modular structure of the encoded hemocyanin subunit, with a linear arrangement of eight different functional units separated and bordered by seven phase 1 'linker introns'. In addition, within regions encoding three of the functional units, the HtH2 gene contains six 'internal introns'. Comparison to previously sequenced genes of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin and Haliotis hemocyanin isoform (HtH1) suggests Precambrian and Palaeocoic hot spot of intron gains, followed by 320 million years of absolute stasis. PMID:12490323

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  10. Studies on digestive enzymes of Haliotis asinina%耳鲍消化酶活力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林桂; 王小兵; 黄勃

    2012-01-01

      对人工养殖条件下体长0.52~7.05cm 耳鲍(Haliotis asinina)的消化酶活力进行了研究.结果表明,淀粉酶活力随体长的增加而减小,纤维素酶活力随体长的增加而递增,脂肪酶活力随体长的增加无明显变化,不同部位酶活力依次为:﹥胃消化腺肠.方差分析表明:同体长组别,淀粉酶活力在胃、肠﹥间存在显著差异(P0.05);纤维素酶活力在胃与消化腺、肠间存在显著差异(P0.05)

  11. Research on the Change of Abalone Muscle Texture under Different Processing Condition%不同加工条件下鲍鱼肌肉质构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立娟; 张朝辉; 赵雪; 李八方

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探究在加工过程中温度和盐渍对鲍鱼肌肉质构的影响.[方法]在实验室条件下研究不同加工温度(80、90、100℃)和不同浓度的盐溶液(3%、5%、7%、9%)对鲍鱼肌肉质构和组织构造的影响,并与新鲜的鲍鱼相比较,从而揭示其质构的变化机理.组织构造变化采用Van Gieson染色法,质构变化采用单轴向压缩和拉伸型流变仪进行分析.[结果]加热处理和盐渍处理对鲍鱼肌肉质构和组织结构有明显影响.物性学特征参数表明,鲜活鲍鱼肌肉具有硬度大,弹性、黏聚性、咀嚼性和恢复性小的质地特点,而加热和盐渍后的鲍鱼肌肉则硬度变小,弹性、黏聚性、咀嚼性和恢复性增大.[结论]为鲍鱼深加工和方便即食食品加工提供了理论基础和试验依据.%[Objective] The effect of the processing temperature and salinity degree on the texture of abalone muscle was analyzed. [ Method] The effect of different processing temperatures(80,90,100 ℃) and different concentrations of salt solution( 3% , 5% , 7% , 9% ) under laboratory condition on the abalone muscle tissue texture and structure was studied and also compared with that of fresh abalone so that the mechanism of its texture change would be revealed. The muscle tissue structure was analyzed with the method of Van Gieson staining and the muscle texture structure was analyzed with the rheometer of compression and tension. [ Result ] The heat and salt treatment had a significant impact on the abalone muscle texture and structure. The parameters of material characteristic indicated that the fresh abalone muscle had strong hardness, weak elasticity, small cohesion, small recovery and weak chewing. And after heating and salt treatment the abalone muscle was with weak hardness, big elasticity, high cohesion, strong chewing and good recovery. [Conclusion] The theoretical basis and experimental basis of the abalone processing and the preparation of its

  12. Immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Primphon, Jeerawan; Seangcharoen, Tawanchay; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-02-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the distribution pattern of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of reproductively mature male abalone, H. asinina, by immunohistochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence. We found octopus (oct) GnRH and tunicate-I (t) GnRH-I immunoreactivities (ir) in type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) and they were expressed mostly within the ventral horn of the cerebral ganglion, whereas in pleuropedal ganglia they were localized primarily in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, tGnRH-I-ir were strongly detected in fibers at the caudal part of the cerebral ganglia and both ventral and dorsal horns of the pleuropedal ganglia. In the testis, only octGnRH-ir was found primarily in the granulated cell and central capillaries within the trabeculae. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia which could be the principal source of their production, whereas GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the testis and act as the paracrine control of testicular maturation.

  13. 鲍鱼养殖饲料选择决策研究%Research on choice of abalone aquaculture feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德好; 王雅琴; 高华; 李道亮

    2013-01-01

    Feed is an important material foundation for the development of aquaculture, but feed cost reaches about 50% of total costs. Therefore, the economic benefits of aquaculture depend largely on whether feed choice is reasonable. The aim of this study is to investigate how to choose the abalone feed to reduce feeding cost. This article uses Excell2007 and develops a feeding selection decision system based on the simplex method algorithm for linear program-ming to make sure that feed cost is the lowest under the premise of meeting the required nutri-tional elements for the growth of abalone. Data shows, these two methods can effectively reduce the cost of feed. And using computer for solving linear programming problem is effective means to find the optimal solution.%饲料是发展水产养殖业的重要物质基础,饲料费用在养殖成本中所占比例达到50%左右。因此,水产养殖经济效益的好坏在很大程度上取决于饲料选择是否合理。研究旨在探讨如何选择鲍鱼饲料才能降低投喂成本。文章利用Excel 2007以及基于单纯形法求解线性规划算法研发的饲料投喂选择决策系统,实现了在满足鲍鱼生长所需的营养元素前提下饲料投入成本的最低。数据证明,两种方式均能有效地降低饲料成本。运用计算机求解线性规划问题是寻求最优解的有效手段。

  14. Progress Research on the Molecular Mechanism of Abalone Larvae Metamorphosis%鲍幼虫变态分子机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 张丽莉; 王艺磊

    2012-01-01

    The metamorphosis of molluscs larvae is an important biological question.Abalone is one of an ideal model for mollusc metamorphosis and even marine invertebrates because abalone larvae are lecithotrophic(non-feeding),have more rapid metamorphosis than insect and batrachia.Early studies discovered that some material could induce abalone larvae metamorphosis,by pharmacology and electrophysiology.Furthermore,some signal pathways of metamorphosis were developed.However,there is little knowledge of molecular mechanism regulating abalone larvae metamorphosis.Some different expressive genes were found by different display RT-PCR(DDRT-PCR) and gene microarray.Moreover,the metamorphosis is decided and influenced by numerous genes and signals.The traditional method has low efficiency and gets few differential expression genes.Furthermore,the number of EST(expressed sequence tag)is an important limit to the traditional method.So the molecular network and mechanism of metamorphosis have not been established.There is little knowledge of the cellular process.The transcriptome analysis of metamorphosis can acquire a large number of differential expression genes,contribute to building interaction network of differential expression genes,and is a new orientation of the study on molecular mechanism of metamorphosis.In addition,it is another problem to confirm and annotate these different expressed genes.Gene interference may be a solution.This paper summarizes the advances on metamorphosis of abalone larvae and its molecular mechanism.%综述了鲍幼虫变态及其分子机制的研究进展.鲍因其幼虫营卵黄营养,且同昆虫和蛙类相比,鲍幼虫变态速度快、存在提早发育(‘anticipatory’developmental program)现象,是研究贝类乃至海洋无脊椎动物变态现象的理想模式.早期研究采用药理学和电生理学方法发现了GABA等能够诱导鲍变态的物质,并且提出了变态过程信号通路,但调

  15. Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide on muscle quality of Haliotis discus hannai%高密度CO2处理对皱纹盘鲍肌肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕妙兄; 刘书成; 屈小娟; 章超桦; 吉宏武; 高加龙

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨高密度 CO2(DPCD)应用于加工皱纹盘鲍的可行性,在压力5~25 MPa、温度30~50℃、处理时间10~50 min下分别处理皱纹盘鲍,研究DPCD对其色泽、pH值、保水性、质量损失、质构等指标的影响规律。结果表明:与未处理的相比,DPCD处理对皱纹盘鲍的外观和pH值无显著影响(P>0.05),但对其色泽、基本营养成分、质量损失、保水性和质构有显著影响(P<0.05),并且随着处理强度的增加,其影响程度也加强;结合杀菌效果,DPCD处理皱纹盘鲍的适宜条件为:20 MPa、45℃、(40~50)min。研究结果将为DPCD加工技术在贝类肌肉食品中的应用提供参考。%Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, which affects microorganisms and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa and 60 . DPCD℃has less significance effect on the quality of foods. DPCD has been applied to the process of meats, vegetables, seeds and food powders, fruits, spices and herbs, and fish. The studied objective is to investigate the effects of DPCD on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai and to explore whether it can be applied to process Haliotis discus hannai. In this paper, the effects of pressure (5-25 MPa), exposure time (10-50 min) and temperature (30-50℃) of DPCD treatment on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai were studied. DPCD can reach the ideal sterilizing effect for Haliotis discus hannai under the conditions of pressure 20MPa, temperature 45℃, exposure time 40-50 min. Compared with Haliotis discus hannai cooked in boiling water for 2 min (logarithmic decline of 3.59), the sterilizing effect was the equivalent by DPCD of 20 MPa and 45 for 40℃ -50 min (logarithmic decline of 3.46). The total number of colonies was less than 1000 cfu/mL. Compared with untreated Haliotis discus hannai, DPCD treatment had no

  16. 莆田南日岛鲍鱼养殖区环境变化评价%Environment Change Evaluation in Abalone Cultivation Area at Nanri Island of Putian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金媛娟

    2012-01-01

    根据2009-2011年13个站位的监测数据,采用富营养化评价法和内梅罗综合污染指数法对鲍鱼养殖区进行了三年的纵向数据对比,得出该区环境正在日趋恶化,通过2011年鲍鱼区、藻类区及码头区监测数据的横向对比,发现藻类养殖的开展,对鲍鱼区的海洋环境有所改善,但由于布局的不科学不合理,未能够完全发挥藻类对环境的修复作用,甚至于可能给鲍鱼造成一定时间段的不良影响。因此提出建议:应合理规划藻类区和鲍鱼区的产业布局。%According to the monitoring data of thirteen stations from2009 to 2011, this paper makes three years longitudinal data contrast for the abalone cultivation area based on the eutrophication evaluation and Nemerow pollution index. The result indicates that the environment of thearea becomes worsen. Moreover, the monitoring data compared among abalone areas, alga areas and wharfareas in 2011 shows that the development of alga cultivation makes some improvement for the marine environment of abalone areas. However, because of the unscientific and unreasonable distribution, the effects of algas on environment are notfully satisfied. Conversely, it may have harm effect onabalones for some time. So it is suggest that the industrial layout of alga areas and abalone areas should be planned reasonably.

  17. Identifying the germline in an equally cleaving mollusc: Vasa and Nanos expression during embryonic and larval development of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Alexandrea M; Tollenaere, Alina; Norris, Belinda J; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2010-06-15

    Members of the Vasa and Nanos gene families are important for the specification and development of the germline in diverse animals. Here, we determine spatial and temporal expression of Vasa and Nanos to investigate germline development in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. This is the first time these genes have been examined in an equally cleaving lophotrochozoan species. We find that HasVasa and HasNanos have largely overlapping, but not identical, expression patterns during embryonic and larval development, with both being maternally expressed and localized to the micromere cell lineages during cleavage. As embryonic development continues, HasVasa and HasNanos become progressively more enriched in the dorsal quadrant of the embryo. By the trochophore stage, both HasVasa and HasNanos are expressed in the putative mesodermal bands of the larva. This differs from the unequally cleaving gastropod Illyanasa obsoleta, in which IoVasa and IoNanos expression is detectable only in the early embryo and not during gastrulation and larval development. Our results suggest that the H. asinina germline arises from the 4d cell lineage and that primordial germ cells (PGCs) are not specified exclusively by maternally inherited determinants (preformation). As such, we infer that inductive signals (epigenesis) play an important role in specifying PGCs in H. asinina. We hypothesize that HasVasa is expressed in a population of undifferentiated multipotent cells, from which the PGCs are segregated later during development.

  18. Developmental expression of a class IV POU gene in the gastropod Haliotis asinina supports a conserved role in sensory cell development in bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-09-01

    POU-IV genes regulate neuronal development in a number of deuterostomes (chordates) and ecdysozoans (arthropods and nematodes). Currently their function and expression in the third bilaterian clade, the Lophotrochozoa, comprising molluscs, annelids and their affiliates, is unclear. Herein we characterise the developmental expression of HasPOU-IV in the gastropod mollusc, Haliotis asinina. The POU-IV gene is transiently expressed in 11 distinct larval territories during the first 3 days of development. HasPOU-IV is first expressed in sets of ventral epidermal cells in the newly hatched trochophore larvae. As larval morphogenesis proceeds, we observe HasPOU-IV transcripts in cells that putatively form a range of sensory systems including chemo- and mechanosensory cells in the foot, cephalic tentacles, the ctenidia, the geosensory statocyst and the eyes. By comparing HasPOU-IV expression with POU-IV genes in other bilaterians we infer that this class of POU-domain genes had an ancestral role in regulating sensory cell development.

  19. Structural investigation of a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide from abalone by graded acid hydrolysis followed by PMP-HPLC-MSn and NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-xu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-mei; Song, Shuang; Song, Liang; Fu, Ying-huan; Zhang, Li-peng

    2015-01-30

    A new strategy was applied to elucidate the structure of a polysaccharide from abalone gonad (AGSP). It was hydrolyzed by 0.05 M, 0.2 M, 0.5 M, and 2.0 M TFA at 100 °C for 1 h, sequentially. Every hydrolysate was ultrafiltrated (3000 Da) to collect oligo- and monosaccharides, and the final retentate was further hydrolyzed with 2.0 M TFA at 110 °C and 121 °C for 2 h, respectively. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization followed by HPLC-MSn analysis was applied to detect the sugar residues in these hydrolysates, which allowed proposing their location in the polysaccharide structure. The retentate after 0.5 M TFA hydrolysis was confirmed as the polysaccharide backbone, and it was further analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the structural elucidation of AGSP was accomplished, and it has a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ repeating unit with Fuc, Xyl and Gal in the branch. The analytical strategy demonstrated was useful to characterize the structure of polysaccharides.

  20. Distribution characteristics and health risk assessment of cadmium in abalone from various coastal waters%不同海域鲍体镉分布特征与健康风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增焕; 林钦; 李刘冬; 王许诺

    2013-01-01

    We described the content and distribution of cadmium (Cd) in abalone in some coastal waters in China, and assessed its health risk to human beings. The results show that: 1) The distribution of Cd content in abalone is accord with normal distribution, and the average Cd content is 0.88 mg·kg-1, ranging from 0.06 mg·kg-1 to 2.02 mg·kg-1. The Cd contents (wet weight, mg·kg-1) in abalone from provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Shandong and Liaoning are (0.42 ±0.21) mg·kg-1, (0.61 ± 0.27) mg·kg-1, (1.21 ±0.35) mg·kg-1 and (1.52 ±0.20) mg·kg-1, respectively, with significant difference (P<0.05); 2) The Cd content in abalone, which is related with the extent of Cd pollution, is equal to that in shellfish, higher than that in fish, cephalopod and crustacean; 3) The yearly carcinogenic hazard index of Cd residue in abalone is lower than the value recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the Cd content is lower than the provisional tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) recommended by JECFA. The research provides references for the healthy culture and safe consumption of abalone.%文章对中国部分海域鲍体镉(Cd)的质量分数与分布特征进行了分析讨论,并对鲍体Cd对人体的健康风险进行了评价.结果表明,1)鲍体w(Cd)总体上呈正态分布,其平均值为0.88 mg· kg-1,变化范围为0.06~2.02 mg·kg-1,其中广东、福建、山东和辽宁海域鲍体w(Cd)分别为(0.42 ±0.21)mg·kg-1、(0.61 ±0.27) mg·kg-1、(1.21 ±0.35)mg·kg-1和(1.52±0.20) mg·kg-1,不同海域鲍体w(Cd)差异显著(P<0.05).2)鲍体w(Cd)高于鱼类、头足类和甲壳类海洋生物,与贝类产品w(Cd)相当;鲍体w(Cd)与栖息环境中Cd的污染程度有密切关系.3)鲍体Cd对人体的致癌性年风险指数低于国际辐射防护委员会推荐的风险水平,通过鲍膳食途径的人体Cd暴露量低于世界卫生组织/联合国粮食和农业组织的食品添加剂联合专家委员会推荐的

  1. 耳鲍(Haliotis asinina)核糖体小亚基(18S rRNA)编码基因的克隆与序列分析%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF GENES ENCODING HALIOTIS ASININA 18S rRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 方再光; 刘均玲; 周智; 王小兵

    2007-01-01

    采用分子生物学的方法, 对南海不同海区的两个地理群体耳鲍(Haliotis asinina) 18S rRNA基因全长进行了克隆和序列分析, 并将耳鲍18S rRNA基因的序列与NCBI数据库中已收录鲍的18S rRNA基因进行了比较.结果发现, 南海耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因与耳鲍H. asinina isolate H11核糖体18S rRNA基因序列的相同率高达98%; 同一地理群体内耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致; 不同地理群体间耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99%, 仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换, 即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换; 同时, 将这两个不同群体中耳鲍的18S rRNA基因与泰国耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现, 它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.

  2. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  3. 热加工条件对鲍鱼腹足部分加工特性的影响%The effect of thermal processing on the partial properties of abalone meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖桂华; 朱蓓薇; 董秀萍; 陈雪娇; 陈昭

    2012-01-01

    The mass, textural properties, sensory scores and denaturation ratio of myofibrillar protein were measured after abalone meat was subjected to thermal processing at 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 100 ℃ for 0. 5-14 h respectively. The results showed that obvious changes of mass, textural properties, sensory scores and denaturation ratio of myofibrillar protein were observed as the temperature increased and the heating time prolonged. The denaturation rate of myofibrillar protein decreased rapidly and stabilized above 90%. The abalone meat with high quality could be obtained at 80 ℃.%分别在60、70、80、85、90和100℃下对鲍鱼腹足热加工0.5~14 h,考察了热加工条件对其质量、质构特性、感官特性以及肌原纤维蛋白变性率的影响.结果表明,随着热加工温度的升高和时间的延长,鲍鱼腹足的质量逐渐降低;其质构和感官特性先变好后变差,且温度越高,随时间的变化越明显;其肌原纤维蛋白变性率迅速升高,且升至90%后趋于平稳.在80℃左右加热,鲍鱼腹足的质量损失少,质构特性和感官特性都较好,品质较高,可加工时间较长.

  4. Preliminary configuration identification and immuno-enhancing activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein%皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白结构的初步鉴定及其免疫活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包郁明; 侯虎; 乔若瑾; 陶宇; 李志皓; 李八方

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析鉴定皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白AGP-Ⅲ初级结构并探讨脏器糖蛋白粗品AGP的免疫活性.方法 采用高效液相色谱法、氨基酸组成分析法、红外光谱法、β-消除反应对AGP-Ⅲ进行初步分析;建立小鼠免疫低下模型,探讨AGP不同剂量对小鼠免疫功能的调节作用.结果 AGP-Ⅲ的单糖组成有岩藻糖、半乳糖、氨基葡萄、甘露糖、氨基半乳糖、木糖、葡萄糖和鼠李糖.AGP-Ⅲ含有17种氨基酸,缬氨酸含量最高,其次为谷氨酸、甘氨酸.AGP-Ⅲ中存在糖蛋白的特征吸收峰及β折叠结构,糖肽键类型为O-糖肽键,糖苷键类型为吡喃型.AGP中、高剂量组能显著提高免疫低下小鼠的细胞免疫和非特异性免疫功能.结论 AGP-Ⅲ有糖蛋白的特征结构,AGP在适宜剂量条件下可提高小鼠的免疫能力.%Objective The configuration analysis and immuno-enhancing activity of purified Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein AGP-Ⅲ were investigated in this study. Methods Methods of HPLC, amino acids analysis, IR analysis,β-elimination reaction were used. Results Monosaccharide compositions of AGP-Ⅲ were Man, GlcNac, Rha, GalNAc, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc. Seventeen kinds of amino acids were determined in AGP- III , and it was rich in Val, Glu and Gly. AGP- HI shared with a typical absorption property of glycoprotein in a pyranose β-glycosidic and Oglycoside linkage. The medium dosage (50 mg · kg-1) and high dosage (100 mg · kg-1) of AGP could promote immuological function both in celluar and non-specific immunity in immunodepression mice. Conclusion AGP-Ⅲ had typical configuration of glycoprotein and the Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein could enhance the immunity of mice.

  5. 不同密度的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)与仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)混养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉桥; 杨义; 程鑫; 王年斌; 张剑诚

    2007-01-01

    在水温13.0-23.0℃、容积50L(45cm×31cm×30cm)的塑料水槽中,分别放养5、10和20个重(2.7±0.7)g的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discushannai Ino),多量投喂海带,再分别混养0和5头重(1.8±0.5)g的仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),不投喂。153d的饲养表明,在相同密度下,混养鲍的特殊生长率(SGR)和成活率依次比单养高16.6%、5.7%;7.1%、7.1%;1.9%、10.4%;饲料系数降低了11.7%、5.8%、2.4%。与单养池相比,混养池水中氨氮含量低而稳,溶氧量高。文中讨论了鲍与仿刺参混养的适宜比例和方式。

  6. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of abalone during the hot-air drying process%鲍鱼热风干燥动力学及干燥过程数学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敏; 丛海花; 薛长湖; 薛勇; 孙兆敏; 李金章

    2012-01-01

    研究了鲍鱼在不同热风干燥温度下的干燥动力学特点,并构建了干燥过程的数学模型。热风干燥温度选取60、65、70、75、80℃;风速恒定为1m/s。干燥方法采取间歇干燥,分两个阶段进行。利用理论模型—扩散模型,和常见经验模型—Newton模型、Henderson and Pabis模型、Logaritmic模型、Two-terms模型、Page模型及Modified Page模型,对鲍鱼干燥过程的两个阶段分别进行描述。实验结果表明:鲍鱼热风干燥只经历降速阶段,水分扩散在鲍鱼干燥的过程中起主导作用。通过对实验数据进行统计分析,得到适合鲍鱼热风干燥的模型为Page模型(第一阶段干燥)和Two-terms模型(第二阶段干燥),模型的预测值与实际值比较吻合(Page模型r2〉0.999,s〈1%;Two-terms模型r2〉0.997,s〈2%),可以用来描述鲍鱼的热风干燥过程。%The drying dynamics characteristics and drying model of abalone were studied and constructed respectively,using a hot air dryer at five levels of drying air temperatures in the range of 60~80℃,and a fixed air flow velocity,1m/s.The drying process was intermittent,divided into two stages,during which the drying behaviors of abalone were estimated respectively by mechanistic and empirical models:the diffusion model,Newton model,Henderson and Pabis model,Logaritmic model,Two-terms model,Page model,and Modified Page model.It could be seen that the drying process of abalone only contained deceleration stage and the removal of moisture from the material was governed by diffusion phenomenon.Among the models,the Page model and the Two-terms models were found to be the most suitable(Page model:r20.999,s1%;Two-terms model:r20.997,s2%) for predicting moisture ratio of the product in the first and second stage of the drying process.

  7. Environmental Metabolism of Pyrene and 1-Methylpyrene by Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    Mineral oils from spills contain magnitudes higher proportions of alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs. Despite this, assessments of contaminations are often limited to only consider the “16 USEPA priority PAHs”, which are all unsubstituted. We studied ...... hydroxylated 1COOH-pyrene, not previously reported in relation to ecotoxicology. This metabolite can act as a source to the unsubstituted PAH, pyrene, through environmental decarboxylation processes....

  8. 一株高产琼胶酶菌株MA-B22的分子鉴定与产酶条件优化%Isolation and identification of a bacterium MA-B22 producing agarase and the optimal cultivation of enzyme production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢斌; 柯才焕; 杨明; 康康; 赵晶

    2009-01-01

    琼胶酶在多糖降解应用中的作用日益重要,而从海洋微生物中筛选琼胶酶高产菌株成为一个重要途径.本研究从养殖的杂色鲍体内分离到一株高产琼胶酶的菌株MA-B22.该菌为革兰氏阴性菌,经16S rRNA序列鉴定表明,与Tamlana agarivorans sp.nov.具有99%同源性,因此初步定为Tamlana sp..在2216E培养基中该菌株在培养时间60 h,温度25℃,起始pH为6.0条件下产酶活性最高.基于上述培养条件,通过单因素和正交实验确定了培养基的最佳基本组成:氮源为牛肉膏(其最适浓度为6.0‰),碳源为琼脂(其最适浓度为2.5‰),配制培养基的人工海水的最适盐度为25.经培养条件优化后,该菌胞外琼胶酶活力可达1021.79 U/mL,较优化前提高8.82倍.实验首次对Tamlana sp.属的琼胶酶活性进行确定并优化其产酶条件,为构建琼胶酶高产工程菌株提供了基础,并可能为今后鲍养殖提供潜在的益生菌.%Agarase plays a key role in degrading many complex polysaccharides. The screening of agar-degrading bacteria from marine environment and organisms becomes an important means. A gram-negative bacterial strain, MA-B22 with high agarase activity was isolated from small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. By 16S rRNA analysis, this strain has 99% homology to Tamlana agarivorans sp. Nov. , it was named Tamlana sp. In this report. Under 2216E medium, the optimal temperature, pH value and culture time are 25℃, 6.0 and 60h respectively. With one-factor-at-a-time method and orthogonal designed experiment, the optimal compositions of the ferment medium were confirmed. It contained 2.5‰ agar, 6.0‰ beef extract based on the salinity of 25. The highest enzyme activity of agarase was detected by DNS method at 1021.79 U/mL, which is 8.82 times higher than before. MA-B22 demonstrated high-performance characteristics of enzyme production. This is the first report on the agar-degrading Tamlana sp. And optimal cultivation to

  9. "零排放"复合生物净化模式用于循环水养鲍系统的试验研究%"Zero-discharge" model of combined biofilters in recirculating abalone culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀辰; 张国琛; 张敏

    2007-01-01

    Combined biofilters consisting of an ulva biofilter(UB), a polishing ulva biofilter(PUB) and a sand biofilter(SB) were developed for purification of the rearing water and effluent water in recirculating abalone culture system. UB exhibited intensive uptake to total ammonia-nitrogen(TAN) in the rearing water, thereby reduced the nitrification loadings of SB and lowered accumulation of TAN, NO-2-N, NO-3-N and COD in the system. During the experiment, the concentration of TAN, NO-2-N, NO-3-N and COD in the rearing water was kept below 0.19, 0.01, 1.75 and 1.20 mg/L, respectively. Due to the uptake of UB to PO3-4 and the nitrification of SB, the concentration of PO3-4 in the rearing water retained to 0.30 mg/L during the operation period. The combined biofilters also had good capability of pH value buffering in the rearing water and were able to maintain the pH value between 8.11~8.14 during the whole experiment. The concentration of PO3-4 in the effluent water dropt to 0.22 mg/L and NO-3-N level even dropt to 0.10 mg/L after further uptake by PUB. The inorganic nitrogen cycling models were established for estimating the changes of TAN, NO-2-N and NO-3-N in the rearing water.%采用水生植物滤池(UB和PUB)和固定膜生物滤池(SB)的复合净化模式,对鲍鱼养殖水体和系统排放水体进行净化,实现了循环水养鲍系统的清洁生产.试验结果表明,植物滤池UB对养殖水体中总氨氮(TAN)具有很高的吸收效率,从而降低了SB的硝化负荷,大大减少了TAN、NO-2-N、NO-3-N和COD的积累,在整个试验过程中,养殖水体中TAN、NO-2-N、NO-3-N和COD的浓度分别低于0.19、0.01、1.75和1.20 mg/L.由于UB滤池的吸收作用和SB的硝化作用,养殖水体中PO3-4的浓度一直保持在0.30 mg/L以下.另外,这种复合净化模式具有调节水体pH值的作用,在试验期间,养殖水体中的pH值一直保持在8.11~8.14的良好水质范围,对鲍鱼的养殖十分有利.系统排放水经另一

  10. Assessment of the local environmental impact of abalone suspended longline culture-Application of the MOM system in Sungo Bay%筏式养鲍对沉积环境压力的评价——MOM-B监测系统模型在桑沟湾的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继红; 任黎华; 吴桃; 张明亮; 王巍; 方建光

    2011-01-01

    于2010年5月、7月、8月和10月对桑沟湾筏式养鲍区的沉积环境进行现场调查,采用娜威海洋研究所建立的鱼类养殖环境监测系统模型(Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring,MOM system),应用MOM-B着重对鲍养殖区的沉积环境状况进行监测和评价,由生物、化学和感官指标组组成.生物指标组的结果显示,各站位都有大型底栖动物,鲍养殖区处于1,2或者3等级.根据化学指标组(pH值和氧化还原电位Eh)和感官指标组(颜色、气味、气泡、粘稠度等)的监测结果进行了进一步的评价,结果显示,各站位的pH>7.0,为弱碱性,沉积物都无气泡产生,无臭味或硫化氢气味.鲍养殖区的沉积环境状况整体良好,5月和7月为1级,8月和10月为2级.虽然鲍养殖区目前的沉积环境状况较好,但需要注意的是8月和10月Eh<0,沉积环境已经处于还原状态,可能与鲍养殖压力有关.%Sediment environmental parameters were investigated in abalone long-line culture area of Sungo Bay in May, July, August and October, 2010.Impact of abalone long-line culture on the sediment environment was assessed by the method of Norway MOM system ( Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring).Faunal investigation results showed animals larger than 1 mm in the sediment is present, environmental condition was not unacceptable.Chemical investigation and sensory investigation results showed pH of each station was greater than 7.0, no gas bubbles and without H2S smell.Totally, the sediment environment was well, of condition 1 in May and July, condition 2 in August and October.Current situation is good, but it should be pay more attention that, the redox potential values were negative in August and October, the sedimentary environment was in reductive state, which stress may related of abalone long-line culture.

  11. Cryo-EM structure of isomeric molluscan hemocyanin triggered by viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zhu

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins (Hcs of arthropods and mollusks function not only as oxygen transporters, but also as phenoloxidases (POs. In invertebrates, PO is an important component in the innate immune cascade, where it functions as the initiator of melanin synthesis, a pigment involved in encapsulating and killing of pathogenic microbes. Although structures of Hc from several species of invertebrates have been reported, the structural basis for how PO activity is triggered by structural changes of Hc in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report a 6.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM structure of the isomeric form of hemocyanin, which was isolated from Abalone Shriveling syndrome-associated Virus (AbSV infected abalone (Halitotis diversicolor, and build a pseudoatomic model of isomeric H. diversicolor hemocyanin 1 (HdH1. Our results show that, compared with native form of HdH1, the architecture of isomeric HdH1 turns into a more relaxed form. The interactions between certain functional units (FUs present in the native form of Hc either decreased or were totally abolished in the isomeric form of Hc. As a result of that, native state Hc switches to its isomeric form, enabling it to play its role in innate immune responses against invading pathogens.

  12. Genomic resource development for shellfish of conservation concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma B; Friedman, Carolyn S; Metzger, Dave C; White, Samuel J; Roberts, Steven B

    2013-03-01

    Effective conservation of threatened species depends on the ability to assess organism physiology and population demography. To develop genomic resources to better understand the dynamics of two ecologically vulnerable species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, larval transcriptomes were sequenced for the pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, and the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida. Based on comparative species analysis the Ostrea lurida transcriptome (41 136 contigs) is relatively complete. These transcriptomes represent the first significant contribution to genomic resources for both species. Genes are described based on biological function with particular attention to those associated with temperature change, oxidative stress and immune function. In addition, transcriptome-derived genetic markers are provided. Together, these resources provide valuable tools for future studies aimed at conservation of Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, Ostrea lurida and related species.

  13. Identification of Vibrio strains isolated from abalone aquaculture water based on 1 6S rDNA sequence analysis and multiliocus sequence analyses of housekeeping genes%基于16SrDNA和看家基因序列分析技术的鲍鱼养殖水体弧菌种类的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚婷; 骆祝华; 于艳萍; JOST Gunter

    2014-01-01

    A total of 19 bacterial strains were isolated from aquaculture water of an abalone farm in Xiamen.All these strains were identified as Vibrio spp.based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.Their 16S rDNA sequences showed high degrees of similarity (≥98.99%)with closest matched reference sequences of Vibrio type species. However,due to extreme high similarity of 16S rDNA sequences among Vibrio species,it was impossible to identify these Vibrio strains to species level only based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis.Phylogenteic analysis also showed that most 16S rDNA sequences of these isolates were not grouped with the reference sequences of Vibrio type spe-cies,suggesting that 16S rDNA gene is not adequate for resolution of Vibrio species.Multilocus sequence analysis of 4 housekeeping genes (rpoA,pyrH,gapA,and topA)was further performed to identify these Vibrio isolates.The results showed that 19 isolates belong to two Vibrio species,Vibrio alginalyticus and Vibrio diabolicus,indicating that these two Vibrio species are dominant in aquaculture water of the abalone farm.Polymorphism analysis demon-strated that all of 4 housekeeping genes showed higher polymorphic sites than the 16S rDNA gene.The concatena-ted sequences of 4 housekeeping genes exhibited 41.1%of polymorphic sites,much higher than that of 16S rDNA (13.4%).These results suggested that the housekeeping genes showed remarkable higher solution than 16S rDNA gene for species identification of marine Vibrios.%采用TCBS选择性培养基从厦门某鲍鱼养殖场的养殖水体中分离到19株细菌.经16S rDNA序列分析,所有菌株均属于弧菌属(Vibrio),且与最近似的弧菌模式种的同源性都在98.99%以上.由于弧菌种间16S rDNA序列相似度极高,无法仅靠16S rDNA序列比对来鉴定这些菌株到种的水平.16S rDNA序列的系统发育分析也显示,大多数菌株与弧菌模式种无法归为一簇,表明16S rD-NA基因在弧菌种的分类鉴定上

  14. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silvernanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2014-01-01

    damage (comet assay tail moment and tail DNA intensity %) of Nereis coelomocytes increased in a concentration-dependent manner in all three Ag treatments. Ag NP treatments were more toxic than aqueous Ag for all toxicity endpoints, even though bioaccumulation did not differ significantly among Ag forms...

  15. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: Insights into the Evolution of Marine Lake Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Erpenbeck, D.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through

  16. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Erpenbeck, D.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through

  17. Preparation technology of low molecular weight fucoidan by enzyme hydrolytic from Laminaria japonica%低分子量岩藻聚糖酶法制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫相勇; 刘翼翔; 凌绍梅; 李斌; 吴永沛

    2014-01-01

    为了获得分子量集中,生物活性显著的岩藻低聚糖片断,该试验从九孔鲍肝胰腺中分离纯化出岩藻聚糖裂解酶裂解岩藻聚糖。通过等电点法、硫酸铵分布盐析法及Sephadex G-150柱分离纯化出2种底物酶(岩藻聚糖酶、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶),同时采用黏度和还原糖法作为酶活的评价指标评价酶的作用特点。结果表明:等电点法中pH值4.5、5.0时的沉淀物酶活最高,且pH值4.5的沉淀物在硫酸铵质量分数为30%时分离纯化出岩藻聚糖酶,而pH值5.0的沉淀物在硫酸铵质量分数40%时分离纯化出α-L-岩藻糖苷酶。此种工艺方法能得到2种岩藻聚糖裂解酶,底物降解率为8%~15%,获得硫酸基团破坏性小的低分子量岩藻聚糖。因此,九孔鲍岩藻聚糖裂解酶可作为酶法制备低分子量岩藻聚糖的工具酶,具有重要的开发应用价值。%In order to obtain fuco-oligosaccharides which possessed centralized molecular weight and remarkable bioactivity, an enzymic degradation method, due to its mild reaction conditions and no destructive effect on the structure of fucoidan, was adopted in this work. So the fucoidan lyases, derived from hepatopancreas of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta), were isolated and partially purified to hydrolyze fucoidans which were derived from Laminaria japonica. According to the electric properties of protein, an organic solvent method, an ammonium sulfate precipitation method and an isoelectric precipitation method were employed to isolate and purify the fucoidan lyases, and their purification effects were compared. First, for the isoelectric precipitation, the enzymic activity of precipitates at pH value 3.0 to 9.0 were measured with the viscometric method, aiming to shrink the isoelectric range of fucoidan lyases. The results showed that the precipitate at pH value 5.0 condition exhibited observably (p0.05) decrease of sulfate groups for the fuco

  18. Sublethal Toxic Effects of Water Pollution on Red Abalone

    OpenAIRE

    Tjeerdema, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Though difficult to quantify, chemicals in agricultural and urban runoff are contributing to population declines of commercially valuable marine species. Although these pollutants may not be immediately lethal to marine organisms, they can impair key biological processes, hindering reproduction and causing early death.

  19. One-dimensional photonic bandgap structure in abalone shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu; LI Qi; HAN Shuo; HAO Zhibiao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Photonic bandgap (PBG) materials are periodic com- posites of dielectric materials in which electromagnetic waves of certain frequency range cannot propagate in any or a special direction. Recently, there has been great inter- est in synthetic PBG materials due to their ability in ma- nipulation of photons. Since 500 million years ago, the natural world has been exploiting photonic structures for specific biological purposes[1]. Different types of biologi- cal PBG materials have been discovered in recent years, such as the one-dimension PBG structure in the sea mouse Aphrodita[2], and the fruits Elaeocarpus[3,4]; two-dimension PBG structure in the male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[5], Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[6], Thaumantis diores butterfly[7] and the male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[8]; and three-dimension PBG structure in the weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[9].

  20. The inventory of mollusc species and its potent on seagrass bed in Kei Kecil Islands, Southeast Moluccas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS KUSNADI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of mollusk species and its potential on sea grass bed in Kei Kecil islands, Southeast Moluccas have been conducted by using quadrate-transect line method. The study was carried out in February-August 2007. There were 103 species of mollusk observed, 80 species belong to gastropods and 23 belong to bivalves. From the total species, 72 of them were reported as the potential species and the others still unknown. Most of potential group was used as food resources (55 species and other species were potential as decoration, souvenir, ornament, and accessories (31 species. Some species were potential for building material, knife tool, barter tool and bioactive compounds. The top shells (Trochus niloticus, the giant clams (Tridacna spp. and Hippopus hippopus and the abalone (Haliotis spp. were the major trading commodities for shellfish fisheries.

  1. New toughening concepts for ceramic composites from rigid natural materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, George

    2011-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying the toughening in rigid natural composites exhibited by the concentric cylindrical composites of spicules of hexactinellid sponges, and by the nacre (brick-and-mortar) structure of mollusks such as Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), as well as the crossed-lamellar structure of Strombus gigas (queen conch) show commonalities in the manner in which toughening takes place. It is proposed that crack diversion, a new kind of crack bridging, resulting in retardation of delamination, creation of new surface areas, and other energy-dissipating mechanisms occur in both natural systems. However, these are generally different from the toughening mechanisms that are utilized for other classes of structural materials. Complementary to those mechanisms found in rigid natural ceramic/organic composites, special architectures and thin viscoelastic organic layers have been found to play controlling roles in energy dissipation in these structures. PMID:21565715

  2. Temporal variation in biodeposit organic content and sinking velocity in long-line shellfish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lihua; Zhang, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    We measured the organic content and sinking velocities of biodeposits from two scallop species ( Chlamys farreri, Patinopecten yessoensis) and abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) that were cultured on suspended long-lines. Measurements were conducted every two months from April 2010 to February 2011. The shellfish were divided into three size groups (small, middle, and big sizes). At each sample point, we assessed biodeposit organic content, average sinking velocity, the frequency distribution of sinking velocities, and the correlation between organic content and sinking velocity. The organic content of biodeposits varied significantly among months ( P1.9 cm/s. The sinking velocities of biodeposits from C. farreri and P. yessoensis were 0.5-1.5 cm/s and from H. discus hannai were <0.7 cm/s. The organic content was significantly negatively correlated to the sinking velocity of biodeposits in C. farreri ( P<0.001) and P. yessoensis ( P<0.05).

  3. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.;

    1992-01-01

    on water processing were measured as clearance of suspended algal cells or measured directly. Pumping activity (undulating body movements of worms kept in glass tubes) was monitored using an infrared phototransducer technique. In the temperature interval from 5 to about 15-degrees-C there was a linear...

  4. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and aqueous-Ag in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi

    concern about the fate and potential risks of nanosilver for the aquatic environment after its eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this thesis, dispersion and stability tests of commercially available nano (water vs....... filtered natural seawater) were firstly performed with the purpose to investigate the behavior of Ag particles in aqueous environments. A sediment exposure pathway was selected for the following toxicity experiments (I and II) as both Ag particles tended to precipitate in the water phase over time. Due...... diameter and zeta potential was only carried out on nano-Ag in stock suspension (deionized water). However, we observed a clear difference of particle sizes between the manufacturer’s information and what we measured for both nano- and micron-Ag samples. In toxicity experiment I, toxic effects of sediment...

  5. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and aqueous-Ag in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi

    diameter and zeta potential was only carried out on nano-Ag in stock suspension (deionized water). However, we observed a clear difference of particle sizes between the manufacturer’s information and what we measured for both nano- and micron-Ag samples. In toxicity experiment I, toxic effects of sediment...... size of particles, or other characteristics (i.e., ion release). The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg Ag/g dry weight (dw) sediment. In toxicity experiment II, toxic effects of sediment-spiked nano-Ag20, nano-Ag80 or aqueous-Ag (AgNO3) on N...... concern about the fate and potential risks of nanosilver for the aquatic environment after its eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this thesis, dispersion and stability tests of commercially available nano (particles in two media (deionized water vs...

  6. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke;

    . To develop such a biomarker, we quantified 1-hydroxypyrene and total PAH content in invertebrate tissues and studied the correlation between total PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations. The total PAH content was measured by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detection (GC/MS) and HPLC/F. The 1......Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... to pyrene and various other PAHs, using Synchronous Flourescense Spectroscopy (SFS) and High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F). The study used a simple method that allows rapid determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in small samples of tissue from marine polychaetes and within...

  7. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Daniel J.; Degnan, Sandie M.; Bernard M Degnan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patch...

  8. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas; Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-11-01

    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dorsal (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere, the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative method--monensin treatment--yields similar abnormal trochophores. However, genes that are normally expressed in the ectodermal structures (shell and foot) are detected in U0126- and monensin-perturbed larvae in patterns that suggest that this region has latent dorsoventral polarity that is manifested even in the absence of D quadrant specification.

  9. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    OpenAIRE

    York Patrick S; Cummins Scott F; Degnan Sandie M; Woodcroft Ben J; Degnan Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle) regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical aba...

  10. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2007-01-01

    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dors...

  11. Black abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  12. White abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  13. Red abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  14. Risks of Cadmium Nanoparticles on Estuarine Organisms : Ecotoxicological Effects of Engineered Cadmium Nanoparticles through Biochemical and Behavioral Responses in Two Marine Invertebrates, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Pianpian

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing concern over the safety of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to humans and the environment. It is important that the environmental risks of these particles to be tested under research and regulatory schemes, e.g. Nano Risks to the environment & Human Health (NanoReTox) under Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) in EU. Due to their unique properties and the fact that their detection and characterization in complex matrices is challenging, classic analytical methods and te...

  15. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle shape on bioaccumulation, cellular internalization and effects in the estuarine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Købler, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    with CuO NPs or aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq, CuCl2) at 7, 70 and 140 μg Cu g-1 dw sediment. Cu from all Cu treatments accumulated in worms in a concentration-dependent manner. Only Cu-Aq decreased burrowing, suggesting that worms avoid Cu when added to sediment as Cu-Aq, but not CuO NPs. Transmission Electron...

  16. Using Private Rights to Manage Natural Resources: Is Stewardship Linked to Ownership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dwyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in privatizing natural resource systems to promote sustainability and conservation goals. Though economic theory suggests owners of private property rights have an incentive to act as resource stewards, few studies have tested this empirically. This paper asks whether private rights-owners were more conservative with respect to their management opinions than nonrights-owners in five Australian abalone (Haliotis spp. fisheries. Multiple regression analyses were used to link opinions to demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables. In contrast to standard economic assumptions, nonrights-owners suggested more conservative catch limits than did rights-owners, confirming qualitative observations of behavior in management workshops. Differing views about the condition of the resource and differing levels of experience contributed to these results. The first of its kind, this study directly demonstrates that private rights do not necessarily promote the greatest level of stewardship. This has substantial implications for how natural resources are governed globally, but also warns against applying simplistic behavioral assumptions to complex social-ecological systems.

  17. Chemical-mechanical stability of the hierarchical structure of shell nacre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hierarchical structure and mechanical property of shell nacre are experimentally investigated from the new aspects of chemical stability and chemistry-mechanics coupling. Through chemical deproteinization or demineralization methods together with characterization techniques at micro/nano scales,it is found that the nacre of abalone,haliotis discus hannai,contains a hierarchical structure stacked with irregular aragonite platelets and interplatelet organic matrix thin layers. Yet the aragonite platelet itself is a nanocomposite consisting of nanoparticles and intraplatelet organic matrix framework. The mean diameter of the nanoparticles and the distribution of framework are quite different for different platelets. Though the interplatelet and in-traplatelet organic matrix can be both decomposed by sodium hydroxide solution,the chemical stability of individual aragonite platelets is much higher than that of the microstructure stacked with them. Further,macroscopic bending test or nanoindentation experiment is performed on the micro/nanostructure of nacre after sodium hydroxide treatment. It is found that the Young’s modulus of both the stacked microstructure and nanocomposite platelet reduced. The reduction of the microstructure is more remark than that of the platelet. Therefore the chemical-mechanical stability of the nanocomposite platelet itself is much higher than that of the stacked microstructure of nacre.

  18. 车前子临床常用配伍运用%Clinical Application of Compatible Mechanism of Plantago asiatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 周滢

    2011-01-01

    To explore the compatible mechanism and the clinical significance of Plantago asiatica. P.asiatica matches with Aconitum carmichaeli and Cinnamomum cassia to cure chronic nephritis, with Clematis armandii and Lysimachia christinae to cure ureter stones; with Houttuynia cordata and Prunus armeniaca to cure chronic tracheitis, with Dioscorea opposita and Coix lachrhryma-jobi L. var. mayuen ( Roman ) Stapf. to cure ulcerative colitis, with Haliotis diversicolor and Ostrea gigas to cure hypertension. Then we get the kinds of clinical effect of different compatibility of P. asiatica. Plantago asiatica can cure many diseases with different chinese herbs and then its effect and the mechanism of different compatibility in clinics are determined. Plantago asiatica is of more importance in clinics for its different principles and functions of compatibility.%该文探索了车前子的配伍机制及临床意义.作者用车前子配附子、肉桂治疗慢性肾炎;配木通、金钱草治疗输尿管结石;配鱼腥草,杏仁治疗慢性气管炎;配山药、薏苡仁治疗溃疡性结肠炎;配石决明、牡蛎治疗高血压病.观察车前子不同配伍的临床疗效.结果车前子由于配伍不同,可以治疗多种疾病,从而确定了车前子在临床中不同配伍的药效及机制.车前子的不同配伍机制及作用,对临床具有重要的指导意义.

  19. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  20. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO4- in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO4- for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO4- in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO4- in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO4-. Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO4- by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO4- labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO4- are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO4- to marine organisms

  1. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO/sub 4//sup -/. Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO/sub 4//sup -/ labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ to marine organisms.

  2. Comparative Studies on the Molecular Genetic Diversities among Haliotis discus hannai,H.discus discus and Their Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Junfen(万俊芬); Bao Zhenmin; Zhang Quanqi; Wang Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    The hybrid (H. discus hannai♀× H. discus discus♂) shows strong heterosis in both growth and survival rates during aquaculture. In order to better understand the genetic basis of heterosis, AFLP markers are adopted to compare the genetic diversities of the two parents and their hybrids. Six primer combinations reveal 552 loci, among which 88 loci show significant difference between the two parent populations (P<0.01). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates the genetic variance between them is significantly different (P<0.001). Thus there should be genetic basis of heterosis for their hybrids. In contrast to parents, more loci with lower frequency are amplified in hybrids than those in parents, whereas the loci with 0% and 100% frequency are less in hybrids than those in parents. Moreover, the genetic diversities of hybrids increase since the similarity indexes are lower and heterozygosities are higher in hybrids than those in parents. In addition, the genetic distances between reciprocal F1s and H. discus discus are both smaller than those between reciprocal F1s H. discus hannai.

  3. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... rebuilding strategy implemented in Mexico in 2000 (OECD, 2012), and stricter measures regulating subsistence..., delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies... Sitka Island, Alaska to Baja California, Mexico (Campbell, 2000), and it is the predominant...

  4. Effects of Element Chelates Supplementation on Growth and Energy Transformation in Fish and Shellfish%复合螯合微量元素添加剂对鱼、贝生长及能量转化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元凤; 吕景才; 刘靖

    2001-01-01

    Inorganic salts and amino-acid chelates of some elements were added to Tilapia nilotica、common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) diets and the effect of the supplementation on growth and energy transformation were investigated. The results indicated that supplementation of element chelates of amino acids significantly increased weight gain of experimental fish compared with inorganic salt supplementation. Average specially designated growth rate of two experiment groups with two levels of supplementation of element chelates of amino acids increased by 89.25% and 79.61% in Tilapia nilotica; by 36.45% and 64.49% in abalone compared with corresponding control groups and increased by 55.00% in common carp when diet was supplemented with element chelates compared with when diet was supplemented with inorganic salts.%在罗非鱼、鲤鱼、皱纹盘鲍饲料中,分别添加氨基酸螯合盐添加剂和无机盐添加剂对罗非鱼、鲤鱼、皱纹盘鲍进行了对比喂养试验。结果表明:氨基酸螯合盐较无机盐具有显著促生长作用。添加螯合盐的2个试验组罗非鱼的平均特定生长率分别比无机盐对照组提高89.25%、79.61%;鲤鱼螯合盐试验组比对照组平均特定生长率提高55.00%;添加螯合盐的2个试验组皱纹盘鲍的平均特定生长率分别比对照组提高36.45%和64.49% 。

  5. Toughening mechanisms in laminated composites: A biomimetic study in mollusk shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Shekhar Shripad

    2000-10-01

    Mollusk shells can be described as structural biocomposite materials composed of a mineral (aragonite) and a continuous, albeit minor, organic (protein) component. The conch shell, Strombus Gigas, has intermediate strength and high fracture toughness. The high fracture toughness is a result of enhanced energy dissipation during crack propagation due to delamination, crack bridging, frictional sliding etc. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on the crack bridging mechanisms operative in the shell. Four-point bend tests were conducted. Acoustic emission and post-mortem dye penetrants were used to characterize the crack propagation, together with conventional fractography. A two layer composite configuration is seen in the shells, with the tough and weak layers having a toughness ratio of ˜4 (Ktough = 2.2MPam1/2). This toughness ratio is a requisite for multiple cracking in the weak layer. A theoretical shear lag analysis of the crack bridging phenomena in the tough layer is shown to lead to a bridging law for the crack wake of the form of p = betau1/2 (p is the bridging traction for a crack opening u, with beta, being a constant of proportionality). Finite element analysis yielded a value of beta = 630 Nmm-5/2 and ucritical = 5 mum for the bridging law parameters. In a nonlinear fracture mechanics phenomenology, these values are relevant material parameters, rather than a critical stress intensity factor. The work of fracture for unnotched specimens is three orders of magnitude higher than mineral aragonite, and is demonstrated numerically incorporating the toughening mechanisms in the shell. Similar structural adaptations have been observed and studied in the red abalone shell, haliotis rufescens and the spines of the sea urchin, Heterocentrotus trigonarius. The toughening mechanisms seen in these shells give insight into structural design needs of brittle matrix composites (BMC) as well as conventional structural ceramics.

  6. Dynamic expression of ancient and novel molluscan shell genes during ecological transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs can in part be attributed to the evolvability of the external shell. Typically, the shell first forms during embryonic and larval development, changing dramatically in shape, colour and mineralogical composition as development and maturation proceeds. Major developmental transitions in shell morphology often correlate with ecological transitions (e.g. from a planktonic to benthic existence at metamorphosis. While the genes involved in molluscan biomineralisation are beginning to be identified, there is little understanding of how these are developmentally regulated, or if the same genes are operational at different stages of the mollusc's life. Results Here we relate the developmental expression of nine genes in the tissue responsible for shell production – the mantle – to ecological transitions that occur during the lifetime of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Vetigastropoda. Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. Another gene has been previously described from the mantle of another haliotid vetigastropod. All nine genes display dynamic spatial and temporal expression profiles within the larval shell field and juvenile mantle. Conclusion These expression data reflect the regulatory complexity that underlies molluscan shell construction from larval stages to adulthood, and serves to highlight the different ecological demands placed on each stage. The use of both ancient and novel genes in all stages of shell construction also suggest that a core set of shell-making genes was provided by a shared metazoan ancestor, which has been elaborated upon to produce the range of molluscan shell types we see today.

  7. Core structure of aligned chitin fibers within the interlamellar framework extracted from Haliotis rufescens nacre. Part I: Implications for growth and mechanical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubarda Vlado A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of consecutive alkaline and proteolytic treatments of the organic framework’s interlamellar layers extracted from the nacre of H. rufescens, we have exposed a core of aligned parallel chitin fibers. Our findings both verify basic elements of the interlamellar layer structural model of Levi-Kalisman et al. (2001 and extend the more detailed model of Bezares et al. (2008, 2010. We observe via SEM imaging of square millimeter sized samples, which include numerous interlamellar layers and micron sized, yet nanocrystalline, CaCO3 tiles whose native orientation within the shell was first documented, that the chitin fibers in all layers are aligned normal to the growth direction of the shell. Similar alignment has been suggested in the literature for two other classes of mollusks, viz. N. rupertus and P. martensii (Weiner and Traub, 1983; Wada, 1958, suggesting that this may be a more general motif. We find that in order to expose the chitin core it is necessary to first remove protein by an alkaline treatment followed by enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K. We also observe what appear to be the points of traversal of the exposed chitin core by mineral bridges. The implications of these findings touch directly and most specifically upon the expected mechanical properties of organic framework layers such as stiffness and relaxation time constants, viz. they should be planeorthotropic. Single interlamellar layers extracted from nacre should, by implication, also exhibit an orthotropic stiffness. These novel findings provide the structural picture required for a complete anisotropic, time dependent, constitutive description of nacre long thought to be a paradigm of structural optimization. Such a model is briefly described herein and is developed, in full, in Part II of this series.

  8. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    of Odense Fjord. There was a positive interaction between M. viridis and the native A. marina. Otherwise the introduction of M. viridis was synchronous with a decrease of several macroinvertebrates species, especially N. diversicolor. The latter is still the dominant species in Odense Fjord, but its density...... has decreased by >60% in areas colonised by M. viridis. We do not expect that N. diversicolor disappears completely in this estuary, but it will probably be displaced to refuge areas where M. viridis cannot survive. Decrease in the population size of a key native species such as N. diversicolor might...

  9. The Nanomechanics of Biomineralized Soft-Tissues and Organic Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares-Chavez, Jiddu

    The research reported on in this dissertation is concerned with the macro-molecular constitution and geometrical organization of the soft-tissue comprising the matrix of the nacreous portion of the shell of Haliotis rufescens, the Red abalone. Nacre is one of literally legions of intricate biomineralized structures that exist in nature and has long served as a paradigm for elegant and optimized structural de-sign. Biomineralization involves, inter alia, the uptake and synthesis of elements and compounds from the environment and their incorporation into highly optimized functional structures. Nacre has a structure described as a brick wall like with a matrix of biopolymer layers that are preformed and serve as a template into which nanocrystalline tiles of CaCO3 precipitate. The matrix, or what are known as inter-lamellar layers, are of particular interest as they impart both toughness and strength to the composite ceramic nacre structure. The work first involved a histochemical mapping of the macromolecular structure of the interlamellar layers; this revealed the locations of proteins and functional molecular groups that serve as nucleation sites for the ceramic tiles. Parallel studies on the nacre of Nautilus pompilius, the Chambered Nautilus, revealed the generality of the findings. Of particular interest was determining both the content and layout of chitin within these layers. In fact it was determined that chitin was organized as mostly unidirectional architecture of fibrils, with a certain fraction of fibrils laying at cross directions. Most remarkably, it was found that the fibrils possessed a very long range connectivity that spanned many tiles. This was determined by systematic atomic force (afm) and analytical optical histochemical microscopy. These findings were further verified by a unique form of mechanical testing whereby tensile testing was conducted on groups of interlamellar layers extracted from nacre. Mechanical testing led to a quantitative

  10. The effects of solvend from abalone or oyster visceral mass on Isochrysis galbana incubation%鲍及牡蛎内脏可溶物培养球等鞭金藻的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世玉; 张丽莉

    2015-01-01

    在培养基中添加鲍及牡蛎内脏团可溶物来培养球等鞭金藻Isochrysis galbana,测定了藻细胞密度、藻细胞叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素含量.结果表明,适宜添加量的鲍及牡蛎内脏可溶物对金藻生长具有促进作用,发酵过的内脏团比不发酵的促进效果更好.1∶1000比例添加的发酵牡蛎内脏可溶物促进金藻生长的效果最好,其次是1∶100比例的发酵鲍鱼内脏可溶物;这2组的藻细胞叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素含量显著低于其它组.按1∶100比例添加的牡蛎内脏可溶物对金藻生长有抑制作用.

  11. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  12. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their winter

  13. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo;

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  14. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, Maria E.; Selck, Henriette

    2007-01-01

    of sediment-associated pyrene in Nereis diversicolor (Annelida) and Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata), as well as the combined effect of SOM quality and infaunal bioturbation on pyrene distribution and metabolism in the sediment. After 45 d of exposure, SOM quality almost doubled pyrene bioaccumulation...

  15. Biomixing generated by benthic filterfeeders: A diffusion model for near-bottom phytoplankton depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul; Riisgård, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, respectively. The model is based on sinks located at inhalant openings and Fick's law with an effective diffusivity that decreases with distance above the bottom due to the biomixing generated by exhalant and inhalant feeding currents. For N...

  16. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... area (Geiger 2003, State Water Resources Control Board 1979, J. Sones pers. comm.), black abalone were...-water discharge, agricultural pesticide application and irrigation, construction and operation of tidal... recovery, including: waste-water discharge, agricultural pesticide application and irrigation,...

  17. Fishing the future. A snapshot of the Chilean TURFs through the lens of fishers and key stakeholders‟ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ueyonahara, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Overfishing is not an exclusive topic of big fishing industry. Overfishing by small-scale fishers is also happening. The Territorial Use of Rights – TURFs was implemented in Chile to protect the Chilean abalone from overfishing. Through the implementation of the TURFs Chilean abalone are no longer threatened by overfishing. The challenge to protect the resource thus seems to be solved. However, while some problems are solved others persist or new ones arise. The thesis explores the discourses...

  18. New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Panchang, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Neoichnological observations help refine paleoichnological records. The present study reports extensive observations on the distribution, morphology, occurrence and association of burrows and fecal pellets of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Kundalika Estuary on the west coast of India. Our holistic study of these modern-day traces suggests it to be a complex trace arising from domichnial, fodinichnial and possibly pascichnial behavior of polychaetes. The study for the first time rep...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03408-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ec... 40 0.095 2 ( EF634883 ) Pristionchus pauli small subunit ribosomal protei... 42 0.25 2 ( EH361767 ) NP...Haliotis discus discus ribosomal p... 46 4e-04 EF634883_1( EF634883 |pid:none) Pristionchus pauli small subu

  20. On the occurrence of Haliotes pourtalesii Dall, 1881, off Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1969-01-01

    Haliotis pourtalesii Dall, 1881 has so far only been reported from the Gulf of Mexico. The localities are given in fig. 1. The following material has been reported upon in the literature: The holotype (Dall, 1881: 79) was found in: "bed of the Gulf Stream in 200 fathoms, near the Florida reefs". Thi

  1. 77 FR 19700 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: California Department of Parks and Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    .... At an unknown date, Harvey Clark collected a small pottery bowl from site CA-SDI-4443 in the Barrel... village sites with cremation burials. The bowl is an unassociated funerary object based on the proximity..., an unidentified individual collected a Haliotis ornament, 12 melted glass beads and three...

  2. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  3. 龙井鲍鱼(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿榕

    2000-01-01

    Ingredients: a few abalone (according to the number of persons to serve), 100g bean seedlings, 100g chicken oil, 200g white soup (made of an old hen and leg bones of pig stewed in water under a big flame), 5g Longjing tea leaves, salt, starch

  4. 'Põhjala saared' Tartus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi näitusemajas avatakse 12. veebr. fotonäitus 'Põhjala saared'. Fotograafid Göte Ask Gotlandilt, Abalon Hansen Fääri saartelt ja Andy Horner Ahvenamaalt. Lisaks Tartu kunstikooli õpilaste fotod Eesti väikesaartest.

  5. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... abalone as endangered (74 FR 1937; January 14, 2009); Bocaccio, Puget Sound/Georgia Basin DPS, as..., bocaccio (Puget Sound/ Sebastespinniger FR 18516), to FR 22276). Georgia Basin DPS), Sebastespaucispin list... U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1970 (35 FR 15627; October 6, 1970), NMFS...

  6. Development and validation of an experimental life support system for assessing the effects of global climate change and environmental contamination on estuarine and coastal marine benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Rocha, Rui J M; Pires, Ana C C; Ladeiro, Bruno; Castanheira, José M; Costa, Rodrigo; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Pereira, Ruth; Lopes, Isabel; Marques, Catarina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Calado, Ricardo; Cleary, Daniel F R; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-08-01

    An experimental life support system (ELSS) was constructed to study the interactive effects of multiple stressors on coastal and estuarine benthic communities, specifically perturbations driven by global climate change and anthropogenic environmental contamination. The ELSS allows researchers to control salinity, pH, temperature, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), tidal rhythms and exposure to selected contaminants. Unlike most microcosms previously described, our system enables true independent replication (including randomization). In addition to this, it can be assembled using commercially available materials and equipment, thereby facilitating the replication of identical experimental setups in different geographical locations. Here, we validate the reproducibility and environmental quality of the system by comparing chemical and biological parameters recorded in our ELSS with those prevalent in the natural environment. Water, sediment microbial community and ragworm (the polychaete Hediste diversicolor) samples were obtained from four microcosms after 57 days of operation. In general, average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3 (-) ; NH4 (+) and PO4 (-3) ) in the water column of the ELSS experimental control units were within the range of concentrations recorded in the natural environment. While some shifts in bacterial community composition were observed between in situ and ELSS sediment samples, the relative abundance of most metabolically active bacterial taxa appeared to be stable. In addition, ELSS operation did not significantly affect survival, oxidative stress and neurological biomarkers of the model organism Hediste diversicolor. The validation data indicate that this system can be used to assess independent or interactive effects of climate change and environmental contamination on benthic communities. Researchers will be able to simulate the effects of these stressors on processes driven by microbial communities, sediment and seawater

  7. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

  8. Does the introduced polychaete Alitta succinea establish in the Caspian Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Amir Faraz; Taheri, Mehrshad; Jam, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Members of the polychaete family Nereididae do not occur naturally in the Caspian Sea but are documented intentional human introductions that commenced in 1939. However, the identity of the species involved has been uncertain; material has been identified as both Alitta succinea and Hediste diversicolor. In this study, we confirm the presence of both species in the Caspian Sea. We discuss the distribution of both species, based on tolerance to physical factors, especially salinity. Although establishment of this partially predatory Nereidid, as a food reservoir could facilitate the recreation of commercially exploited fish stock, the consequences for native benthic communities are unclear and may be subject to unforeseen negative impacts.

  9. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe;

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis...... diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger). Soil cores were collected at Gyldensteen Beach (Northern Fyn, Denmark), where a 200 ha area is designated for flooding as part of a nature restoration project. Soils cores were experimentally flooded for 1 month before adding polychaetes. We measured the effect...

  10. A combined sensor for simultaneous high resolution 2-D imaging of oxygen and trace metals fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Henrik; Warnken, Kent W.; Sochaczewski, Lukasz;

    2012-01-01

    that the enhanced smearing and reduced response time of the O-2 signal associated with the additional DGT layer were marginal. To test sensor performance at realistic conditions, it was applied to an artificial burrow system consisting of permeable dialysis tubing flushed with oxygenated seawater. The measurements...... demonstrated localized mobilization of Ni, Cu, and Pb close to the burrow wall, where O-2 was elevated. The latter was also confirmed for Cu and Pb in natural sediments irrigated by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. The sandwich sensor has great potential for investigating interrelations between O-2 d...

  11. Lectins with Potential for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tammy Yau; Xiuli Dan; Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng; Tzi Bun Ng

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews lectins of animal and plant origin that induce apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells and hence possess the potential of being developed into anticancer drugs. Apoptosis-inducing lectins encompass galectins, C-type lectins, annexins, Haliotis discus discus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, mistletoe lectin, and concanavalin A, fucose-binding Dicentrarchus labrax lectin, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, and mistletoe lectin, Polygo...

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y

    2010-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described).

  13. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  14. Stable isotopes reveal habitat-related diet shifts in facultative deposit-feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João C.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass patches interspersed in a sediment matrix may vary environmental conditions and affect feeding habits of consumers and food-web structure. This paper investigates diet shifts between bare sediments and a Zostera noltei (Hornemann, 1832) meadow for three facultative deposit-feeding macrofaunal consumers, notably the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778), the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (O.T. Müller, 1776), and the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1778). In July 2008, one eelgrass meadow and two bare sediment locations were chosen in the Mondego estuary (40° 08″ N, 8° 50‧ W, Portugal) and sampled for stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of macrofauna consumers and some of their potential basal food sources, such as sedimentary organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos (MPB), seagrass shoots, leaves and seaweeds laying on the surface sediment. The δ15N of H. diversicolor was 3‰ higher in the eelgrass meadow than in bare sediment, indicating a change of trophic position, whereas the Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model showed that S. plana assimilated more macroalgal detritus than microphytobenthos in the eelgrass bed. Such habitat-related diet shifts have the potential to change structure and spatial dynamics of benthic food webs.

  15. Studies on the isolation and culture of protoplasts from Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Si; LIU Cui; JIN Yuemei; CHI Shan; TANG Xianming; CHEN Fuxiao; FANG Xu; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, protoplasts were successfully isolated from Kappaphycus alvarezii using snail enzymes, aba-lone enzymes and cellulase. The optimum enzymic ratio was fixed to be 20%of abalone enzyme, 12%of cellulase and the osmotic stabilizer was 2.0 mol/L glucose. The optimum enzymic hydrolysis conditions were found to be dark enzymolysis at 30°C continuing for 4.0 h. The resultant density and yield of protoplasts achieved 32.60×104 mL-1, 65.20×104 g-1 tissue for Kappaphycus alvarezii. Finally, under the temperature of 20°C, light intensity of 1 500-2 000 lx and photoperiod of 12 h/d, two developmental pathways were investi-gated:(1) callus-like cell mass and regenerated plantlet occurred on protoplast;(2) young shoots and callus-like cell mass occurred in tissue blocks after enzymolysis.

  16. Biodiversity of Vibrios

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano L. Thompson; Iida, Tetsuya; Swings, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Vibrios are ubiquitous and abundant in the aquatic environment. A high abundance of vibrios is also detected in tissues and/or organs of various marine algae and animals, e.g., abalones, bivalves, corals, fish, shrimp, sponges, squid, and zooplankton. Vibrios harbour a wealth of diverse genomes as revealed by different genomic techniques including amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, repetetive extragenic palindrome PCR, ribotyping, and whole-genome sequencing. ...

  17. The History, Present Condition, and Future of the Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe: Volume 2, Pacific Coast and Supplemental Topics

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Jr., Clyde L.; Burrell, Jr. , Victor G.; Rosenfield, Aaron; Hobart, Willis L.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100 molluscan species are landed in Mexico. About 30% are harvested on the Pacific coast and 70% on the Atlantic coast. Clams, scallops, and squid predominate on the Pacific coast (abalone, limpets, and mussels are landed there exclusively). Conchs and oysters predominate on the Atlantic coast. In 1988, some 95,000 metric tons (t) of mollusks were landed, with a value of $33 million. Mollusks were used extensively in prehispanic Mexico as food, tools, and jewelry. Their use as food an...

  18. Perkinsus Atlanticus – desenvolvimento de um método de diagnóstico para detecção de infecção em moluscos bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Ricardo B.; Rodrigues, Pedro; Elandalloussi, Laurence M; Afonso, Ricardo; Nunes, Patrícia A.; Cancela, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    Diferentes espécies do género Perkinsus, um protozoário parasita pertencente ao novo phylum Perkinsea, podem ser encontradas mundialmente e constituem uma séria ameaça aos moluscos bivalves como as ostras, amêijoas, abalones e vieiras, os quais têm um papel importante não só do ponto de vista comercial, mas também ecológico.

  19. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  20. Structures of two molluscan hemocyanin genes: significance for gene evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Markl, J; Vincent, A; van Olden, E; van Holde, K E; Miller, K I

    2001-04-10

    We present here the description of genes coding for molluscan hemocyanins. Two distantly related mollusks, Haliotis tuberculata and Octopus dofleini, were studied. The typical architecture of a molluscan hemocyanin subunit, which is a string of seven or eight globular functional units (FUs, designated a to h, about 50 kDa each), is reflected by the gene organization: a series of eight structurally related coding regions in Haliotis, corresponding to FU-a to FU-h, with seven highly variable linker introns of 174 to 3,198 bp length (all in phase 1). In Octopus seven coding regions (FU-a to FU-g) are found, separated by phase 1 introns varying in length from 100 bp to 910 bp. Both genes exhibit typical signal (export) sequences, and in both cases these are interrupted by an additional intron. Each gene also contains an intron between signal peptide and FU-a and in the 3' untranslated region. Of special relevance for evolutionary considerations are introns interrupting those regions that encode a discrete functional unit. We found that five of the eight FUs in Haliotis each are encoded by a single exon, whereas FU-f, FU-g, and FU-a are encoded by two, three and four exons, respectively. Similarly, in Octopus four of the FUs each correspond to an uninterrupted exon, whereas FU-b, FU-e, and FU-f each contain a single intron. Although the positioning of the introns between FUs is highly conserved in the two mollusks, the introns within FUs show no relationship either in location nor phase. It is proposed that the introns between FUs were generated as the eight-unit polypeptide evolved from a monomeric precursor, and that the internal introns have been added later. A hypothesis for evolution of the ring-like quaternary structure of molluscan hemocyanins is presented. PMID:11287637

  1. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

  2. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Abrecht, Mike; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.; Frazer, Bradley H.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2007-06-01

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation’s polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  3. Chemical monitoring in the Dutch Wadden Sea by means of benthic invertebrates and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essink, Karel

    1989-09-01

    In monitoring, it is of utmost importance to carefully define the purpose, the sampling strategy, as well as the analytical chemical and statistical requirements. Surveys are appropriate for describing the geographical variation in environmental contaminant levels. Repeated surveys and recurrentdata collection at permanent locations provide means of detecting temporal trends. Results are presented here of surveys on pollution by trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Ems Estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea using Mytilus edulis, Mya arenaria, Arenicoia marina, Nereis diversicolor and Crangon crangon as test organisms. Trends towards decreasing pollution by mercury are illustrated by monitoring data on Mytilus edulis and Zoarces viviparus. It is stressed that the results of chemical monitoring in organisms may be interpreted only in termser the biological effects on the basis of relevant toxicological knowledge and/or additional bio-assays.

  4. Feeding habits of Solea senegalensis in earthen ponds in Sado estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo Branco, Maria Ana; Arruda, Marco A.; Gamito, Sofia

    2010-11-01

    The senegale sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, is a commercially valuable fish and it is beginning to be cultured in a semi-intensive way in fish farms in southern European countries. The present study was initiated to investigate the diet of S. senegalensis under semi-extensive conditions. The feeding habits of sole were studied in two earthen ponds of a fish farm in the Sado estuary. In one earthen pond, artificial fish ration was given. S. senegalensis feeds on few prey items, its diet is mainly composed of insect larvae ( Chironomus salinarus) and polychaeta ( Hediste diversicolor). The diet composition of this species suggests feeding specialization, by consuming mainly annelids and insect larvae and by avoiding other items, extremely abundant in the environment, such as gastropods. In the water reservoir where ration was given, some fish consumed simultaneously benthic organism together with ration. However, benthic organisms seem to be the most important component of S. senegalensis diet.

  5. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats;

    2015-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... of OM. The accumulation of pore water sulphides were reduced and fluxes of nutrients across the sediment-water interface increased. Additional calculations suggest that the effects of polychaetes were mainly indirect and driven by increased microbial activity due to the borrowing activity...

  6. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    for an average sized M. viridis of about 0.01ml/min of water rich in nutrients and reduced compounds such as sulfide. Provided the large spread of M. viridis in this estuary, the introduction of this non native species in Odense Fjord may have important consequences for the structure of the microbial...... in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of the dynamic...... seeds with their fecal pellets. The emergence of the seedling is only possible if the seed is positioned within the top 6 cm of the sediment (MS3). We estimate that in areas where the abundance of A. marina >8 ind m-2, the eelgrass reproductive success may be compromised. The recent increase...

  7. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: Laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delefosse, M.; Kristensen, E.

    2012-07-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise new areas. After dispersal, seeds must be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seeds may be buried passively by sedimentation or actively through sediment reworking by benthic fauna. We evaluated the effect of three polychaetes on the burial rate and depth of eelgrass seeds. Burial was first measured in controlled laboratory experiments using different densities of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (400-3200 ind m- 2), Arenicola marina (20-80 ind m- 2), and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis (400-1600 ind m- 2). The obtained results were subsequently compared with burial rates of seed mimics in experimental field plots (1 m2) dominated by the respective polychaetes. High recovery of seeds in the laboratory (97-100%) suggested that none of these polychaetes species feed on eelgrass seeds. N. diversicolor transported seeds rapidly (animal abundance. Only 2% of seed mimics casted in the field plots were recovered, suggesting that physical dispersion by waves and currents was considerably important for horizontal distribution. However, polychaete affected significantly the vertical distribution of seeds. Overall the effects of these three polychaetes indicate that benthic macroinvertebrates may significantly impact eelgrass seed bank at the ecosystem scale. Some species have a positive effect by burying seeds to shallow depths and thereby reducing seed predation and facilitating seed germination, while other species bury seeds too deep for successful seed germination and seedling development.

  8. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  9. RESTAURANT & BAR INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Jinyutai Restaurant Jinyutai Restaurant is a Chinese restaurant jointly designed by Chinese bestseller writer Hai Yan and U.S. designers Robert Bilkey and Oscar Llinas, who have designed many Hyatt hotels all over the world. It is a perfect combination of Chinese and Western styles not only in its appearance but also in the dishes it offers. Specialties include goose liver with sake, beef with special flavor, edible birds' nest, abalone and shark's fin soup and sliced jellyfish. Add: Second Floor of Fort...

  10. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  11. Bioeconomics of a Marine Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Jon M.; Daniel Rondeau

    2014-01-01

    We study the economic impact of the viral disease AVG, its stochastic transmission across abalone reefs in southern Australia, and the optimal management response as AVG approaches an uninfected reef. Using conservative estimates of the virulence and mortality rates associated with the disease, we find it optimal to maintain the pre-AVG steady-state biomass on reef j until AVG has reached reef j - 1. The size of the optimal harvest when AVG has reached reef j - 1 is significant, ranging from ...

  12. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko.

  13. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  14. Probabilistic Gompertz model of irreversible growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, D C

    2005-05-01

    Characterizing organism growth within populations requires the application of well-studied individual size-at-age models, such as the deterministic Gompertz model, to populations of individuals whose characteristics, corresponding to model parameters, may be highly variable. A natural approach is to assign probability distributions to one or more model parameters. In some contexts, size-at-age data may be absent due to difficulties in ageing individuals, but size-increment data may instead be available (e.g., from tag-recapture experiments). A preliminary transformation to a size-increment model is then required. Gompertz models developed along the above lines have recently been applied to strongly heterogeneous abalone tag-recapture data. Although useful in modelling the early growth stages, these models yield size-increment distributions that allow negative growth, which is inappropriate in the case of mollusc shells and other accumulated biological structures (e.g., vertebrae) where growth is irreversible. Here we develop probabilistic Gompertz models where this difficulty is resolved by conditioning parameter distributions on size, allowing application to irreversible growth data. In the case of abalone growth, introduction of a growth-limiting biological length scale is then shown to yield realistic length-increment distributions.

  15. Potential biocontrol agents for biofouling on artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of biofouling on coastal structures can lead to operational impacts and may harbour problematic organisms, including non-indigenous species. Benthic predators and grazers that can supress biofouling, and which are able to be artificially enhanced, have potential value as augmentative biocontrol agents. The ability of New Zealand native invertebrates to control biofouling on marina pontoons and wharf piles was tested. Caging experiments evaluated the ability of biocontrol to mitigate established biofouling, and to prevent fouling accumulation on defouled surfaces. On pontoons, the gastropods Haliotis iris and Cookia sulcata reduced established biofouling cover by >55% and largely prevented the accumulation of new biofouling over three months. On wharf piles C. sulcata removed 65% of biofouling biomass and reduced its cover by 73%. C. sulcata also had better retention and survival rates than other agents. Augmentative biocontrol has the potential to be an effective method to mitigate biofouling on marine structures.

  16. New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantimati G Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Neoichnological observations help refine paleoichnological records. The present study reports extensive observations on the distribution, morphology, occurrence and association of burrows and fecal pellets of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Kundalika Estuary on the west coast of India. Our holistic study of these modern-day traces suggests it to be a complex trace arising from domichnial, fodinichnial and possibly pascichnial behavior of polychaetes. The study for the first time reports extensive fecal pellet production, distribution and their preservation as thick stacks in modern estuarine environment. These observations testify the fossilization potential of pellets and provide an explanation to their origin in the geological record. Their occurrence as strings associated with mounds not only suggests pascichnial behaviour of polychaetes but also allows the assignment of post-Paleozoic Tomaculum to the activity of polychaete worms. The production of fecal pellets in such large quantities plays a major role in increasing the average grain size of the substrate of these estuarine tidal flats, thereby improving aeration within the substrate.

  17. New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kantimati G; Panchang, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Neoichnological observations help refine paleoichnological records. The present study reports extensive observations on the distribution, morphology, occurrence and association of burrows and fecal pellets of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Kundalika Estuary on the west coast of India. Our holistic study of these modern-day traces suggests it to be a complex trace arising from domichnial, fodinichnial and possibly pascichnial behavior of polychaetes. The study for the first time reports extensive fecal pellet production, distribution and their preservation as thick stacks in modern estuarine environment. These observations testify the fossilization potential of pellets and provide an explanation to their origin in the geological record. Their occurrence as strings associated with mounds not only suggests pascichnial behaviour of polychaetes but also allows the assignment of post-Paleozoic Tomaculum to the activity of polychaete worms. The production of fecal pellets in such large quantities plays a major role in increasing the average grain size of the substrate of these estuarine tidal flats, thereby improving aeration within the substrate. PMID:26439262

  18. Contemporary condition of macrozoobenthos in ultrashallow zone of Taman Bay, Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, V. A.; Kolyuchkina, G. A.; Belyaev, N. A.; Basin, A. B.; Kozlovsky, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of macrozoobenthic communities was studied in a vast ultrashallow (0-1.2 m deep) zone of northwestern Taman Bay (separated from the Kerch Strait by Chushka spit) in 2008-2009. Fifty-two species of benthic invertebrates were recorded. The species number, as well as Shannon and Pielou diversity indices, increased along Chushka spit from base to tip. The usual inhabitants of lagoons and estuaries of the Mediterranean Basin and the open Sea of Azov dominated in benthic communities: mollusks Abra segmentum and Hydrobia acuta and polychaetes Heteromastus filiformis and Hediste diversicolor (the latter only in summer). Changes in the community structure were largely determined by the seasonal dynamics of dominant species populations, which was similar to their dynamics in certainother transitional water bodies of the Mediterranean Basin. These changes indicate normal running of seasonal processes in the macrobenthic communities of Taman Bay in 2008 rather than the consequences of a catastrophic black oil spill in the Kerch Strait in November 2007.

  19. Sponges as sentinels: Metal accumulation using transplanted sponges across a metal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew R; de Mestre, Corrine; Maher, William; Krikowa, Frank; Broad, Allison

    2014-12-01

    To be effective sentinels, organisms must be able to be readily translocated to contamination hotspots. The authors sought to assess metal accumulation in genetically identical explants of a relatively common estuarine sponge, Suberites cf. diversicolor. Explants were transplanted to 7 locations across a metal contamination gradient in a large coastal estuary in southeastern Australia to establish, first, that explants of this species could be successfully translocated; second, that explants accumulated metals (cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc) sufficiently rapidly to be effective sentinels; third, that rates of metal accumulation in explants were in agreement with metal concentrations within sediments (<63-µm fraction) at each of the transplant locations; and finally, that changes in explant biomass correlated with overall metal load. Suberites were readily transplanted, with no mortality observed for the 2 mo of transplantation. Metal accumulation for lead, cadmium, and zinc was in close agreement with sediment metal concentrations, and explants showed dramatic increases in these metals in the heavily contaminated northern sections of the estuarine lake. No striking patterns were apparent for copper and selenium. Finally, growth was negatively correlated with total metal load and standardized total metal load in our explants. Taken together, these outcomes confirm that explants of this sponge are amenable to translocation and show considerable promise as biomonitors. PMID:25208806

  20. Bioavailability of PAHs in aluminum smelter affected sediments: evaluation through assessment of pore water concentrations and in vivo bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Bøyum, Olav; Grung, Merete; Næs, Kristoffer

    2010-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal tar pitch polluted sediments was predicted by (1) a generic approach based on organic carbon-water partitioning and Gibbs linear free energy relationship (between K(OW) and K(OC)), and (2) measurements of freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs in the sediment pore water, using passive samplers and solid phase extraction. Results from these predictions were compared with those from in vivo bioaccumulation experiments using Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta), Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda), and Nuculoma tenuis (Bivalvia). Measured sediment/water partition coefficients were higher than predicted by the generic approach. Furthermore, predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from measured pore water concentrations were more in agreement with the bioaccumulation observed for two of the three species. Discrepancies associated with the third species (N. tenuis) were likely a result of particles remaining in the intestine (as shown by microscopic evaluation). These results indicate the importance of conducting site-specific evaluations of pore water concentrations and/or bioaccumulation studies by direct measurements to accurately provide a basis for risk assessment and remediation plans. The importance of knowledge regarding specific characteristics of model organisms is emphasized.

  1. The use of lipid markers to define sources of organic matter in sediment and food web of the intertidal salt-marsh-flat ecosystem of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Tarik; Bodineau, Laurent; Retiere, Christian; Thoumelin, Guy

    1997-12-01

    Salt marsh plants and seven surface sediment samples along a transect in the intertidal flat area of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay were analysed for fatty acids and sterols. The presence of lipid markers of halophytes (long-chain fatty acids, 18:3ω3, and phytosterols) in the surface layers of the sediment confirms the export of organic matter from the salt marsh to the intertidal flat. The spatial distribution of this organic matter over the tidal-flat area was controlled by the tidal currents and the presence of mussel beds. Lipid markers of diatoms (20:5ω3 and brassicasterol) and bacteria (18:1ω7 and odd, linear and branched, fatty acids) were also found in the surface sediments. Diatoms and benthic bacteria as well as organic matter from the salt marsh were the significant food sources available to the macrozoobenthos on the intertidal flat. The ingestion of these food types by the dominant species of the macrozoobenthos was confirmed by the presence of their respective lipid markers in the animals. The presence of these markers in animals subjected to a starvation experiment confirmed that these food types are really assimilated. The lipid composition of the starved animals indicated that the species studied were able to accumulate the fatty acid 20:5ω3 (considered to be a diatom marker), and that the annelid Nereis diversicolor supported an internal bacterial population.

  2. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Susana M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Largo Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Moreira-Santos, Matilde [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Largo Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro, Rui [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: rui.ribeiro@zoo.uc.pt

    2006-01-15

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Mueller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. - A new sub-lethal toxicity assay is presented for marine invertebrates.

  3. Cloning and expression of the metalloprotein (MPⅡ) gene from polychaetes Perinereis aibuhitensis (Annelida: Polychaeta)%双齿围沙蚕金属结合蛋白(MPⅡ)基因克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大佐; 周一兵; 陈雪; 周笑孝; 王斌; 袁秀堂; 孙静波

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the partial cDNA of metalloprotein Ⅱ (MPIT) was amplified from the total RNA of epidermis muscle of the polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with the primers designed based upon the homologous cDNA sequence of MPⅡ from Nereis diversicolor. Other primers were designed according to the partial sequence of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII and two fragments of approximately 600 bp and 250 bp were obtained using 3'- and S'-RACE, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a 904 bp cDNA containing an 81 bp 5'-untranslated region, 463 bp 3'-untranslated regions, and 357 bp open reading frame putatively encoding a protein of 119 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of MPⅡ was subjected to BLAST search for similarity with published sequences and it was found that MPⅡ shared high identity (81.51%) with Periserrula leucophryna hemerythrin, also with myohemerythrin of Nereis diversicolor (77.12%), and with the hemerythrin of Themiste zostericola (61.02%). Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of MPII contained the conserved motif (HX29HX3EX16HX3HX23/28HX4D) of the hemerythrin family of proteins, suggesting that MPII belongs to the hemerythrin family. The expression levels of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII were detected after exposure to 40 mg/L Cd2+ for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h using quantitative PCR. The expression levels of MPⅡ mRNA during 15 d were also detected under three concentrations of Cd2+. The current study showed that the expression levels of the MPII were approximately 12.6-fold higher (P<0.01) than control group at 40 mg/L Cd2+ after 72 h. The level of MPII mRNA produced in the muscle tissue of sandworm increased significantly following exposure to Cd2+ of 5, 10, and 20 mg/L after 15 d, and were above 4.8-fold than control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the expression level of the MPII increased with increasing concentrations of Cd2+. We suggest that heavy metal Cd2+ is associated

  4. Variation in volatile leaf oils of seven eucalyptus species harvested from Zerniza arboreta (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaissi, Ameur; Medini, Hanène; Simmonds, Monique; Lynen, Frederic; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2011-02-01

    Leaves of seven species of the genus Eucalyptus L'Hér., viz., E. cladocalyx F. Muell., E. citriodora Hook., E. diversicolor F. Muell., E. fasciculosa F. Muell., E. grandis W. Hill, E. ovata Labill., and E. botryoides Sm., were harvested from Zerniza arboreta (region of Sejnene, northwest of Tunisia) in June 2007. Of the latter species, leaves were collected from trees having two origins, Morocco and Italy. Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves provided essential oils in yields varying from 0.4±0.0 to 3.3±0.1%, according to the species. E. citriodora had the highest mean percentage of essential oil amongst the species examined, whereas the lowest one was obtained for E. botryoides originating from Morocco. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 140 compounds, representing 92.5 to 99.4% of the total oil composition. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole (2), followed by α-pinene (1), p-cymene, borneol, α-terpineol, cryptone, spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol (4), bicyclogermacrene (5), caryophyllene oxide, and β-phellandrene. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis separated the eight Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into five groups, each constituting a chemotype. PMID:21337508

  5. Fluoxetine Exhibits Pharmacological Effects and Trait-Based Sensitivity in a Marine Worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Cameron M; Urbina, Mauricio A; Lewis, Ceri N; Snape, Jason R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-08-01

    Global production of pharmacologically active compounds exceeds 100 000 tons annually, a proportion of which enters aquatic environments through patient use, improper medicine disposal, and production. These compounds are designed to have mode-of-action (MoA) effects on specific biological pathways, with potential to impact nontarget species. Here, we used MoA and trait-based approaches to quantify uptake and biological effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in filter and deposit feeding marine worms (Hediste diversicolor). Worms exposed to 10 μg L(-1), accumulated fluoxetine with a body burden over 270 times greater than exposure concentrations, resulting in ∼10% increased coelomic fluid serotonin, a pharmacological effect. Observed effects included weight loss (up to 2% at 500 μg L(-1)), decreased feeding rate (68% at 500 μg L(-1)), and altered metabolism (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and O/N from 10 μg L(-1)). Bioconcentration of fluoxetine was dependent on route of uptake, with filter feeding worms experiencing up to 130 times greater body burden ratios and increased magnitudes of effects than deposit feeders, a trait-based sensitivity likely as a consequence of fluoxetine partitioning to sediment. This study highlights how novel approaches such as MoA and trait-based methods can supplement environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. PMID:27379928

  6. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, K; Hansen, B; Jacobsen, R;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on soy supplementation suggest a cardioprotective potential. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol and arterial function as a result of dietary enrichment with soy supplementation. DESIGN: A Randomized, double blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING......: Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF...... in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial...

  7. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  8. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence

  9. Development of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system for tropical marine species in southern cebu, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo B. Largo

    2016-05-01

    The two-month old hatchery-bred donkey’s ear abalones can grow to a size of 53.8 × 28.2 mm (L × W and body weight of 37.8 g after a period of 12 months. Any expansion of the farm into a much larger commercial-scale farm will have to be complimented with seaweeds stocked around it if only to mitigate possible build-up of excess inorganic wastes—to serve as both a natural filter and as a source of natural feed. The potential use of an organic extractive species has to be further studied under farm condition to achieve its full potential as an IMTA species.

  10. Hairy suckers: the surface microstructure and its possible functional significance in the Octopus vulgaris sucker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tramacere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Octopus suckers are able to attach to any smooth surface and many rough surfaces. Here, we have discovered that the sucker surface, which has been hypothesised to be responsible for sealing the orifice during adhesion, is not smooth as previously assumed, but is completely covered by a dense network of hair-like micro-outgrowths. This finding is particularly important because it provides another demonstration of the role of hair-structures in a sealing mechanism in water, similar to that previously described for clingfish and abalones. Moreover, the discovered hairs may provide an additional adhesive mechanism that works in concert with suction. The discovered surface structures might be potentially interesting for biomimetics of novel technical suction cups with improved adhesion capabilities on non-smooth surfaces.

  11. Hairy suckers: the surface microstructure and its possible functional significance in the Octopus vulgaris sucker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Appel, Esther; Mazzolai, Barbara; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to any smooth surface and many rough surfaces. Here, we have discovered that the sucker surface, which has been hypothesised to be responsible for sealing the orifice during adhesion, is not smooth as previously assumed, but is completely covered by a dense network of hair-like micro-outgrowths. This finding is particularly important because it provides another demonstration of the role of hair-structures in a sealing mechanism in water, similar to that previously described for clingfish and abalones. Moreover, the discovered hairs may provide an additional adhesive mechanism that works in concert with suction. The discovered surface structures might be potentially interesting for biomimetics of novel technical suction cups with improved adhesion capabilities on non-smooth surfaces. PMID:24991492

  12. A CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MIXED NUMERIC AND CATEGORICAL DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ohn Mar San; Van-Nam Huynh; Yoshiteru Nakamori

    2003-01-01

    Most of the earlier work on clustering mainly focused on numeric data whose inherent geometric properties can be exploited to naturally define distance functions between data points. However, data mining applications frequently involve many datasets that also consists of mixed numeric and categorical attributes. In this paper we present a clustering algorithm which is based on the k-means algorithm. The algorithm clusters objects with numeric and categorical attributes in a way similar to k-means. The object similarity measure is derived from both numeric and categorical attributes. When applied to numeric data, the algorithm is identical to the k-means. The main result of this paper is to provide a method to update the "cluster centers" of clustering objects described by mixed numeric and categorical attributes in the clustering process to minimize the clustering cost function. The clustering performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with the two well known data sets, namely credit approval and abalone databases.

  13. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  14. Predicting the Dispersal Potential of an Invasive Polychaete Pest along a Complex Coastal Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Andrew A; Matthee, Conrad A; Loveday, Benjamin R; Simon, Carol A

    2016-10-01

    Boccardia proboscidea is a recently introduced polychaete in South Africa where it is a notorious pest of commercially reared abalone. Populations were originally restricted to abalone farms but a recent exodus into the wild at some localities has raised conservation concerns due to the species' invasive status in other parts of the world. Here, we assessed the dispersal potential of B. proboscidea by using a population genetic and oceanographic modeling approach. Since the worm is in its incipient stages of a potential invasion, we used the closely related Polydora hoplura as a proxy due its similar reproductive strategy and its status as a pest of commercially reared oysters in the country. Populations of P. hoplura were sampled from seven different localities and a section of the mtDNA gene, Cyt b and the intron ATPSa was amplified. A high resolution model of the coastal waters around southern Africa was constructed using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Larvae were represented by passive drifters that were deployed at specific points along the coast and dispersal was quantified after a 12-month integration period. Our results showed discordance between the genetic and modeling data. There was low genetic structure (Φ = 0.04 for both markers) and no geographic patterning of mtDNA and nDNA haplotypes. However, the dispersal model found limited connectivity around Cape Point-a major phylogeographic barrier on the southern African coast. This discordance was attributed to anthropogenic movement of larvae and adult worms due to vectors such as aquaculture and shipping. As such, we hypothesized that cryptic dispersal could be overestimating genetic connectivity. Though wild populations of B. proboscidea could become isolated due to the Cape Point barrier, anthropogenic movement may play the critical role in facilitating the dispersal and spread of this species on the southern African coast.

  15. Parallel evolution of nacre building gene sets in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben; Moase, Patrick; Rose, Robert A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Montagnani, Caroline; Joubert, Caroline; Piquemal, David; Degnan, Bernard M

    2010-03-01

    The capacity to biomineralize is closely linked to the rapid expansion of animal life during the early Cambrian, with many skeletonized phyla first appearing in the fossil record at this time. The appearance of disparate molluscan forms during this period leaves open the possibility that shells evolved independently and in parallel in at least some groups. To test this proposition and gain insight into the evolution of structural genes that contribute to shell fabrication, we compared genes expressed in nacre (mother-of-pearl) forming cells in the mantle of the bivalve Pinctada maxima and the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Despite both species having highly lustrous nacre, we find extensive differences in these expressed gene sets. Following the removal of housekeeping genes, less than 10% of all gene clusters are shared between these molluscs, with some being conserved biomineralization genes that are also found in deuterostomes. These differences extend to secreted proteins that may localize to the organic shell matrix, with less than 15% of this secretome being shared. Despite these differences, H. asinina and P. maxima both secrete proteins with repetitive low-complexity domains (RLCDs). Pinctada maxima RLCD proteins-for example, the shematrins-are predominated by silk/fibroin-like domains, which are absent from the H. asinina data set. Comparisons of shematrin genes across three species of Pinctada indicate that this gene family has undergone extensive divergent evolution within pearl oysters. We also detect fundamental bivalve-gastropod differences in extracellular matrix proteins involved in mollusc-shell formation. Pinctada maxima expresses a chitin synthase at high levels and several chitin deacetylation genes, whereas only one protein involved in chitin interactions is present in the H. asinina data set, suggesting that the organic matrix on which calcification proceeds differs fundamentally between these species. Large-scale differences in genes expressed

  16. Have the bioavailabilities of trace metals to a suite of biomonitors changed over three decades in SW England estuaries historically affected by mining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P S; Kriefman, S; Smith, B D; Luoma, S N

    2011-03-15

    Many estuaries of southwest England were heavily contaminated with toxic metals associated with the mining of copper and other metals, particularly between 1850 and 1900. The question remains whether the passage of time has brought remediation to these estuaries. In 2003 and 2006 we revisited sites in 5 metal-contaminated estuaries sampled in the 1970s and 1980s - Restronguet Creek, Gannel, West Looe, East Looe and Tavy. We evaluate changes in metal contamination in sediments and in metal bioavailabilities in sediments and water to local organisms employed as biomonitors. We find that the decline in contamination in these estuaries is complex. Differences in bioavailable contamination in the water column were detectable, as were significant detectable changes in at least some estuaries in bioavailable metal contamination originating from sediments. However, in the 100 years since mining activities declined, bioavailable contamination has not declined to the regional baseline in any estuary affected by the mine wastes. The greatest decline in contamination occurred in the one instance (East Looe) where a previous industrial source of (Ag) contamination was considered. We used the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum as biomonitors of dissolved metal bioavailabilities and the deposit feeders Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana as biomonitors of bioavailable metal in sediments. We found no systematic decrease in the atypically high Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the estuarine sediments over a 26 year period. Accumulated metal (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the deposit feeders are similarly still atypically high in at least one estuary for each metal, and there is no consistent evidence for general decreases in sediment metal bioavailabilities over time. We conclude that the legacy of mining in sheltered estuaries of southwest England is the ongoing presence of sediments rich in metals bioavailable to deposit feeders, while

  17. Macrofaunal communities in the habitats of intertidal marshes along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Elliott, M.; Cattrijsse, A.

    2009-08-01

    The macrobenthos is important in benthic remineralization processes; it represents a trophic link and is also often used as a bio-indicator in monitoring programs. Variations of the environmental parameters strongly influence the structure of the macrobenthic communities in the marshes and since macrobenthos is the most important food item for marsh-visiting fish species in the Schelde, the variation in food resources can have a strong effect on the higher trophic level. The present study deals with the variation in macrobenthic communities in different habitats of intertidal marshes along the salinity gradient and the differences between the marsh creeks and the intertidal part of the estuary. The study measured density and species richness together with the biomass, and sampled a large intertidal channel and a smaller creek within five marshes along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary every six weeks between May and October in 2000. The small creeks had a smaller grain size and higher organic matter content than those in the large channel although the differences in the environmental parameters did not explain the different communities in the two habitats. Marshes had distinct macrobenthic communities but the abundance of macrofauna fluctuated along the estuary without an identifiable spatial trend. In contrast, the total biomass increased towards the euhaline area due to the domination of Nereis diversicolor. Diversity showed a significant positive correlation with the salinity. Comparison of the macrofaunal communities in the marsh with those on the intertidal flats of the estuary indicated similar trends in density, biomass and diversity along the salinity gradient. The density was similar in both habitats whereas biomass was much higher in the intertidal habitats of the estuary, partly due to the higher biomass of molluscs and annelids. Diversity indices were higher in the marsh, and the freshwater area had more species than in the estuary.

  18. Trophic resource partitioning within a shorebird community feeding on intertidal mudflat habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Kojadinovic, Jessica; Delaporte, Philippe; Rousseau, Pierre; Dupuy, Christine; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    In ecological systems, it is necessary to describe the trophic niches of species and their segregation or overlap to understand the distribution of species in the community. In oceanic systems, the community structure of top predators such as seabird communities has been well documented with many studies in several biogeographical areas. But for coastal habitats, very few investigations on the trophic structure have been carried out in avian communities. In this study, the trophic resource partitioning was investigated on eight of the most abundant species of a shorebird community on the central Atlantic coast of France. Our work comprised a comprehensive sample of birds with different ecomorphogical patterns and data on their main prey to encompass potential sources of overlap and segregation in this community. We examined the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of blood to investigate the trophic structure (1) on a temporal scale by comparing migration and wintering periods; (2) on a spatial scale through inter-site comparisons; and (3) on the community level within groups of phylogenetically related species. Diets appeared different in several cases between periods, between sites and between juveniles and adults for the same sites. A clear trophic partitioning was established with four functional groups of predators in winter inside the community. The Grey Plover, the Bar-tailed Godwit, the Curlew and a majority of the dunlins were worm-eaters mainly feeding on Nereis diversicolor or Nephtys hombergii. Two species were predominantly deposit-suspensivorous mollusc-eaters, including the Red Knot and the Black-tailed Godwit feeding mainly on Macoma balthica. The Oystercatcher fed mainly on suspensivorous molluscs like Cerastodrema edule and two species including the Redshank and some dunlins adopted opportunistic behaviours feeding on mudflat and/or in marshes.

  19. Influence of trophic position on organochlorine concentrations and compositional patterns in a marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Ugland, Karl Inne; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-11-01

    The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], p,p'-DDD [1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o.p'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene]), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers), hexachlorobenzene, and mirex was investigated in a marine food web from southeastern Norway. The food web consisted of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus), three species of gobys (Gobiusculus flavescens, Pomatoschistus sp., and Gobius niger), bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), cod (Gadus morhua), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The results show that interspecies differences in organochlorine (OC) compositional patterns in the food web depend on several factors (allometric, biochemical, physical, and physicochemical) specific to both the chemicals and the organisms. The importance of dietary accumulation and metabolic capacity increases toward higher trophic levels, while the OC patterns are to a larger extent determined by the lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds at lower trophic levels. Furthermore, stable nitrogen isotopes provided a continuous measure of trophic position, rendering us capable of quantifying the increases in the concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma dichorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and sigma chlordane (CHL) and the percentages of highly chlorinated PCBs through the food web. The information provided may be important for future modeling of the fate of organochlorine contaminants in marine food webs. PMID:12389914

  20. Nursery fidelity, food web interactions and primary sources of nutrition of the juveniles of Solea solea and S. senegalensis in the Tagus estuary (Portugal): A stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to assess site fidelity of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis juveniles, to investigate food web interactions and to determine the dominant nutrient pathways in two nursery areas in the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Samples of water from the main sources and from the nursery areas and respective saltmarsh creeks were collected for isotope analysis, as well as sediment, benthic microalgae, saltmarsh halophytes, S. solea, S. senegalensis and its main prey, Nereis diversicolor, Scrobicularia plana and Corophium spp. While site fidelity was high in 0-group juveniles, it was lower for 1-group juveniles, possibly due to an increase in mobility and energy demands with increasing size. Analysis of the food web revealed a complex net of relations. Particulate organic matter from the freshwater sources, from each nursery's waters and saltmarsh creeks presented similar isotopic composition. Sediment isotopic composition and saltmarsh halophytes also did not differentiate the two areas. All components of the food web from the benthic microalgae upwards were isotopically different between the nursery areas. These components were always more enriched in δ13C and δ15N at the lower nursery area than at the nursery located upstream, appearing as if there were two parallel trophic chains with little trophic interaction between each other. A mixture of carbon and nitrogen sources is probably being incorporated into the food web. The lower nursery area is more dependent upon an isotopically enriched energy pathway, composed of marine particulate organic matter, marine benthic microalgae and detritus of the C 4 saltmarsh halophyte Spartina maritima. The two nursery areas present a different level of dependence upon the freshwater and marine energy pathways, due to hydrological features, which should be taken into account for S. solea and S. senegalensis fisheries and habitat management.

  1. Impact of biodiversity-climate futures on primary production and metabolism in a model benthic estuarine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaelli Dave

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the effects of anthropogenically-driven changes in global temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and biodiversity on the functionality of marine ecosystems is crucial for predicting and managing the associated impacts. Coastal ecosystems are important sources of carbon (primary production to shelf waters and play a vital role in global nutrient cycling. These systems are especially vulnerable to the effects of human activities and will be the first areas impacted by rising sea levels. Within these coastal ecosystems, microalgal assemblages (microphytobenthos: MPB are vital for autochthonous carbon fixation. The level of in situ production by MPB mediates the net carbon cycling of transitional ecosystems between net heterotrophic or autotrophic metabolism. In this study, we examine the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (370, 600, and 1000 ppmv, temperature (6°C, 12°C, and 18°C and invertebrate biodiversity on MPB biomass in experimental systems. We assembled communities of three common grazing invertebrates (Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor in monoculture and in all possible multispecies combinations. This experimental design specifically addresses interactions between the selected climate change variables and any ecological consequences caused by changes in species composition or richness. Results The effects of elevated CO2 concentration, temperature and invertebrate diversity were not additive, rather they interacted to determine MPB biomass, and overall this effect was negative. Diversity effects were underpinned by strong species composition effects, illustrating the importance of individual species identity. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that in natural systems, the complex interactions between changing environmental conditions and any associated changes in invertebrate assemblage structure are likely to reduce MPB biomass. Furthermore

  2. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. PMID:26129849

  3. 福建省渔业工程与装备学科发展报告%Report on the advances in Fisheries Engineering and Equipment research in Fujan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国富; 朱健康; 许肖梅; 李林帮; 沈美耀; 郭明忠; 张澄茂; 颜阔秋; 叶翚

    2011-01-01

    渔业工程与装备是渔业生产现代化水平的重要标志之一,也是推进渔业生产方式转变的重要途径,是现代渔业科技不可或缺的重要组成。本文报道了福建省近年来所涉及的渔业工程与装备学科的发展现状,包括陆基养殖、港湾鱼类及鲍网箱养殖、深水区抗风浪网箱养殖、微孔增氧技术、湿颗粒饲料加工机械、大型网箱养殖安全监控技术、新型锚技术开发、闭式循环活鱼运输船、浮筏式消波堤、人工鱼礁、休闲渔业和风(能)光(太阳能)互补型海水淡化装置等。分析学科目前存在的问题并提出中期发展目标及“十二五”主攻方向。%The technical level of Fisheries Engineering and Equipment is one of the most important factors to indicate the mod- eruization of Fisheries. The researches and studies on Fisheries Engineering and Equipment is an indispensable branch of modem fisheries science and is an important measure to change fisheries production mode. Notability progresses have been achieved in researches and studies on Fisheries Engineering and Equipment in Fujian Province since 2000 year. The research advances about the facilities and Equipments and Engineering and their problems existed are reported in this paper. The facilities and engineering reported here include facilities and engineering applied in the land - based sea - farming such as pond and factory; the new cages made of HDPE for culturing fishes and for culturing abalone with new structure for abalone to adsorb; the equipments reported in- clude the machinery for manufacturing the granule of soft feed; the monitor for detecting the escape of fishes in offshore cages; new kind anchors and their anchoring technology; the boats equipped with water circle recycling to transport live fishes; the HDPE raft for the abatement of waves ; recreational fisheries and the small dissalting device driven by wind power and solar ener- gy; the

  4. 大型海藻龙须菜的生态特征%A Review on Ecological Characteristics of Sea Weed Gracilaria lemaneiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安鑫龙; 齐遵利; 李雪梅; 张秀文

    2009-01-01

    龙须菜(Gracilaria lemaneiformis)是产琼胶藻的优良品种。龙须菜新鲜的藻体具有独特的风味和营养保健功能,可用作鲍(Haliotis sp.)饵料或者加工成海洋蔬菜作为风味食品,并且其多糖成分具有抗肿瘤作用。龙须菜是海藻栽培学、食品科学、海洋药物学、海洋环境科学等多学科的研究对象,随着近海水域富营养化程度加剧、赤潮爆发频率和规模逐年增加以及人们对龙须菜克藻和吸收氮、磷能力的逐渐认识,

  5. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  6. Expression of Pax258 in the gastropod statocyst: insights into the antiquity of metazoan geosensory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    Most animals have sensory systems that allow them to balance and orient relative to the pull of gravity. Structures responsible for these functions range from very simple statocysts found in many aquatic invertebrates to the complex inner ear of mammals. Previous studies suggest that the specialized mechanosensory structures responsible for balance in vertebrates and insects may be homologous based on the requirement and expression of group II Pax genes (i.e., Pax-2/5/8 genes). Here we report the expression of a Pax-258 gene in the statocysts and other chemosensory and mechanosensory cells during the development of the gastropod mollusk Haliotis asinina, a member of the Lophotrochozoa. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of geosensory systems and the consistent expression of Pax-258 in the cells that form these systems, we propose that Pax-258, along with POU-III and -IV genes, has an ancient and conserved role in the formation of structures responsible for balance and geotaxis in eumetazoans.

  7. Ecological regulation of development: induction of marine invertebrate metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel; Leys, Sally P; Hinman, Veronica F; Woods, Rick; Lavin, Martin F; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-01-01

    In the marine environment a wide range of invertebrates have a pelagobenthic lifecycle that includes planktonic larval and benthic adult phases. Transition between these morphologically and ecologically distinct phases typically occurs when the developmentally competent larva comes into contact with a species-specific environmental cue. This cue acts as a morphogenetic signal that induces the completion of the postlarval/juvenile/adult developmental program at metamorphosis. The development of competence often occurs hours to days after the larva is morphologically mature. In the non-feeding--lecithotrophic--larvae of the ascidian Herdmania curvata and the gastropod mollusc Haliotis asinina, gene expression patterns in pre-competent and competent stages are markedly different, reflecting the different developmental states of these larval stages. For example, the expression of Hemps, an EGF-like signalling peptide required for the induction of Herdmania metamorphosis, increases in competent larvae. Induction of settlement and metamorphosis results in further changes in developmental gene expression, which apparently is necessary for the complete transformation of the larval body plan into the adult form.

  8. Developmental expression of COE across the Metazoa supports a conserved role in neuronal cell-type specification and mesodermal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Meyer, Néva P; Seaver, Elaine; Pang, Kevin; McDougall, Carmel; Moy, Vanessa N; Gordon, Kacy; Degnan, Bernard M; Martindale, Mark Q; Burke, Robert D; Peterson, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    The transcription factor COE (collier/olfactory-1/early B cell factor) is an unusual basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor as it lacks a basic domain and is maintained as a single copy gene in the genomes of all currently analysed non-vertebrate Metazoan genomes. Given the unique features of the COE gene, its proposed ancestral role in the specification of chemosensory neurons and the wealth of functional data from vertebrates and Drosophila, the evolutionary history of the COE gene can be readily investigated. We have examined the ways in which COE expression has diversified among the Metazoa by analysing its expression from representatives of four disparate invertebrate phyla: Ctenophora (Mnemiopsis leidyi); Mollusca (Haliotis asinina); Annelida (Capitella teleta and Chaetopterus) and Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). In addition, we have studied COE function with knockdown experiments in S. purpuratus, which indicate that COE is likely to be involved in repressing serotonergic cell fate in the apical ganglion of dipleurula larvae. These analyses suggest that COE has played an important role in the evolution of ectodermally derived tissues (likely primarily nervous tissues) and mesodermally derived tissues. Our results provide a broad evolutionary foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterisation and evolution of COE can be investigated.

  9. A SIMPLE FEEDING BEHAVIOR ASSAY TO STUDY THE ATTRACTANTS FOR CARNIVOROUS GASTROPODS%一种简单的研究肉食性腹足类诱食物质的摄食行为方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琛; 曾嶒; 罗霞; 冯永勤; 陈学敏

    2008-01-01

    迄今为止,国内外有关腹足类诱食物质的研究工作还很少,且主要集中在鲍等一些植食性种类上。这些工作大多套用在鱼类上常用的相关研究思路与实验装置。Sakata,et al.则专门建立了微晶纤维素平板法(Avicel plate method)利用摄食痕迹检索了皱纹盘鲍Haliotis discus等的诱食物质。在肉食性种类,Hodgson,et al.利用直接施加溶液的方法研究过氨基酸溶液、贻贝抽提液等与织纹螺(Bullia digitalis)伸吻行为的关系。但在肉食性腹足类上尚未见到有关用摄食指标检索诱食物质的研究报道。

  10. Aragonite twinning in gastropod nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Saruwatari, Kazuko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Aragonite twinning in gastropod nacre has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation technique. At the growth front of nacre, Haliotis discus hannai and Omphalius rusticus form a "stack-of-coins" structures, which consist of pseudo-hexagonal and elliptical aragonite tablets, respectively. SEM, EBSD, and TEM analyses revealed that these tablets are monolithic single crystal and almost free of the {1 1 0} twins that are common in aragonite of biotic or abiotic origin. The longest diagonal of the hexagon and the longer axis of the ellipse are parallel to the a-axis of aragonite. The crystal orientation of each tablet in a stack, measured by TEM-Kikuchi pattern analysis, is almost the same but there is occasionally {1 1 0} twin-like relationship between adjacent tablets along the stacking. On the other hand, the fibrous aragonite layer formed prior to the nacreous structure is composed of polycrystalline aragonite with high density of {1 1 0} twins. TEM observation suggests that the interlamellar organic sheet prevents the inheritance of the twins, by selecting only single domain of the twins, through the mineral bridge.

  11. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  12. Amino acid sequence and glycosylation of functional unit RtH2-e from Rapana thomasiana (gastropod) hemocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Stanka; Idakieva, Krasimira; Betzel, Christian; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2002-03-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin functional unit RtH2-e was determined by direct sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of peptides obtained by cleavage with EndoLysC proteinase, chymotrypsin, and trypsin. The single-polypeptide chain of RtH2-e consists of 413 amino acid residues and contains two consensus sequences NXS/T (positions 11-19 and 127-129), potential sites for N-glycosylation. Monosaccharide analysis of RtH2-e revealed a carbohydrate content of about 1.1% and the presence of xylose, fucose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating that only N-linked carbohydrate chains of high-mannose type seem to be present. On basis of the monosaccharide composition and MALDI-MS analysis of native and PNGase-F-treated chymotryptic glycopeptide fragment of RtH2-e the oligosaccharide Man(5)GlcNAc(2), attached to Asn(127), is suggested. Multiple sequence alignments with other molluscan hemocyanin e functional units revealed an identity of 63% to the cephalopod Octopus dofleini and of 69% to the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The present results are discussed in view of the recently determined X-ray structure of the functional unit g of the O. dofleini hemocyanin. PMID:11888200

  13. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siglreitmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material.

  14. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control.

  15. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  16. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  17. Biological identification and determination of optimum growth conditions for four species ofNavicula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiaobo; PANG Shaojun; LIU Feng; SHAN Tifeng; LI Jing

    2014-01-01

    Four species in the genus Navicula were isolated using the serial dilution method. Based on scanning elec-tron microscopy (SEM) and sequence comparisons of two segments of genes (small ribosomal subunit and large subunit of Rubisco), the species were identified asNavicula perminuta,N. pseudacceptata,N. vara, andN. rhynchocephala. Based on phylogenetic analysis and culture trials,there was a close relationship betweenN. perminutaandN. vara. Growth of these species was evaluated using measurements of optical density at 680 nm (OD680) under various environmental factors. Results showed that the optimum culture conditions were 25°C, 50-100 μmol photons m-2 s-1, pH 8.0, and salinities from 25 to 30. However, the favor-able salinity forN. perminuta was surprisingly high at 35. Nutrient requirement analysis demonstrated that growth ofNavicula depended on the availability of SiO32-. Their relative growth rates (RGR) peaked at the highest tested level (0.25 mmol/L). The optimal concentrations of NO3-and PO43- were 3.6 mmol/L and 0.18 mmol/L, respectively. Culture of theseNavicula species for abalone or sea cucumber aquaculture should take these factors into consideration.

  18. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  19. Effects of Temperature and pH of Culture Medium on Two Pleurotus Mycelium%温度和pH对侧耳属两菌株菌丝生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴政声; 翁祖英

    2005-01-01

    观察在不同温度和pH值条件下,鲍鱼菇8120(Pleurotus abalone 8120)和平菇P54(Pleurotus ostreatus P54)菌丝体的生长情况.结果表明:鲍鱼菇8120菌丝适宜生长温度为20℃~33℃,最适温度为22~28℃,适宜pH值为5.0~8.0,最适pH值为7.2~8.0;平菇P54菌丝适宜生长温度为20℃~33℃,最适温度为25℃~31℃,适宜pH值为5.0~8.0,最适PH值为6.0~6.5.

  20. 六种侧耳属食用菌子实体抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activities of Fruiting Bodies from Pleurotus.sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 缪钱江; 赵爽; 刘宇; 王守现; 许峰

    2015-01-01

    比较平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)、秀珍菇(Pleurotus geesteranus)、鲍鱼菇(Pleurotus abalones)、杏鲍菇(Pleurotus eryngii)、榆黄菇(Pleurotus citrinopileatus)和红平菇(Pleurotus diamor)6种侧耳属(Pleurotus)食用菌子实体的抗氧化作用,通过FRAP和邻苯三酚自氧化法评价6种食用菌多糖对Fe3+的还原和超氧阴离子的清除能力,检测6种食用菌中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性.结果表明,鲍鱼菇抗氧化活性最高,总抗氧化能力为327.60 μmol/g,超氧化物歧化酶总活力为1 111.85 U/g,对超氧阴离子的清除能力达到66.13%,具有深度研究的价值.

  1. Using Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh from southern Chile as a source of applied biological compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of seaweeds in Chile has been carried out for more than 60 years. More recently, seaweeds have been used for the production of alginate, agar and carrageenan, agricultural fertilizers and industrial aquaculture (feed for abalone and sea urchins, increasing the added value of this natural resource. In the Magellan Region (56ºS, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh presents the most extensive kelp forest, reaching a biomass of approximately 12 kg.m-2. Recent studies have shown potential benefits from adding M. pyrifera- derived flour to salmonid feed. Research is currently underway to evaluate the useof brown algae-derived products for marine aquaculture feed of Oncorhynchus mykiss in tanks. There was no apparent adverse effect on the evaluated parameters that can be attributed to the incorporation of M. pyrifera meal in the diets fed to salmonids. Even when the control diet had numerically the best performance in zootechnical terms, the analysis of variance of all parameters evaluated showed no significant differences with regard to diets containing M. pyrifera meal. These results demonstrated that seaweed meal has important benefits for animal health and nutrition that could be applied or tested in other marine organisms of commercial importance.

  2. An undergraduate laboratory activity on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Benjamin; Pritchett, Paige R; Messina, Troy C; Goadrich, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Vision and Change [AAAS, 2011] outlines a blueprint for modernizing biology education by addressing conceptual understanding of key concepts, such as the relationship between structure and function. The document also highlights skills necessary for student success in 21st century Biology, such as the use of modeling and simulation. Here we describe a laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the dynamic nature of protein structure and function through the use of a modeling technique known as molecular dynamics (MD). The activity takes place over two lab periods that are 3 hr each. The first lab period unpacks the basic approach behind MD simulations, beginning with the kinematic equations that all bioscience students learn in an introductory physics course. During this period students are taught rudimentary programming skills in Python while guided through simple modeling exercises that lead up to the simulation of the motion of a single atom. In the second lab period students extend concepts learned in the first period to develop skills in the use of expert MD software. Here students simulate and analyze changes in protein conformation resulting from temperature change, solvation, and phosphorylation. The article will describe how these activities can be carried out using free software packages, including Abalone and VMD/NAMD. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:130-139, 2016. PMID:26751047

  3. APPROACH TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL—PASTURALIZATION AROUND CHANGSHAN ISLANDS IN NORTHERN YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAHNGYao-guang; DONGLi-jing; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the data of resources,environment and foundation of production,applying principal compo-nents-clustering quantitative analysis,this article divides the maritime space of Changshan Islands into three regions of agricultural-pasturalization,providing a scientific basis for the rational distribution of marine cultivation.The three re-gions are as follows:1)The region of an agricultural-pasturalization in the northern part of maritime space.It includes Da Wangjia and Shicheng islans.The main production is cultivation of prawn and mollusks in sea beach,float raft culture of mussel in shallow sea and scallop ,and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine.2)The region of agricultur-al-pasturalization in the middle western part of maritime space.It includes Da Changshan and Guanglu islands and west-ern part of Xiao Chengshan Island.The man production is folat raft culture of mussel and scallop in shallow sea,and breed-ing of sea cucumber in submarine.3)The region of agricultural-pasturlization of the southeastem part of maritime space.It includes the eastern part of Xiao Chan Island,Haiyang and Zhangzi islands.The main production is breeding of abalone,sea cucumber,algaes and fish.

  4. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine K; Tinker, Martin T; Estes, James A; Conrad, Patricia A; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Melissa A; Jessup, David A; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2009-02-17

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery. PMID:19164513

  5. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  6. Nanoscale structural and functional mapping of nacre by scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilong; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2013-12-01

    Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure-function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The modulus of the mineral tablets is determined to be ~80 GPa and that of the organic biopolymer no more than 23 GPa, and the organic-inorganic interface width is determined to be about 34 ± 9 nm. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties. The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material. The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties.

  7. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  8. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  9. Introducción de especies en ambientes marinos chilenos: no solo exóticas, no siempre evidentes Introduction of species in Chilean marine environments: not only exotic, not always evident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El éxito económico del cultivo de especies marinas exóticas en Chile y el amplio desarrollo de la acuicultura en toda la costa, están convirtiendo la introducción de especies en una práctica frecuente. Algunas acciones han tenido impactos ecológicos importantes, y otras más recientes como el cultivo de abalones ya estarían provocándolos de forma indirecta, por la fuerte extracción de macroalgas usadas como alimento. Sin embargo, el fenómeno de introducción no se limita a especies exóticas, y puede abarcar la introducción accidental o intencional de cualquier especie nativa o con distribución en Chile, a cualquier ambiente donde no está presente por causas naturales. En este sentido, sería un fenómeno más común y con mayor extensión geográfica de lo supuesto, practicada por largo tiempo en la acuicultura y actividades relacionadas, involucrando también a organismos seleccionados o modificados genéticamente. Por otra parte, la normativa nacional e internacional parece ser insuficiente o poco eficaz para regular estas actividades, y hasta puede estar en conflicto con grandes intereses económicos. Potencialmente, el impacto histórico conjunto de estas prácticas sería alto, pero en general no se ha evaluado o es poco conocido. Conviene notar que la introducción no es infrecuente en la investigación marina científica o tecnológica, pero su efecto es tan desconocido como en otros ámbitos. Sería deseable que la comunidad científica del área de biología marina chilena tomara una posición más clara ante el problema, ya que la acuicultura comienza a verse como una disciplina en conflicto con la conservaciónThe economical success associated to the cultivation of exotic marine species in Chile, and the high development of aquaculture along the whole coast, are converting the introduction of species into a frequent practice. Some of these actions have had important ecological impacts, and others, more recent, such as

  10. Reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha e mancha amarela e responsividade a fungicidas Reaction of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and responsiveness to fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédio Rodrigo Tormen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, e mancha amarela, causada por Drechslera tritici-repentis, e sua responsividade ao controle químico com fungicidas, foi conduzido experimento de campo durante os invernos de 2009 e 2010, Itaara-RS. As cultivares avaliadas foram 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD 114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' e 'OR Pampeano'; na safra 2010, a cultivar 'CD 114' foi substituída pela OR Quartzo. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: P1 - testemunha sem aplicação de fungicida; P2 - fempropimorfe (560g ha-1 de i.a.; P3 - azoxistrobina + ciproconazol (60+24g ha-1 de i.a.; e P4 - piraclostrobina + metconazol (60+97,5g ha-1 de i.a.. Após a segunda aplicação, efetuaram-se avaliações semanais de severidade das doenças, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo da Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso da Doença (AACPD. Também foram determinados a produtividade e o peso do hectolitro. No que se refere à suscetibilidade às doenças, as cultivares estudadas apresentaram respostas distintas de um ano para o outro. Para ferrugem, o comportamento mostrou-se similar em ambos os anos, enquanto que, para mancha amarela, houve variação. Quanto à resposta ao controle químico, ocorreram variações de acordo com o patógeno e com o grau de suscetibilidade das cultivares. O uso integrado de resistência genética e controle químico mostrou-se mais efetivo para ferrugem da folha.Aiming to evaluate the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and their responsiveness to chemical fungicides, two field trials were carried out, during 2009 and 2010 winter's. The cultivars evaluated were: 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' and 'OR Pampeano'. In 2010, the 'CD 114' cultivar was replaced by Quartzo

  11. IOOS: Aiding Aquaculture Industries and Their Harvest with Near Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, H.; Shandy Buckley; Jan Newton; Julie Thomas

    2011-12-01

    West Coast aquaculture accounts for over 3000 jobs and brings in over 117 million in revenue to mostly small coastal communities. Larvae recruitment and growth in these systems are very susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and acidic waters (low pH). Since 2005, aquaculturists have observed a significant reduction in shellfish larvae production and recruitment. In 2008 and 2009, the Taylor Shellfish Company (Dabob Bay, WA) observed a loss of 80% in their hatchery production. Likewise in 2008, Whiskey Creek Shellfish Company (Netarts Bay, OR) produced only 25% of their normal crop. These businesses and local scientists suspect low pH to be the culprit in the declines. In 2007, the Monterey Abalone Company suffered a 60K loss in their harvest. After contacting local scientists it was determined that the abalone crop died from a harmful algal bloom event. In response, the three West Coast Regional Associations under the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (NANOOS, CeNCOOS and SCCOOS) are working in collaboration with the Ocean Science Trust, Ocean Protection Council, CA Sea Grant, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project to develop an observing and near real-time data delivery network focused on harmful algal blooms, the Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Alert Program and on ocean acidification, the California Current Acidification Network. The above organizations have participated in a number of workshops with members of the aquaculture community helping to design the network. It is clear that a spatial and temporal disconnect between the data needs of both groups exists. Aquaculture experts require daily and hourly data streams in the near-shore environment with a high degree of reliability in the data but not necessarily a high degree of accuracy. Conversely, scientists collect highly accurate data in the continental shelf and oceanic environment and model predictions on decadal scales. The

  12. Gastropod arginine kinases from Cellana grata and Aplysia kurodai. Isolation and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Inoue, N; Higashi, T; Mizobuchi, R; Sugimura, N; Yokouchi, K; Furukohri, T

    2000-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) was isolated from the radular muscle of the gastropod molluscs Cellana grata (subclass Prosobranchia) and Aplysia kurodai (subclass Opisthobranchia), respectively, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and DEAE-ion exchange chromatography. The denatured relative molecular mass values were estimated to be 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated enzyme from Aplysia gave a Km value of 0.6 mM for arginine and a Vmax value of 13 micromole Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) for the forward reaction. These values are comparable to other molluscan AKs. The cDNAs encoding Cellana and Aplysia AKs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequences of 1,608 and 1,239 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Cellana AK is 1044 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 347 amino acid residues, and that for A. kurodai is 1077 nucleotides and 354 residues. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were validated by chemical sequencing of internal lysyl endopeptidase peptides. The amino acid sequences of Cellana and Aplysia AKs showed the highest percent identity (66-73%) with those of the abalone Nordotis and turbanshell Battilus belonging to the same class Gastropoda. These AK sequences still have a strong homology (63-71%) with that of the chiton Liolophura (class Polyplacophora), which is believed to be one of the most primitive molluscs. On the other hand, these AK sequences are less homologous (55-57%) with that of the clam Pseudocardium (class Bivalvia), suggesting that the biological position of the class Polyplacophora should be reconsidered. PMID:11281267

  13. Effects of Bushen Yishou Capsule Residues on Culture of Pleurotus abalonus Han, K.M.Chen et.S.Cheng and Nutrition Composition Analysis%补肾益寿胶囊药渣栽培鲍鱼菇及营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈今朝; 谭永忠; 王新惠; 王慧超

    2012-01-01

    用补肾益寿胶囊药渣、木屑为主要原料栽培鲍鱼菇,筛选最适栽培配方并测定鲍鱼菇的营养成分.结果表明,栽培鲍鱼菇的最佳配方是补肾益寿胶囊药渣40%、木屑40%、麦麸18%、石膏1%和蔗糖1%.此时,鲍鱼菇菌丝体的日均长速为0.34 cm/d,生物学效率为55.8%.鲍鱼菇碳水化合物、粗蛋白、粗纤维、灰分和粗脂肪的含量分别为48.80%、19.76%、8.12%、9.21%和13.25%.%In this paper, Pleurotus abalonus Han, K. M. Chen et. S. Cheng was cultivated with Bushen Yishou capsule residues and wood chips as main raw materials, meanwhile, the most suitable cultivation formula was screened, and the nutrients composition of P. abalones was determined. The results showed that the optimal media for cultivating P. abalonus consists of 40 % Bushen Yishou capsule residues, 40 % wood chips, 18 % wheat bran,1 % gypsum and 1 % sucrose. The average daily speed of mycelia was 0. 34cm/d, while its biological efficiency was 55. 8 %. Carbohydrates, crude protein, crude fibre, ash and crude fat content of P. abalonus were 48. 80 % ,19.76 % ,8.12 % ,9.21 % and 13.25 % , respectively.

  14. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Weber

    Full Text Available Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3 (- as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+. The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  15. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  16. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  17. Inertial drives for micro- and nanorobots: two novel mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesch, Wolfgang; Buechi, Roland; Codourey, Alain; Siegwart, Roland Y.

    1995-12-01

    In micro or nanorobotics, high precision movement in two or more degrees of freedom is one of the main problems. Firstly, the positional precision has to be increased (Nanorobot Project, two new piezoelectric devices have been developed. `Abalone' is a 3-dof system that relies on the impact drive principle. The 38 mm X 33 mm X 9 mm slider can be moved to each position and orientation in a horizontal plane within a theoretically infinite workspace. In the stepping mode it achieves a speed of 1 mm/s in translation and 7 deg/s in rotation. Within the actuator's local range of 6 micrometers fine positioning is possible with a resolution better than 10 nm. `NanoCrab' is a bearingless rotational micromotor relying on the stick-slip effect. This 10 mm X 7 mm X 7 mm motor has the advantage of a relatively high torque at low rotational speed and an excellent runout. While the maximum velocity is 60 rpm, it reaches its highest torque of 0.3 mNm at 2 rpm. Another benefit is the powerless holding torque of 0.9 mNm. With a typical step of 0.1 mrad and a local resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than the step angle, NanoCrab can be very precisely adjusted. Design and measurements of the characteristics of these two mechanisms will be presented and compared with the theoretical analysis of inertial drives presented in a companion paper. Finally their integration into the Nanorobot system will be discussed.

  18. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  19. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; McDougall, Carmel; Green, Kathryn; Simpson, Fiona; Wörheide, Gert; Degnan, Bernard M

    2006-01-01

    Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl) deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables diversification of shell strength and

  20. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Kathryn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables

  1. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  2. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  3. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  4. 产纤维素酶食用菌筛选及其培养基的优化%Screening for Cellulase Producing Edible Fungi and Optimization of Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉萍; 张康; 叶红强; 王晓娟; 杨莎; 梅竹; 任欢欢

    2012-01-01

    利用刚果红杯碟快速筛选法对大白菇、金针菇、香菇、竹荪、磷盖红菇、杏鲍菇6种食用菌产纤维素酶能力进行比较,同时对高产纤维素酶食用菌的培养基最佳碳源和配方进行筛选、优化。结果表明:磷盖红菇出现透明圈最大,直径为20mm;对比羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)、豆渣、秸秆粉、葡萄糖4种碳源,豆渣对磷盖红菇产纤维素酶有促进作用,优化培养基为豆渣60g/L、硫酸铵2.0g/L、吐温-80 1.5mL/L、pH5.4。%The ability of six edible fungi,Russula delica Fr,Flammulina velutipe,Lentinus javanicus,Bamboo-sun,Russula lepida and Abalone mushroom,to produce cellulase were compared using the Congo red saucer rapid screening method.Meanwhile,the optimum carbon source and medium formula for cellulase production were screened and optimized.The result showed that Russula lepida produced the largest transparent rings of 20 mm in diameter,showing its high yield of cellulase.Among the four kinds of carbon source,CMC-Na,bean dregs,straw powder and glucose,the bean dregs promoted Russula lepida to produce cellulase.The optimized medium for cellulase production by Russula lepida was bean dregs 60 g/L,ammonium sulfate 2.0 g/L,Tween-80 1.5 mL/L,and pH 5.4.

  5. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Charles L; Robinson, Tamara B; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km(2). Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well-conserved coastline

  6. Analysis of the strengthening and toughening of a biomaterial interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Fan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Currey, J. D., Mechanical properties of mother of pearl in tension, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 1977, 196: 443—463.[2]Jackson, A. P., Vincent, J. F. V., Turner, R. M., The mechanical design of nacre, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 1988, 234: 415—440.[3]Wang, R. Z., Wen, H. B., Cui, F. Z. et al., Observations of damage morphologies in nacre during deformation and fracture, J. Mater. Sci., 1995, 30: 2299—2304.[4]Smith, B. L., Schaffer, T. E., Viani, M. et al., Molecular mechanistic origin of the toughness of natural adhesives, fibres and composites, Nature, 1999, 399: 761—763.[5]Addadi, L., Weiner, S., A pavement of pearl, Nature, 1997, 389: 912—915.[6]Schaffer,T. E., Ionescu-Zantti, C., Fritz, M. et al., Does abalone nacre form by heteroepiaxial nucleation or by growth through mineral bridges? Chem. Mater., 1997, 9: 1731—1740.[7]Vincent, J. F. V., Structural Biomaterials, New York; The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1982.[8]Song, F., Bai, Y. L., Effects of mineral bridges on the mechanical properties of nacre, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica (in Chinese), 2000, 21(Special Issue): 171—176.[9]Szuromi, P., Microstructural engineering of materials, Science, 1997, 277: 1183—1183.[10]Heuer, A. H., Fink, D. J., Laraia, J. L. et al., Innovative materials processing strategies: a biomimetic approach, Science, 1992, 255: 1098—1105.[11]Stupp, S. I., Braun, P. V., Molecular manipulation of microstructure: biomaterials, ceramics, and semiconductors, Science, 1997, 277: 1242—1248.[12]Watabe, N., Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in the invertebrates, Prog. Crystal Growth Charact., 1981, 4: 99—147.[13]Clegg, W. J., Kendall, K., Alford, N. M. et al., A simple way to make tough ceramics, Nature, 1990, 347: 455—457.[14]Jackson, A. P., Vincent, J. F. V., Briggs, D. et al., Application of surface analytical techniques to the study fracture surface of mother-of pearl, J. Mater. Science Letters, 1986, 5: 975—980.[15

  7. Codon-substitution models to detect adaptive evolution that account for heterogeneous selective pressures among site classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziheng; Swanson, Willie J

    2002-01-01

    The nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio (omega = d(N)/d(S)) provides a sensitive measure of selective pressure at the protein level, with omega values 1 indicating purifying selection, neutral evolution, and diversifying selection, respectively. Maximum likelihood models of codon substitution developed recently account for variable selective pressures among amino acid sites by employing a statistical distribution for the omega ratio among sites. Those models, called random-sites models, are suitable when we do not know a priori which sites are under what kind of selective pressure. Sometimes prior information (such as the tertiary structure of the protein) might be available to partition sites in the protein into different classes, which are expected to be under different selective pressures. It is then sensible to use such information in the model. In this paper, we implement maximum likelihood models for prepartitioned data sets, which account for the heterogeneity among site partitions by using different omega parameters for the partitions. The models, referred to as fixed-sites models, are also useful for combined analysis of multiple genes from the same set of species. We apply the models to data sets of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles from human populations and of the abalone sperm lysin genes. Structural information is used to partition sites in MHC into two classes: those in the antigen recognition site (ARS) and those outside. Positive selection is detected in the ARS by the fixed-sites models. Similarly, sites in lysin are classified into the buried and solvent-exposed classes according to the tertiary structure, and positive selection was detected at the solvent-exposed sites. The random-sites models identified a number of sites under positive selection in each data set, confirming and elaborating the results of the fixed-sites models. The analysis demonstrates the utility of the fixed-sites models, as well as

  8. Full-length cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Myosin Essential Light Chain Gene (MELC) from Hyriopsis cumingii%三角帆蚌肌球蛋白必需轻链基因(MELC)的cDNA全长克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒妙安; 胡杭娇; 陆晶莹; 徐宾朋; 王岩; 刘广绪; 郭晓令

    2013-01-01

    肌球蛋白必需轻链基因是EF-hand钙结合蛋白家族的成员,具有很强的Ca2+结合活性.为了研究三角帆蚌钙代谢基因调控机制,本研究采用同源克隆策略和RACE技术,从三角帆蚌外套膜组织中成功克隆得到肌球蛋白必需轻链基因(myosin essential light chain,MELC)的全长cDNA序列,共1119bp,开放阅读框468 bp(47~514),编码155个氨基酸,相对分子量为17.49 kD,理论等电点为4.53,基因序列提交GenBank的登录号为JX275828.通过PROSITE tools软件预测显示三角帆蚌MELC基因有一对保守的EF-hand结构域,可结合Ca2+,属于EF-hand钙结合蛋白家族.同源性比对分析显示,三角帆蚌MELC基因与合浦珠母贝(Pinctada fucata)、太平洋牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)、盘鲍(Haliotis discus discus)等海水贝类的MELC基因同源性最高,依次为69%、69%和68%.经实时荧光定量PCR检测,发现MELC基因在闭壳肌、外套膜、鳃、斧足、性腺、心脏、肝脏、肠等8个组织中均有表达,其中在外套膜、鳃和斧足等与贝类钙代谢相关的组织中表达量远高于肝脏、肠等消化器官,预示MELC基因可能参与三角帆蚌的钙代谢过程.不同Ca2+浓度处理实验的结果表明,随着水体中Ca2+浓度逐渐升高,三角帆蚌MELC基因在外套膜中的表达量呈先上调后下降的趋势,在60 mg/L时达到最高值,表明适宜的Ca2+浓度可以刺激MELC基因大量表达,而过高或过低的Ca2+浓度均会抑制MELC基因表达.实验结果表明三角帆蚌MELC基因与Ca2+吸收、转运与贮存相关,可能参与珍珠等生物矿化过程.%Hyriopsis cumingii is an important pearl-breeding mussel in China,and it grows fast and breeds pearls of good quality.In this study,We cloned a full-length cDNA sequence of myosin essential light chain gene(MELC) which was isolated from the mantle of Hyriopsis cumingii according to homology cloning strategy and SMART RACE-PCR technique.The full length cDNA sequence

  9. Mercury contents in shellfish sold in Qingdao City and their health risk:Distribution and health risk assessment%青岛市售贝类中总汞含量分布及人群健康风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 张磊

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the status of mercury pollution in the shellfish of Qingdao City, and mercury health risk for the population via consumption of shellfish production, a total of 181 samples for 8 types of shellfish including Ruditapes philippinarum, Argopectens irradias, Meretrix meretrix L, Sinonovacula, Haliotis asinine, Busycon canaliculatu, Ostrea riuularis Gould, Neptunea arthritica cumingii Crosse, were collected from the markets of 8 administrative regions in Qingdao from October in 2012 to April in 2013. The mercury contents in the shellfish samples were determined by the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The range of mercury contents in all the kinds of shellfish was from 0.001 mg·kg-1 to 0.098 mg·kg-1 . The average mercury content in Ruditapes philippinarum, Argopectens irradias, Meretrix meretrix L, Sinonovacula, Haliotis asinina Busycon canaliculatu, Ostrea riuularis Gould, Neptunea arthritica cumingii Crosse was 0.02, 0.039, 0.012, 0�013, 0.031, 0.030, 0.021, 0.020 mg·kg-1 , respectively. Among the production areas of shellfish in Qingdao, the samples from Hong Island had the highest average mercury content of 0.046 mg·kg-1 , followed by that from Longkou of 0. 027 mg·kg-1 . Shellfish samples from Rushan and Rizhao had the lowest mercury contents, which were 0. 002 mg·kg-1 and 0. 003 mg·kg-1 , respectively. The mercury concentrations were under the limit of national permitted levels in foods ( GB 2762-2012, 0.5 mg·kg-1 ) . The results of the assessments of mercury intake indicated that the amount of mercury intake through consumption of shellfish was far below the acceptable daily intake recommended by FAO/WHO. However, the calculation results of the target hazard quotient ( THQ) based on the new reference dose set by US Environmental Protection Agency showed that there was high mercury health risk for children living in the target areas through the exposure path of the consumption of shellfish products.%为了解青岛

  10. 天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床观察%Treatment of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline on premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志华; 刘宝山

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To observe the clinical curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint ser-traline in the treatment of premature ejaculation.Methods:100 premature ejaculation patients were randomly divid-ed into control group and observation group,50 cases in each group.The control group received oral sertraline,50 mg daily before bedtime,1 time /day;If sex was expected on the day,50 mg sertraline should be taken 4 ~6 hours before sex.On the basis of the treatment above,observation group received oral gastrodia and uncaria decoction (gastrodia elata,uncaria,haliotis,gardenia,etc.)at the same time,once a day in the morning or evening.The a-bove two groups received the treatment for 4 weeks.Vagina ejaculation latency time (intravaginal ejaculationg laten-cy time,IELT),spouses sexual satisfaction score and clinical total effective rate of two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate of control group and observation group was 59.18% and 79.07% respectively,with statistically significant differencce (P <0.05).The ejaculation latency time,improve-ment of the sexual satisfaction in patients and sexual partners in observation group was better than these of control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline treatment on pre-mature ejaculation is clear,which is feasible in the treatment of premature ejaculation.%目的:观察天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床疗效。方法:将100例早泄患者随机分为单用组和联合组,各50例。单用组予口服舍曲林,每日睡前服用50mg,1次/d;若预计当日发生性生活,则在性生活前4~6h 服用50mg。联合组:在上述治疗的同时,给予口服天麻钩藤饮(天麻、钩藤、石决明、栀子等)加减方药,1剂/d,早晚服用。上述两组均治疗4周。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后的阴道内射精潜伏时间(intravaginal ejaculationg

  11. 天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床观察%Treatment of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline on premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志华; 刘宝山

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床疗效。方法:将100例早泄患者随机分为单用组和联合组,各50例。单用组予口服舍曲林,每日睡前服用50mg,1次/d;若预计当日发生性生活,则在性生活前4~6h 服用50mg。联合组:在上述治疗的同时,给予口服天麻钩藤饮(天麻、钩藤、石决明、栀子等)加减方药,1剂/d,早晚服用。上述两组均治疗4周。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后的阴道内射精潜伏时间(intravaginal ejaculationg latency time,IELT)、配偶性生活满意度评分及临床总有效率。结果:单用组有效率为59.18%,联合组总有效率79.07%,两组总疗效比较,有统计学差异(P <0.05),联合组射精潜伏期时间,改善患者及性伴侣的性生活满意度方面优于单用组(P <0.05)。结论:天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄疗效明确,为治疗早泄的一种可行性治疗方法。%Objectives:To observe the clinical curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint ser-traline in the treatment of premature ejaculation.Methods:100 premature ejaculation patients were randomly divid-ed into control group and observation group,50 cases in each group.The control group received oral sertraline,50 mg daily before bedtime,1 time /day;If sex was expected on the day,50 mg sertraline should be taken 4 ~6 hours before sex.On the basis of the treatment above,observation group received oral gastrodia and uncaria decoction (gastrodia elata,uncaria,haliotis,gardenia,etc.)at the same time,once a day in the morning or evening.The a-bove two groups received the treatment for 4 weeks.Vagina ejaculation latency time (intravaginal ejaculationg laten-cy time,IELT),spouses sexual satisfaction score and clinical total effective rate of two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate of control group and observation

  12. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia

  13. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering

  14. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    synthetic indicator, is average. Moreover, on a scale from 0 to 1, the AMERBs score best in institutional aspects (0.54, followed by social aspects (0.49, and finally economic aspects (0.30. Thus, the institutional development and the social situation are at the moment "good", unlike the economic situation, which is, at the moment, "average" to "poor". Globally, the organizations of Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué and Totoral have good socioeconomic situations, whereas the other organizations are in average or bad shape. The study indicates that the cause of the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs is mostly economic results. Indeed, per capita income appears to be highly correlated with success, followed in importance by the antiquity of the AMERB and whether it is in a zone of urban influence. Finally, the species captured do not determine the socioeconomic success and, unexpectedly, the AMERBs with abalone (Concholepas concholepas obtain, on average, worse results than those exploiting other species.

  15. 碳源和氮源加富对脆江蓠生长及生化组分的影响%Effects of carbon and nitrogen enrichment on growth and biochemical composition in Gracilaria chouae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋海东; 毛玉泽; 郭晓亮; 沈淑芳; 方建光

    2015-01-01

    在实验室条件下研究了碳源(添加 CO2)和氮源(添加 NaNO3)加富对大型海藻脆江蓠(Gracilaria chouae)生长及其生化组成的影响。设置碳源加富(800µL/L CO2)和对照(400µL/L CO2)2个碳源处理组,氮源加富(100µmol/L、300µmol/L 和500µmol/L 3NO--N)和对照(10µmol/L 3NO--N)4个氮源处理组,每个处理3个重复。实验共进行10 d,测定不同处理组藻体的生长及可溶性总糖(SS)、可溶性蛋白质(SP)、藻红蛋白(PE)、叶绿素a(Chla)、总碳(TC)和总氮(TN)含量的变化。结果表明,碳源和氮源加富都会促进脆江蓠的生长,在800µL/L CO2和100µmol/L 3NO--N处理组,脆江蓠的瞬时生长率(SGR)最大(11.70%/d);高浓度CO2会降低藻体SP、PE和Chla的含量,但提高了SS的含量;随着硝态氮浓度的增大, PE和SP含量逐渐增加,而SS含量逐渐降低, Chla含量没有明显变化。藻体的TN含量随着硝态氮浓度的增加而逐渐提高,而TC和C/N比值则呈现逐渐降低的趋势,并且藻体的TN和TC含量呈现出显著的负相关关系(P Gracilaria chouae (Rhodophyta, Rhodophyceae, Florideophycidae, Gigartinales, Gracilariaceae) is distributed in warm water along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces. It grows in stone bogs in the intertidal zone, and sandstone and shells in the subtidal zone. Gracilaria chouae is approximately 20–40 cm long with a rufous color and cylindrical fronds. The ecological effects of G. chouae are remarkable; for example, G. chouae has been used to improve pond water quality, because it absorbs N and P when it is growing. Moreover, it shows high economic value as both raw agar material and abalone feed. The majority of research on G. chouae has been about pond cultivation techniques, growth, uptake of nutrient and biochemical composition, and ultrastructure of vegetative cells. However, there are few reports on the interaction effects of C and N on its eco-physiological characteristics. This study investigated

  16. Identification of Pearl Powder Using Microscopic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy%显微红外反射光谱法快速鉴别珍珠粉真伪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轩; 胡超; 闫妍; 杨海峰; 李俊芳; 白桦; 席广成; 廖杰

    2014-01-01

    consumers .Identification of pearl powder was in-vestigated by microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy ,and pearl powder as well as shell powder was calcined at different temperatures for different time before infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis .The experimental results indicated that when calcined at 400 ℃ for 30 minutes under atmospheric pressure ,aragonite in pearl powder partly transformed into calcite ,while aragonite in shell powder completely transformed into calcite .At the same time ,the difference in phase transition between the pearl powders and shell powders can be easily detected by using the microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy .Therefore , based on the difference in their phase transition process ,infrared reflectance spectroscopy can be used to identify phase transfor-mation differences between pearl powder and shell powder .It’s more meaningfully that the proposed infrared reflectance spec-troscopy method was also investigated for the applicability to other common counterfeits ,such as oyster shell powders and abalo-ne shell powders ,and the results show that the method can be a simple ,efficiently and accurately method for identification of pearl powder .

  17. An analysis on importance of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of complications and symptoms of hypertension by QUEST algorithms%基于QUEST算法的高血压辨病对症治疗中药的重要性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文龙; 陈启兰; 陈辉珍; 祝光礼

    2015-01-01

    employed in all the patients paying visits for 755 times were summed up, and the individual drug frequency of presentation in the prescription was recorded. In the study, 171 sorts of TCM and 10 620 of cumulative frequency (freq.) were involved in 755 prescriptions. The average sorts of TCM was 14.07±1.53 per prescription. The top ten kinds of TCM the most commonly used (freq.) were as follows: tuckahoe (588), Chinese yam (551), wolfberry fruit (496), white peony root (442), abalone shell (405), gastrodia tuber (395), lilyturf root (325), Huai wheat (293), curcuma root (281), rush pith (277), accounting for 38.16% in the total frequency. There were 33 kinds of TCM with frequency > 100, accounting for 74.65% in the total frequency. By the analyses of QUEST algorithms directing to the complications and combination diseases to add or subtract the items of TCM, it was discovered that the drugs with ICR > 5% were as follows: in lacunar cerebral infarction, the drug application frequencies or ICRs of batryticated silkworm and bitter cardamom were 32.69% and 50.74% respectively; in coronary heart disease, the ICRs of pseudostellaria root, astragalus root, white sandal wood and lepidium seed were 23.05%, 17.70%, 15.31% and 5.06% respectively; in cardiac arrhythmia, the ICRs of astragalus root, flavescent sophora root, Huai wheat and dragon tooth and dragon bone were 46.65%, 11.56%, 7.56%, 7.13% and 6.28% respectively; in cardiac dysfunction, the ICRs of lepidium seed and white hyaciath bean were 92.97% and 7.03%; in hyperlipemia, the ICRs of cassia seed, white sandal wood, dried rehmannia root and sargentgloryvine stem were 24.26%, 12.47%, 10.51% and 5.81% respectively; in hyperglycemia, the ICRs of trichosanthes root and dried hawthorn fruit were 51.02% and 30.18%; in trace albuminuria, the ICR of snow in June herb was 83.33%; in elevation of creatinine in blood, the ICRs of Chinese actinidia root, herb of snow in June, glossy privet fruit and centella were 81.37%, 6.21%, 6

  18. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Hypertension with Syndrome Differentiation%辨证治疗高血压病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of syndrome differentiation in the treatment of hypertension. Methods:260 patients of hypertension were divided into 5 syndromes. The syndrome of ascendan hyperactivity of liver yang (98 cases) was treated by clearing liver-fire and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding,with Longdan Xiegan decoction and Tianma Gouteng yin. ( Composion:Getian 10 g,Gardenia 10 g,Skullcap 12 g,Gastrodia elata 20 g,Uncaria rhynchophylla 15 g,Raw abalone shell 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g, Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Tuber fleeceflower stem 30 g,Glycyrrhizae 5 g). The syndrome of liver -kidney yin deficiency(102 cases) was treated by nourishing liver and kidney and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding, with Qiju dihuang pills( Composion: The fruit of Chinese woliberry 20 g,Radix rehmanniae preparata 25 g,Chinese yam 30 g,The peony bark 10 g,Chrysanthemum 15 g, Crude dragonbone 20 g,Raw oyster shell20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Chuan cattle paint 15 g,Parasitic loranthus 20 g,Glycyrrhi-zae 6 g). The syndrome of phlegm-dampness internal exuberance(20 cases) was treated by expelling phlegm and resolving dampness and upraising purity and descend turbidness,with modified Banxia Baizhu Tianma decoction (Composion: Processed rhizoma Pinelliae 12 g,Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,Gastrodia elata 10 g,Rhizoma acori graminei 10 g, Poly gala tenuifolia 12 g,Radix curcumae 15 g,Pericarpium citri reticulatae 12 g,Bamboo shavings 15 g,Poria cocos 20 g,Semen coicis 15 g,Glycyrrhizae 6 g). The syndrome of static blood stasis in the interior( 15 cases) was treated by benifiting qi for nourishing blood and expelling blood stasis and dredging collaterals,with Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction. (Composion: Radix bupleuri 10 g, Astragalus mongholicus 20 g, Angelica sinensis 12 g,Iigusticum chuanxiong Hort 9 g,Peach seed 9 g,Red flower 9 g,Earthwarm 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g,Teasel 20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 12 g