Annual report 2013 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentina agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials; Relatorio anual 2013 - ABACC - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares
The document reports the activities of the commission and all technical activities. Shows the presence of ABACC at events; the strengthening technical capability; technical cooperation, institutional and administrative and financial activities; an outlook for 2014. Gives a list of the ABACC inspectors and presents the facilities under the Quadripartite Agreement.
ABACC: annual report 2012 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; ABACC: informe annual 2012 - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares
This document reports the actives during the year 2012 related to: technical activities as safeguards application and advances in application of safeguards; main activities conducted in Brazil and main activities developed at ABACC headquarters; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and of the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; institutional, administrative and financial activities; perspectives for 2013; list of inspectors; list of Brazilian and Argentine facilities subject to the Quadripartite Agreement.
ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia
Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.
Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others
Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.
Palacios, E. [Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, ABACC, Av. Rio Branco, 123, G 515, Centro, 20040-005 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
In July of 1991 Argentina and Brazil assume the commitment exclusively for the pacific use of the nuclear energy and of their respective nuclear programs through a Bilateral agreement. This Agreement also believes the ABACC, for monitoring the execution of the assumed commitments. From their beginnings, the Agency was involved in the application of safeguards in plants of ultra-centrifugation being this a so much topic of relevance for ABACC like for the IAEA. To preserve technological secrets, for demand of the operator, the cascades of centrifuges find hidden behind of panels. ABACC understanding this necessity, it has explored alternatives that allow to reconcile the interests of all the involved parts. A focus of safeguards based on the control of the perimeter one has come using in the plants of small installed capacity and in the first two cascades of a commercial plant in construction. In the work the efficiency of this focus is discussed as increases the capacity of the plant and with it concludes that it will be necessary to begin a dialogue on the future implementation of methods more standardized of control in the commercial plant, giving time so that the designs are adapted to the new reality. (Author)
Vo, Duc [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koskelo, Markku [AQUILA TECHNOLOGIES; Mcginnis, Brent [ORNL; Wang, Tzu - Feng [LLNL; Peerani, Paolo [IPSC, ISPRA, ITALY; Renha, Geraldo [ABACC, BRAZIL; Dias, Fabio C [NECB, BRAZIL
In November 2005, the international workshop 'Gamma Evaluation Codes for Plutonium and Uranium Isotope Abundance Measurements by High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Current Status and Future Challenges' was held in Karlsruhe, Germany. Some of the main issues discussed during the November 2005 meeting were related to concerns voiced by international inspectorate authorities such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) about the standardization and sustainability of gamma-ray isotopic analysis codes that are commonly used during safeguards inspections. A follow-up international workshop was conducted in Oak Ridge, TN in 2008. This workshop was in response to needs expressed by the international safeguards community during the Karlsruhe meeting and recommendations made under Action Sheet 14; a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and ABACC. The purpose of the Oak Ridge workshop was to bring code developers and end users together to better understand the capabilities and limitations of the codes; to discuss mechanisms to ensure these codes are sustained and quality tested; and to ensure updates or revisions are performed in a controlled manner. During an Action Sheet 14 meeting held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in which the IAEA and EURATOM participated as observers, and in subsequent meetings of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), all parties agreed that the regional working group initially established under the DOE/ABACC cooperation should be expanded to an international working group. The purpose of the international working group is to provide a forum to exchange information, discuss technical developments, and validate and test the various codes. However, progress to formally establish the working has been slowed by a lack of dedicated funding and
Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis
The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.
Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: email@example.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao
Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)
Fiscal year (FY) 1996 was a very good year for New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), whose major sponsor is the Office of Safeguards and Security (NN-51) in the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Security Affairs. Several projects pertinent to the NBL mission were completed, and NBL`s interactions with partners and customers were encouraging. Among the partners with which NBL interacted in this report period were the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), NN-51. Environmental Program Group of the DOE Chicago Operations Office, International Safeguards Project Office, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Ukraine Working Group, Fissile Materials Assurance Working Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Belgium, Brazilian/Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, and other DOE facilities and laboratories. NBL staff publications, participation in safeguards assistance and other nuclear programs, development of new reference materials, involvement in the updating and refinement of DOE documents, service in enhancing the science education of others, and other related activities enhanced NBL`s status among DOE laboratories and facilities. Noteworthy are the facts that NBL`s small inventory of nuclear materials is accurately accounted for, and, as in past years, its materials and human resources were used in peaceful nuclear activities worldwide.
The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)
Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL
This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.
Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Perez, A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schoeneman, J.L.; Dupree, S.A.; Martinez, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maxey, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
As part of the International Remote Monitoring Project field trials, during the month of March, 1995 a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog temperature and gamma radiation sensors and digital motion and electronic fiber-optic seals connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). All sensor data are authenticated and transmitted via RF link to Receiver Processor Units (RPU) coupled to Remote Monitoring System equipment located in a nearby IAEA/ENREN inspector office. One of these RPUs is connected to Remote Monitoring equipment capable of information transmission (via commercial telephone links) to Data Review Stations (DRS) at ENREN laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The other RPU is used for on-site data storage and analysis. It is anticipated that this information will soon be transmitted to a DRS at the ABACC facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During these trials site data will be collected and analyzed periodically from Buenos Aires, Albuquerque, and Rio de Janeiro. Installation detail and data analysis will be presented in this paper.
Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Savina, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hebden, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division
A handheld implementation of the ABACC-developed Cristallini method, which captures uranium hexafluoride samples as an inert salt, was organized in FY17 and succeeded in demonstrating the handheld sampler concept with reactive hexafluoride gases. The Cristallini method relies on the use of a hydrated substrate to react the incoming hexafluoride resulting in the formation of a stable uranyl fluoride salt. The Cristallini method has been demonstrated as a facility modification installed near the sampling tap of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant. While very successful in reducing the hazards of uranium hexafluoride sample, the method still takes a considerable amount of time and can only be used in facilities where the apparatus has been installed; this arrangement generally prohibits the sampling of filled cylinders that have already exited the facility and have been deposited in the on-site tank storage yard. The handheld unit under development will allow the use of the Cristallini method at facilities that have not been converted as well as tanks in the storage yard. The handheld system utilizes an active vacuum system, rather than a passive vacuum system in the facility setup, to drive the uranium hexafluoride onto the adsorbing media. The handheld unit will be battery operated for fully autonomous operation and will include onboard pressure sensing and flushing capability. To date, the system concept of operations was demonstrated with tungsten hexafluoride that showed the active vacuum pump with multiple cartridges of adsorbing media was viable. Concurrently, the hardened prototype system was developed and tested; removable sample cartridges were developed (the only non-COTS component to date); and preparations were made for uranium tests and a domestic field test.
Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Higa, Z. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dupree, S.A.; Schoeneman, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
As a part of the International Remote Monitoring Project, during March 1995, a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog sensors for temperature and gamma radiation measurement; digital sensors for motion detection; and electronic fiber-optic seals. The monitoring system for each silo is connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). This paper describes the operation of the RMS during the first year of the trial and presents the results of the signals reported by the system compared with the on site inspections conducted by the regulatory bodies, ABACC, IAEA, ENREN. As an additional security feature, each sensor periodically transmits authenticated State-of-Health (SOH) messages. This feature provides assurance that all sensors are operational and have not been tampered with. The details of the transmitted information and the incidents of loss of SOH, referred to as Missing SOH Event, and the possible causes which produced the MSOHE are described. The RMS at the embalse facility uses gamma radiation detectors in a strong radiation field of spent fuel dry storage silos. The detectors are Geiger Muller tubes and Silicon solid state diodes. The study of the thermal drift of electronics in GM detectors and the possible radiation damage in silicon detectors is shown. Since the initial installation, the system has been successfully interrogated from Buenos Aires and Albuquerque. The experience gained, and the small changes made in the hardware in order to improve the performance of the system is presented.
Edson José Perosa
Full Text Available A AIEA foi criada em 1957 após a proposta ‘‘átomos para paz’’ do presidente estadunidense Eisenhower, apresentada na ONU em 1953. A Agência deveria promover o uso pacífico da energia nuclear e coibir seu uso militar. O Tratado de Não Proliferação Nuclear (TNP, por sua vez, foi aprovado em 1968 e entrou em vigor em 1970. Os países que aderissem a esse tratado se comprometiam em não desenvolver armas nucleares e, por sua vez, os que já dispunham desses armamentos se comprometiam em reduzir seus arsenais. Esses são dois dos principais instrumentos do regime de não proliferação nuclear. O Brasil adotou uma postura crítica em relação ao TNP, criticando-o como sendo discriminatório. Com relação à AIEA, o governo brasileiro manteve contatos com a Agência e firmou tratados com ela – como o tratado tripartite Brasil-RFA-AIEA e o tratado quadripartite Brasil-Argentina-AIEA-ABACC. Diferentemente de outros atores do regime de não proliferação, o Brasil pareceu mais disposto a aceitar a tutela da AIEA, ainda que não aderisse integralmente às salvaguardas da Agência. Ademais, a Agência – por meio dos tratados assinados com ela – pode ter sido um meio para o Brasil tentar legitimar seu programa nuclear como pacífico.
彝语南部方言纳苏话存在大量的词重叠用法，主要有AA、AAB、ABB、ABA、AABB、ABAB、ABAC、ABCB及ABACC式等九种主要类型。作为一种超词结构，彝语南部方言纳苏话词重叠有调量作用，有时量或动量增加，程度加深，表褒义的情况，但也有更多的减量，表贬义。无论哪种情况，词重叠的灵活使用使彝语纳苏话表达更加形象生动，这可能源于彝族固有的诗意思维与诗化表达叙事传统，词重叠及其使用属于彝族诗体言语结构及其方式的一部分。%There are lots of words reduplication of the southern dialect of Yi language. They are mainly the followings nine types including AA, AAB, ABB, ABA, AABB, ABAB, ABAC, ABCB and ABACC. As an ultra word structure, Nasu words reduplication of the southern dialect of Yi language function as quantity change. Nasu words reduplication makes time and verbal quantity increase, the degree deepens and meanings commendatory, but more often it makes the quantity decrease and meanings derogatory. In either case, Nasu words reduplication makes their expression more vivid and live. This may be originated from Yi innate poetic thinking and poetic expressive narrative tradition. The reduplication belongs to a part of Yi poetic speech structure and mode.
Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions