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Sample records for aba-deficient flacca tomato

  1. ABA-deficiency results in reduced plant and fruit size in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsch, L.; Kohlen, W.; Oplaat, C.; Charnikhova, T.; Cristescu, S.; Michieli, P.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Mariani, C.; Vriezen, W.H.; Rieu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants, such as notabilis and flacca, have helped elucidating the role of ABA during plant development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). However, these mutants have only moderately decreased ABA levels. Here we report on plant and fruit

  2. Hormonal control of seed development in gibberellin- and ABA-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Developing seeds of tomato gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib1 and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient sitw mutants enabled us to analyze the role of GA in the regulation of embryo histo-differentiation, and the role of ABA in the regulation of maturation and quiescence. Our data show that DNA synthesis and

  3. Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth.

  4. Chemical signals and their interactions change transpiration processes in tomato wild-type and flacca mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, Ljiljana; Wollenweber, Bernd; Stikic, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    After the exposure to soil drying treatments, plants alkalize xylem sap. Xylem sap alkalization is not one a chemical signal per se, but it also facilitates the mobilization and redistribution of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Therefore, the objective of this paper was to investigate...... the effects of chemicalsignals on the mechanism of transpiration of isolated leaves of L. esculentum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig (WT) and mutant flacca. In bioassays, exogenic activity of different ABA concentrations and pH were tested in both genotype of tomato in order to stimulate chemical signals occurring...

  5. Water relations of GA- and ABA-deficient tomato mutants during seed and fruit development and their influence on germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bino, R.J.; Karssen, C.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    To explain the differing germination behaviour of seeds of wild type, gibberellin-deficient (gib1) or abscisic acid-deficient (sitw) mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker), growth and water relations of fruit tissues, seeds and embryos were determined during development.

  6. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND 03 ON RICE AND FLACCA TOMATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    All atmospheric concentrations of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (03) are increasing, with potentially dramatic effects on plants. This study was conducted to determine interactive effects of CO2 and 03 on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 74) and a 'wilty' mutant of tomato (Lyco...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  8. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  9. Hormonal regulation of seed development and germination in tomato : studies on abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seed development and germination of tomato, was studied with the use of GA- and/or ABA-deficient mutants.

    GAs are indispensable for the development of fertile flowers. Fertility of GA-deficient flowers is restored

  10. Long-distance ABA transport can mediate distal tissue responses by affecting local ABA concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenrao; de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2017-10-20

    Environmental stresses that perturb plant water relations influence abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, but it is unclear whether long-distance ABA transport contributes to changes in local ABA levels. To determine the physiological relevance of ABA transport, we made reciprocal- and self-grafts of ABA-deficient flacca mutant and wild-type (WT) tomato plants, in which low phosphorus (P) conditions decreased ABA concentrations while salinity increased ABA concentrations. Whereas foliar ABA concentrations in the WT scions were rootstock independent under normal conditions, salinity resulted in long-distance transport of ABA: flacca scions had approximately twice as much ABA when grafted on WT rootstocks compared to flacca rootstocks. Root ABA concentrations were scion dependent: both WT and flacca rootstocks had less ABA with the flacca mutant scion than with the WT scion under normal conditions. In WT scions, whereas rootstock genotype had limited effects on stomatal conductance under normal conditions, a flacca rootstock resulted in decreased leaf area in stressed plants, presumably due to attenuated root-to-shoot ABA transport. In flacca scions, a WT rootstock decreased stomatal conductance but increased leaf area of stressed plants, likely due to enhanced root-to-shoot ABA transport. Thus, long-distance ABA transport can affect responses in distal tissues by changing local ABA concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The ABA-deficiency suppressor locus HAS2 encodes the PPR protein LOI1/MEF11 involved in mitochondrial RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechet, Julien; Roux, Camille; Plessis, Anne; Effroy, Delphine; Frey, Anne; Perreau, François; Biniek, Catherine; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Macherel, David; North, Helen M; Mireau, Hakim; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2015-04-01

    The hot ABA-deficiency suppressor2 (has2) mutation increases drought tolerance and the ABA sensitivity of stomata closure and seed germination. Here we report that the HAS2 locus encodes the mitochondrial editing factor11 (MEF11), also known as lovastatin insensitive1. has2/mef11 mutants exhibited phenotypes very similar to the ABA-hypersensitive mutant, hai1-1 pp2ca-1 hab1-1 abi1-2, which is impaired in four genes encoding type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) that act as upstream negative regulators of the ABA signaling cascade. Like pp2c, mef11 plants were more resistant to progressive water stress and seed germination was more sensitive to paclobutrazol (a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor) as well as mannitol and NaCl, compared with the wild-type plants. Phenotypic alterations in mef11 were associated with the lack of editing of transcripts for the mitochondrial cytochrome c maturation FN2 (ccmFN2) gene, which encodes a cytochrome c-heme lyase subunit involved in cytochrome c biogenesis. Although the abundance of electron transfer chain complexes was not affected, their dysfunction could be deduced from increased respiration and altered production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in mef11 seeds. As minor defects in mitochondrial respiration affect ABA signaling, this suggests an essential role for ABA in mitochondrial retrograde regulation. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) increases root and cell hydraulic conductivity and abundance of some aquaporin isoforms in the ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, Guzel; Veselov, Dmitriy; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Fricke, Wieland; Dodd, Ian C.; Katsuhara, Maki; Furuichi, Takuya; Ivanov, Igor; Veselov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Regulation of water channel aquaporins (AQPs) provides another mechanism by which abscisic acid (ABA) may influence water flow through plants. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have addressed the changes in ABA levels, the abundance of AQPs and root cell hydraulic conductivity (LpCell) in the same tissues. Thus, we followed the mechanisms by which ABA affects root hydraulics in an ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34 and its parental line ‘Steptoe’. We compared the abundance of AQPs and ABA in cells to determine spatial correlations between AQP abundance and local ABA concentrations in different root tissues. In addition, abundance of AQPs and ABA in cortex cells was related to LpCell. Methods Root hydraulic conductivity (LpRoot) was measured by means of root exudation analyses and LpCell using a cell pressure probe. The abundance of ABA and AQPs in root tissues was assessed through immunohistochemical analyses. Isoform-specific antibodies raised against HvPIP2;1, HvPIP2;2 and HvPIP2;5 were used. Key Results Immunolocalization revealed lower ABA levels in root tissues of Az34 compared with ‘Steptoe’. Root hydraulic conductivity (LpRoot) was lower in Az34, yet the abundance of HvPIPs in root tissues was similar in the two genotypes. Root hair formation occurred closer to the tip, while the length of the root hair zone was shorter in Az34 than in ‘Steptoe’. Application of external ABA to the root medium of Az34 and ‘Steptoe’ increased the immunostaining of root cells for ABA and for HvPIP2;1 and HvPIP2;2 especially in root epidermal cells and the cortical cell layer located beneath, parallel to an increase in LpRoot and LpCell. Treatment of roots with Fenton reagent, which inhibits AQP activity, prevented the ABA-induced increase in root hydraulic conductivity. Conclusion Shortly after (hydraulics through other mechanisms, in particular the developmental timing of the formation of root hairs closer to the root tip and the length

  13. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA. For that, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ethylene overproducer epinastic (epi) mutant and the ABA-deficient notabilis (not) and sitiens (sit) mutants, in the same Micro-Tom (MT) genetic background, were inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus, and treated with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The development of AM, as well as the steady-state levels of transcripts involved in ethylene (LeACS2, LeACO1 and LeACO4) and ABA (LeNCED) biosynthesis, was determined. The intraradical colonization in epi, not and sit mutants was significantly reduced compared to MT. The epi mutant completely restored the mycorrhizal colonization to the levels of MT with the application of 10 µM of AVG, probably due to the inhibition of the ACC synthase gene expression. The steady-state levels of LeACS2 and LeACO4 transcripts were induced in mycorrhizal roots of MT, whereas the steady-state levels of LeACO1 and LeACO4 transcripts were significantly induced in sit, and the steady-state levels of LeNCED transcripts were significantly induced in all genotypes and in mycorrhizal roots of epi mutants treated with AVG. The reduced mycorrhizal colonization in sit mutants seems not to be limited by ethylene production via ACC oxidase regulation. Both ethylene overproduction and ABA deficiency impaired AM fungal

  14. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Francis Pye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-s-methyl-ester, BTH and Tiadinil (N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in WT and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by P. capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  15. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Matthew F; Hakuno, Fumiaki; Macdonald, James D; Bostock, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester, BTH) and Tiadinil [N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL]. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in wild-type and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by Phytophthora capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  16. Ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent ABA regulation of tomato plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; León-Morcillo, Rafael; Vierheilig, Horst; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between ABA and ethylene regulating the formation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and tried to define the specific roles played by each of these phytohormones in the mycorrhization process. We analysed the impact of ABA biosynthesis inhibition on mycorrhization by Glomus intraradices in transgenic tomato plants with an altered ethylene pathway. We also studied the effects on mycorrhization in sitiens plants treated with the aminoethoxyvinyl glycine hydrochloride (AVG) ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor and supplemented with ABA. In addition, the expression of plant and fungal genes involved in the mycorrhization process was studied. ABA biosynthesis inhibition qualitatively altered the parameters of mycorrhization in accordance with the plant's ethylene perception and ethylene biosynthesis abilities. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in wild-type plants negatively affected all the mycorrhization parameters studied, while tomato mutants impaired in ethylene synthesis only showed a reduced arbuscular abundance in mycorrhizal roots. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis in ABA-deficient sitiens plants increased the intensity of mycorrhiza development, while ABA application rescued arbuscule abundance in the root's mycorrhizal zones. The results of our study show an antagonistic interaction between ABA and ethylene, and different roles of each of the two hormones during AM formation. This suggests that a dual ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent mechanism is involved in ABA regulation of AM formation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  18. Stomatal VPD response: there is more to the story than ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Jalakas, Pirko; Parik, Helen; Tulva, Ingmar; Rasulov, Bakhtier; Kilk, Kalle; Kollist, Hannes

    2017-10-06

    Guard cells shrink and close stomatal pores when air humidity decreases, i.e. when the difference between the vapor pressures of leaf and atmosphere (VPD) increases. The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in VPD-induced stomatal closure has been studied using ABA-related mutants that respond to VPD in some studies and not in others. The importance of ABA biosynthesis in guard cells versus vasculature for the whole-plant stomatal regulation is also unclear. Here we show that Arabidopsis lines carrying mutations in different steps of ABA biosynthesis as well as pea wilty and tomato flacca ABA-deficient mutants had higher stomatal conductance compared to wildtype plants. To characterize the role of ABA production in different cells, we generated transgenic plants where ABA biosynthesis was rescued in guard cells or phloem companion cells of an ABA-deficient mutant. In both cases, the whole-plant stomatal conductance, stunted growth phenotype and leaf ABA level were restored to wildtype values, pointing to the redundancy of ABA sources and to the effectiveness of leaf ABA transport. All ABA-deficient lines closed their stomata rapidly and extensively in response to high VPD, whereas plants with mutated protein kinase OST1 showed stunted VPD-induced responses. Another strongly ABA-insensitive mutant defective in the six ABA PYR/RCAR receptors, responded to changes in VPD in both directions strongly and symmetrically, indicating that its VPD-induced closure could be passive hydraulic. We discuss that both the VPD-induced passive hydraulic stomatal closure and the stomatal VPD-regulation of ABA-deficient mutants may be conditional on the initial pretreatment stomatal conductance. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (tomato juice). (iv) Tomato paste, or tomato puree, or tomato pulp complying with the compositional... appropriate. (e) The name of the packing medium: “tomato paste”, “tomato puree”, or “tomato pulp” as provided...

  20. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  1. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  2. Tomato handling practices in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Elizabeth; Green, Laura R; Stone, Carmily; Reimann, Dave; Nicholas, Dave; Mason, Ryan; Frick, Roberta; Coleman, Sandra; Bushnell, Lisa; Blade, Henry; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, multiple outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been associated with fresh tomatoes. Investigations have indicated that tomato contamination likely occurred early in the farm-to-consumer chain, although tomato consumption occurred mostly in restaurants. Researchers have hypothesized that tomato handling practices in restaurants may contribute to these outbreaks. However, few empirical data exist on how restaurant workers handle tomatoes. This study was conducted to examine tomato handling practices in restaurants. Members of the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) observed tomato handling practices in 449 restaurants. The data indicated that handling tomatoes appropriately posed a challenge to many restaurants. Produce-only cutting boards were not used on 49% of tomato cutting observations, and gloves were not worn in 36% of tomato cutting observations. Although tomatoes were washed under running water as recommended in most (82%) of the washing observations, tomatoes were soaked in standing water, a practice not recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in 18% of observations, and the temperature differential between the wash water and tomatoes did not meet FDA guidelines in 21% of observations. About half of all batches of cut tomatoes in holding areas were above 41 degrees F (5 degrees C), the temperature recommended by the FDA. The maximum holding time for most (73%) of the cut tomatoes held above 41 degrees F exceeded the FDA recommended holding time of 4 h for unrefrigerated tomatoes (i.e., tomatoes held above 41 degrees F). The information provided by this study can be used to inform efforts to develop interventions and thus prevent tomato-associated illness outbreaks.

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Joyce; Kirk, Dwayne D; Walmsley, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is an important fruit crop in the Americas, southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, with increasing production in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. It is amenable to producing pharmaceuticals, particularly for oral delivery; for many of the same reasons, it is a popular vegetable. Its fruit does not contain toxic substances and is palatable uncooked; it is easily processed; the plants are able to be propagated by seed or clonally by tip or shoot cuttings; the plants have a high yield of fruit; there is reasonable biomass and protein content; and they are easily grown under containment. This chapter describes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the tomato nucleus using cotyledons as explants. We have used this protocol to generate transgenic lines from several tomato cultivars expressing various genes of interest and selectable markers. We also provide protocols for molecular characterization of transgenic lines and batch processing tomato fruit.

  4. Peeling tomato paste subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, Frank H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Common Market Organisation (CMO) for fruit and vegetable products is currently evaluated by the European Commission. The evaluation may lead to a reform of the CMO. One of the elements under debate is the production subsidy for processing tomatoes. The processing tomato sector is one of most heavily subsidized sectors in primary production of fruit and vegetables. The current production subsidy equals approximately 50% of producer turnover. This paper evaluates two possible reforms of the...

  5. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ,12,13-. THODA. It has recently been shown that the enzyme peroxygenase is involved in the synthe- sis of 9,12,13-THODA in tomato fruits and that this trihydroxy fatty acid was probably further broken down or converted into other metabo-.

  6. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Bai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    After its introduction in Europe the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has gone a long way. Dedicated breeding has resulted in numerous cultivars grown all over the world, differing in all kind of aspects such as yield, shape, resistance, taste and quality. Modern cultivars are sold as hybrids with a

  7. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan,; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R; Grinsven, van, Saskia

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

  8. Textural modification of processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  9. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The MMS medium was a mixture of 2.15 g of Murashige and Skoog me- dium, 0.97g of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulphonic acid and 10 g of saccharose in. 500 ml of distilled water. The pH of the MMS medium was adjusted to 5.6 with 1 M KOH solution. Plant material and treatments. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ...

  10. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  11. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  12. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diseases (often encouraged by mechanical damage) are clear indications of the ... transportation. However this loading may cause some level of deterioration to tomato if the load on it is beyond what the tomato can withstand. Hence if the load cannot be .... modulus is often useful in relating the mechanical properties of the ...

  13. Leucine aminopeptidase RNAs, proteins, and activities increase in response to water deficit, salinity, and the wound signals systemin, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao; Gu; Pautot; Bray; Walling

    1999-08-01

    LapA RNAs, proteins, and activities increased in response to systemin, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, water deficit, and salinity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Salicylic acid inhibited wound-induced increases of LapA RNAs. Experiments using the ABA-deficient flacca mutant indicated that ABA was essential for wound and systemin induction of LapA, and ABA and systemin acted synergistically to induce LapA gene expression. In contrast, pin2 (proteinase inhibitor 2) was not dependent on exogenous ABA. Whereas both LapA and le4 (L. esculentum dehydrin) were up-regulated by increases in ABA, salinity, and water deficit, only LapA was regulated by octadecanoid pathway signals. Comparison of LapA expression with that of the PR-1 (pathogenesis-related 1) and GluB (basic beta-1,3-glucanase) genes indicated that these PR protein genes were modulated by a systemin-independent jasmonic acid-signaling pathway. These studies showed that at least four signaling pathways were utilized during tomato wound and defense responses. Analysis of the expression of a LapA1:GUS gene in transgenic plants indicated that the LapA1 promoter was active during floral and fruit development and was used during vegetative growth only in response to wounding, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato infection, or wound signals. This comprehensive understanding of the regulation of LapA genes indicated that this regulatory program is distinct from the wound-induced pin2, ABA-responsive le4, and PR protein genes.

  14. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.5 Tomatoes. Tomatoes means all varieties of the edible fruit (Lycopersicon...

  15. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms were examined for ...

  16. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms.

  17. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  18. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  19. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  20. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from...

  1. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  2. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  3. Tomato plant inheritance of antixenotic resistance to tomato leafminer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Castro Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of resistance by antixenosis in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum to tomato leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Evaluations were performed for tomato plants of the generations P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and RC2. The measured characteristic in the parents, BGH-1497 (P2 male and 'Santa Clara' (P1 female, and in the F1, F2, RC1 and RC2 generations was the number of eggs per plant. This number was converted to the oviposition nonpreference index. The inheritance of antixenosis resistance of genotype BGH-1497 is ruled by a gene of greater effect and polygenes in epistatic interactions, with a phenotypic proportion of 13:3 between susceptible and resistant genotypes, respectively.

  4. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  5. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Adil; Negrão, Sónia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J L; Bougouffa, Salim; Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2017-07-20

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  6. First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms

  7. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    35mm and below, the material was able to withstand high pressure force radially than axially before yielding. Keywords: axial loading, radial loading, deformation, Instron universal compression test machine and tomato. 1. INTRODUCTION. Mechanical behavior of a compressed material at bioyield can be expressed in ...

  8. Temperature, light and the tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.

    1955-01-01

    In good illumination, six tomato varieties all responded to an increase in day or/and night temperature by faster stem and fruit growth, earlier but smaller fruit yield with fewer fruits in shorter and lighter clusters, and a reduction in root, stem and leaf weight. Optimum temperatures for moderate

  9. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Lindshield, Brian L; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2004-12-01

    Mounting evidence over the past decade suggests that the consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene, the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged, including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying specific components or combination of components in tomatoes that are responsible for reducing prostate cancer risk. We carried out cell culture trials to evaluate the effects of tomato carotenoids and tomato polyphenols on growth of prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated the ability of freeze-dried whole-tomato powder or lycopene alone to reduce growth of prostate tumors in rats. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence, evaluating the relationship between prostate cancer risk and tomato consumption, and presents experimental data from this and other laboratories that support the hypothesis that whole tomato and its phytochemical components reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  10. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  11. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-01-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophi...

  13. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  14. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  15. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  16. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  17. The case of tomato in Ghana: Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Elizabeth J. Z.; Kolavalli, Shashi L.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of highly perishable non-storable crops, such as tomato, is typically promoted for two reasons: as a way of absorbing excess supply, particularly during gluts that result from predominantly rainfed cultivation; and to enhance the value chain through a value-added process. For Ghana, improving domestic tomato processing would also reduce the country's dependence on imported tomato paste and so improve foreign exchange reserves, as well as provide employment opportunities and develop...

  18. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  19. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of fruit clusters, number of branches, internodes length, and plant height with gall index. This reflects that root-knot nematodes negatively affect the general physiology of the plant growth (Netscher and Sikora, 1990). Tomato plant pests on post-harvested tomato plants in surveyed fields. Management of fields after ...

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlledenvironment ...

  1. Toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwig, J; Scott, P M; Stoltz, D R; Blanchfield, B J

    1979-01-01

    Among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. The toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or T-2 toxin. Ethyl acetate extracts of five Alternaria isolates and one Fusarium isolate were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains. In ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin-producing isolates and incubated at 25 degrees C, one Alternaria alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid in seven of seven tomatoes at levels of up to 106 micrograms/g and alternariol methyl ether in one of the seven tomatoes at 0.8 microgram/g. Another A. alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid or alternariol methyl ether at much lower levels in only three of seven tomatoes. Patulin and citrinin were produced by a Penicillium expansum isolate at levels of up to 8.4 and 0.76 microgram/g, respectively. In tomatoes incubated at 15 degrees C, a Fusarium sulphureum isolate produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and neosolaniol at levels of up to 37.5, 37.8 and 5.6 micrograms/g, respectively. If these mycotoxins are thermostable, they may occur at detectable levels in tomato products whenever partially moldy tomatoes are used as raw material. PMID:391152

  2. Tomato: Potentials for Alternative Source of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a study of the potentials of tomato production as a viable source of economic empowerment. An empirical survey was undertaken through oral interviews in Kano to identify farmers' revenues, and agricultural development thereby assessing the connection between tomato production and economic reliance.

  3. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  4. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research set out to identify fungi associated with physically damaged tomato and pepper and verify their effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ...

  5. The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambla, J.L.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Monforte, A.J.; Bovy, A.G.; Granell, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target

  6. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Characterization and functional expression of a ubiquitously expressed tomato pectin methylesterase. Plant Phys. 114: 1547-1556. Gubis J, Lajchová Z, Faragó J, Jureková Z (2004). Effect of growth regulators on shoot induction and plant regeneration in tomato. (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Biologia.

  7. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  8. Modelling the firmness behaviour of cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Natalini, A.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Woltering, E.J.; Kooten, van O.

    2010-01-01

    Firmness is one of the main quality attributes of sliced tomatoes. Here, a physiology-based mechanism is proposed that describes the development of firmness as measured by limited compression. The mechanism assumes that softening of slices is radically different from that of whole tomatoes and

  9. Metabolomics of a model fruit: tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato has quickly become a favoured species for metabolomics research. Tomato fills a niche that cannot be occupied by Arabidopsis, particularly regarding studies on fleshy fruit. Variations in genotype and phenotype have been broadly exploited using metabolomics approaches in order to gain a

  10. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  11. Preference Mapping of Fresh Tomatoes Across 3 Stages of Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycoperiscum) are a popular produce choice and provide many bioactive compounds. Consumer choice of tomatoes is influenced by flavor and visual appearance and external texture cues including hand firmness and sliceability. The objective of this study was to determine drivers of liking for fresh tomatoes across 3 stages of consumption. Seven tomato cultivars were ripened to a 6 on the USDA color chart. Trained panelists documented appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of tomatoes in triplicate. Tomato consumers (n = 177) were provided with knives and cutting boards and evaluated tomatoes across 3 stages: appearance (stage 1), slicing (stage 2), and consumption (stage 3). Consumers evaluated overall liking at each stage. Analysis of variance and external preference mapping were conducted. Overall liking was highest during the appearance portion of the test and lowest during the consumption portion (P sweet and umami tastes were drivers of liking for tomatoes at consumption (stage 3). Four separate clusters of tomato consumers were identified. Cluster 1 preferred tomatoes with even color, higher color intensity, and flavor intensity. Cluster 2 preferred firm tomatoes. Cluster 3 preferred tomatoes that were soft and at peak ripeness; this cluster also had the highest liking scores for all tomatoes. Cluster 4 consumers generally consumed tomatoes in sandwiches rather than as-is and preferred tomatoes with even and intense color. Tomato growers can utilize these results to target cultivars that are well liked by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  13. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  14. Diversity in conserved genes in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deynze, Allen; Stoffel, Kevin; Buell, C Robin; Kozik, Alexander; Liu, Jia; van der Knaap, Esther; Francis, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Tomato has excellent genetic and genomic resources including a broad set of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data and high-density genetic maps. In addition, emerging physical maps and bacterial artificial clone sequence data serve as template to investigate genetic variation within the cultivated germplasm pool with the goal to manipulate agriculturally important traits. Unfortunately, the nearly exclusive focus of resource development on interspecific populations for genetic analyses and diversity studies has left a void in our understanding of genotypic variation within tomato breeding programs that focus on intra-specific populations. We describe the results of a study to identify nucleotide variation within tomato breeding germplasm and mapping parents for a set of conserved single-copy ESTs that are orthologous between tomato and Arabidopsis. Results Using a pooled sequencing strategy, 967 tomato transcripts were screened for polymorphism in 12 tomato lines. Although intron position was conserved, intron lengths were 2-fold larger in tomato than in Arabidopsis. A total of 1,487 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 282 insertion/deletions were identified, of which 579 and 206 were polymorphic in breeding germplasm, respectively. Fresh market and processing germplasm were clearly divergent, as were Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformae and Solanum pimpinellifolium, tomato's closest relatives. The polymorphisms identified serve as marker resources for tomato. The COS is also applicable to other Solanaceae crops. Conclusions The results from this research enabled significant progress towards bridging the gap between genetic and genomic resources developed for populations derived from wide crosses and those applicable to intra-specific crosses for breeding in tomato. PMID:18088428

  15. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-01-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and yeasts and molds on whole and chopped tomatoes were essentially unaffected by chlorine and modified atmosphere packaging treatments. Populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated into commercially processed tomato juice and sauce and held at 5 degrees C remained constant for 14 days. A gradual decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells was observed in juice and sauce held at 21 degrees C. In contrast, the organism died rapidly when suspended in commercial tomato ketchup at 5 and 21 degrees C. Unlike low-acid raw salad vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and cauliflower on which we have observed L. monocytogenes grow at refrigeration temperatures, tomatoes are not a good growth substrate for the organism. Nevertheless, L. monocytogens can remain viable on raw whole and chopped tomatoes and in commercial tomato juice and sauce for periods extending beyond their normal shelf-life expectancy. PMID:1906697

  16. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  17. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D?Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  18. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  19. Energy Accounting in Canning Tomato Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R P; Carroad, P A; Chhinnan, M S; Rose, W W; Jacob, N L

    1979-01-01

    An energy-accounting method was used to determine energy use in various unit operations in canning tomato juice, whole-peeled tomatoes, and tomato paste. Data on steam and electric consumption were obtained from a canning plant with the use of steam flow meters and electric transducers. Unit operations associated with the following equipment were investigated: crushers, hot-break heaters, pulpers, finishers, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts. Data were analyzed to determine amount of energy used per unit of raw product. Energy-intensive operations were identified for future modifications to reduce energy consumption.

  20. TOMATO YIELD AT TREATMENT BY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Baydelyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of bacterial products Mizorin and PG-5 for treatment of seeds and seedlings roots of tomato cv. Novichok was studied. The positive effect of these biological products on productivity and disease resistance of tomato was revealed. The most effective was Mizorin when both treatments were applied. Biological efficiency was 46% and 38% against Septoria disease and Phytophtora, respectively. The yield of tomato increased (0.4 – 3.3 t/ha when Mizorin was applied.

  1. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...

  2. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  3. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) inoculated with ... The field study attempted to validate positive responses obtained in the greenhouse. ... height and girth with the regression coefficient (r2) ranging from 0.74 to 0.96.

  4. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Medina JA, Méndez-Lozano J, Leyva-. López NE (2008). Detection and molecular characterization of two little leaf phytoplasma strains associated with pepper and tomato diseases in Guanajuato and Sinaloa, Mexico. Plant Dis.

  5. Canned fish bites in tomato sauce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, R.C; Darfler, J.M

    1980-01-01

    Meatballs in tomato sauce are a popular canned convenience product. Since small bite-sized portions of a fish mixture in a creamy sauce had been found to be an acceptable product (Creamy Fish Bites...

  6. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus tha...

  7. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  8. Understanding the mechanism of resistance breaking on tomato by Tomato mottle mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) has broadened it’s distribution around the world. In our previous work, we observed a partial resistance breaking by ToMMV on tomato. To understand the mechanism of this resistance breaking, we carried out comparative analysis through Sanger sequencing, genotyping ...

  9. Genotypic variability for antioxidant and quality parameters among tomato cultivars, hybrids, cherry tomatoes and wild species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pillakenchappa; Shivashankara, Kodthalu S; Rao, Vala K; Sadashiva, Avverahally T; Ravishankar, Kundapur V; Sathish, Gonchigar J

    2014-03-30

    Wide germplasm diversity and transferability of antioxidant parameters is the primary requirement for the development of high-antioxidant tomato cultivars. The present study was conducted to screen tomato genotypes including hybrids, varieties, cherry tomatoes, wild species, elite germplasm lines, interspecific hybrids and backcross populations for antioxidant activity and other quality parameters to select high-antioxidant lines with good total soluble solids (TSS) for further usage in crop improvement programmes. Wild species and interspecific hybrids between LA-1777 (Solanum habrochaites) and an elite genotype 15SBSB recorded very high antioxidant capacity (FRAP), DPPH radical-scavenging ability, and high phenols and flavonoids. Interspecific hybrids also recorded very high total soluble solids (TSS). Significantly higher total carotenoids, lycopene and vitamin C were observed in IIHR-249-1 with moderately higher TSS. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 recorded four to five times more β-carotene than commercial hybrids/varieties. Tomato line IIHR-249-1 can be used for improving antioxidant capacity, total carotenoids and lycopene in tomato breeding programmes. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 can be used for improving β-carotene content. LA-1777 and interspecific hybrids could be used for developing tomato lines rich in antioxidants as well as TSS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using

  11. tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... Screen House of the University of Ilorin, North-central Nigeria were studied using treated and untreated detergent and ... for each crop and irrigated with 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% Treated and Untreated wastewaters. After 12WAP ... the effects of municipal sewage sludge on the. Pb and Cd contents of ...

  12. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  13. environmental system analysis of tomato production in ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Cradle to gate approach). The ... Cycle Analysis (LCA) techniques, tropical tomato production ... Emissions and other. Environ me ntal releases. Use of. Products. Figure 1. The process flow and system boundaries of tomatoes production in Ghana.

  14. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Navarro-González; Maria Jesús Periago

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and...

  15. Measuring Leaf Motion of Tomato by Machine Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Marx, G.E.H.; Hofstee, J.W.; Hemming, J.; Sarlikioti, V.

    2012-01-01

    For a better understanding of growth and development of tomato plants in three dimensional space, tomato plants were monitored using a computer vision system. It is commonly known that leaves of tomato plants do not have a fixed position and orientation during the day; they move in response to

  16. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is required. Tomato samples were collected based on the fruit growth conditions which were divided into five different stages in this article: breakers, turning, pink, light-red, ...

  17. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, the study examines the effect of dry season tomato farming on poverty alleviation among women farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the women dry season tomato farmers, their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing ...

  18. Effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... As different tomatoes have different locular cavities and a particular tomato material is inhomogeneous, the effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and degree of mechanical damage may be significant during the gripping process with robot fingers. This was studied using the ...

  19. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  20. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the socio-economic characteristics of wholesale tomato marketers with a view to identifying the marketing channels of tomato fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. Information was randomly collected with the aid of a well structured ...

  1. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    rural farmers and marketers of ginger and tomato. Further the result indicated that tomato has the highest volatility than ginger in the market. Declining trends were obtained for majority of the months in both tomato and ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% ...

  2. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land ... Most of the tomato farmers were literate with an average of secondary school education, and their average age of 35 years fall within the active age group.

  3. Metabolite profiling of Italian tomato landraces with different fruit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to

  4. Identification and distribution of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf samples of 177 tomato plants were collected during 2006-2007 in tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) infected fields, as well as 100 leaf samples of sweet pepper, common bean, zucchini and the wild species Solanum elaeagnifolium, in order to study the population structure and genetic variation of Tomato yellow ...

  5. Tomato lycopene is a natural antioxidant and can alleviate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopene of tomato wastes was extracted and determination. The level of tomato lycopene was 145.50 ppm. An aliquots of the concentrated tomato lycopene, represent 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm; grade lycopene (200 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 200 ppm) were investigated by the 1,1- ...

  6. Natural incidence of tomato viruses in the North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi HAJIABADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Qazvin province in the North of Iran, to determine the incidence of tomato viruses including: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV, Tomato aspermy virus (TAV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Beet curly top virus (BCTV, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. A total of 742 tomato symptomatic samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in five regions of Qazvin province (Qazvin, Takestan, Boeen-Zahra, Alborz and Abiyek and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TSWV was detected in Alborz (4.4 % and Abiyek (3.57% regions but TMV and CMV were detected in all five regions. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses were recorded in Alborz (40.7 % and Takestan (11.1 %, respectively. The presence of these viruses was also evaluated in the weed hosts as natural sources of plant viruses. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses in weed hosts were recorded in Boeen-Zahra (25.6 % and Qazvin (12.8 %, respectively. TSWV was not detected in weeds. Transmission tests demonstrated that Thrips tabaci acts as TSWV carrier and Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were CMV carriers. Seed transmission tests were positive for TMV (13 tomato seedlings from 100 seedlings, but no TSWV transmission was observed through the seeds of infected tomato fruits.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  8. Structural and Functional Genomics of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amalia; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Giuliano, Giovanni; Grandillo, Silvana; Frusciante, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most intensively investigated Solanaceous species both in genetic and genomics studies. It is a diploid species with a haploid set of 12 chromosomes and a small genome (950 Mb). Based on the detailed knowledge on tomato structural genomics, the sequencing of the euchromatic regions started in the year 2005 as a common effort of different countries. The manuscript focuses on markers used for tomato, on mapping efforts mainly based on exploitation of natural biodiversity, and it gives an updated report on the international sequencing activities. The principal tools developed to explore the function of tomato genes are also summarized, including mutagenesis, genetic transformation, and transcriptome analysis. The current progress in bioinformatic strategies available to manage the overwhelming amount of data generated from different tomato “omics” approaches is reported, and emphasis is given to the effort of producing a computational workbench for the analysis of the organization, as well as the functionality and evolution of the Solanaceae family. PMID:18317508

  9. Bioactive components in breeding industrial tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of tomato lines for industrial use regarding their nutritional value is a potential that will reflect in the final product obtained from tomato fruits. At the same time, technological process of preparation of tomato juice (100 °C, as well as hot air drying, was studied in order to establish an optimal technological process that is the least disrupting for the natural potential of nutrients contained in fresh fruits. The research was performed on 6 lines and one variety of industrial tomato. The content of vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene, β-carotene, phenols, flavonoids, dry matter and total antioxidative capacity was studied by applying standard methods for determination of the level of these parameters. Grouping was performed according to traits of average carotenoid content (lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, phenols, flavonoids, dry matter and total antioxidative capacity in tomato fruit, by applying PCA. The first two principle components were responsible for 77.18 % of total variability of researched samples. The impact of other five components was low and they were responsible for 22.18 % of the variability. Antioxidative activity was best preserved after finishing, through small losses of lycopene and β-carotene. Losses of vitamin C, vitamin E, phenols and flavonoids during thermal processing were great, mostly in juice, while in dried product, these losses were lower. Nutrient losses were in function of temperature height that the fruits were exposed to during the thermal processing. Genotypes SPRZ and SPSM were marked as the best.

  10. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  11. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  12. Effect of tiazofurin on tomato plants infected with tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, J; Amélia, M; Alexandre, V; Vicente, M

    1984-12-01

    Tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) was examined for its activity against tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato plants. Solutions containing 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/l of the drug were sprayed onto the leaves. The results showed that 100 and 200 mg/l were the most efficient concentrations to suppress TSWV infection, thereby delaying the appearance of systemic symptoms. The drug was more effective in controlling TSWV infection when applied after than before virus inoculation. The results suggest that tiazofurin can be used as an efficient antiviral drug in the treatment of TSWV-infected tomato plants.

  13. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  14. The climacteric in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D J; Rowan, K S

    1971-09-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit.Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration.

  15. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  16. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  17. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...... of NIR-HSI for varietal identification is very important. The work on MS III demonstrates the utilisation in various scenarios for classification of tomato seeds using MSI. The results displayed that MSI can be used in confirming the hybridity of the hybrid seeds. Manuscript III showed that accuracy......The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...

  18. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  19. Consumer sensory analysis of high flavonoid transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wansang; Miller, Rebecca; Park, Jungeun; Park, Sunghun

    2014-06-01

    Tomatoes have ameliorative effects on cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, metabolic engineering of flavonoids was utilized to improve the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing flavonol and anthocyanin content. Total flavonol content was significantly increased in both the peel and flesh using the onion chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene. The Delila (Del) and Rosea1 (Ros1) genes from the snapdragon Antirrhinum majus were concomitantly expressed to produce an anthocyanin-rich tomato which was purple in color. Sensory evaluation by a panel of 81 untrained consumers revealed no significant difference in liking of color or texture between CHI, Del/Ros1, and wild-type tomatoes. Consumers reported marginal but significantly higher preference for the flavor and overall liking of CHI tomatoes over Del/Ros1 and wild-type tomatoes. This study is the first to report the results of sensory tests of transgenic tomatoes by a consumer panel representing the general consuming public. Transgenic procedures were used to increase the flavonol and anthocyanin contents of tomatoes. An untrained consumer panel scored flavor and overall liking of the 2 transgenic tomatoes higher than wild-type tomatoes and reported no difference in liking of texture or color between the 3 tomatoes. After participating in the sensory study, 14% of the panelists changed their attitudes positively toward transgenic vegetables and 96% of the consumers on the panel reported that they would buy transgenic food if they believed that it would promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. [Story of the tomato through its genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2012-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model for fruit development. The tomato history has origins traced back to the early Aztecs. It was not until around the 16(th) century that Europeans were introduced to this fruit, but only as ornamental plant since it was related to nightshade belladona. Then it was accepted into the kitchen all around the world. The genome sequence of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 is sequenced and provides interesting insights into the fleshy evolution. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  1. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  2. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  3. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  4. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-01-01

    .... The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L...

  5. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  6. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  7. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  8. Comprehensive resources for tomato functional genomics based on the miniature model tomato micro-tom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom.

  9. Compact tomato seedlings and plants upon overexpression of a tomato chromatin remodelling ATPase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Adam; Bargsten, Joachim W; Bisseling, Ton; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2016-02-01

    Control of plant growth is an important aspect of crop productivity and yield in agriculture. Overexpression of the AtCHR12/23 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced growth habit without other morphological changes. These two genes encode Snf2 chromatin remodelling ATPases. Here, we translate this approach to the horticultural crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We identified and cloned the single tomato ortholog of the two Arabidopsis Snf2 genes, designated SlCHR1. Transgenic tomato plants (cv. Micro-Tom) that constitutively overexpress the coding sequence of SlCHR1 show reduced growth in all developmental stages of tomato. This confirms that SlCHR1 combines the functions of both Arabidopsis genes in tomato. Compared to the wild type, the transgenic seedlings of tomato have significantly shorter roots, hypocotyls and reduced cotyledon size. Transgenic plants have a much more compact growth habit with markedly reduced plant height, severely compacted reproductive structures with smaller flowers and smaller fruits. The results indicate that either GMO-based or non-GMO-based approaches to modulate the expression of chromatin remodelling ATPase genes could develop into methods to control plant growth, for example to replace the use of chemical growth retardants. This approach is likely to be applicable and attractive for any crop for which growth habit reduction has added value. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  11. Eugenol enhances the resistance of tomato against tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei; Fan, Yongjian

    2014-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease (TYLCVD) causes severe to economic losses in tomato crops in China. The control of TYLCVD is based primarily on the use of synthetic insecticide to control its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). To look for an alternative method for disease control, we investigated the effect of eugenol on controlling TYLCVD. The potential of eugenol to trigger systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato (Jiangsu 14) plants against TYLCV was also investigated. In greenhouse experiments, eugenol significantly reduced disease severity when applied as a foliar spray, thus demonstrating a systemic effect. The disease spread rapidly in control plants and by the end of the experiment almost all control plants showed severe symptoms. Eugenol also induced H₂O₂ accumulation in tomato plants. Activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were significantly induced compared with those of control plants. As further consequences, increase of salicylic acid (SA) levels and expression of PR-1 proteins, a molecular marker of SAR in tomato, could also be observed. This is the first report of eugenol as an elicitor and its ability to suppress plant virus diseases under greenhouse conditions. It is suggested that eugenol has the potential to be an effective biocontrol agent against TYLCV in tomato plants. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  13. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  14. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... and antioxidant (lycopene) (Junichiro, 2006). Since S. lycopersicum has long been used for the treatment of variety of disease, the present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of tomato leaves against PGE2 using. RAW264.7 macrophages cells and introduce a new potential of anti-inflammatory ...

  15. Tomato pomace powder ameliorated cisplatin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pomace powder (TPP) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its known antioxidant property. The possible protective role of TPP against cisplatin-induced alteration of the microanatomy of rat brain was investigated. Thirty rats were divided equally into five groups: control, propylene glycol ...

  16. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and results: The contents of flavonoids in different tissues of tomato fruits at increasing maturation and ripening stages were determined using high performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. The levels of eriodictyol, kaempferol-glc-rhamnose, naringenin, naringenin-chalcone-hexose and ...

  17. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, osmotic dehydration was combined with other drying methods with a view to investigating the method that will produce high quality product. Combination of sucrose and salt solution was used to soak tomato at 400 Brix for 4hours. The osmotically dehydrated samples were subjected to open air (sun), solar ...

  19. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  20. Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae on tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststeijn, G.

    1973-01-01

    Around 1960 some disorders which initially were considered to be of a physiological nature were found in tomato plants grown in glasshouses in the Netherlands. One complex of symptoms was a brown rot of the lateral roots and the tap root, often followed by decomposition of the stem base

  1. Effect of Leaf Area on Tomato Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.; Elings, A.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of leaf area on tomato yield was evaluated, both by simulations and experimental work. Simulated crop growth results from daily crop gross assimilation rate minus maintenance respiration rate, multiplied by a conversion efficiency factor. Dry matter partitioning is simulated based on

  2. Restricted spread of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and population development of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions CPRO-1 and Pikante Reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. Viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession

  3. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... 1Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of ... maturation and ripening stages were determined using high ... synthesis of specific types of flavonoids. ... anti-diabetes and cardiovascular protective effects ... flavonoid composition of tomato fruits (Tronchet, ..... Phytochemistry 19: 1415-.

  4. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Azotobacter croococcum Beijerinck in enhancing growth and fruit production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) was investigated in 3 greenhouse experiments and a field study. The first experiment assessed the appropriate method of inoculation while the 2nd study determined the relationship ...

  5. Parthenocarpy and functional sterility in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is the development of the fruit in absence of pollination and/or fertilization. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), parthenocarpy is considered as an interesting trait because it can improve fruit setting under environmental conditions that affect the viability of the pollen. Auxins and

  6. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Significant differences for regeneration, time taken to regenerate and number of leaf primordial were observed for different ... caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and various nematodes. Development of protocols for in vitro ... high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per ...

  7. (I2 gene) from tomato cultivar Heamsona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... cloned and characterized for the incompatibility against race 2 type of the pathogens. In India race 1 type of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici observed commonly which require presence of I1 gene in tomato plant for the incompatibility reactions but in the present study, I2 gene was partially isolated from the.

  8. The tomato terpene synthase gene family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falara, V.; Akhtar, T.A.; Nguyen, T.T.H.; Spyropoulou, E.A.; Bleeker, P.M.; Schauvinhold, I.; Matsuba, Y.; Bonini, M.E.; Schilmiller, A.L.; Last, R.L.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pichersky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play many roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of Solanum lycopersicum (cultivated tomato) contains 40 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 28

  9. REARING TOMATO WHITEFLY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... resilience to heat stress. Further, assessment of germination potentials of conidia was conducted at three aw levels. (0.995, 0.98 and 0.96: corresponding to different levels of water availability). Thereafter, they were tested against. B. tabaci infestation on tomato plants and insect densities after the ...

  10. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato concentrates. 155.191 Section 155.191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... considered added salt). (ii) Lemon juice, concentrated lemon juice, or organic acids. (iii) Sodium...

  11. Postharvest fungal deterioration of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    'tatase' during the wet and dry seasons contribute immensely to the national requirement; however, the bulk of ... environmental conditions such as heat and drought (Idah et.al.,. 2007) Furthermore, improper postharvest ... nutritional value of infected tomatoes and pepper. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 2.1 Sampling Area.

  12. Industrial tomato lines: morphological properties and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, J V M; Neto, C de M S; Campos, L F C; Dourado, W de S; Nogueira, A P O; Nascimento, A Dos R

    2017-04-13

    The tomato is the second most produced vegetable in the world, with significant participation in the human diet. In addition, the production of tomatoes generates jobs and family income. The availability of improved cultivars that provide greater profitability to the producer and satisfactorily meets the needs of the fresh fruit market and the processing industry becomes imperative due to its importance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and select industrial tomato lines in regard to fruit yield, number of leaf branches, and number of flower racemes (NFR). The experiment was conducted in 2014 in the experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás (Universidade Federal de Goiás). The design was a randomized block design with four replicates and 25 genotypes. The number of leaf branches (NB), NFR, and fruit productivity were evaluated. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test. A difference was observed (P ≤ 0.01) for all traits analyzed. The NB and NFR were related, where more branches promoted an increase in NFR and thus the productivity increases. In addition, a greater number of fruits implied in smaller fruit size, and consequently lower fruit mass. The lowest number of fruit per plant caused increased fruit size and mass. The lines CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 21, and CVR 22 were suitable for genetic enhancement of tomato and provided the greatest productivity.

  13. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  15. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.

  16. The Effects of Tomato Powder Supplementation on Performance and Lipid Peroxidation in Quail

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, K; Kucuk, O

    2008-01-01

    .... Tomatoes and tomato products are the major dietary source of lycopene. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary tomato powder supplementation on the performance and lipid peroxidation of meat in Japanese quail...

  17. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  18. Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenucci, Marcello S; Cadinu, Daniela; Taurino, Marco; Piro, Gabriella; Dalessandro, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Fourteen cultivars of cherry tomatoes and four cultivars of high-pigment tomato hybrids were cultivated in southern Italy, and the red-ripe fruits were analyzed for their content in different classes of antioxidants and for their antioxidant activity. Among the different cultivars, significant differences were found between lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. LS203 and Corbus appear to be the cultivars with the highest content of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants among cherry tomatoes, respectively. All cultivars of high-pigment tomato hybrids showed an expected exceptionally high lycopene content. Among them, the highest content of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants was found in cv. HLY 13. Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were both significantly influenced by genotype. Such results highlight an existing unexploited variability in tomato germplasm and stress the need to evaluate the biodiversity and to support conventional breeding programs to improve tomato nutritional value.

  19. The effect of electrically activated sodium bicarbonate solution on tomatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an important commercial crop. High quality tomatoes for the local and export markets are grown hydroponically. In this study, the effect of electrically activated sodium bicarbonate and non-ionized sodium bicarbonate solutions on productivity and postharvest quality of hydroponically grown tomatoes was tested. Sodium bicarbonate is a ready source of bicarbonate. By using a novel technique obtained from Radical Waters (Pty) Ltd., ionized bicarbonate (a...

  20. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  1. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Duan; Yu-fen Chen; Zhong-zheng Sun; Ming-qing Chen; Hui Zhang; Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  2. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  3. Digitization and visualization of greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao

    2015-02-10

    This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor-a Microsoft Kinect-is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants-the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  4. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D.; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms. PMID:25675284

  5. 7 CFR 457.160 - Processing tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include the cultural practices required under the processor contract. Harvest. The severance of tomatoes... insured crop, based on factors, including but not limited to moisture availability, marketing window...

  6. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  7. Selection of tomato plants resistant to a local Polish isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Andrzej S; Szklarczyk, Marek; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Zukowska, Ewa; Michalik, Barbara; Kobyłko, Tadeusz; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We found that the Sw-5 gene confers resistance to one of the Polish isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). A series of tomato breeding accessions was analysed along with standards of resistance and susceptibility to TSWV. The presence of the Sw-5 gene was determined using the available PCR marker. Subsequently plants from these accessions were grown in the presence of the TSWV isolate from Poland. Some of them developed severe symptoms of the TSWV disease. Expression of the virus proteins was also assayed in tissues of the investigated plants. We found general agreement between either lack or presence of the disease symptoms, virus proteins and resistance gene. Some observed discrepancies of these data are also discussed. Our results indicate that marker-assisted selection can be used for breeding of the TSWV-resistant tomato in Poland.

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of tenuazonic acid and alternariol methyl ether in tomatoes and tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, M E; Mislivec, P B; Roach, J A; Pohland, A E

    1985-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determining tenuazonic acid (TA) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) in tomatoes and tomato products is described. The Alternaria metabolites are extracted from a water slurry of the sample with CHCl3, the mixture is centrifuged, and the extract is fractionated on a silica gel column. Reverse phase LC with an ultraviolet detector (for TA) and a fluorescence detector (for AME) connected in series is used for final separation and determination. The limit of determination for TA and AME is 25 and 3 ng/g, respectively, with average recoveries from catsup of 83 and 68%, respectively. The LC method also detects alternariol, but interfering peaks in some samples prevent accurate quantitation. Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used to confirm TA. Samples (142) of tomatoes collected from commercial processing lines were analyzed; TA was found in 73 samples (0.4-70 micrograms/g).

  9. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  10. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-11-03

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae.

  11. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  12. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  13. Proteomic analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Rogniaux, Hélène; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-03-01

    In fleshy fruits, fruit texture features are mainly related to chemical and mechanical properties of the cell wall. The description of tomato fruit cell wall proteome is a first step in the process of linking tomato genetic variability to fruit texture phenotypes. In this study, the proteome of 3 ripe tomato fruit lines with contrasted texture traits were studied. Weakly bound and soluble proteins were extracted from cell wall of the three cultivars using both destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively. Wall proteins were separated on 1D-PAGE, bands were excised and identified by LC-MS/MS. The software SignalP which searches for the leader peptide was used to discriminate between protein with or without signal peptide. In combine, seventy-five different cell wall proteins were recorded for both weakly bound and soluble cell wall fractions. The major identified functions included several proteins acting on polysaccharides, proteins involved in "lipid metabolism", proteins having interacting domain, "oxido-reductases" and "proteases" whose putative roles in ripe fruit cell wall is discussed. Several proteins with no obvious signal peptide, however, with accumulating supportive evidences to be bona fide wall proteins, were also identified. Some variations in protein repertories were observed among the lines, demonstrating the possibility to characterize cell wall protein genetic variability by such in muro proteome analyses.

  14. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  15. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  17. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-03-16

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  18. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  19. Evidence of local evolution of tomato-infecting begomovirus species in West Africa: characterization of tomato leaf curl Mali virus and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y-C; Noussourou, M; Kon, T; Rojas, M R; Jiang, H; Chen, L-F; Gamby, K; Foster, R; Gilbertson, R L

    2008-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) and tomato leaf curl (ToLC) diseases are serious constraints to tomato production in Mali and other countries in West Africa. In 2003 and 2004, samples of tomato showing virus-like symptoms were collected during a survey of tomato virus diseases in Mali. Three predominant symptom phenotypes were observed: (1) TYLC/ToLC (stunted upright growth and upcurled leaves with interveinal yellowing and vein purpling), (2) yellow leaf crumple and (3) broccoli or bonsai (severe stunting and distorted growth). Squash blot (SB) hybridization with a general begomovirus probe and/or SB/PCR analyses revealed begomovirus infection in plants with each of these symptom phenotypes and no evidence of phytoplasma infection. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified begomovirus fragments revealed two putative new begomovirus species associated with the TYLC/ToLC and yellow leaf crumple symptom phenotypes, respectively. Full-length clones of these begomoviruses were obtained using PCR and overlapping primers. When introduced into N. benthamiana and tomato plants, these clones induced upward leaf curling and crumpling (the TYLC/ToLC-associated begomovirus) or downward leaf curl/yellow mottle (yellow leaf crumple-associated begomovirus) symptoms. Thus, these begomoviruses were named tomato leaf curl Mali virus (ToLCMLV) and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus (ToYLCrV). The genome organization of both viruses was similar to those of other monopartite begomoviruses. ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV were most closely related to each other and to tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZV-[ZW]) and tomato curly stunt virus from South Africa (ToCSV-ZA). Thus, these likely represent tomato-infecting begomoviruses that evolved from indigenous begomoviruses on the African continent. Mixed infections of ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV in N. benthamiana and tomato plants resulted in more severe symptoms than in plants infected with either virus alone, suggesting a synergistic interaction. Agroinoculation

  20. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  1. Sensitivity of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) cultivars from Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of 93 different tomato cultivars that are commonly grown in greenhouses and field in the western Mediterranean region of Turkey have been assessed for resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strains. The disease severity indexes (DSI) varied between zero and ...

  2. Whitefly resistance in tomato: from accessions to mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucatti, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is affected by a wide range of biotic stresses, of which Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important.Bemisia tabaci affects tomato directly through phloem sap feeding, and indirectly through its ability to be the vector of a large number of viruses. Different methods

  3. Management of Tomato Late Blight Disease Using Reduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implies that, there are long-term risks for cancer development among tomato producers and ... Management of Tomato Late Blight Disease Using Reduced Fungicide Spray Regimes with antibiotics. The inoculated plates were ... climate with mean annual rainfall, temperature and relative humidity of 800 mm, 30.4oC and.

  4. Functional genomics of tomato: Opportunities and challenges in post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... a compatible tomato-aphid interaction has revealed a pre- dominant role of salicylic acid in plant response against the aphid infection (Coppola et al. 2013). The number of iden- tified proteins in most of these studies is not very high, nonetheless with the upsurge of other tomato genome re- sequencing and ...

  5. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL. OLUYEMISI B. FAWOLE. DEPARTMENT OF CROP PRODUCTION. UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA. ABSTRACT. The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. Benomyl applied as soil treatments in micro pots at 25 ppm.

  6. Illuminating tomato fruit enhances fruit Vitamin C content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntagkas, N.; Min, Q.; Woltering, E.J.; Labrie, C.; Nicole, C.C.S.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    L-ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin C) is an anti-and pro-oxidant phytochemical essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Field grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) contain substantial amounts of AsA. When grown in the greenhouse, tomato fruit typically have low levels of AsA. Light is

  7. In Vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Effort was made to screen tomato germplasm under in vitro condition using polyethylene glycol (PEG) at four concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/l) ...

  8. In vitro response of promising tomato genotypes for tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Four cultivars of tomato were grown as callus cultures under conditions of water stress, which was induced by addition.

  9. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.; Rep, M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to

  10. farmers'perception on the strategies for increasing tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    considered to boost yield, identify farm inputs, training needs and credit facilities necessary for increasing production of ... for increasing tomato production;. 4. examine credit facilities needed to increase tomato production; and .... grand mean rating score of 3.5. This indicated that any items higher than grand mean score.

  11. Identification of the constituents of balsam of peru in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Divya; Cohen, David E

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that balsam-restricted diets result in significant improvement of systemic contact dermatitis in patients with contact allergy to balsam of Peru (BOP). While tomatoes have been implicated as a frequent cause of BOP-related dermatitis, the presence of BOP in tomatoes has never been confirmed. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography [LC]-MS) and UV spectrometry (LC-UV) was used to detect the possible presence of BOP constituents in tomatoes. Samples of beefsteak, cherry, and plum tomatoes were extracted in ethyl acetate and analyzed with LC-MS and LC-UV for the presence of the following sensitizing constituents of BOP: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamyl cinnamate, coniferyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, and methyl cinnamate. The initial LC-MS analysis of each tomato extract showed multiple peaks. Two of these peaks had molecular weights of 134 and 180, which correspond to cinnamic alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. The analysis did not show peaks corresponding to the molecular weights of the remaining compounds. Cochromatography of tomato extract with cinnamic alcohol and coniferyl alcohol using LC-UV further suggested the presence of these compounds in the tomato extract. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamic alcohol, constituents of BOP, are present in beefsteak, cherry, and plum tomatoes.

  12. Relationship between Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Viruses and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Tomato yellow leaf curl is prevalent in tomato growing districts of Uganda. The disease is known to be spread by a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a persistent manner. Some of its symptoms are leaf curl, marginal leaf yellowing, malformation of fruits, stunting and dieback (in case of primary infection at early seedling ...

  13. INDUCED-GROWTH AND YIE BY SODIUM AZIDE IN TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    the large family Solanaceae (Purseglove, 1968. Hille et al., 1989). Tomato isnowadays the major vegetable crops cultivated the world, grown in a wide range o environments comprising natural and protecte conditions (Dhaliwal et al., 2002) of both th tropical, sub-tropical and temperate parts o the world.However, tomato is a ...

  14. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week. e...

  15. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress.

  16. Wild tomato introgressions that confer resistance to begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, are one of the major diseases of tomatoes in subtropical and tropical regions. In Guatemala, several bipartite begomoviruses and the monopartite geminivirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are present. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate th...

  17. Strategies for Increasing Tomato Production In Nigeria: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Kabba-Bunu Local Government Area (LGA) of Kogi State, Nigeria in the year 2013 to assess the farmers' perception on the strategies for increasing tomato production in the LGA; an area that has potential to produce tomato on commercial level. The objectives of the study were to identify the ...

  18. Morphological and chemical characteristics of tomato foliage as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological characters and chemical composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) leaves were measured and compared among nine tomato varieties (Roma VFN, NARC-1, Fs-8802, Tommy, Pant Babr, Rio Grande, Nova Mecb, Pakit and Sahil) exhibiting varying levels of host plant resistance to Helicoverpa ...

  19. Field reactions of interspecific hybrids of tomato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf spot is a major disease of tomato causing reduction in fruit yield under humid environments. It's control using some of the major systemic fungicides available is environmentally unfriendly and costly. Heterosis known to increase productivity in crops was used to assess improvement in tomato yield and resistance to leaf ...

  20. Biologically-based strategies to reduce postharvest losses of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preharvest employment of Bacillus subtilis was highly effective in an augmentation of fruit set and improves general apperance of tomato at harvest. Cooling technology supported the poential of B. subtilis, in particularly prevention of postharvest losses of tomato fruits within marketing context. Furthermore, the resultant ...

  1. Antioxidant activity in selected tomato genotypes cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is a compilation of results obtained at the Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau regarding the influence of the culture system on the quantitative and qualitative yield of tomatoes. The present study provides comparative information regarding yield achievements of tomato genotypes ...

  2. Molecular marker screening of tomato, ( solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is one of the crops in which genetic resistance has specially been effective against root-knot nematodes. In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance (Mi) with specific primer (Mi23/F//Mi23/R). The cultivars; VFNT, FLA 505-BL 1172, ...

  3. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  4. farmers'perception on the strategies for increasing tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    LGA) of Kogi State,. Nigeria in the year 2013 to assess the farmers' perception on the strategies for increasing tomato production in the LGA; an area that has potential to produce tomato on commercial level. The objectives of the study were to ...

  5. Farmers Agronomic Practice in Management of the Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' awareness of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease and their agronomic and disease management practices in the Efutu municipality, Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA), and Mfantseman districts which are leading tomato producing centres in the Central Region of Ghana.

  6. Genotypic variation of Kenyan tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic genotypic analysis of Kenyan tomato germplasm was carried out in order to delineate potential variability based on various morphological, agronomic and biochemical traits. Both landraces and market cultivars were examined with a view to facilitating tomato improvement. In an experiment conducted in 1993 in ...

  7. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important food and income generating crop among small holder farmers in Tabora Region. High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions in Tabora Region on the growth and ...

  8. Defense responses in tomato fruit induced by oligandrin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oligandrin is known to induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. However, its effects on postharvest diseases are still unclear. The effects of oligandrin on the control of postharvest diseases in tomato fruit and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in this study. The treat01ent of tomato fruit with oligandrin ...

  9. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chronic issue of policy concern in Ghana is the implication of trade liberalization for the performance of agricultural markets. Much public opinion in Ghana blames the perennially volatile, highly dispersed and uncompetitive prices of tomato on the importation of cheap tomato products into Ghana. There is however ...

  10. Effect of Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) powder on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant potency of graded levels of tomato powder in cooked and raw broiler meat under refrigerated storage was evaluated and compared with that of Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole (BHA), a synthetic antioxidant. To a separate 200g of minced broiler meat, 0% (control), 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of tomato powder were applied.

  11. Diversity between and within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato yields in Eritrea are low (15 Mg/ha) compared with 19 Mg/ha in Africa and 27 Mg/ha worldwide. This is partly caused by poor quality of varieties used. This study analysed the diversity among and heterogeneity within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea and compared these varieties with other African and Italian ...

  12. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) R Gul, H Rahman, IH Khalil, SMA Shah, A Ghafoor. Abstract. A study was conducted in tomato using an 8 × 8 diallel set excluding reciprocals to quantify the magnitude of heterosis for yield and its five yield components: number of flowers per cluster ...

  13. Estimation of water requirement of early and late season tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of water requirements of early and late season tomato was conducted based on 10 years meteorological data at Calabar typical of the humid tropical zone, using the Penman's equation. Results showed that the seasonal crop evapotranspiration (ETo) value for early season tomato (March – July) was ...

  14. Bioinsecticide activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates on tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... 38 and 30 adults emerged from the cages containing tomato plants infested by eggs with B1 and protecto ..... instars to B. thuringiensis. Toxins expressed by Bacillus species naturally colonize the phylloplane of tomato plants. Transformed Bacillus survived for a period of 45.

  15. Effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... locular cavities and a particular tomato material is inhomogeneous, the effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and degree of mechanical damage may be significant during the gripping process with robot fingers. This was studied using the loading-unloading experiment as well as the observation of ...

  16. On the induction of injury in tomato under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez-Ramirez, Aaron I.; Dünner-Planella, Gabriela; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Millenaar, Frank F.; Ieperen, Van Wim

    2017-01-01

    Unlike other species, when tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are deprived of at least 8h of darkness per day, they develop a potentially lethal injury. In an effort to understand why continuous light (CL) is injurious to tomato, we tested five factors, which potentially could be responsible

  17. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO IDENTIFY TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS (TOMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Keila M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV isolated in Brazil. One antibody (8G7G2 isotyped as IgG2b (kappa light chain showed strong specificity and very low cross reaction with the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. It can be used in identification of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV.

  18. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanaceraum was investigated. Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested (Glomus mosseae, Scutellospora sp. and Gigaspora margarita). Siginificant differences in tomato growth based on plant ...

  19. Leaf miner threatens tomato growing in Europe (Crop protection)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, van P.

    2009-01-01

    In February this year, entomologists of the Dutch Plant Protection Service determined a moth found at a Dutch tomato packaging facility to be Tuta absoluta. This moth is very harmful to tomato and can also live on crops such as aubergine, sweet pepper and potato. Originally from Chile, the insect

  20. Enhancement of tomato allergenicity after treatment with plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Callejo, A; Díaz-Perales, A; Martín-Gil, F J; Salcedo, G

    2003-01-01

    Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Although tomato has been widely investigated for breeding purposes, there have been no studies on tomato allergenicity after plant hormones treatments. Prick by prick tests were carried out with different tomato samples (fruits grown under biological conditions without addition of chemical products, and treated with ethylene and salicylic acid) in eight patients with ages between 12 and 27 years who suffered from anaphylaxis episodes after eating raw tomatoes. An immunoblot experiment with the different tomato extracts was performed using sera from these eight patients and controls. The wheals obtained in prick tests were significantly higher with the extracts of tomato treated with ethylene and SAA (chi(2) = 31.3, p skin tests were those who had more severe episodes of anaphylaxis. Neither the protein stain nor the IgE immunodetection patterns clearly varied between the untreated and the hormone-treated samples. In the case of anaphylaxis induced by tomato, the treatment with plant hormones induced a higher cutaneous response than with non-treated tomato, but the "in vitro" response was similar.

  1. Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Calavi and at the Management of Food and Applied. Nutrition (DANA). Processing of tomato purée. The adopted processing technique was based on that recommended by Kyle et al. (1966): Processing operations like crushing and sifting are applied to some products such as apples, tomatoes, potatoes, etc. The sufficiently ...

  2. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out using factorial combination of two tomato varieties, two processing methods and three honey and one sugar concentrations with three replications. Tomato ketchups prepared from Melkashola subjected to pre-heat treatment before cooking exhibited higher total soluble solids, reducing and ...

  3. Antioxidant potential of tomatoes cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galhardo Borguini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional cultivation on the antioxidant compound content and antioxidant activity of the Carmen tomato cultivar. Tomatoes were analyzed regarding ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, lycopene content and antioxidant activity. Organic tomatoes presented higher content of ascorbic acid and total phenolics (641.39 and 4466.66 mg/100 g EAG on dry wt basis than did the conventional tomatoes (510.16 and 3477.50 mg/100 g EAG on wt dry basis, respectively. There was no difference in lycopene concentrations between the organic and conventional. The ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts obtained from the tomatoes were subjected to the DPPH test and the β-carotene/linoleic acid system assay. The alcohol and aqueous extracts from organic tomatoes presented higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH test (25.43 and 14.28%, respectively than the conventional tomatoes (19.52 and 11.33%, respectively. Organic tomatoes had higher antioxidant potential probably due to its higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic values.

  4. 'Omics' approaches in tomato aimed at identifying candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, we will focus on the role of the different high-throughput technologies in enhancing tomato breeding particularly for fruit quality traits. We also describe how two 'omics' approaches could be combined in order to identify candidate genes for the genetic control of ascorbic acid accumulation in tomato fruit.

  5. Genotypic variation in the response of tomato to salinity | Turhan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the predictive screening parameters that can be applied at early development stages of tomato plants, 18 tomato cultivars were grown in nutrient solution with 12 dS m-1 NaCl. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with tree replications. The relationships among the salinity ...

  6. Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Young, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  7. Geographical distribution and prevalence of the main tomato fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is one of the most economically important vegetable crops in Benin and its production represents more than 51% of the total production of vegetable crops. The ecological peculiarity of its farming exposes it to diseases and pests. Tomato wilt constitutes the major phytosanitary constraint for its production. To identify ...

  8. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Ethiopian Water Resources Institute, alamirew2004@yahoo.com. Abstract. Tomato is an important ... However, incidences of pests and diseases, moisture stress, improper rates of fertilizer application and too high ... development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development in soils with limited N ...

  9. In vitro response of promising tomato genotypes for tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important ... tomato were grown as callus cultures under conditions of water stress, which was induced by addition of polyethylene glycol (6000) .... The experiment was carried out in four replicates. Data were subjected to ...

  10. Effect of different stress treatments on mature green tomatoes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to find the effect of multiple stresses; salt, mannitol, drought and methyl jasmonate on fruit quality of tomato as determined by the evaluation of the content of lycopene, beta-carotene, sucrose and total phenolics. Levels of antioxidants in the tomato after exposure to different stresses during ...

  11. Genetic diversity among some productive genotypes of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest inter cluster D2 values were estimated between clusters XII and XX, followed by clusters XI and XX, clusters VII and XX, and clusters XV and XX, indicating that there is enough scope for the improvement of tomato crop by hybridization and selection. Key words: Genetic variability, genetic gain, heritability, tomato ...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis-mediated tomato tolerance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, Walter; Maserti, Biancaelena; Gambino, Giorgio; Guerrieri, Emilio; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2016-07-02

    A multidisciplinary approach, involving eco-physiological, morphometric, biochemical and molecular analyses, has been used to study the impact of two different AM fungi, i.e. Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices, on tomato response to water stress. Overall, results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to drought in tomato with a different plant response depending on the involved AM fungal species.

  13. Molecular marker screening of tomato, (solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... In tomato breeding, the identification of the root-knot nematodes resistance gene, Mi is mainly by ... limited application of MAS in tomato breeding in Ghana. In this work, a co-dominant SCAR marker .... Using RAPD markers to analyze genetic diversity in Portuguese potato cyst nematode populations. J.

  14. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  15. Three dimensional geometric modeling of processing-tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing tomato geometries with different shapes and sizes would facilitate the design of tomato processing equipments and promote computer-based engineering simulations. This research sought to develop a three-dimensional geometric model that can describe the morphological attributes of proce...

  16. ( Leveillula taurica ) on tomato by foliar sprays of liquid potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A foliar application of soluble silicon (liquid potassium silicate) was tested for the control of powdery mildew of tomato for 2 years in the field conditions on susceptible cultivar Alida F1. Powdery mildew in field-grown staked tomato, caused by Leveillula taurica was significantly controlled by a foliar spray of either K2SiO3 or ...

  17. Low temperature-induced lycopene degradaton in red ripe tomato evaluated by remittance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Schouten, R.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomatoes are mostly harvested at the orange and red-ripe stages. A survey among consumers indicated that tomatoes are most often stored in the refrigerator well below 10 °C, a temperature considered harmful for chilling sensitive products such as tomato. Also during distribution, tomatoes may be

  18. Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste

  19. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. ...

  20. Effect of concentration on the rheology and serum separation of tomato suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den F.W.C.; Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    The °Brix value of the tomato concentrate, from which tomato suspensions were prepared, was shown to have a large effect on the resulting apparent viscosity and storage modulus. The apparent viscosity of a tomato suspension prepared from a 30 °Brix tomato concentrate was only 35␘f that of a

  1. Emergence of a resistance breaking TSWV strain in tomato in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly destructive pathogen of tomato in the central valley of California. During the 2016 tomato growing season, unusually early and severe symptoms of TSWV occurred in fields of TSWV-resistant fresh market tomato cultivars. Disease incidences of 50-80% were ob...

  2. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance... Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions. The fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop...) Both FCIC and Reinsured Policies Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop provisions If a conflict exists...

  3. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  4. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  5. Tomato necrotic ring virus (TNRV), a recently described tospovirus species infecting tomato and pepper in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehraban, A.; Cheewachaiwit, S.; Relevante, C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two tospovirus isolates collected from tomato and bell pepper in Thailand were studied. The isolates induced severe necrotic mottling and/or necrotic spots and rings on the leaves and fruits of the respective plants as confirmed by back-inoculation. A polyclonal antiserum raised against its

  6. Suicidal tomato cells: programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy

  7. Phototransformation of imidacloprid on isolated tomato fruit cuticles and on tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Nicole; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2010-01-21

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in plant protection to prevent crop losses. The objective of this study was to show the photochemical fate of imidacloprid on plant surfaces by irradiation experiments on isolated tomato fruit cuticles and tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Imidacloprid spiked samples were irradiated both under sunlight simulator and natural sunlight conditions for 24h, which resulted in recoveries of 23% and 24%, respectively, if isolated cuticles were studied. On whole tomato fruits, recoveries were 33% and 71%, respectively. Similar results were obtained on cuticles spiked with the formulation Confidor and irradiated under natural sunlight. However, on tomato fruits the application of Confidor resulted in a higher loss (56%) of imidacloprid. During all irradiation experiments both on cuticles and whole fruits, 1-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]imidazolidin-2-imine was generally formed at 10-14 mol%, but different other photoproducts were also detected in low amounts, whereas N-nitrosoimidacloprid was only detected under natural sunlight conditions. Rapid photodegradation of imidacloprid could be demonstrated in all experiments. The identified photoproducts, 1-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]imidazolidin-2-imine and N-nitrosoimidacloprid, are possible reaction partners for plant cuticle constituents to form cuticle bound residues. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has long been known to spread via plant propagation materials including transplants. Global dissemination of TSWV has also been linked to transport of thrips-infested and virus-infected horticultural and floricultural products through trade and commerce. However, th...

  9. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 protein is a determinant of disease phenotype in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a monopartite begomovirus. Its genome contains six open reading frames, with V1 and V2 in sense, and C1 to C4 in complementary orientation. The functions of V1 and V2 are for coat protein and pre-coat, respectively. C1 is for virus replication, C2 for trans-a...

  10. Peeling tomato paste subsidies : the impact of a revision of the CMO for processing tomatoes on European horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Roza, P.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of a possible reform of the Common Market Organisation for processing tomatoes on production and trade of fruits and vegetables in Europe. The report describes the processing tomato supply chain and EU policy since 1978 and analyses the effects of possible reforms of EU policy using the HORTUS simulation model.

  11. Peeling tomato paste subsidies : the impact of a revision of the CMO for processing tomatoes on European horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Roza, P.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of a possible reform of the Common Market Organisation for processing tomatoes on production and trade of fruits and vegetables in Europe. The report describes the processing tomato supply chain and EU policy since 1978 and analyses the effects of possible reforms

  12. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus can be acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delatte, H.; Dalmon, A.; Rist, D.; Soustrade, I.; Wuster, G.; Lett, J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peterschmitt, M.; Reynaud, B.

    2003-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an insect pest causing worldwide economic losses, especially as a vector of geminiviruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Currently, imported and exported tomato fruit are not monitored for TYLCV infection because they are not considered to represent a

  13. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV)

  14. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  15. Improving the Tanzanian-Mombasa cross-border tomato product chain: a study of Mombasa tomato market : draft report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.; Wiersinga, R.C.; Jager, de A.

    2008-01-01

    The study of Mombasa tomato market is part of the project “Development of Commercial Field Vegetable Production, Distribution and Marketing for the East African Market”. The project is implementing a pilot activity on improving crossborder tomato chains from Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania, to Mombasa,

  16. Interaction of tomato lycopene and ketosamine against rat prostate tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossine, Valeri V; Chopra, Pankaj; Mawhinney, Thomas P

    2008-06-01

    Prior investigations on the beneficial effect of dietary processed tomato products and lycopene on prostate cancer risk suggested that lycopene may require the presence of other constituents to exert its chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether ketosamines, a group of carbohydrate derivatives present in dehydrated tomato products, may interact with lycopene against prostate tumorigenesis. One ketosamine, FruHis, strongly synergized with lycopene against proliferation of the highly metastatic rat prostate adenocarcinoma MAT-LyLu cell line in vitro. The FruHis/lycopene combination significantly inhibited in vivo tumor formation by MAT-LyLu cells in syngeneic Copenhagen rats. Energy-balanced diets, supplemented with tomato paste, tomato powder, or tomato paste plus FruHis, were fed to Wistar-Unilever rats (n = 20 per group) treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea and testosterone to induce prostate carcinogenesis. Survival from carcinogenesis was lowest in the control group (median survival time, 40 weeks) and highest in the group fed the tomato paste/FruHis diet (51 weeks; P = 0.004, versus control). The proportions of dying rats with macroscopic prostate tumors in the control, tomato paste, tomato powder, and tomato paste/FruHis groups were 63% (12 of 19), 39% (5 of 13), 43% (6 of 14), and 18% (2 of 11), respectively. FruHis completely blocked DNA oxidative degradation at >250 micromol/L in vitro, whereas neither ascorbate nor phenolic antioxidants from tomato were effective protectors in this assay. FruHis, therefore, may exert tumor-preventive effect through its antioxidant activity and interaction with lycopene.

  17. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis.

  18. Incidences and progression of tomato chlorosis virus disease and tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in tomato under different greenhouse covers in southeast Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velasco; Simon; Janssen; Cenis

    2008-01-01

    ... a physical protection of crops against whiteflies. For tomato chlorosis virus disease (ToCD), the incidence correlated with the type of greenhouse cover and was most reduced under higher quality covers...

  19. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates that overcome the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato and fitness assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose ARAMBURU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance-breaking (RB isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV that overcome the resistance conferred by the Sw-5 gene in tomato have had only a limited spread since they were first detected in north-eastern Spain in 2002. Symptom expression, homogeneity, stability and the transmission capacity of RB and non-resistance breaking (NRB isolates were biologically compared. The fitness of both types of isolates infecting tomato plants was determined in competition assays. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in a wide range of plant species, except RB isolates in tomato carrying the Sw-5 resistance gene and pepper carrying the Tsw resistance gene. The mechanical transmission of RB isolates to tomato plants with the Sw-5 gene failed in some trials, although NRB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when tested with the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biological clones from individual local lesions obtained by mechanically inoculating Nicotiana glutinosa in some TSWV field samples showed that they were biologically homogeneous. Mixed infections of RB and wilt-type isolates were not found. The RB isolates were relatively stable because no reversion to NRB isolates was seen after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants. In competition assays between RB and NRB isolates, after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants, the prevalence of a particular isolate was not related to its capacity to overcome Sw-5 gene resistance. The low spread of the RB isolates in Spain does not seem to be related to a loss of fitness in tomato plants or to differences in transmission capacity by thrips, but it could be related to the reduction of the selection pressure of RB isolates as consequence of the gradual replacement of susceptible tomato plants by resistant tomato plants by growers.

  20. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P 100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P brush rollers.

  1. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  2. A Snapshot of the Emerging Tomato Genome Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas A. Mueller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The genome of tomato ( L. is being sequenced by an international consortium of 10 countries (Korea, China, the United Kingdom, India, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Spain, Italy, and the United States as part of the larger “International Solanaceae Genome Project (SOL: Systems Approach to Diversity and Adaptation” initiative. The tomato genome sequencing project uses an ordered bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC approach to generate a high-quality tomato euchromatic genome sequence for use as a reference genome for the Solanaceae and euasterids. Sequence is deposited at GenBank and at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN. Currently, there are around 1000 BACs finished or in progress, representing more than a third of the projected euchromatic portion of the genome. An annotation effort is also underway by the International Tomato Annotation Group. The expected number of genes in the euchromatin is ∼40,000, based on an estimate from a preliminary annotation of 11% of finished sequence. Here, we present this first snapshot of the emerging tomato genome and its annotation, a short comparison with potato ( L. sequence data, and the tools available for the researchers to exploit this new resource are also presented. In the future, whole-genome shotgun techniques will be combined with the BAC-by-BAC approach to cover the entire tomato genome. The high-quality reference euchromatic tomato sequence is expected to be near completion by 2010.

  3. SNP Discovery and Linkage Map Construction in Cultivated Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Asamizu, Erika; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Few intraspecific genetic linkage maps have been reported for cultivated tomato, mainly because genetic diversity within Solanum lycopersicum is much less than that between tomato species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant source of genomic variation, are the most promising source of polymorphisms for the construction of linkage maps for closely related intraspecific lines. In this study, we developed SNP markers based on expressed sequence tags for the construction of intraspecific linkage maps in tomato. Out of the 5607 SNP positions detected through in silico analysis, 1536 were selected for high-throughput genotyping of two mapping populations derived from crosses between ‘Micro-Tom’ and either ‘Ailsa Craig’ or ‘M82’. A total of 1137 markers, including 793 out of the 1338 successfully genotyped SNPs, along with 344 simple sequence repeat and intronic polymorphism markers, were mapped onto two linkage maps, which covered 1467.8 and 1422.7 cM, respectively. The SNP markers developed were then screened against cultivated tomato lines in order to estimate the transferability of these SNPs to other breeding materials. The molecular markers and linkage maps represent a milestone in the genomics and genetics, and are the first step toward molecular breeding of cultivated tomato. Information on the DNA markers, linkage maps, and SNP genotypes for these tomato lines is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/. PMID:21044984

  4. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2009-09-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical "cellulose-like" triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 °C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR "cellulose-like" spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  5. The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumption is increasing with population growth. In this review, we report how tomato was already domesticated by the ancient Incan and Aztec civilizations, and how it came to Europe, where its breeding history started. The development of genetic, molecular biology and plant biotechnology have opened the doors towards the modern genetic engineering of tomato. The different goals of tomato genetic engineering are presented, as well as examples of successfully engineered tomatoes in terms of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and fruit quality. The development of GM tomato for biopharming is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clustering and cellular distribution characteristics of virus particles of Tomato spotted wilt virus and Tomato zonate spot virus in different plant hosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhongkai; Zheng, Kuanyu; Dong, Jiahong; Fang, Qi; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xifeng

    2016-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) are the two dominant species of thrip-transmitted tospoviruses, cause significant losses in crop yield in Yunnan and its neighboring provinces in China...

  7. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  8. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  9. Impact of substrate on soilless tomato cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Suvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four different media based hydroponics on plant growth, yield and nutritional values at Biochemistry laboratory of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU, Bangladesh during November 2014 to April 2015. Tomato plants were grown in closed soilless system where Hoagland solution as nutrient solution and jute fiber, cotton (jhut, coconut husk as substrate. Among four types of media, the media composed with Hoagland solution and jute fiber showed good impact on growth and nutritional values than the other three media (media of Hoagland solution with coconut husk, Hoagland solution with cotton and only Hoagland solution. It was revealed that the highest plant height, yield, vitamin C, fruit protein, fat and fiber content of all were related to media combination of jute fiber and Hoagland solution. Among all the verities, the highest plant height (106 cm, yield (5.3 kg plant-1, fruit Vitamin C content (64.54 mg 100 g-1, fruit protein (17.67 %, fat (5.2% and fiber (7.9% content was recorded from Patharkuchi tomato variety.

  10. ESTUDIO TÉCNICO DEL PROYECTO TOMATO-MIX

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Armendáriz, Carlos Alonso; Soto Zapata, Manuel; Magaña Magaña, José Eduardo; Licón Trillo, Lorena Patricia; Kiessling Davison, Christian Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Tomato-Mix is a powder made from tomatoes, onions, celery, garlic and lemon,which today is available in the presentation of shrimp and beef jerky, but is planned to be available in spicy clam and presentation; which will provide a touch of spice to the consumer beverage quickly and easily. Since we only need to add the contents of the envelope to the recommended amount of liquid of your choice and mix, instantly getting a delicious flavored drink. The goal of the product"Tomato-Mix" is meetin...

  11. Parasitic nematodes associated to tomato plants in western Nicaragua.

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Antón, Wilber; Guzmán-Hernández, Tomás de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to iden-tify parasitic nematodes associated with the tomato crop in Leon and Chinandega western region of Nicaragua. During the period of 2010-2011, five tomato fields were sampled in both Leon and Chinandega; these samples included soil and roots, the total sampled area was of 2.5 ha. Eight samples were collected from each of the ten tomato plantations studied, for a total of 80 samples. Soil and root samples were taken 10 m from each other in a zig-zag patter...

  12. Survival of Salmonella on tomatoes stored at high relative humidity, in soil, and on tomatoes in contact with soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jinru; Brackett, Robert E; Beuchat, Larry R

    2002-02-01

    Salmonellosis has been linked to the consumption of several types of raw fruits and vegetables, some of which may have been contaminated with Salmonella before harvesting. The objectives of this study were to investigate water and soil as reservoirs of Salmonella for the contamination of mature green tomato fruits. Salmonella survived for at least 45 days in inoculated moist soil. The population of Salmonella on tomatoes in contact with soil increased by 2.5 log10 CFU per tomato during storage for 4 days at 20 degrees C and remained constant for an additional 10 days. The number of cells inoculated on tomatoes decreased by approximately 4 log10 CFU per tomato during storage for 14 days at 20 degrees C and 70% relative humidity. Fruits in contact with inoculated soil for 1 day at 20 degrees C harbored Salmonella only near or on the skin surface. More Salmonella cells were observed in stem scar and subsurface areas of tomatoes as the time of storage increased. PCR fingerprinting revealed that among five Salmonella serotypes in the inoculum, Salmonella Montevideo was the most persistent on tomatoes in contact with inoculated soil and on spot-inoculated tomatoes, followed by Salmonella Poona and Salmonella Michigan. The results of this study demonstrate that an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker can be used to detect cells and monitor the growth of Salmonella in the presence of other microorganisms. Observations on the infiltration of Salmonella into tomato tissues support the contention that preharvest contact of produce with contaminated water or soil exacerbates problems associated with the postharvest removal of pathogens or their accessibility to treatment with sanitizers.

  13. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  14. Chemical and organoleptic characteristics of tomato purée enriched with lyophilized tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtera, Lucio; Fucci, Gabriella; De Marco, Anna; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have proved that tomato consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing several diseases (for example, certain types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, age-related eye disease). Many micronutrients and bioactive compounds are mainly present in peel and seeds and are lost during the processing into sauce, purée, paste and juice. The addition of lyophilized and powdered tomato pomace enhances the properties of purée. In this paper we report the chemical and physicochemical characterization of a purée enriched with 2% dry pomace. Comparison of the analytical data of starting purée with the enriched purée showed a significant increase of all micronutrients, without the taste and appearance being compromised or altered negatively. The product obtained is an example of a functional food rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, with the significant aspect of recovering a waste fraction of the tomato processing that would normally be disposed of in landfill, with associated costs and environmental impact. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Tomato genome-wide transcriptional responses to Fusarium wilt and Tomato Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ferriello, Francesca; Tardella, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Sigillo, Loredana; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant-pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV). Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK) were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses.

  16. Tomato genome-wide transcriptional responses to Fusarium wilt and Tomato Mosaic Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andolfo

    Full Text Available Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant-pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV. Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses.

  17. Characterization of resistant tomato mutants to bacterial canker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    square analyses were conducted to estimate recessive and dominant ratios for phenotypic resistance. RESULTS. EMS mutation was used to induce point mutation for obtaining resistant tomato plants against bacterial canker.

  18. Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Resende, de R.

    1993-01-01

    In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie,

  19. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade; Alex Antônio da Silva; Thiago Vicenzi Conrado; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Thiago Matos Andrade; Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class...

  20. Tomato Derived Polysaccharides for Biotechnological Applications: Chemical and Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nicolaus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies concerning the isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. San Marzano cells and the description of a simple, rapid and low environmental impact method with for obtaining polysaccharides from solid tomato-processing industry wastes are reported. Their chemical composition, rheological properties and partial primary structure were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, GC-MS, 1H-, 13C-NMR. Moreover, the anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides obtained from cultured tomato cells were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay and the preparation of biodegradable film by chemical processing of polysaccharides from solid tomato industry waste was also reported.

  1. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of tomato ( Lycopersion esculentum ) against lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of tomato (Lycopersion esculentum) against lead poisoning in wistar rats. AO Ebunlomo, JN Egwurugwu, CR Nwokocha, CS Ufearo, NN Obaji, AO Odetola, GS Adeleye, IC Anetor, PPE Mounmbegna ...

  3. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  4. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  5. A new tobamovirus infecting tomato crops in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N; Mansour, A; Ciuffo, M; Falk, B W; Turina, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we completed the whole genome sequence of a new tobamovirus isolated from tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Jordan during the spring of 2015. The 6393-nt single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome encodes four proteins, as do other tobamoviruses: two replication-related proteins of 126 kDa and 183 kDa, a 30-kDa movement protein (MP) and a 17.5-kDa coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus does not group with either the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) or the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) clades. Instead, it stems from a branch leading to the TMV clade. Analysis of possible recombination events between this virus and representative isolates of closely related tomato-infecting tobamoviruses showed that at least one region originated by recombination. We provide evidence that we have identified a new tobamovirus, for which we propose the name "tomato brown rugose fruit virus".

  6. Oral rush desensitization with tomato: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, E; Schiavino, D; Buonomo, A; Roncallo, C; Pollastrini, E; Lombardo, C; Alonzi, C; Pecora, V; De Pasquale, T; Patriarca, G

    2006-01-01

    Adverse food reaction in which no immunological mechanism is demonstrated should be termed nonallergic food hypersensitivity or food intolerance. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a clinical history of abdominal pain, nausea, and general malaise after tomato intake which completely remitted with antihistamines. The patient underwent a complete allergy evaluation: skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and IgG4 tests to tomato, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Skin prick tests and specific IgE to tomato were negative while the food challenge was positive. At the end of the workup, the patient underwent an oral rush desensitizing treatment. At the end of the treatment the patient could eat a maintenance dose of 100 g of tomato daily with no side effects at all. This successful result suggests that the oral desensitizing treatment can be used in patients with nonallergic food hypersensitivity.

  7. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  8. Tomatoes cause under-arm odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J C M

    2014-05-01

    Under arm odour [axillary odour AO, bromidrosis] is a deeply unpleasant problem that can affect a person's self confidence and esteem and reduce social interaction. It is generally managed by good hygiene along with antiperspirants and deodorants, but the axillary apocrine glands may need surgical removal in severe cases of odour. The odour comes from microbial conversion of the apocrine secretions into short chain fatty acids like isovaleric acid and volatile sulphur compounds like 3-sulphanylhexan-1-ol. These can be detected at a few parts per billion to parts per trillion by the human nose so an unhygienic state is soon apparent. Recently genetics have been found to play an important role too as people with the AA variant of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCC11, do not secrete preodour substrates for bacterial conversion, while those with GA or GG variants do. Hygiene and genetics, are an incomplete explanation though, because the longitudinal ALSPAC study found that there is a mismatch between patients' secretory status, as determined by genetics, and their use of deodorants. This suggests that other metabolic pathways or compounds contribute to the odour. In this paper I propose that under arm odour is commonly caused by terpenes excreted via the axillary apocrine glands. I also show that these come from terpene and carotenoid-rich dietary sources including lycopene, tomatoes, orange peel and the glandular trichomes of tomato plants. These observations suggest that the axillary apocrine glands are a prominent excretory route for terpenes. Considering the quantities eaten, tomatoes are likely to be the main source of dietary terpenes, and under arm odour in turn. This study also shows that lycopene is probably metabolised by β-carotene 9 10 monooxygenase which cleaves β-carotene eccentrically at the 9 10 or 9'10' position of the chain. Direct evidence of lycopene metabolism by β-carotene 9 10 monooxygenase has hitherto been lacking. The

  9. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Water use efficiency of tomatoes - in greenhouses and hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Massive amounts of water are required for the production of our food, varying from several cubic metres per kilogram of beef to as low as 4 litres per kilogram for tomatoes grown in high-tech glasshouses. This article presents data on Product Water Use (PWU) of some foods and discusses how the water requirement for fresh tomatoes can be brought down from 300 to 4 litres/kg.

  11. Tomato pomace protects against mercuric chloride-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is reported to possess antioxidant activity and this study investigated tomato pomace powder's (TPP) effect on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) intoxication in rats. Thirty male rats were assigned randomly into five groups (n=6): Control; Propylene glycol; TPP (50 mg/kg bwt) for 19 days; HgCl2 (4 mg/bwt) from day 5 to 19 of ...

  12. Tomato Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars Growth in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    A. Radzevičius; P. Viškelis; J. Viškelis; R. Bobinaitė; R. Karklelienė; D. Juškevičienė

    2013-01-01

    Two cultivars ('Rutuliai', 'Saint Perrie') and five hybrids ('Tolstoi', 'Brooklyn', 'Tocayo', 'Benito', 'Tourist') of edible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. The following fruit quality parameters were evaluated: the amount of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total and inverted sugar, sucrose, dry matter soluble solids in fresh tomato matter, also were determined fruit skin and flesh firmness, color index...

  13. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  14. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Navarro-González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. More recent studies have proposed different biochemical mechanisms in which tomato components can exert this beneficial role on health. In addition, several studies seem to show that the greatest benefit of this food is due to the synergistic effect between all its compounds. Some epidemiological studies associate that regular intake has several beneficial effects on health. Due to the association between bioactive compounds, daily tomato consumption and its effect on human health, the aim of the current literature review is summarize the compounds in this food and its possible actions on health.

  15. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álefe Vitorino Borges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness of gelatin regarding inoculum adhesion. Infection with an isolate from tomato plants that was previously inoculated into petioles and then re-isolated was successful. An isolate from strawberry plants was also aggressive, although less than that from tomato plants. Tomato plants close to flowering, at 65 days after sowing, and younger, middle and apical stem portions were more susceptible. There was positive correlation between lesion length and sporulation and between lesion length and broken stems. Lesion length and the percentage of sporulation sites were reduced by using a moist chamber and were not affected by adding gelatin to the inoculum suspension. This methodology has been adopted in studies of B. cinerea in tomato plants showing reproducible results. The obtained results may assist researchers who study the gray mold.

  17. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  18. Multivariate analysis applied to tomato hybrid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, S; Nuez, F; Palomares, G; Cuartero, J

    1984-11-01

    Twenty characters were measured on 60 tomato varieties cultivated in the open-air and in polyethylene plastic-house. Data were analyzed by means of principal components, factorial discriminant methods, Mahalanobis D(2) distances and principal coordinate techniques. Factorial discriminant and Mahalanobis D(2) distances methods, both of which require collecting data plant by plant, lead to similar conclusions as the principal components method that only requires taking data by plots. Characters that make up the principal components in both environments studied are the same, although the relative importance of each one of them varies within the principal components. By combining information supplied by multivariate analysis with the inheritance mode of characters, crossings among cultivars can be experimented with that will produce heterotic hybrids showing characters within previously established limits.

  19. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. Engineering resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2017-12-22

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to confer immunity against the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Targeting the TYLCV genome with Cas9-single guide RNA at the sequences encoding the coat protein (CP) or replicase (Rep) resulted in efficient virus interference, as evidenced by low accumulation of the TYLCV DNA genome in the transgenic plants. The CRISPR/Cas9-based immunity remained active across multiple generations in the N. benthamiana and tomato plants. Together, our results confirmed the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for stable engineering of TYLCV resistance in N. benthamiana and tomato, and opens the possibilities of engineering virus resistance against single and multiple infectious viruses in other crops.

  1. Molecular and biological characterization of a new Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus strain producing severe symptoms in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques; Desbiez, Cécile; Bragard, Claude

    2017-12-01

    Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus (ToMYLCV) is a begomovirus first reported infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) in Venezuela. In this study, a ToMYLCV isolate (Zulia-219) was completely sequenced and its host range was evaluated. The DNA-A and DNA-B components of isolate Zulia-219 showed 93 and 85% nucleotide sequence identity with the respective counterparts of the ToMYLCV type strain. According to current demarcation criteria for begomovirus species, Zulia-219 is a new strain of ToMYLCV. Interestingly, tomato plants inoculated with ToMYLCV Zulia-219 displayed severe symptoms, including severe chlorotic leaf curling, in contrast to mild symptoms associated with the type strain of this begomovirus. These results indicate potential risks associated with this new ToMYLCV strain for tomato production in Venezuela.

  2. Metabolic transition in mycorrhizal tomato roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Gamir, Jordi; Aroca, Ricardo; Pozo, María J.; Flors, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial plant–microorganism interactions are widespread in nature. Among them, the symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is of major importance, commonly improving host nutrition and tolerance against environmental and biotic challenges. Metabolic changes were observed in a well-established symbiosis between tomato and two common AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. Principal component analysis of metabolites, determined by non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, showed a strong metabolic rearrangement in mycorrhizal roots. There was generally a negative impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on amino acid content, mainly on those involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. On the other hand, many intermediaries in amino acid and sugar metabolism and the oxylipin pathway were among the compounds accumulating more in mycorrhizal roots. The metabolic reprogramming also affected other pathways in the secondary metabolism, mainly phenyl alcohols (lignins and lignans) and vitamins. The results showed that source metabolites of these pathways decreased in mycorrhizal roots, whilst the products derived from α-linolenic and amino acids presented higher concentrations in AMF-colonized roots. Mycorrhization therefore increased the flux into those pathways. Venn-diagram analysis showed that there are many induced signals shared by both mycorrhizal interactions, pointing to general mycorrhiza-associated changes in the tomato metabolome. Moreover, fungus-specific fingerprints were also found, suggesting that specific molecular alterations may underlie the reported functional diversity of the symbiosis. Since most positively regulated pathways were related to stress response mechanisms, their potential contribution to improved host stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:26157423

  3. Investigating the role of vitamin C in tomato through TILLING identification of ascorbate-deficient tomato mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Baldet, Pierre; Bres, Cécile; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Just, Daniel; Bournonville, Céline; Ferrand, Carine; Mori, Kentaro; Ezura, Hiroshi; Rothan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Besides being a model for fleshy fruits and Solanaceae species, tomato represents one of the main sources of ascorbate (vitamin C) in human diet in many parts of the world. Ascorbate fulfills various roles in plants due to its antioxidant potential and to its connection with other metabolic pathways e. g. cell wall biosynthesis. Among the functional genomic tools recently developed in tomato, EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutant collections provide an opportunity for identifying allelic series...

  4. Characterization of the red layer and pericarp of processing tomato using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M; McCarthy, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of tomato pericarp are closely associated with peelabililty, an important quality attribute of processing tomatoes. Different types of tissue exist in the pericarp of tomato. The outermost region of the pericarp, the red layer, is removed with the skin during peeling. This study investigated the morphological features and tissue properties of red layer and pericarp for 3 processing tomato cultivars using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The red layer can be visualized in MR images with T(2) weighting, indicating the red layer has different properties compared to the rest of the pericarp region. Tomatoes were imaged with a set of MRI sequences with signal intensity dependent on different water proton properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the statistical features revealed clustering of fruit by cultivar. The spatial distribution of cultivars in the PCA score plot followed their rank of peeling performance. MRI demonstrated potential as a nondestructive method to characterize tomato pericarp and evaluate the peelability of processing tomatoes. Peelability of tomatoes affects the quality of value-added whole peel and diced tomato products. The properties of the pericarp of tomato are directly related to the peelability of tomatoes. MRI provided a fast and nondestructive method to characterize the properties of tomato pericarp. The result of this work gives insight into the correlation between tomato pericarp characteristics and peelability. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  6. Tomato protoplast DNA transformation : physical linkage and recombination of exogenous DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Maarten; Koornneef, Maarten; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1987-01-01

    Tomato protoplasts have been transformed with plasmid DNA's, containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene and putative tomato origins of replication. A calcium phosphate-DNA mediated transformation procedure was employed in combination with either polyethylene glycol or polyvinyl alcohol. There

  7. A two-stage DEA model to evaluate sustainability and energy efficiency of tomato production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hossein Raheli; Rassul Mohammad Rezaei; Mehri Raei Jadidi; Hassan Ghasemi Mobtaker

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of tomato production and to investigate the determinants of inefficiency of tomato farming in Marand region of East Azerbaijan province, Iran...

  8. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  9. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J.; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar “Heinz 1706” (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10–35°C, relative humidity 30–90%, and, CO2 concentration 200–1500 μmol mol−1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  10. Quality Assessment of Solar Energy dried Tomato Flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isiaka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the quality of solar dried tomato flakes by determining its safety, nutritive value and wholesomeness. In order to determine the safety of the dried tomato, the bacteria and mould loads were determined using three sliced thicknesses of solar energy dried samples. Two different types of agar culture media were used to culture the released bacteria and mould cells. Ascorbic acid and proximate tests were carried out to determine the nutritional value of the dried product as compared with the fresh products. To determine the wholesomeness of the dried product, the organoleptic properties in terms of colour (appearance and taste (flavour were examined and compared with those of three other tomato products. Results showed that the mean viable bacteria count ranged from 9 to 13 colonies/ml with the 25 mm thickness giving the highest value, followed by 20 mm thickness and the least value was from 15 mm thickness. The same pattern was observed for mould infection. The infection range for the three slice thicknesses was within the recommended safe limit of ≤30 colony forming unit/ml for bacteria and mould counts in food products. There was substantial drop in ascorbic acid content from 28.2 mg/100 g for fresh ripe tomato to as low as 13.6 mg/100 g for dried tomato of 25 mm slice thickness and highest value of 20.6 mg/100 g for 20 mm thickness. The results for organoleptic properties showed the tomato dried by solar energy dryer is superior to the other tomato products.

  11. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar eSchwarz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape and colour. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 (≈900 Mb and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8-16 hours. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10-35°C, relative humidity 30-90 % and CO2 concentration 200-1500 µmol mol-1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Cytokinin Response in Tomato Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiuling; Gupta, Sarika; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Cameron, Connor T.; Mudge, Joann; Rashotte, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically and agriculturally important Solanaceous species and vegetable crops, serving as a model for examination of fruit biology and compound leaf development. Cytokinin is a plant hormone linked to the control of leaf development and is known to regulate a wide range of genes including many transcription factors. Currently there is little known of the leaf transcriptome in tomato and how it might be regulated by cytokinin. We employ high throughput mRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatic methodologies to robustly analyze cytokinin regulated tomato leaf transcriptomes. Leaf samples of two ages, 13d and 35d were treated with cytokinin or the solvent vehicle control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 2 h or 24 h, after which RNA was extracted for sequencing. To confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing results, we performed qPCR analysis of select transcripts identified as cytokinin regulated by the RNA sequencing approach. The resulting data provide the first hormone transcriptome analysis of leaves in tomato. Specifically we identified several previously untested tomato orthologs of cytokinin-related genes as well as numerous novel cytokinin-regulated transcripts in tomato leaves. Principal component analysis of the data indicates that length of cytokinin treatment and plant age are the major factors responsible for changes in transcripts observed in this study. Two hour cytokinin treatment showed a more robust transcript response indicated by both greater fold change of induced transcripts and the induction of twice as many cytokinin-related genes involved in signaling, metabolism, and transport in young vs. older leaves. This difference in transcriptome response in younger vs. older leaves was also found to a lesser extent with an extended (24 h) cytokinin treatment. Overall data presented here provides a solid foundation for future study of cytokinin and cytokinin regulated genes involved in compound leaf development or other

  13. Effect of Pre-drying Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Dehydrated Tomato Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sharareh Mohseni; Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    2011-01-01

    Tomato powder has good potential as substitute of tomato paste and other tomato products. In order to protect physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of tomato during dehydration process, investigation was carried out using different drying methods and pretreatments. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration where as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2 +KMS), and sodium chl...

  14. Studies on Physiochemical Properties of Tomato Powder as Affected by Different Dehydration Methods and Pretreatments

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel; Mehdi Ghiafeh Davoodi

    2010-01-01

    Tomato powder has good potential as substitute of tomato paste and other tomato products. In order to protect physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of tomato during dehydration process, investigation was carried out using different drying methods and pretreatments. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration where as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2 +KMS), and sodium chl...

  15. Phytoene, Phytofluene, and Lycopene from Tomato Powder Differentially Accumulate in Tissues of Male Fisher 344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Jessica K.; Engelmann, Nancy J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato product consumption is inversely related to prostate cancer incidence, and lycopene (LYC) has been implicated in reduced prostate cancer risk. The contribution of other tomato carotenoids, phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF), towards prostate cancer risk has not been adequately studied. The relative uptake and tissue distribution of tomato carotenoids are not known. We hypothesize that PE and PF are bioavailable from a tomato powder diet or from a purified source and accumulate in andro...

  16. A study of the South African tomato curly stunt virus pathosystem: epidemiology, molecular diversity and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    PhD In South Africa, tomato (Solanum /ycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop with considerable nutritional and economic value. Over the last decade, begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) infections associated with an upsurge of the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, on tomato crops has become a serious threat to sustainable tomato production in South Africa. Begomovirus disease control in tomato is challenging and requires an integrated "pest" and "vector" management strategy, primarily ba...

  17. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta NOUR; Mira Elena IONICA; Ion TRANDAFIR

    2015-01-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene,...

  18. Colonization of Tomato Root by Antagonistic Bacterial Strains to Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol is an important disease in tomato which cause a significant loss of yield in major growing regions of the world. This study examined the ability of bacterial strains antagonistic to F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (H5, H22, H63, H71, Burkholderia cepacia strain 65 and 526 to colonize tomato seedlings and the effect of plant growth. The effect of bacterial population size and air temperature on the bacterial colonization and their spread along the root systems was also assessed.The results of this study showed that the bacterial population at 28°/23° C day/night temperature 14 days after planting was significantly greater than 23°/18° C for 4 of 6 strains tested. Although there was no significant effect of temperature on bacterial population observed in this study, the ability of the baacterial strains to colonize the rhizosphere was significantly different. Three strains (H5, B. cepacia strain 65 and 526 survived well in the rhizosphere and at 4 weeks after planting rhizosphere populations per gram fresh root were not significantly different from those recovered 2 weeks after planting. The largest population of the bacterial inoculants developed in the basal region of the roots and this differed between strains by log10 2.7 cfu/cm root. The bacterial populations in other parts of the root were also strain dependent. Strain H71, for example, was able to colonize the root segments at a high population level. However strain H63 was recovered only in small number in all root segments.

  19. Conservation and Dispersion of Genes Conferring Resistance to Tomato Begomoviruses between Tomato and Pepper Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mangal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present climate change scenario, controlling plant disease through exploitation of host plant resistance could contribute toward the sustainable crop production and global food security. In this respect, the identification of new sources of resistance and utilization of genetic diversity within the species may help in the generation of cultivars with improved disease resistance. Begomoviruses namely, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Chilli leaf curl virus (ChLCV are known to cause major yield losses in several economically important crop plants of the family Solanaceae. Though co-occurrence, association and synergistic interactions among these viruses in the host plants is reported, whether orthologous genetic loci in related host plants could be responsible for conferring resistance to these viruses has not been investigated yet. Several loci including Ty1, Ty2, Ty3, Ty4, and ty5 have been reported to confer resistance to leaf curl viruses in tomato. Here, we examined the pepper orthologous markers, corresponding to these QTL regions, for polymorphism between ChLCV susceptible and resistant genotypes of pepper. Further, to examine if the polymorphic markers are segregating with the disease resistance, Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA was performed on F2 population derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible lines. However, none of the markers showed polymorphism in BSA suggesting that the tested markers are not linked to genes/QTLs responsible for conferring resistance to ChLCV in the selected genotypes. In silico analysis was performed to study the synteny and collinearity of genes located within these QTL regions in tomato and pepper genomes, which revealed that more than 60% genes located in Ty2 and Ty4, 13.71% genes in Ty1, 23.07% in Ty3, and 44.77% genes located within ty5 QTL region in tomato are conserved in pepper genome. However, despite such a high conservation in gene content, the linkage relationship in these

  20. Characteristics and composition of tomato seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato seeds were separated from dried pomace, and seeds were ground and extracted with hot petroleum ether. The extracted oil was degummed, neutralised and bleached, and then the physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Purification led to a decrease in acidity, colour, unsaponifiables, E1%1cm 232 and oxidative stability, and to an increase in smoke point and E1%1cm 270. The fundamental physicochemical properties of the oil were not affected by purification. Tomato seed oil was found to contain high levels of linoleic (54%, followed by oleic (22%, while the dominant saturated acids were palmitic (14% and stearic (6%. Purification led to an increase in C18:2 trans, while the fatty acid profile of the oil remained unchanged, a- and ô-tocopherols were detected at levels of 202 and 1059 mg/kg; purification reduced tocopherol content to 161 and 898 mg/kg, respectively (β-sitosterol was found as the most predominant component of the sterolic fraction from tomato seed oil. A large percentage (16% of cholesterol was detected. Other sterols found in percentages higher than 1.5% were campesterol, stigmasterol and Δ5-avenasterol. In addition, trace to minor amounts of 24- methylenecholesterol, brassicasterol, Δ7-campesterol, clerosterol, Δ7 24-stigmastadienol, Δ7-stigmastanol, Δ7-avenasterol and erythrodiol were found. Sterol profile was not affected by purification.

    Se separaron semillas de tomate de la pulpa seca y posteriormente se trituraron y extrajeron con éter de petróleo en caliente. El aceite extraído se desgomó, neutralizó y decoloró, y luego se determinaron las características físicas y químicas de los aceites crudos y purificados. La purificación produjo una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificables, E1%1cm 232 y estabilidad oxidativa y un aumento en

  1. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  2. 78 FR 16530 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation AGENCY: United States... 3, 2012, to determine whether termination of the suspended investigation on fresh tomatoes from... February 28, 2013, Mexican tomato growers/exporters accounting for a significant percentage of all fresh...

  3. Study on the collision-mechanical properties of tomatoes gripped by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The data of collision-mechanical property of tomatoes gripped by robot fingers are important for the gripping control of tomato harvesting robot. In the study, tests of controlling the fingers to grip tomatoes were conducted to ascertain the effects of input current, motor speed and impact positions on the impact ...

  4. Study on the collision-mechanical properties of tomatoes gripped by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data of collision-mechanical property of tomatoes gripped by robot fingers are important for the gripping control of tomato harvesting robot. In the study, tests of controlling the fingers to grip tomatoes were conducted to ascertain the effects of input current, motor speed and impact positions on the impact force of fingers ...

  5. Optimization of tomato pomace separation using air aspirator system by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato pomace contains seeds and peels which are rich in protein and fat, and dietary fiber and lycopene, respectively. It is important to develop a suitable method to separate seeds and peel in tomato pomace for achieving value-added utilization of tomato pomace. The objectives of this research wer...

  6. What Is a Good Tomato? A Case of Valuing in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Heuts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the field of valuation studies this article lays out a number of lessons that follow from an exploratory inquiry into 'good tomatoes'. We held interviews with tomato experts (developers, growers, sellers, processors, professional cooks and so-called consumers in the Netherlands and analysed the transcriptions carefully. Grouping our informants' concerns with tomatoes into clusters, we differentiate between five registers of valuing. These have to do with money, handling, historical time, what it is to be natural, and sensual appeal. There are tensions between and within these registers that lead to clashes and compromises. Accordingly, valuing tomatoes does not fit into inclusive formal schemes. Neither is it simply a matter of making judgements. Our informants told us how they know whether a tomato is good, but also revealed what they do to make tomatoes good. Their valuing includes activities such as pruning tomato plants and preparing tomato dishes. But if such activities are meant to make tomatoes good, success is never guaranteed. This prompts us to import the notion of care. Care does not offer control, but involves sustained and respectful tinkering towards improvement. Which is not to say in the end the tomatoes our informants care for are good. In the end these tomatoes get eaten. And while eating performs tomatoes as 'good to eat', it also finishes them off. Valuing may lead on to destruction. An important lesson for valuation studies indeed.

  7. Formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids during heating and drying of concentrated tomato juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Jun; Vuist, Jan Eise; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers,

  8. Crinivirus and begomovirus detection in tomato plantlets and weeds associated to nurseries in Cartago province

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to detect plant infections caused by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and begomoviruses in tomato plantlets, as well as in weeds growing around nursery greenhouses. During one year, starting in April 2008, 168 leaf tissue samples were collected, 90 tomato plantlets and 78 weed...

  9. Distribution and chemical fate of chlorine dioxide gas during sanitation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies was conducted to establish the 1) distribution and chemical fate of 36-ClO2 on tomatoes and cantaloupe; and 2) the magnitude of residues in kilogram quantities of tomatoes and cantaloupe sanitized with a slow-release chlorine dioxide formulation. Tomatoes and cantaloupe were resp...

  10. Recent advances in research on volatile aroma compounds in tomatoes and their impacting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma is an important sensory attribute of tomatoes. Tomato aroma is formed by a complex mixture of more than 400 volatile compounds, and it plays an important role in the classification and consumer acceptability of tomato products. This article provides a brief overview of the volatile aroma compo...

  11. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  12. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION... Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to... Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions that were published by FCIC on November 17, 2011, as a notice of...

  13. Characterization of major resistance genes to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease, a devastating disease of tomato, is caused by a complex of begomoviruses generally referred to as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Almost all breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of the Ty-1 and Ty-3 resistance loci derived from

  14. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ishola

    and direct watering of crop with saline water. The wetted foliage of growing tomato absorbed the salts directly. The results obtained also show that salinity in the coastal areas of Benin affected tomato growth, leaf length, and number of .... development and yield of tomato, sensitivity to other stress, salinity and flooding control ...

  15. Introgressions of Lycopersicon pennellii improve growth and development of greenhouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manga Owona, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focused on the possibilities to improve greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) in terms of yield. The domestic tomato has a very narrow genetic base which makes breeding for better performance a difficult task. The wild, crossable relatives of tomato present the

  16. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21 nt (73%) and 22 nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved.

  17. [Relationship of Zn content and Na/K ratio to the resistance to pathogen invasion in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit and normal tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bei; Shen, Lin; Liu, Can; Tian, Shi-Ping; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-01

    In the present work, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the content of Zn, Na and K and the ratio of Na/K in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit (in which the antisense ACC synthase gene construct was inserted) and in normal tomato fruit of the same variety (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun). The difference in mineral elements content between the two tomatoes and the involvement of Zn content and Na/K ratio in the disease resistance of postharvest tomato fruit were discussed. The results showed that the ethylene biosynthesis is limited in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit. Meanwhile, the resistance to Rhizopus nigricans invasion of this transgenic tomato was higher, the disease incidence and lesion area in transgenic tomato fruit were 20.0% and 33.3% lower than those in control fruit, respectively. In addition, the content of Zn in transgenic tomato fruit was 0.322 microg x g(-1) and was 1.5 times higher than that in Lichun tomato fruit. There was no significant difference in K content between transgenic tomato fruit and Lichun fruit, but the content of Na in transgenic tomato fruit was significant higher than that in Lichun fruit and the Na/K ratio in transgenic tomato fruit was 2.0 times higher than that in Lichun fruit. It is suggested that the content of Zn and the Na/K ratio may be involved in the resistance response to pathogen invasion and the development of antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit.

  18. Development and regulation of pedicel abscission in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro eIto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To shed unfertilized flowers or ripe fruits, many plant species develop a pedicel abscission zone (AZ, a specialized tissue that develops between the organ and the main body of the plant. Regulation of pedicel abscission is an important agricultural concern because pre-harvest abscission can reduce yields of fruit or grain crops, such as apples, rice, wheat, etc. Tomato has been studied as a model system for abscission, as tomato plants develop a distinct AZ at the midpoint of the pedicel and several tomato mutants, such as jointless, have pedicels that lack an AZ. This mini-review focuses on recent advances in research on the mechanisms regulating tomato pedicel abscission. Molecular genetic studies revealed that three MADS-box transcription factors interactively play a central role in pedicel AZ development. Transcriptome analyses identified activities involved in abscission and also found novel transcription factors that may regulate AZ activities. Another study identified transcription factors mediating abscission pathways from induction signals to activation of cell wall hydrolysis. These recent findings in tomato will enable significant advances in understanding the regulation of abscission in other key agronomic species.

  19. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  20. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganyu Gu

    Full Text Available Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9 or 10(7 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  1. Microbiological profile of greenhouses in a farm producing hydroponic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Leopoldo; Rico-Romero, Leticia; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2008-01-01

    Produce, including tomatoes, has been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness. A number of the sources of contamination for produce grown in open fields are known. However, as an alternative agricultural system, hydroponic greenhouses are reasonably expected to reduce some of these sources. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbiological profile of tomatoes grown in greenhouses at a Mexican hydroponic farm with a high technological level and sanitary agricultural practices (SAPs) in place. Tomatoes and other materials associated with the farm were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica and populations of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae. Tomatoes showed median levels of 0.8 log CFU per tomato for Enterobacteriaceae, greenhouses were positive for E. coli, whereas Salmonella was found only in the latter. Although hydroponic greenhouses provide physical barriers against some sources of enteric bacterial contamination, these results show that sporadic evidence of fecal contamination and the presence of Salmonella can occur at the studied greenhouse farm.

  2. Development and Performance Evaluation of Tomato Dehydrating Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Nwogu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is a very important staple food worldwide with about 7,500 varieties consumed in diverse ways including: raw in salads, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, ketchup and drinks. Tomatoes deteriorate (rotten easily due to their high moisture content. A tomato dehydrating machine comprising of a spray gun, cam shaft, delivery pipe, three air blowers, drying trough, base and a speed reduction gear box was designed, fabricated and evaluated. The machine is powered by a 1.5hp electric motor. The developed machine has a dehydration efficiency of 81.45%, throughput of 3.7212kg/hr. The dehydrated tomato produced from the machine has ascorbic acid content, lycopene content, calcium content, potassium content and sugar reduction content of 10.6 mg/100g, 78.24 mg/100g, 10.6 mg/100g, 169.0 mg/100g and 2.9 mg/100g respectively which fell between acceptable ranges for the nutritional content of tomato.

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of tenuazonic acids in tomato paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P M; Kanhere, S R

    1980-05-01

    Tenuazonic acid is a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria alternata (A. tenuis) occurring in isolates from tomato. Several liquid chromatographic (LC) systems were compared for suitability in analyzing tomato pastes for tenuazonic acid. Tenuazonic acid was extracted from tomato paste with methanol and n-hexane and was partitioned into methylene chloride from the aqueous methanol following acidification. It was further partitioned into 5% NaHCO3, acidified, and reextracted with methylene chloride. LC separation of tenuazonic acid from interferences was best on a C12-dien (4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine) loaded C18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase containing C12-dien, Zn(II), and ammonium acetate, or on a tetraalkylammonium anion exchange column at pH 7.5. Two isomeric tenuazonic acids could be partially separated in the C12-dien/metal system using acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Amounts of standard tenuazonic acid as low as 2-5 nm. Recoveries of tenuazonic acid or isotenuazonic acid added to tomato paste at levels of 0.4-10 micrograms/g were 67-94%. Small amounts of tenuazonic acid were detected in several commercial tomato pastes at levels of 0.01-0.1 micrograms/g. Gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (GLC/MS) single ion monitoring showed that both isomers were present.

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Madeleine; Curtui, Valeriu; Ackermann, Yvonne; Latif, Hadri; Usleber, Ewald

    2011-12-14

    The Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid was derivatized with succinic anhydride and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. The KLH conjugate was used to produce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. A competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for tenuazonic acid was established, which was moderately sensitive for tenuazonic acid [50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)): 320 ± 130 ng/mL] but strongly reacted with tenuazonic acid acetate (IC(50): 23.3 ± 7.5 ng/mL). Therefore, an optimized EIA protocol was established, which employed acetylation of standard and sample extract solutions. The mean standard curve detection limit (IC(30)) for tenuazonic acid acetate was 5.4 ± 2.0 ng/mL, enabling detection limits for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products of 25-50 ng/g (150 ng/g in tomato paste). Recoveries in a concentration range of 50-2000 ng/g were 60-130% in apple juice and tomato juice and 40-150% in other tomato products. Tenuazonic acid was detected in apple juice and tomato products from German retail shops at levels of 50-200 ng/g. In conclusion, this novel EIA for tenuazonic acid could be useful within a screening program for Alternaria mycotoxins in food.

  5. Impacts of tomato extract on the mice fibrosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad Hedayatollah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The anticancer effect of tomato lycopene has been approved in some cancers. This study was aimed to determine the prohibitive and therapeutic effects of tomato extract on the growth of fibrosarcoma in mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 3 groups of 10 male Balb/c mice were injected subcutaneously with 5×105 WEHI-164 tumor cells in the chest area. Prevention group was fed tomato extract (5 mg for a 4 week period (from 2 weeks before tumor cell injection up to 2 weeks after injection and the treatment group was fed simultaneously with tumor cell injection up to two weeks after injection daily by an oral gastric tube. The tumors areas were measured and recorded on days 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results showed that the tumor areas in control group were significantly more after the intervention than two groups of treatment and prevention (p<0.05. The difference was not statistically significant between the two groups of prevention and treatment. Conclusion: With emphasize on antioxidant of tomato, it seems that tomato extract has an important role in prevention and control fibrosarcoma growth.

  6. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  7. Diversity and distribution of begomoviruses infecting tomato in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R V Chowda; Colvin, J; Muniyappa, V; Seal, S

    2005-05-01

    Leaf curl begomoviruses cause serious yield losses to Indian tomato crops. Total DNAs were extracted from leaves of 69 tomato plants and 34 weeds or neighbouring crops collected from all the major tomato producing areas of India. Eighty-one of the 103 samples were positive by PCRs using begomovirus genus-specific primers. Coat protein (CP) genes from 29 samples were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP sequences revealed five different tomato leaf curl begomovirus (TLCB) clusters each clusters represented known Indian TLCBs, whereas one cluster contained sequences originating from Haryana State with most identity (89%) to the provisional Begomovirus species Croton yellow vein mosaic virus.Sixty-five begomovirus positive samples were characterised further by PCR with DNA-beta, DNA-B, four Indian TLCB species, PALIc1960/PARIv722 (universal begomovirus primers), and by sequencing. The majority of samples represented monopartite TLCBs associated with DNA-beta components. All four known TLCBs appeared to be present throughout India. TLCBs were also present in chilli, cowpea, okra and tobacco crops, as well as in some common weeds. Papaya leaf curl virus and Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus sequences were detected in tomato. Mixed begomovirus infections, a prerequisite for recombination, were evident in 13 samples.

  8. NEW EFFECTIVE METHODS OF TOMATO CULTIVATION AND PROCESSING IN THE FOОTHILL AREA OF THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadgieva; M. S. Muradov

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of tomato cultivation and processing in conditions of plain area of Dagestan have been considered in the article. The layout of integrated tomato processing and the hardware layout of lines of tomato processind hae been described.The new effective method of tomato-juice production is developed.

  9. ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND LYCOPENE IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. AND THEIR RETENTION IN TOMATO JUICE

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    Ján Mareček

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In this work we investigated the effect of variety and processing on the content of carotenoids and lycopene in fruits and Tomato juice from the fruit after heat treatment. The experiment included four varieties are edible tomato for industrial processing (Báb, Žiara PK, Šampion and Roti PK. The concentration of total carotenoids and lycopene were determined spectrophotometrically on UV-VIS spectrophotometer Jenway at a wavelength of 445 and 472 nm. The highest average content of carotenoids in fruits were recorded at a variety Roti PK (7.0 mg/100 g-1 and lowest in variety Báb (4.8 mg/100 g-1. Heat treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the lycopene content, changes in carotenoid content were not significant. Effect of genotype (variety for the content of the endpoint was significantly important.doi:10.5219/195 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Resistance Inducers Modulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato Strain DC3000 Response in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalschi, Loredana; Camañes, Gemma; Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; López, María M.; García-Agustín, Pilar; Vicedo, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) as an inducer of resistance in tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was previously demonstrated, and the plant response was characterized. Because little is known about the reaction of the pathogen to this effect, the goal of the present work was to determine whether the changes in the plant defence system affect the pathogen behaviour. This work provides the first demonstration of the response of the pathogen to the changes observed in plants after Hx application in terms of not only the population size but also the transcriptional levels of genes involved in quorum sensing establishment and pathogenesis. Therefore, it is possible that Hx treatment attenuates the virulence and survival of bacteria by preventing or diminishing the appearance of symptoms and controlling the growth of the bacteria in the mesophyll. It is interesting to note that the gene transcriptional changes in the bacteria from the treated plants occur at the same time as the changes in the plants. Hx is able to alter bacteria pathogenesis and survival only when it is applied as a resistance inducer because the changes that it promotes in plants affect the bacteria. PMID:25244125

  11. Genotype-environment interaction in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, J; Cubero, J I

    1982-09-01

    Twelve varieties of tomato of economic importance and their hybrids (including reciprocals) were studied in four environments: inside and outside of greenhouses and with and without plastic mulching. Seven characters were recorded per plant per environment: (1) total yield, (2) fruit weight, (3) locules/fruit, (4) fruits/cluster, (5) earliness in maturity, (6) earliness in harvesting and (7) leaves between clusters. There was an almost general tendency for hybrids to show higher values than the parentals for characters (1), (4) and (7); the opposite was true for (2) and (3), even when the differences were not statistically significant at the 5% level. Environments were always highly significant; the effect of the greenhouse explained most of the variation. Genotype-environment interaction by regression analysis showed that the performance of the hybrids was generally higher than that of the parents for characters (1), (4) and (7). Total yield was higher, in general, in the most protected environments. Locules per fruit was very constant but when interaction did exist, the number of locules was higher in the less protected environments. Hybrids interacted with environments more strongly than parent lines. Earliness was the most environmental dependent characteristic the choice of early harvesting being irrelevant. Some of the hybrids obtained seem promising from a commercial point of view.

  12. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  13. Water Balance, Hormone Homeostasis, and Sugar Signaling Are All Involved in Tomato Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Dagan; Sade, Nir; Shriki, Oz; Lerner, Stephen; Gebremedhin, Alem; Karavani, Asaf; Brotman, Yariv; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Czosnek, Henryk; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-08-01

    Vacuolar water movement is largely controlled by membrane channels called tonoplast-intrinsic aquaporins (TIP-AQPs). Some TIP-AQP genes, such as TIP2;2 and TIP1;1, are up-regulated upon exposure to biotic stress. Moreover, TIP1;1 transcript levels are higher in leaves of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) line resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than in those of a susceptible line with a similar genetic background. Virus-induced silencing of TIP1;1 in the tomato resistant line and the use of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tip1;1 null mutant showed that resistance to TYLCV is severely compromised in the absence of TIP1:1. Constitutive expression of tomato TIP2;2 in transgenic TYLCV-susceptible tomato and Arabidopsis plants was correlated with increased TYLCV resistance, increased transpiration, decreased abscisic acid levels, and increased salicylic acid levels at the early stages of infection. We propose that TIP-AQPs affect the induction of leaf abscisic acid, which leads to increased levels of transpiration and gas exchange, as well as better salicylic acid signaling. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

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    Rita C. Pereira-Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL, a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread.

  15. Diversity of Thrips Species and Vectors of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Tomato Production Systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Isaac; Backhouse, David; Skilton, Rob; Ateka, Elijah; Wu, Shu-Biao; Njahira, Moses; Maina, Solomon; Harvey, Jagger

    2015-02-01

    Thrips have been recognized as primary vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) with Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) reported as the most important and efficient vector, while other species such as Thrips tabaci Lindeman also include populations that can vector the virus. A study was undertaken to establish the diversity of thrips and presence of vectors for TSWV in four major tomato production areas in Kenya. The cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used to generate sequences from thrips samples collected from tomatoes and weeds, and phylogenetic analysis done to establish the variation within potential vector populations. Ceratothripoides brunneus Bagnall was the predominant species of thrips in all areas. F. occidentalis and T. tabaci were abundant in Nakuru, Kirinyaga, and Loitokitok but not detected at Bungoma. Other vectors of tospoviruses identified in low numbers were Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. Variation was observed in T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, and F. schultzei. Kenyan specimens of T. tabaci from tomato belonged to the arrhenotokous group, while those of F. occidentalis clustered with the Western flower thrips G group. The detection of RNA of TSWV in both of these species of thrips supported the role they play as vectors. The study has demonstrated the high diversity of thrips species in tomato production and the occurrence of important vectors of TSWV and other tospoviruses. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppressive potential of Paenibacillus strains isolated from the tomato phyllosphere against fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Iwamoto, Yutaka; Aino, Masataka; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ando, Sugihiro; Tsushima, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    The suppressive potentials of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains isolated from the tomato phyllosphere were investigated to obtain new biocontrol candidates against Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. The suppressive activities of 20 bacterial strains belonging to these genera were examined using seedlings and potted tomato plants, and two Paenibacillus strains (12HD2 and 42NP7) were selected as biocontrol candidates against the disease. These two strains suppressed the disease in the field experiment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the treated bacterial cells colonized the root surface, and when the roots of the seedlings were treated with strain 42NP7 cells, the cell population was maintained on the roots for at least for 4 weeks. Although the bacterial strains had no direct antifungal activity against the causal pathogen in vitro, an increase was observed in the antifungal activities of acetone extracts from tomato roots treated with the cells of both bacterial strains. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of defense-related genes was induced in both the roots and leaves of seedlings treated with the bacterial cells. Thus, the root-colonized cells of the two Paenibacillus strains were considered to induce resistance in tomato plants, which resulted in the suppression of the disease.

  18. Distribution behaviour of acaricide cyflumetofen in tomato during home canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Chen, Zenglong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Duan, Lifang; Li, Minmin; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-01

    The distribution behaviour of cyflumetofen in tomatoes during home canning was studied. The targeted compound cyflumetofen was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each process step, which included washing, peeling, homogenisation, simmering and sterilisation. Results indicated that more cyflumetofen was removed by washing with detergent solution compared with tap water, 2% NaCl solution and 2% CH3COOH solution. Peeling resulted in 90.2% loss of cyflumetofen and was the most effective step at removing pesticide residues from tomatoes. The processing factors (PFs) of tomato samples after each step were generally less than 1; in particular, the PF of the peeling process for cyflumetofen was 0.28.

  19. FATE OF ENDOSULFAN AND DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUES DURING TOMATO PASTE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIGDEM UYSAL-PALA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of tomato paste processing steps on pesticides with active ingredient endosulfan and deltamethrin were investigated in Biga/Canakkale. Residue data were obtained by analyzing samples taken during harvesting, taken after washing and chopping, taken after pulping (pulp and pomace and taken from the tomato paste with GC-ECD. In the process of making tomato paste, washing decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 30.62% and 47.58%, respectively. Pre-heating, pulping, evaporation and half-pasteurization increased deltamethrin 2.33% while decreasing endosulfan 66.5% after washing. The whole process decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 76.8% and 46.3%, respectively. The residues were mostly collected in pomace.

  20. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  1. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, Frank; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt disease. Over the last 6 years, new insights into the molecular basis of these gene-for-gene interactions have been obtained. Highlights are the identification of three avirulence genes in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the development of a molecular switch model for I-2, a nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat-type resistance protein which mediates the recognition of the Avr2 protein. We summarize these findings here and present possible scenarios for the ongoing molecular arms race between tomato and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both nature and agriculture.

  2. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  3. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Silva-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp. are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the

  4. Agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines

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    Rafael Resende Finzi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the commercial potential of mini-tomato hybrids obtained from one dwarf parent. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids obtained by crossing a dwarf line (A with normal lines with indeterminate (I, determinate (D and semi-determinate (SD growth habits. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Estação Experimental de Hortaliças at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-UFU in Monte Carmelo, Brazil. The experiment was completely randomized with 17 treatments and four repetitions. The genetic material consisted of 16 experimental mini-tomato hybrids from the tomato germplasm bank at UFU, and a commercial hybrid (Mascot as a control. The following variables were used to evaluate agronomic performance: fruit weight (g; number of fruits plant-1; productivity (kg plant-1; number of bunches plant-1; number of fruits bunch-1; stem diameter (mm; distance between first bunch and soil (cm; internode length (cm and total soluble solids (°Brix. The growth habit of the parents influenced the performance of the hybrids. In general, the mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines differed from the control with respect to all variables except number of fruits plant-1, number of fruits bunch-1 and stem diameter. On average, hybrids from dwarf lines showed higher productivity (20%, shorter internodes (11% and a shorter distance between the first bunch and the ground (30%, relative to the control. Using dwarf lines to obtain mini-tomato hybrids was shown to be viable since the hybrids demonstrated better agronomic performance.

  5. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  6. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.

    2017-06-22

    Water deficit (drought stress) massively restricts plant growth and the yield of crops; reducing the deleterious effects of drought is therefore of high agricultural relevance. Drought triggers diverse cellular processes including the inhibition of photosynthesis, the accumulation of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, and gene expression reprogramming, besides others. Transcription factors (TF) are central regulators of transcriptional reprogramming and expression of many TF genes is affected by drought, including members of the NAC family. Here, we identify the NAC factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a regulator of drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of tomato JUB1 (SlJUB1) is enhanced by various abiotic stresses, including drought. Inhibiting SlJUB1 by virus-induced gene silencing drastically lowers drought tolerance concomitant with an increase in ion leakage, an elevation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels, and a decrease of the expression of various drought-responsive genes. In contrast, overexpression of AtJUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana increases drought tolerance in tomato, alongside with a higher relative leaf water content during drought and reduced H2 O2 levels. AtJUB1 was previously shown to stimulate expression of DREB2A, a TF involved in drought responses, and of the DELLA genes GAI and RGL1. We show here that SlJUB1 similarly controls the expression of the tomato orthologs SlDREB1, SlDREB2, and SlDELLA. Furthermore, AtJUB1 directly binds to the promoters of SlDREB1, SlDREB2 and SlDELLA in tomato. Our study highlights JUB1 as a transcriptional regulator of drought tolerance and suggests considerable conservation of the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory networks controlled by this NAC factor between Arabidopsis and tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Histone Deacetylases in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum

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    Linmao eZhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs, respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, ten members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1 and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29, two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development,indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development.

  8. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Batuman, O; Kuo, Y.-W.; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as ?mancha de chocolate? (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissu...

  9. Geographical location has greater impact on carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from tomatoes than variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, S A; Jiwan, M A; Daly, T; O'Brien, N M

    2009-12-01

    The suggested health benefits of consuming tomatoes and tomato-based products have been attributed, in part, to the carotenoids present in these foods. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to (i) analyse carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) types namely cherry, plum, round, and certain tomatoes-on-the-vine; and (ii) determine if geographical location (Ireland vs Spain) influenced the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in tomatoes of the same variety. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of ingested carotenoids that, after digestion, are available for absorption by intestinal cells. Differences were seen in carotenoid content and bioaccessibility between the different tomato types tested. For instance, Irish round high-lycopene tomatoes contained the greatest amounts of lycopene and lutein but lowest levels of beta-carotene compared with the other Irish tomatoes. Furthermore, the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids that were sourced from Ireland and Spain also varied greatly. Spanish tomatoes were generally superior in the content, bioaccessibility, and micelle content of carotenoids. To conclude, our findings suggest that geographical location, rather than the type of tomato, seems to have a more pronounced effect on carotenoid bioaccessibility from tomatoes.

  10. Effects of Extremely High ’G’ Acceleration Forces on NASA’s Control and Space Exposed Tomato Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    as solid brown discolored tomatoes and then became wrinkled like prunes . The non-ripened portion remained solid green tomato. While the abnormal...die-back, initial production of vine -ripened red tomatoes, etc could not be directly related to ultra-high gravity force treatment. Abnormal Off-plant...The result of further ripening/aging produced tomatoes that looked like prune s with badly wrinkled surfaces over most of the tomato. These areas

  11. Lycopene Content of Selected Tomato Based Products, Fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the yellowish-red vegetables, lycopene content ranged from 14.88±0.70 mg/kg in red bell pepper to 45.49±0.98 mg/kg in ripe tomato fruit. In green leafy vegetables, lycopene ranged from 4.96±0.13 mg/kg in waterleaf to 11.79±0.28 mg/kg in bitter leaf. This study has shown that tomato paste is very rich in lycopene ...

  12. Identification and diversity of Fusarium species isolated from tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Nur Baiti Abd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot of tomato is a serious disease caused by Fusarium species. Sampling was conducted throughout Selangor, Malaysia and fungal species identification was conducted based on morphological and gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α sequence analysis. Five species of Fusarium were discovered namely F. oxysporum (including F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Our results provide additional information regarding the diversity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease of tomato.

  13. The microanalysis on resistance of new tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Calalb

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic study on the leaf of the new tomato genotypes has shown that the most informative structural indicators of drought resistance of these plants are: a presence, level of development and the distribution of protective and glandulartrichomes on the leaves; b presence and occurrence of the cells with oxalate calcium sand in the leaf mesophyll. Statistical processing of the results determines that new tomato genotypes “Line 50” – ‚Prizor’ × (‚Prizor’ × Lycopersicon hirsutum and “Line 47” – ‘Friguşor’ × (Lycopersicon peruvianum × ‚Victoria’ are resistant to drought.

  14. Assessment of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato from Tanzania for resistance to copper and streptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Wydra, K.; Mabagala, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    different ecological conditions in the country. After isolation and identification, the P. s. pv. tomato strains were grown on King's medium B (KB) amended with 20% copper sulphate (w/v). The strains were also assessed for resistance to antibiotics. Results indicated that there was widespread resistance......Fifty-six strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. pv. tomato) were collected from tomato-producing areas in Tanzania and assessed for resistance to copper and antibiotics. The collection was done from three tomato-producing regions (Morogoro, Arusha and Iringa), representing three...... of the P. s. pv. tomato strains to copper sulphate. The highest level of resistance was recorded from the Arusha region (Northern Tanzania), 83.3% of the P. s. pv. tomato strains from that region showed resistance to copper sulphate. This was followed by Iringa region (Southern Tanzania), from where...

  15. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on carotenoids profile of tomato juice made of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field-treated tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the carotenoid content of tomato juices was studied. First, moderate-intensity PEF (MIPEF) was applied to raw tomatoes. Afterwards, MIPEF-treated and untreated tomatoes were immediately refrigerated at 4 °C for 24 h and then, they were separately ground to produce tomato juices. Juices were treated by heat treatments or by high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) and stored under refrigeration for 56 days. MIPEF treatment of tomatoes increased the content of carotenoid compounds in tomato juices. An enhancement of 63-65% in 15-cis-lycopene was observed in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight increase in cis-lycopene isomers was observed over time, whereas other carotenoids slightly decreased. However, HIPEF treated tomato juices maintained higher carotenoid content (10-20%) through the storage time than thermally and untreated juices. The combination of MIPEF and HIPEF treatments could be used not only to produce tomato juices with high carotenoid content but also, to maintain higher the carotenoid content during storage time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  17. Practical, reliable and inexpensive assay of lycopene in tomato products based on the combined use of light emitting diode (LED) and the optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Cuypers, R.; Luterotti, S.; Sporec, M.; Zoppi, A.; Vugec, J.

    2008-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) combined with the concept of optothermal window (OW) is proposed as a new approach (LED-OW) to detect lycopene in a wide range of tomato-based products (tomato juice, tomato ketchup, tomato passata and tomato puree). Phytonutrient lycopene is a dominant antioxidant in

  18. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilar López-Gresa

    Full Text Available Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA, were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH, which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  19. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  20. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-02-08

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F₂ generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F₁ generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F₁ hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes.

  1. Tomato Apical Leaf Curl Virus: A Novel, Monopartite Geminivirus Detected in Tomatoes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Vaghi Medina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses that are members of the Geminiviridae family have circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA genome and are responsible for major crop diseases worldwide. We have identified and characterized a novel monopartite geminivirus infecting tomato in Argentina. The full-length genome was cloned and sequenced. The genome-wide pairwise identity calculation that resulted in a maximum of 63% identity with all of other known geminiviruses indicated that it is a new geminivirus species. Biolistic infected plants presented interveinal yellowing, apical leaf curling and extreme root hypotrophy. Thus, the name proposed for this species is tomato apical leaf curl virus (ToALCV. The phylogenetic inferences suggested different evolutionary relationships for the replication-associated protein (Rep and the coat protein (CP. Besides, the sequence similarity network (SSN protein analyses showed that the complementary-sense gene products (RepA, Rep and C3 are similar to capulavirus while the viron-sense gene products (CP, MP and V3 are similar to topocuvirus, curtovirus and becurtovirus. Based on the data presented, ToALCV genome appears to have “modular organization” supported by its recombination origin. Analyses of the specificity-determining positions (SDPs of the CP of geminiviruses defined nine subgroups that include geminiviruses that share the same type of insect vector. Our sequences were clustered with the sequences of topocuvirus, whose vector is the treehopper, Micrutalis malleifera. Also, a set of the highest scored amino acid residues was predicted for the CP, which could determine differences in virus transmission specificity. We predict that a treehopper could be the vector of ToALCV, but transmission assays need to be performed to confirm this. Given everything we demonstrate in this paper, ToALCV can be considered a type member of a new putative genus of the Geminiviridae family.

  2. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (etomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help

  3. Water use efficiency of tomatoes - in greenhouses and hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Massive amounts of water are required for the production of our food, varying from several cubic metres per kilogram of beef to as low as 4 litres per kilogram for tomatoes grown in high-tech glasshouses. This article presents data on Product Water Use (PWU) of some foods and discusses how the water

  4. Effect of tomato pleiotropic ripening mutations on flavour volatile biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development

  5. field reactions of interspecific hybrids of tomato (solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Leaf spot is a major disease of tomato causing reduction in fruit yield under humid environments. It's control ... indirect (1.0) effects of flavonoid to fruit yield through disease severity at fruit ripening. The hybrids, W x P .... fashion in 2011 and the seeds processed and used to raise F1 seedlings in ...

  6. Early blight resistance in tomato: screening and genetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaerani, R.

    2006-01-01

    Tomato early blight (EB) caused by the fungus Alternaria solani is a field disease with a worldwide distribution, including Indonesia. The disease is currently controlled using frequent applications of fungicides. The use of resistant cultivar would be an attractive way to reduce fungicide

  7. Biosynthesis of lipophilic compounds in tomato fruit | Angaman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study performed with chromoplasts to know the origin of the precursors for carotenoids biosynthesis using a variety of 14C-labelled precursors showed that the most important incorporation was found in lipids. This study aims to understand the biochemical and metabolic processes operating during tomato fruit ripening.

  8. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown in several departments of Honduras, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. The symptoms include overall chlorosis, severe stunting, leaf cupping, excessive branching of axillary shoots, and leaf pu...

  9. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  10. Characterization of traditional tomato varieties grown in organic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cebrino, F.; Lozano, M.; Ayuso, M. C.; Bernalte, M. J.; Vidal-Aragon, M. C.; Gonzalez-Gomez, D.

    2011-07-01

    Organic horticulture is a sustainable agricultural model that can provide high quality products and allows conservation of genetic diversity. Traditional tomato varieties are well adapted to organic production and they have the organoleptic characteristics demanded by consumers. Seven traditional tomato varieties were studied: BGV-001020, BGV-000998, BGV-001000, BGV-004123, CIDA-44-A, CIDA-62, CIDA-59-A, and they were compared with a tomato Marmandetype commercial cv. Baghera, all them grown under organic production. Several quality variables were measured to establish whether any of the traditional varieties might be suitable for commercial production. CIDA-62 was shown to be the most promising variety. It produces tomatoes of very high quality under organic conditions. It excels in terms of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (459.22 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and lycopene (62.25 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and in its total antioxidant activity (43.58 mg Trolox/100 g fw). It is also outstanding in terms of its sugar content (4.56% fructose and glucose combined) and of its total soluble solids content (6.22 degree centigrade Brix). All of these variables are associated with both sensory quality and health benefits. Other varieties that emerged with relatively high levels of total soluble solids content, lycopene, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity were BGV-004123 and BGV-001020. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunusi

    Annual rainfall ranges between 1400 and 1500 mm in Abeokuta and environs and daily temperature ranges between 24 °C and. 30º C. The soil of the area was sandy loam. Biochar Production and Tomato Nursery. The maize-cob biochar was produced using gasification method at a temperature of about. 300 °C to 400 °C ...

  12. Morphogical effects of sodium azide on tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill), varieties T106, T244 and T420 obtained from the Institute of Agriculture Research, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria were treated with sodium azide at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM aimed at determining the effects of the mutagen on the morphological ...

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of field capacity was evaluated on tomato and eggplant in either the presence or absence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica under greenhouse conditions. At irrigation levels of 20%, 40% and 60%, there was a significant decrease in leaf area, ...

  14. Effect of home-refrigerator storage temperature on tomato quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Zhang, W.; Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Postharvest storage, handling and distribution of fruit at low temperatures is the most common and manageable approach to control ripening and subsequent deterioration and to maximize product shelf-life. However, tomatoes, as many other subtropical fruits, are susceptible to develop symptoms of

  15. Effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance, egg quality and serum metabolites of laying hens. ... Total serum protein, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, albumin, glucose and triglyceride levels were not significantly affected by DTP addition. In summary, DTP can be used as an alternative feedstuff in laying hen ...

  16. Patterns of disease manifestation in tomato seedlings singly or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of a common tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar i.e. Fukuju # 2, were raised under greenhouse conditions at different times in Japan. Both the initial and long-term symptom responses to single and mixed infections with potato X potexvirus (PVX) and the L (wild strain) of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus ...

  17. Characterization of resistant tomato mutants to bacterial canker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... A small scale ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutation was used to obtain resistant mutant plants to bacterial canker disease caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate 2 (Cmm2). Susceptible EBR3 tomato line (200) seeds were mutagenised with the chemical EMS. Of the ...

  18. Occurrence of Pospiviroid in potato, tomato and some ornamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... TPMVd, tomato planta macho viroid; CSVd, chrysanthemum stunt viroid; CEVd, citrus exocortis viroid; ... planta macho viroid (TPMVd), Chrysan-themum stunt viroid. (CSVd), Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), ..... coleus blumei viroid 3 from the coleus blumei cultivar Spieker R. (1996) In vitro-generated inverse ...

  19. A snapshot of the emerging tomato genome sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, L.A.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Tanksley, S.D.; Peters, R.M.; Staveren, van M.J.; Datema, E.; Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Szinay, D.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is being sequenced by an international consortium of 10 countries (Korea, China, the United Kingdom, India, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Spain, Italy, and the United States) as part of the larger “International Solanaceae Genome Project (SOL):

  20. Water transport through tomato roots infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, R.; Gommers, F.J.; Kollöffel, C.

    1991-01-01


    The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on water flow in tomato roots was investigated in rooted split-stem cuttings. Total water flow through infected root parts was significantly lower than through comparable uninfected parts. Total water uptake was correlated with total length of the root

  1. Effect of drying temperature on lycopene content of processed tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Czako

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been increasing interest worldwide in the production of dehydrated tomato products, which are used in food industry and in pharmacy. An important indicator of the quality of products, beside the microbiological stability is health safety and lycopene content. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of drying temperature on changes of the content of lycopene in selected varieties of tomato. Drying was performed at 45 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C. Varieties of Darina F1, Denár, Kecskeméty, Orange, Paulína F1, Šejk F1 were used. Tomatoes were processed into dried slices with the dry matter content of 80-85%. Content of lycopene was determined spectrophotometrically. The content of lycopene in fresh tomatoes ranged from 63.378 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter (Orange to 302.37 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter (Šejk F1. After drying at all temperatures, content of lycopene decreased on average of 64.48 to 68.3%. The most significant changes were found at temperature of 90 °C. Based on the results the most appropriate temperature for drying among the monitored temperatures was at 70 °C, in this case the content of lycopene in the product ranged from 12.839 mg 100 g-1 dry matter (Orange to 115.9 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter.

  2. Glass foam granulate as growing medium for tomato and cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation

  3. Evaluation of post harvest monetary losses of tomatoes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of post harvest monetary losses of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in south eastern Nigeria. MO Ofor, GN Ben-Chendo. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 390-393. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE INDUCTION IN TOMATO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSSEN, LHJ; VANHASSELT, PR

    Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of tomato leaf discs was measured at a low actinic light intensity of 10 mu mol.m(-2).s(-1) and at decreasing temperatures from 30 degrees to 0 degrees C. F-o remained constant within the temperature range assessed. In contrast, the peak of fluorescence induction,

  5. Photopyroelectric measurement of dry matter content in tomato puree concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neamtu, C.; Dadarlat, D.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The photopyroelectric (PPE) method, in both front and back configuration, was used to measure the thermal effusivity and diffusivity of several tomato puree concentrates. These results were used to construct a calibration curve which was used at a later stage to determine dry matter content of

  6. Assessment of genetic variation among some introduced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value was 0.59 ranging from 0.31(SSR2) to 0.77 (SSR9). The most polymorphic primers were SSR9, SSR11, and SSR4 based on PIC values. The Agglomerative hierarchical clustering grouped the tomato varieties into two (A & B). At a coefficient of 0.88, cluster B had ...

  7. 'Omics' approaches in tomato aimed at identifying candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adriana

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... genetics, development, physiology, pathology, and fleshy fruit ripening, resulting in the accumulation of many genetic and genomic resources. In addition, the tremendous development ...... H, Wada T, Nakamura Y, Sato S, Tabata S (2010a). SNP discovery and linkage map construction in cultivated tomato.

  8. Profitability Assessment Of Tomato And Pepper Produced Under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability of tomato and pepper produced under fadama development programme was investigated. A combination of primary and secondary data were used for the investigation. Simple descriptive statistics and farm budgeting techniques were used for the analysis. Results show that the total production cost per ...

  9. YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) IN MUBI, ADAMAWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    (Lycopersicum esculentum) plants produce edible red fruits and can be taken raw or cooked (Adams et al., ... Plant height: The height of the plants was measured and recorded at 2, 4, 6, and 8-WAT using a meter tape. Number of leaves: The number of tomato leaves were counted physically and recorded at 2, 4, 6 and.

  10. Tomato yellow leaf virus (TYLCV): The structure, ecotypes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato yellow leaf virus (TYLCV) transmitted by the whitefly are a group of geminiviruses, which can cause large economic loses. The genome of TYLCV contains six partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) bidirectionally arranged into two transcriptional units that are separated by an intergenic region (IR).

  11. 75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Manager, Southeast Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable... / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  12. The effects of dried tomato pomace and a multipleenzyme mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) and a multienzyme preparation supplementation (Rovabio ExcelTM) on the performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments comprising 4 dietary DTP levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) with and without ...

  13. The tomato industry in northern Ghana: Production constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurs in the northern Ghana tomato industry are taking advantage of recent government policies to promote agribusiness. The competitiveness of the industry is assessed in this paper and possible pathways to empower smallholder farmers to grow from supply chain actors into value chain integrators and possibly ...

  14. The role of NSm during tomato spotted wilt virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storms, M.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the past ten years the genome organisation of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been intensively studied in our laboratory. Complete genome sequence data revealed that this enveloped plant virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae, a virus family further restricted to

  15. Tomato consumption protected against gamma radiation–induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato consumption protected against gamma radiation–induced alterations in the hippocampus and cerebellum of rats. ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal ... Radiotherapy, one of the treatment modalities is associated with neurotoxicity; and oxidative damage has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis.

  16. Response of Irrigated Tomato ( Lycopersicum lycopersicon Karst) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of six levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kg B ha-1) of boron on the yield and biochemical properties of two tomato varieties (Roma VF and Dandino) were examined at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa, in the Sudan savanna ecological zone of Nigeria for 2 years, 1992/93 and ...

  17. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... with their parents were evaluated in a 6 × 6 Tripple Lattice Design at Agricultural Research Institute,. Mingora (NWFP), Pakistan during 2007 ... Key words: Heterosis, tripple lattice design, genotypes, traits, tomato. INTRODUCTION ...... Wynne JC, Emary DA, Rice PH (1970). Combining ability estimation in.

  18. Tomato growth and yield : quantitative analysis and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis, the responses of tomato crop growth and yield to greenhouse climate (light, temperature and C0 2 concentration) and crop management (plant density and fruit pruning) were analysed and quantified. A simulation model,

  19. Effects of plant hormones and 20-hydroxyecdysone on tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we studied the effects of 20E application on some morphological and biochemical parameters of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, seed during germination and seedling development (5 d). We compared the 20E effects with the action of phytohormones: gibberellic acid (GA3), naftalen acetic acid (NAA), benzyl ...

  20. Hybridisation between cherry tomato (small fry) and Petomech for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) is among the most important vegetable crops grown world wide providing good nutritional requirements and boost incomes, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determin the heritability of shortened fruit maturation (SFM) period in a hybrid ...

  1. Evaluating irrigation scheduling of hydroponic tomato in Navarra, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lizarraga, H.J.; Boesveld, H.; Huibers, F.P.; Robles, H.

    2003-01-01

    The correct supply of water and nutrients is important in hydroponic growing systems in order to use water efficiently, avoid stress situations, and control production. The present study was conducted to evaluate two irrigation scheduling techniques for hydroponic tomato production in Navarra,

  2. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the concentrations of five pesticide residues, lindane, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, p, p'-DDE and p, p'-DDD in soil samples collected from tomato fields in Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania. Endosulfan sulphate was detected in 100 % of the sample analysed with mean concentration of 0.2407 mg/kg dw. Chlorpyrifos ...

  3. Economics-based optimal control of greenhouse tomato crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tap, F.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing of an optimal control algorithm, based on scientific models of greenhouse and tomato crop and an economic criterion (goal function), to control greenhouse climate, is described. An important characteristic of this control is that it aims at maximising an economic

  4. Fungi Associated With Tomato Wilt In The Tropical Humid Lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations on potato dextrose agar (PDA) showed that the following fungi were frequently associated with naturally infected, wilted tomato plants in Umudike: Fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. lycopersici, F.solani, F.equiseti, F.acuminatum, Trichoderma viride, T.harzianum, Mucor hiemalis, Sclerotium rolfsii, Phoma lycopersici and ...

  5. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  6. Genetic diversity in 14 tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 226 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits sold in markets within three states in Southwestern Nigeria were purchased and differentiated into 14 varietal groups based on morphological parameters. The genomic DNA from the young apical leaves of the seeded plants were extracted and analyzed by the ...

  7. Regulation of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of determining the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and gibberellic acid (GA3) spray on fruit setting and earliness of tomato varieties. The experiment consisted of one ...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl Disease-Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Tomato Leaf Curl Disease symptom-bearing samples were collected from dry savannah (Eastern and Northern) and wet equatorial/tall grass savannah (Central and Western) agro-climatic zones of Uganda. Their total DNA was extracted using a modifi ed Dellaporta protocol. Virus DNA was amplifi ed with fi ve ...

  9. The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Linger, P; van Heusden, AW; van Hasselt, PR; Brueggemann, W

    During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of

  10. Role of calcium in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was cultured in Hoagland's solution containing 0, 3 or 8 mM Ca2+, to investigate the responses against Botrytis cinerea infection and the effects of Ca2+ on salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and signal transduction. The disease index was significantly lower in 8 mM Ca2+ treatment ...

  11. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato ...

  12. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  13. Tomato thymidine kinase is subject to inefficient TTP feedback regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai Balle; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Piskur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    A promising suicide gene therapy system to treat gliomas has been reported: the thymidine kinase 1 from tomato (toTK1) combined with the nucleoside analog pro-drug zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), which is known to penetrate the blood–brain barrier. Transduction with toTK1 has been found...

  14. Management of Tomato Late Blight Disease Using Reduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in Tanzania is affected by late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Currently, farmers spray more than 12 per crop per season to control diseases by weekly spraying. Field experiments were conducted at Morogoro to evaluate the performance of ...

  15. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  16. Antifungal metabolites from antagonistic fungi used to control tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaetomium elatum strain ChE01, Chaetomium lucknowense strain CLT01 and Emericella rugulosa strain ER01, which were isolated from soil in Thailand, effectively controlled the most virulent isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici NKSC02 causing wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var Sida).

  17. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.I.; Viron, N.; Alhagdow, M.; Karimi, M.; Jones, M.; Amsellem, Z.; Sicard, A.; Czerednik, A.; Angenent, G.C.; Grierson, D.; May, S.; Seymour, G.; Eshed, Y.; Lemaire-Chamley, M.; Rothan, C.; Hilson, P.

    2009-01-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed

  18. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed viral infections were few, PVY + PVMV occurring only in one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss.

  19. Control of whiteflies and aphids in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and aphid (Homoptera) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are economically important insect pests that are difficult to manage due to their resistance to a wide range of chemical pesticides. Field experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fermented plant ...

  20. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EDIBLE TOMATO VARIETIES INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global production of tomatoes is used for tomato products. The fruits to be processed are evaluated on the basis of important technological quality parameters, such as the content of dry matter and organic acids. Recently, among important qualitative characteristics of fruits has been included colorant content, especially lycopene. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected tomato varieties for industrial processing. Tested were varieties Uno Rosso, San Marzano 4, Brixol, Strombolino, UG. 8168, Diana and Nemarock cultivated in very hot and dry agro-climatic region. The dry matter content was determined by the gravimetric method, the content of organic acid by titration and the content of colorants spectrophotometrically. The dry matter content of the samples ranged from 4.65% (Nemarock to 5.93% (San Marzano 4. Content of organic acids ranged from 0.33% (Nemarock to 0.59% (Strombolino, content of carotenoids in tomato samples ranged from 111.288 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 198.365 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. Lycopene was present in the amount of 99.438 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 192.687 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. In terms of treatment the best properties showed San Marzano 4, which is characterized by high dry matter content, low organic acids and high content of colorants.

  1. Characterization of resistant tomato mutants to bacterial canker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small scale ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutation was used to obtain resistant mutant plants to bacterial canker disease caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate 2 (Cmm2). Susceptible EBR3 tomato line (200) seeds were mutagenised with the chemical EMS. Of the constructed M2 population, ...

  2. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed...

  3. Root environment water potential and tomato fruit growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de P.A.C.M.; Uittien, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato plants were grown in a climate chamber in water culture at standard nutrient solution concentration with electrical conductivity of 2 mS-cm-1. At the start of the development of the fourth cluster the EC was increased to 6, 9 or 12 mS-cm-1, resulting in a water potential of the nutrient

  4. Purification, stabilization and characterization of tomato fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Suurmeijer, C.N.S.P.; Pérez-Gilabert, M.; Unen, D.-J. van; Hijden, H.T.W.M. van der; Veldink, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPO-lyase) was purified 300-fold from tomatoes. The enzymatic activity appeared to be very unstable, but addition of Triton X100 and beta-mercaptoethanol to the buffer yielded an active enzyme that could be stored for several months at −80°C. The enzyme was inhibited

  5. Occurrence of Pospiviroid in potato, tomato and some ornamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these samples, potato tubers were collected from markets, leaf samples from potato fields (Erzurum), tomato samples from field (Tokat, Amasya, Balýkesir and Bursa) and greenhouses (Antalya and Mula), leaves and vines of ornamental plants from greenhouses (Yalova) and florists (Erzurum) and recreation areas ...

  6. Predicting group of metabolites available in partially purified tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previously, tomato leaves were proved to be one of the potential anticancer agents. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic instrumentation were used to predict the presence of group of metabolites and to ascertain the possibility of certain absorption bands, ...

  7. Opportunities and constraints of tomato production in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgedom, S.; Struik, P.C.; Heuvelink, E.; Araia, W.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable in Eritrea, grown across the entire country. Yields in Eritrea are comparatively low, due to agronomic, institutional and market constraints. We carried out a survey throughout the country based on a participatory rural appraisal, discussion groups and interviews

  8. Tomato farmers adoption level of postharvest value addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed prevalent causes of tomato postharvest losses to include; unreliable means of transportation, lack of adequate storage facilities, limited alternative uses of produce, diseases/pest infestation and non-accessibility to improved varieties and quality seeds. Furthermore, postharvest value addition technologies ...

  9. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Papain Inhibitor(s) in Tomato Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolter, C. J.

    1993-12-01

    Leaves of 18- to 24-d-old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants exposed to gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) for 24 h at 30[deg]C in continuous light contained high levels of soluble protein that inhibited papain. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the active protein had a molecular mass of 80 to 90 kD. Induction of papain inhibitor was directly related to the concentration of air-borne MJ up to a maximum of 0.1 [mu]L MJ per treatment and depended on the duration of exposure up to 18 h. Inhibitor activity in plants treated for less than 18 h increased with time after treatment. Levels remained constant for up to 4 d after treatment, after which time activity decreased. The youngest leaf, leaf 5, consistently lost activity at a faster rate than older, lower leaves. Inhibitor concentration in all leaves was reduced to minimum levels by 11 d after MJ treatment, but did not return to control levels. Treatment with MJ in the dark did induce inhibitor activity, but at a significantly lower rate. Polyclonal antibodies raised to purified potato tuber skin cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) cross-reacted with the tomato inhibitor, suggesting that the tomato papain inhibitor and the potato CPI are closely related. No papain inhibitor activity was observed in extracts from wounded tomato leaves, nor was there any immunoreactivity with antibodies raised to potato tuber skin CPI.

  10. Functional genomics of tomato: Opportunities and challenges in post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Tomato Genome Sequencing Project represented a landmark venture in the history of sequencing projects where both Sanger's and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies were employed, and a highly accurate and one of the best assembled plant genomes along with a draft of the wild relative, Solanum ...

  11. Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junming Li,

    2010-01-01

    Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived

  12. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB–[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv.

  13. Biological control of necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi: Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it was less effective against Phytophthora infestans (64.7 % RGI), Botrytis cinerea (58.3 % RGI), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (57.4 % RGI) Rhizoctonia solani (42.7 % RGI). When B. subtilis was applied to Tomato field, it exhibited different efficiency in suppressing Fusarium wilt. Time of implementation was critical for ...

  14. Regulation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandena

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... The experiment was conducted with the objective of determining the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and gibberellic acid (GA3) spray on fruit setting and earliness of tomato varieties. The experiment consisted.

  15. A metabolomics approach to thrips resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero González, Roman Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Western flower thrips is one of the most serious crop pests worldwide. Its control relies mainly on pesticides whose excessive use leads to resistance development and environmental contamination. As an alternative, in this thesis host-plant resistance in wild and domesticated tomatoes was studied

  16. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  17. High-throughput genomics enhances tomato breeding efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, A; Di Matteo, A; Carputo, D; Frusciante, L

    2009-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is considered a model plant species for a group of economically important crops, such as potato, pepper, eggplant, since it exhibits a reduced genomic size (950 Mb), a short generation time, and routine transformation technologies. Moreover, it shares with the other Solanaceous plants the same haploid chromosome number and a high level of conserved genomic organization. Finally, many genomic and genetic resources are actually available for tomato, and the sequencing of its genome is in progress. These features make tomato an ideal species for theoretical studies and practical applications in the genomics field. The present review describes how structural genomics assist the selection of new varieties resistant to pathogens that cause damage to this crop. Many molecular markers highly linked to resistance genes and cloned resistance genes are available and could be used for a high-throughput screening of multiresistant varieties. Moreover, a new genomics-assisted breeding approach for improving fruit quality is presented and discussed. It relies on the identification of genetic mechanisms controlling the trait of interest through functional genomics tools. Following this approach, polymorphisms in major gene sequences responsible for variability in the expression of the trait under study are then exploited for tracking simultaneously favourable allele combinations in breeding programs using high-throughput genomic technologies. This aims at pyramiding in the genetic background of commercial cultivars alleles that increase their performances. In conclusion, tomato breeding strategies supported by advanced technologies are expected to target increased productivity and lower costs of improved genotypes even for complex traits.

  18. Enzyme activity in bioregulator-treated tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... ... seed treatment, Solanum lycopersicon, lipoxygenase, catalase, peroxidase, alcohol dehyrogenase, acid phosphatase. INTRODUCTION. The tomato is a perishable food crop (Muroki et al.,. 1997). Its length of storage is a function of composition, resistance to attack by fungal and bacterial organisms.

  19. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on the production of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (M233, M353, B3 and Gd) were tested in comparison with NPK fertilizer on 3 tomato varieties ICRIXINA, TROPIMECH and PETO76, using a complete randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that 84 days after transplanting (DAT), the rate of root colonization by the fungus did not exceed 25%, ...

  20. Control of Late Blight of Tomato and Potato by Oilgochitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ho Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl- D-glucosamine. There have been many reports on the induced systemic resistance and in vivo antifungal activities of higher molecular weight chitosans with molecular weights over 3,000 amu (atomatic mass unit, but there are few papers on in vivo antifungal activities of low molecular weight chitosans (oligochitosans with molecular weights less than 3,000 amu. In our study, an oligochitosan sample (320?3,000 amu showed a potent 1-day protective activity with control values more than 94% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml especially against tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans under growth chamber conditions. It also displayed a moderate 1-day protective activity with control values of 67?89% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml against wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. On the other hand, it showed a 16-hr curative activity against red pepper anthracnose, but not against tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust. In field experiments, oligochitosan effectively suppressed the development of late blight on potato and tomato plants with control values of 72% and 48%, respectively. The results strongly indicate that oligochitosan can be used as an eco-friendly organic material for the control of late blight on tomato and potato plants.

  1. Cloning and expression of a tomato glutathione S- transferase (GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... 1Key laboratory of Plant-Microbe Interaction, Department of Life Science, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu. 476000, China. ..... (2011). A putative glutathione S-transferase gene is required for Ol-1- mediated resistance against powdery mildew in tomato. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 29: 972-978. Sheehan D ...

  2. Enzyme activity in bioregulator-treated tomato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that 100 mg/l concentration of the bioregulators; indole-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is suitable for tomato growth in the field. In this work, spectrophotometric analysis was conducted to determine the level of enzymes that could affect ...

  3. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Key words: Growth response, nutrient uptake, tomato seedling, Trichoderma harzianum. ... against biotic and/or abiotic stress (Mastouri et al., 2010; .... distilled water. In the second inoculation method, the Trichoderma isolates were cultured on sterilized wheat and the fortified wheat was added to the ...

  4. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... mature fruit under salt stress treatments; the salinity can maintain or enhance the invertase activities ... in cultivated tomato. This activity is considered to be involved in the composition of stored sugars (Klann et al., 1996; Miron and Schaffer, 1991). ... The mobile phase was 75% acetonitrile and ultra water.

  5. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  6. Fast neutron sensitivity of dry and germinating tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contant, R.B.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of changes in fast neutron effectiveness during the hydration and germination of tomato seeds. The main findings and conclusions are the following,

    Section 3.6

    Samples of unirradiated seeds and their constituent parts (seedcoat+endosperm and embryo) were taken at short

  7. Chemical and nutrient composition of tomato varieties grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-06

    Sep 6, 1997 ... esculantum) grown in ligarulll. Bush, Money-maker, Maglope, Heinz and Italia tomato varieties were purchased at the red ripe sl:age of matur i(y frorn Nakasero market, Kampala and their pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, proximate composition, vitamin (A and C) and mineral (sodium, ...

  8. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, pesticides are poisons and can affect human health and contaminate the environment. This paper reports on the findings of an assessment of pesticide use, application and practices in Kaliluni, Kathiani district in Kenya. The dominant activity in the area is intensive irrigated tomato farming for local and other ...

  9. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven...

  10. Phosphorylation and proteome dynamics in pathogen-resistant tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the

  11. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  12. Evaluation of tomato varieties for resistance to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayberg, C.D.

    1972-01-01

    Tomatoes are among the crops most sensitive to ozone. Many researchers tested various varieties for resistance. The tests indicated a variation among tomato varieties for resistance to ozone and that some commercial varieties were as resistant as any lines tested. In the USA and Canada a total of 295 different varieties and hybrids were received and tested for response to ozone during the summer of 1971. Plants were exposed to O/sub 3/ when the first true leaves were 2 1/2 to 4 inches long. Tomato leaves showed typical injury symptoms following exposure to O/sub 3/. Mild symptoms were a chlorotic yellowing or whitening of tissue between the leaf veins, or small brownish necrotic flecks marginally or all over the leaf. Severe damage resulted in large water-soaked areas over the entire leaf surface right after exposure to ozone. Of the various varieties, the most resistant were Pierette and Heinz 1439 in successive tests. Susceptible ones were Roma VF and Fruhernte. Charkowskij and New Yorker were of an intermediate level of resistance. All the ozone-resistant varieties of KY 1, VFN 8, PI 304234, PI 309915, and Manzana (PI 203229) were about equally susceptible under the conditions of testing used. The range between the most resistant and the most susceptible tomato varieties was not as great as in crops like tobacco. 8 references, 2 tables.

  13. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate growth performance of two tomato genotypes in response to biochar application and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The experiment was laid out in a split-split ...

  14. Response of cowpea, okra and tomato sawdust ash manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at Akure and Obaile in Southwest Nigeria to test effect of sawdust ash manure treatments on cowpea (var. 1T82D – 716), okra (var. NAAe – 47 – 4) and Roma variety of tomato. The nutrient analysis of leaf and pod of okra given by different sawdust ash manure treatments was done.

  15. Genetic analysis of resistance to early blight disease in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Genetic analysis of resistance to early blight disease in tomato. Özer Çalış* and Şerife Topkaya. Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, 60250 Tasliciftlik, Tokat, Turkey. Accepted 12 October, 2011. Early blight is a fungal pathogen that causes destructive necrotic and ...

  16. Resistance mechanisms against Bemisia tabaci in wild relatives of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den F.H.W.

    2013-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaciGenn.) poses a serious threat to tomato cultivation. A large part of the damage is done directly through heavy host plant colonization. Colonization has a negative impact on the plant, as the whitefly takes up nutrients from the phloem and induces phytotoxic

  17. Proteomic investigation of response to FORL infection in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Cacace, Giuseppina; Ferriello, Francesca; Puopolo, Gerardo; Zoina, Astolfo; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) leading to fusarium crown and root rot is considered one of the most destructive tomato soilborne diseases occurring in greenhouse and field crops. In this study, response to FORL infection in tomato roots was investigated by differential proteomics in susceptible (Monalbo) and resistant (Momor) isogenic tomato lines, thus leading to identify 33 proteins whose amount changed depending on the pathogen infection, and/or on the two genotypes. FORL infection induced accumulation of pathogen-related proteins (PR proteins) displaying glucanase and endochitinases activity or involved in redox processes in the Monalbo genotype. Interestingly, the level of the above mentioned PR proteins was not influenced by FORL infection in the resistant tomato line, while other proteins involved in general response mechanisms to biotic and/or abiotic stresses showed significant quantitative differences. In particular, the increased level of proteins participating to arginine metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) as well as that of protein LOC544002 and phosphoprotein ECPP44-like, suggested their key role in pathogen defence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  19. Diversity between and within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... This study therefore aimed at evaluating genetic diversity within and between tomato varieties collected from different parts of Eritrea, to compare this to mate- rials from other African and Italian sources and to relate the genetic analysis with information on the traditional seed management system obtained ...

  20. Ultratraces of carotenes in tomato purees : HPLC-TLS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.; Doka, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide information about (i) the profile of carotene pigments and (ii) trace quantities of lycopene and -carotene left in tomato purées. The ultrasensitive method comprising HPLC and thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled us to detect as low as 0.3 and

  1. Chemical properties of tomato (Lycopersicon escluntum) seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solvent extraction of oil from tomato seeds was carried out. The extracted oil was analyzed for extract yield, quality and fatty acid composition. The results showed that the oil yield was quite appreciable (27.95%) while the results of peroxide value was 0.133O mgg , acid value of 3.3518mgKOH/g , while iodine value was ...

  2. 'Omics' approaches in tomato aimed at identifying candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adriana

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Accepted 24 October, 2013. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with significant importance for human health and nutrition. This species has long served as model system for plant genetics, development, physiology, pathology, and fleshy fruit ripening, ...

  3. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  4. Separation methods and chemical and nutritional characteristics of tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato processing generates a large amount of pomace as a low value by-product primarily used as livestock feed or disposed. The objectives of this research were to investigate the chemical and nutritional characteristics and determine effective separation methods of peel and seed of commercial toma...

  5. High pigment tomato mutants - more than just lycopene (a review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, I.; Vos, de C.H.; Tadmor, Y.; Bovy, A.G.; Lieberman, M.; Oren-Shamir, M.; Segev, O.; Kolotilin, I.; Keller, M.; Ovadia, R.; Meir, A.; Bino, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit constitutes a major component of our diet, providing fiber, vitamins, minerals, and many phytonutrients that promote good health. Fleshy fruits such as tomatoes already contain high levels of several of these ingredients. Nevertheless, efforts have been invested in increasing and diversifying

  6. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a resistant vs. susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar in response to infection by tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzi Chen

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV threatens tomato production worldwide by causing leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting and flower abscission. The current understanding of the host plant defense response to this virus is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to TYLCV infection in the TYLCV-resistant tomato breeding line CLN2777A (R and TYLCV-susceptible tomato breeding line TMXA48-4-0 (S. The mixed inoculated samples from 3, 5 and 7 day post inoculation (dpi were compared to non-inoculated samples at 0 dpi. Of the total of 34831 mapped transcripts, 209 and 809 genes were differentially expressed in the R and S tomato line, respectively. The proportion of up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the R tomato line (58.37% was higher than that in the S line (9.17%. Gene ontology (GO analyses revealed that similar GO terms existed in both DEGs of R and S lines; however, some sets of defense related genes and their expression levels were not similar between the two tomato lines. Genes encoding for WRKY transcriptional factors, R genes, protein kinases and receptor (-like kinases which were identified as down-regulated DEGs in the S line were up-regulated or not differentially expressed in the R line. The up-regulated DEGs in the R tomato line revealed the defense response of tomato to TYLCV infection was characterized by the induction and regulation of a series of genes involved in cell wall reorganization, transcriptional regulation, defense response, ubiquitination, metabolite synthesis and so on. The present study provides insights into various reactions underlining the successful establishment of resistance to TYLCV in the R tomato line, and helps in the identification of important defense-related genes in tomato for TYLCV disease management.

  7. Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

    2010-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici.

  8. Chemical and sensory comparison of tomatoes pollinated by bees and by a pollination wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Katja; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Keller, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Tomato flowers (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in greenhouses require assisted pollination. Compared with pollination using a vibration wand, pollination by buzz pollinating bees results in improved seed set and consequently, higher fruit weight. We investigated whether there are further chemical and sensory differences between bee- and wand-pollinated cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum variety Conchita. The pollination method did not result in significant differences in concentration of soluble solids and titratable acidity. However, the concentration of soluble solids was significantly positively correlated with seed number. We suggest that an increase in the amount of soluble solids in the locular area, due to increased seed numbers, is counteracted by the effects of seed numbers on the growth of the walls, which occurs through cell elongation. In the sensory part of this study, a large, untrained panel significantly preferred bee-pollinated over wand-pollinated tomatoes and classified bee-pollinated tomatoes as having more depth of flavor than wand-pollinated tomatoes. Thus, bee-pollinated tomatoes taste better than wand-pollinated tomatoes, and it is likely that the sensory differences between the two groups of tomatoes are mediated through effects of pollination treatment on seed numbers. Future chemical and sensory studies of fresh tomatoes should take into account the effects of seed numbers and their possible effect on the distribution of chemical compounds within tomatoes.

  9. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  10. Bread quality characteristics as influenced by the addition of tomato seed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MIRONEASA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to incorporate tomato seed into bread in order to improve it quality. Whole ground tomato seed at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% was used to replace wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making to make bread. Bread quality through physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics were analyzed and compared with those of bread without tomato seed. The substitution of wheat flour with 10% tomato seed has the effect of highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. Color intensity, expressed as the L*, a*, b* values of breads with tomato seed were lower than those of control bread. The hardness of bread samples increased with the increase level of tomato seed addition. Also, the addition of increasing amounts of tomato seed highlighted large cells in crumb structure of bread. Sensory characteristics showed that bread samples with addition of 5 or 10% tomato seed to wheat flour were similar from of point of view of overall acceptability, but 20% addition resulted in slightly acceptable samples. Principal Component Analysis revealed significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics, loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread overall acceptability at different tomato seed flour addition levels in wheat flour. Overall, tomato seed flour could be incorporated up to levels of 10% into bread to provide its beneficial health effects, not negatively changing its quality.

  11. Effect of tomato industrial processing on phenolic profile and antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Carrasco, Gilda; Maricán, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-09-17

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes) has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice) and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  12. Setup of a UHPLC-QqQ-MS method for the analysis of phenolic compounds in cherry tomatoes, tomato sauce, and tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2013-09-04

    The setup of a novel, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-QqQ-MS method was described for the determination of phenolic compounds in tomatoes and tomato-based products (tomato sauce and juice). Phenolic compounds including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols, and flavanones were detected, separated, and quantified in a 3 min chromatographic run. The main advantages of the method include high analyte recovery (90.1-115%), low limit of detection (0.008-0.167 mg L(-1)) and quantification (0.01-0.83 mg L(-1)), good accuracy (85.6-115%), and precision (<15%). The detection of the phenolic compounds varied according to the physicochemical nature of the extracts, but generally low matrix-dependent suppression/enhancement effects were observed in all three matrices. The possibility to transfer easily the existing HPLC to the fast UHPLC methods is very attractive, and with minor modifications, the methodology described may be applied to the phenolic characterization of a broad range of plant and food matrices.

  13. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stigma than unvisited flowers. Another objective is to show that this great pollen load increases fruit production. We selected crops of the Italian tomato cultivar in areas of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thirty seven plants of three crops each had one inflorescence bagged in the field. Bagged and non-bagged flowers had their stigmas collected and the amount of pollen on their surfaces was quantified. For the comparison of fruit production, we monitored bagged and not-bagged inflorescences and after 40 days, their fruits were counted, weighed, measured and had their seeds counted. The amount of pollen grains on the stigma of flowers available to pollinators was higher than that on the stigma of bagged flowers. On average, fruit production was larger in not-bagged inflorescences than in bagged inflorescences. In addition, not-bagged flowers produced heavier fruits than did bagged flowers. There was a significant difference in the number of seeds between treatments, with significantly more seeds in the non-bagged fruit. Our results show that native bees buzz-pollinate tomato flowers, increasing the pollen load on their stigma and consequently fruit production and quality.

  14. Enhanced Tomato Disease Resistance Primed by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan eSong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, PR1, PR2 and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT plant, a jasmonate (JA biosynthesis mutant (spr2, and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for

  15. A rapid seedling resistance assay identifies wild tomato lines that are resistant to Psuedomonas syringe pv. tomato race 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae has historically been controlled by the Pto/Prf gene cluster. Emerging strains like P. syringae pv. tomato race 1 overcome resistance conferred by Pto/Prf, and can cause serious crop loss under appropriate environmental conditions. We developed a rapid ...

  16. Two nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) from tomato seeds are associated to severe symptoms of tomato-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pedraza, Laura; González, Miguel; Gómez, Francisca; Blanca-López, Natalia; Garrido-Arandia, María; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Torres, María J; Blanca, Miguel; Villalba, Mayte; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2016-05-01

    Tomato has become one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide, but its intake is often accompanied by an increasing risk of inducing allergic symptoms. The aim of the work was the identification of new seed-specific allergens associated with severe symptoms in patients allergic to this edible vegetable. We used 22 sera from well-defined tomato-allergic patients. Tomato seed proteins were purified and analyzed for biochemical and immunological characterization. A mixture of two associated IgE-binding nsLTPs was purified from tomato seeds. Both allergens, Sola l 7 and Sola l 6, displayed primary structure differences with respect to their counterpart, Sola l 3, from tomato pulp/peel. They retained the ability to bind IgE from 71.4% of patients with severe symptoms. The purified proteins induced positive basophil activation test and skin prick test, and displayed cross-reactivity with homologous allergens from peanut and sunflower seeds, among others. We herein described two novel allergens from tomato seeds that belong to the nonspecific lipid transfer protein family classes 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first work associating IgE reactivity to these proteins with severe symptoms of certain tomato-allergic patients. Therefore, they are optimal candidates for clarifying the diagnosis of the tomato allergy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Begomovirus diversity in tomato crops and weeds in Ecuador and the detection of a recombinant isolate of rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus infecting tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Carrasco, Lenin C; Castillo-Urquiza, Gloria P; Lima, Alison T M; Xavier, Cesar A D; Vivas-Vivas, Leticia M; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G; Zerbini, F Murilo

    2014-08-01

    Viral diseases caused by begomoviruses are of economic importance due to their adverse effects on the production of tropical and subtropical crops. In Ecuador, despite reports of significant infestations of Bemisia tabaci in the late 1990s, only very recently has a begomovirus, tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV, also present in Peru), been reported in tomato. ToLDeV is the first monopartite begomovirus discovered that originated in the Americas, and its presence in Ecuador highlights the need for a wider survey of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in this country. Tomato and weed samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 in six provinces of Ecuador, and begomovirus genomes were cloned and sequenced using a rolling-circle-amplification-based approach. Most tomato samples from the provinces of Guayas, Loja, Manabi and Santa Elena were infected with tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). One sample from Manabi had a triple infection with ToLDeV, rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus (RhGMYuV) and an isolate that was a recombinant between the two. A new begomovirus was detected in another tomato sample from Manabi. Samples of Rhynchosia sp. from the provinces of Guayas and Manabi were infected by RhGMYuV. These results indicate not only the prevalence of ToLDeV in tomato in Ecuador but also the presence of other viruses, albeit at a much lower frequency.

  18. Assessing the genetic variation of Ty-1 and Ty-3 alleles conferring resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in a broad tomato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro Rios, C.M.; Verlaan, M.G.; Julian, O.; Finkers, H.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Hutton, S.F.; Scott, J.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Diez, M.J.; Perez-de-Castro, A.; Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) hampers tomato production worldwide. Our previous studies have focussed on mapping and ultimately cloning of the TYLCV resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3. Both genes are derived from Solanum chilense and were shown to be allelic. They code for an RNA-dependent RNA

  19. The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective

  20. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-06-01

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases. IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading country in