WorldWideScience

Sample records for aaomega mass-to-light profiles

  1. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Thomas, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 10 9 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/L V = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s -1 . Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  2. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; Blanton, Michael R.; McKay, Timothy A.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This red-sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M 200 ∼ 5 x 10 12 h -1 M sun to clusters with M 200 ∼ 10 15 h -1 M sun . Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean Δρ(r)=ρ(r)-ρ-bar for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess luminosity density Δl(r)=l(r)-l-bar measured in the z = 0.25 i band. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce three-dimensional mass and light profiles over scales from 25 h -1 kpc to 22 h -1 Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass ΔM(r) and excess light ΔL(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where ρ(r)>>ρ-bar, the integrated mass-to-light profile (ΔM/ΔL)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (ΔM/ΔL) 200 , the M/L within r 200 , scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33 ± 0.02. On large scales, where ρ(r)∼ρ-bar, the ΔM/ΔL approaches an asymptotic value independent of cluster richness. For small groups, the mean (ΔM/ΔL) 200 is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters (ΔM/ΔL) 200 is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean M/L of the universe (M/L). We find (M/L)b -2 M/L = 362 ± 54h (statistical). There is additional uncertainty in the overall calibration at the ∼10% level. The parameter b 2 M/L is primarily a function of the bias of the L ∼ * galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in the same bandpass we find Ω m b -2 M/L = 0.20 ± 0.03, independent of the Hubble parameter.

  3. Effect of ambient light on the time needed to complete a fetal biophysical profile: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Heather M; Gupta, Shweta; Vricella, Laura K; Wand, Katy; Nguyen, Thinh; Gross, Gilad

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether ambient light serves as a fetal stimulus to decrease the amount of time needed to complete a biophysical profile. This is a randomized controlled trial of singleton gestations undergoing a biophysical profile. Patients were randomized to either ambient light or a darkened room. The primary outcome was the time needed to complete the biophysical profile. Secondary outcomes included total and individual component biophysical profile scores and scores less than 8. A subgroup analysis of different maternal body mass indices was also performed. 357 biophysical profile studies were analyzed. 182 studies were performed with ambient light and 175 were performed in a darkened room. There was no difference in the median time needed to complete the biophysical profile based on exposure to ambient light (6.1min in darkened room versus 6.6min with ambient light; P=0.73). No difference was found in total or individual component biophysical profile scores. Subgroup analysis by maternal body mass index did not demonstrate shorter study times with ambient light exposure in women who were normal weight, overweight or obese. Ambient light exposure did not decrease the time needed to complete the biophysical profile. There was no evidence that ambient light altered fetal behavior observed during the biophysical profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AutoLens: Automated Modeling of a Strong Lens's Light, Mass and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J. W.; Dye, S.; Massey, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents AutoLens, the first entirely automated modeling suite for the analysis of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. AutoLens simultaneously models the lens galaxy's light and mass whilst reconstructing the extended source galaxy on an adaptive pixel-grid. The method's approach to source-plane discretization is amorphous, adapting its clustering and regularization to the intrinsic properties of the lensed source. The lens's light is fitted using a superposition of Sersic functions, allowing AutoLens to cleanly deblend its light from the source. Single component mass models representing the lens's total mass density profile are demonstrated, which in conjunction with light modeling can detect central images using a centrally cored profile. Decomposed mass modeling is also shown, which can fully decouple a lens's light and dark matter and determine whether the two component are geometrically aligned. The complexity of the light and mass models are automatically chosen via Bayesian model comparison. These steps form AutoLens's automated analysis pipeline, such that all results in this work are generated without any user-intervention. This is rigorously tested on a large suite of simulated images, assessing its performance on a broad range of lens profiles, source morphologies and lensing geometries. The method's performance is excellent, with accurate light, mass and source profiles inferred for data sets representative of both existing Hubble imaging and future Euclid wide-field observations.

  5. Determining mass-to-light ratios in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    If the endstate of cooling hot gas in elliptical galaxies is a population of optically dark, low-mass stars near the galactic cores, the mass-to-light ratio could be expected to vary significantly with projected radius. No strong variation in M/L is observed. To investigate the sensitivity and reliability of observational mass-to-light determinations for a variety of galactic parameters, model galaxies having de Vaucouleurs profiles (but with central cores and outer cutoffs), variable velocity ellipsoid structure, and extended dark halos are constructed. Spurious radial variations in M/L can occur when none are present if the properties of the galactic models are processed similar to observational data. Conversely, when a population of diffuse dark stellar matter is added near the galactic cores, large gradients in M/L can escape detection. However, the magnitude of the central velocity dispersion and its variation with projected radius within the effective radius both suggest that a component of dark stars is unlikely to be more massive than about 30 times the core mass of luminous stars. This restriction is important in establishing the initial mass function of stars in elliptical galaxies and the history of winds and cooling inflows in the interstellar medium. 35 references

  6. Characterization of Omega-WINGS galaxy clusters. I. Stellar light and mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fasano, G.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Sciarratta, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters are the largest virialized structures in the observable Universe. Knowledge of their properties provides many useful astrophysical and cosmological information. Aims: Our aim is to derive the luminosity and stellar mass profiles of the nearby galaxy clusters of the Omega-WINGS survey and to study the main scaling relations valid for such systems. Methods: We merged data from the WINGS and Omega-WINGS databases, sorted the sources according to the distance from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and calculated the integrated luminosity profiles in the B and V bands, taking into account extinction, photometric and spatial completeness, K correction, and background contribution. Then, by exploiting the spectroscopic sample we derived the stellar mass profiles of the clusters. Results: We obtained the luminosity profiles of 46 galaxy clusters, reaching r200 in 30 cases, and the stellar mass profiles of 42 of our objects. We successfully fitted all the integrated luminosity growth profiles with one or two embedded Sérsic components, deriving the main clusters parameters. Finally, we checked the main scaling relation among the clusters parameters in comparison with those obtained for a selected sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the same clusters. Conclusions: We found that the nearby galaxy clusters are non-homologous structures such as ETGs and exhibit a color-magnitude (CM) red-sequence relation very similar to that observed for galaxies in clusters. These properties are not expected in the current cluster formation scenarios. In particular the existence of a CM relation for clusters, shown here for the first time, suggests that the baryonic structures grow and evolve in a similar way at all scales.

  7. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. M.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Arimoto, Nobuo; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ v < 5 km s –1 ), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  8. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000, Strasbourg (France); Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Casey, Caitlin M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ {sub v} < 5 km s{sup –1}), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  9. Dark matter contraction and stellar-mass-to-light ratio gradients in massive early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Lindsay J.; Auger, Matthew W.

    2018-05-01

    We present models for the dark and luminous mass structure of 12 strong lensing early-type galaxies. We combine pixel-based modelling of multiband Hubble Space Telescope imaging with Jeans modelling of kinematics obtained from Keck/ESI spectra to disentangle the dark and luminous contributions to the mass. Assuming a generalised NFW (gNFW) profile for the dark matter halo and a spatially constant stellar-mass-to-light ratio ϒ⋆ for the baryonic mass, we infer distributions for ϒ⋆ consistent with initial mass functions (IMFs) that are heavier than the Milky Way's (with a global mean mismatch parameter relative to a Chabrier IMF μαc = 1.80 ± 0.14) and halo inner density slopes that span a large range but are generally cuspier than the dark-matter-only prediction (μ _{γ ^' }} = 2.01_{-0.22}^{+0.19}). We investigate possible reasons for overestimating the halo slope, including the neglect of spatially varying stellar-mass-to-light ratios and/or stellar orbital anisotropy, and find that a quarter of the systems prefer radially declining stellar-mass-to-light ratio gradients, but that the overall effect on our inference on the halo slope is small. We suggest a coherent explanation of these results in the context of inside-out galaxy growth, and that the relative importance of different baryonic processes in shaping the dark halo may depend on halo environment.

  10. Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1980-01-01

    The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).

  11. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  12. From light to baryonic mass: the effect of the stellar mass-to-light ratio on the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Anastasia A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Bosma, Albert; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFr) for a sample of 32 galaxies with accurate distances based on Cepheïds and/or TRGB stars. We make use of homogeneously analysed photometry in 18 bands ranging from the far-ultraviolet to 160 μm, allowing us to investigate the effect of the inferred stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ⋆) on the statistical properties of the BTFr. Stellar masses of our sample galaxies are derived with four different methods based on full SED fitting, studies of stellar dynamics, near-infrared colours, and the assumption of the same Υ_{\\star }^{[3.6]} for all galaxies. In addition, we use high-quality, resolved H I kinematics to study the BTFr based on three kinematic measures: Wi_{50} from the global H I profile, and Vmax and Vflat from the rotation curve. We find the intrinsic perpendicular scatter, or tightness, of our BTFr to be σ⊥ = 0.026 ± 0.013 dex, consistent with the intrinsic tightness of the 3.6 μm luminosity-based Tully-Fisher relation (TFr). However, we find the slope of the BTFr to be 2.99 ± 0.2 instead of 3.7 ± 0.1 for the luminosity-based TFr at 3.6 μm. We use our BTFr to place important observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution by making comparisons with theoretical predictions based on either the Λ cold dark matter framework or modified Newtonian dynamics.

  13. REVISED MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS FOR NEARBY GALAXY GROUPS AND CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Yutong; Courteau, Stéphane; McDonald, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the cluster stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratio and cumulative stellar masses, derived on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, for 12 massive (M 500 ∼ 10 14 -10 15 M ☉ ), nearby clusters with available optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our method involves a statistical cluster membership using both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts when available to maximize completeness while minimizing contamination effects. We show that different methods of estimating the stellar mass-to-light ratio from observed photometry result in systematic discrepancies in the total stellar masses and average mass-to-light ratios of cluster galaxies. Nonetheless, all conversion methodologies point to a lack of correlation between M*/L i and total cluster mass, even though low-mass groups contain relatively more blue galaxies. We also find no statistically significant correlation between M*/L i and the fraction of blue galaxies (g – i < 0.85). For the mass range covered by our sample, the assumption of a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF) yields an integrated M*/L i ≅ 1.7 ± 0.2 M ☉ /L i, ☉ , a lower value than used in most similar studies, though consistent with the study of low-mass galaxy groups by Leauthaud et al. A light (diet) Salpeter IMF would imply a ∼60% increase in M*/L i

  14. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  15. THE MASS PROFILE OF THE GALAXY TO 80 kpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Star Survey presents the currently largest sample of radial velocity measurements of halo stars out to 80 kpc. We apply spherical Jeans modeling to these data in order to derive the mass profile of the Galaxy. We restrict the analysis to distances larger than 25 kpc from the Galactic center, where the density profile of halo stars is well approximated by a single power law with logarithmic slope between -3.5 and -4.5. With this restriction, we also avoid the complication of modeling a flattened Galactic disk. In the range 25 kpc c (80 kpc) lies between 175 and 231 km s -1 , with the most likely value of 193 km s -1 . Compared with the value at the solar location, the Galactic circular velocity declines by less than 20% over an order of magnitude in radius. Such a flat profile requires a massive and extended dark matter halo. The mass enclosed within 80 kpc is 6.9 +3.0 -1.2 x 10 11 M sun . Our sample of radial velocities is large enough that the biggest uncertainty in the mass is not statistical but systematic, dominated by the density slope and anisotropy of the tracer population. Further progress requires modeling observed data sets within realistic simulations of galaxy formation.

  16. The relevance of light diffusion profiles for interstitial PDT using light-diffusing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringasci, Mirian D.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Moriyama, Lilian T.; Vollet Filho, José Dirceu; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique used for several tumor types treatment. Light penetration on biological tissue is one limiting factor for PDT applied to large tumors. An alternative is using interstitial PDT, in which optical fibers are inserted into tumors. Cylindrical diffusers have been used in interstitial PDT. Light emission of different diffusers depends on the manufacturing process, size and optical properties of fibers, which make difficult to establish an adequate light dosimetry, since usually light profile is not designed for direct tissue-fiber contact. This study discusses the relevance of light distribution by a cylindrical diffuser into a turbid lipid emulsion solution, and how parts of a single diffuser contribute to illumination. A 2 cm-long cylindrical diffuser optical fiber was connected to a diode laser (630 nm), and the light spatial distribution was measured by scanning the solution with a collection probe. From the light field profile generated by a 1 mm-long intermediary element of a 20 mm-long cylindrical diffuser, recovery of light distribution for the entire diffuser was obtained. PDT was performed in rat healthy liver for a real treatment outcome analysis. By using computational tools, a typical necrosis profile generated by the irradiation with such a diffuser fiber was reconstructed. The results showed that it was possible predicting theoretically the shape of a necrosis profile in a healthy, homogeneous tissue with reasonable accuracy. The ability to predict the necrosis profile obtained from an interstitial illumination by optical diffusers has the potential improve light dosimetry for interstitial PDT.

  17. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...

  18. Mass profile and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Biviano, A.; Adami, C.; Limousin, M.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Mamon, G. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Gavazzi, R.; Cypriano, E. S.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Allam, S.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Cappi, A.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Johnston, D.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Kubo, J. M.; Márquez, I.; Marshall, P.; Martinet, N.; Maurogordato, S.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Schrabback, T.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are currently not very strong. Aims: We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies that is characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Methods: Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging as well as optical spectroscopy, collected with various instruments, which we complemented with archival data. We modeled the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters were constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intracluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. Results: We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods based on kinematics (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics, and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius, ≃1.3 Mpc and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly higher than, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is significantly lower than the kinematics and strong lensing estimates. Theoretical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology for the concentration-mass relation agree with our observational results, when taking into account the uncertainties in the observational and theoretical estimates. There appears to be a central deficit in the intracluster gas mass fraction compared with nearby clusters. Conclusions: Despite the relaxed appearance of this cluster, the determinations of its mass profile by different probes show substantial discrepancies, the origin of which remains to be determined. The extension of a dynamical analysis similar to that of other clusters of the DAFT/FADA survey with multiwavelength data of sufficient quality will allow shedding light on the possible systematics that affect the determination of mass

  19. Simulating at realistic quark masses. Light quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Streuer, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present new results for light quark masses. The calculations are performed using two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We have reached lattice spacings as small as a ∝0.07 fm and pion masses down to m π ∝340 MeV in our simulations. This gives us significantly better control on the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)

  20. Simulating at realistic quark masses. Light quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Streuer, T. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    We present new results for light quark masses. The calculations are performed using two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We have reached lattice spacings as small as a {proportional_to}0.07 fm and pion masses down to m{sub {pi}} {proportional_to}340 MeV in our simulations. This gives us significantly better control on the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)

  1. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  2. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  3. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  4. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  5. Numerology of the light particles masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoshin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The empirical formulae for the masses of light mesons, barions and u-, d-, s-'current' quarks was obtained. The using of calculated 'precise' current quark masses in QCD is given as an example. (author)

  6. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument. We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com. Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high

  7. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  8. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...

  9. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Calogero, Don

    2015-01-01

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter

  10. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Bennett N., E-mail: bennett.walker@fda.hhs.gov [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Office of Device Evaluation, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K. [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Calogero, Don [Office of Device Evaluation, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  11. Closing the light sbottom mass window from a compilation of $e^+ e^- \\to$ hadron data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051271

    2004-01-01

    The e+e- -> hadron cross section data from PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SLC and LEP, at centre-of-mass energies between 20 to 209GeV, are analysed to search for the production of a pair of light sbottoms decaying hadronically via R-parity-violating couplings. This analysis allows the 95% C.L. exclusion of such a particle if its mass is below 7.5GeV/c2. The light sbottom mass window is closed.

  12. Gravitational lens recovery with GLASS: measuring the mass profile and shape of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jonathan P.; Read, Justin I.; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-12-01

    We use a new non-parametric gravitational modelling tool - GLASS - to determine what quality of data (strong lensing, stellar kinematics, and/or stellar masses) are required to measure the circularly averaged mass profile of a lens and its shape. GLASS uses an underconstrained adaptive grid of mass pixels to model the lens, searching through thousands of models to marginalize over model uncertainties. Our key findings are as follows: (i) for pure lens data, multiple sources with wide redshift separation give the strongest constraints as this breaks the well-known mass-sheet or steepness degeneracy; (ii) a single quad with time delays also performs well, giving a good recovery of both the mass profile and its shape; (iii) stellar masses - for lenses where the stars dominate the central potential - can also break the steepness degeneracy, giving a recovery for doubles almost as good as having a quad with time-delay data, or multiple source redshifts; (iv) stellar kinematics provide a robust measure of the mass at the half-light radius of the stars r1/2 that can also break the steepness degeneracy if the Einstein radius rE ≠ r1/2; and (v) if rE ˜ r1/2, then stellar kinematic data can be used to probe the stellar velocity anisotropy β - an interesting quantity in its own right. Where information on the mass distribution from lensing and/or other probes becomes redundant, this opens up the possibility of using strong lensing to constrain cosmological models.

  13. Impact of mismatched and misaligned laser light sheet profiles on PIV performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, K.; de Silva, C. M.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of mismatched or misaligned laser light sheet profiles on the quality of particle image velocimetry (PIV) results is considered in this study. Light sheet profiles with differing widths, shapes, or alignment can reduce the correlation between PIV images and increase experimental errors. Systematic PIV simulations isolate these behaviours to assess the sensitivity and implications of light sheet mismatch on measurements. The simulations in this work use flow fields from a turbulent boundary layer; however, the behaviours and impacts of laser profile mismatch are highly relevant to any fluid flow or PIV application. Experimental measurements from a turbulent boundary layer facility are incorporated, as well as additional simulations matched to experimental image characteristics, to validate the synthetic image analysis. Experimental laser profiles are captured using a modular laser profiling camera, designed to quantify the distribution of laser light sheet intensities and inform any corrective adjustments to an experimental configuration. Results suggest that an offset of just 1.35 standard deviations in the Gaussian light sheet intensity distributions can cause a 40% reduction in the average correlation coefficient and a 45% increase in spurious vectors. Errors in measured flow statistics are also amplified when two successive laser profiles are no longer well matched in alignment or intensity distribution. Consequently, an awareness of how laser light sheet overlap influences PIV results can guide faster setup of an experiment, as well as achieve superior experimental measurements.

  14. Profiling the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in response to light deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Teoh, Seddon; Teo, Swee-Sen; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2009-01-01

    Light regulates photosynthesis, growth and reproduction, yield and properties of phycocolloids, and starch contents in seaweeds. Despite its importance as an environmental cue that regulates many developmental, physiological, and biochemical processes, the network of genes involved during light deprivation are obscure. In this study, we profiled the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii at two different irradiance levels using a cDNA microarray containing more than 3,000 cDNA probes. Microarray analysis revealed that 93 and 105 genes were up- and down-regulated more than 3-fold under light deprivation, respectively. However, only 50% of the transcripts have significant matches to the nonredundant peptide sequences in the database. The transcripts that accumulated under light deprivation include vanadium chloroperoxidase, thioredoxin, ferredoxin component, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase. Among the genes that were down-regulated under light deprivation were genes encoding light harvesting protein, light harvesting complex I, phycobilisome 7.8 kDa linker polypeptide, low molecular weight early light-inducible protein, and vanadium bromoperoxidase. Our findings also provided important clues to the functions of many unknown sequences that could not be annotated using sequence comparison.

  15. Ewe's diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Elisabeth; Jordán, María José; Martínez, Cristina; Sotomayor, José Antonio; Bedia, Mario; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-09-08

    The effects of ewe's diet during gestation and lactation on the volatile compounds profile in cooked meat from light lamb were compared. Two lamb groups from ewes that had been fed pasture (PA) or grain-based concentrate (FE) were tested. Cooked loin mixed with saliva was analyzed by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The fiber coating used was divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane. The volatiles detected and quantified were aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, phenols, indole, and sulfur compounds. The ewe's diet strongly affected the volatile compounds profile of the cooked meat. The total volatiles concentration was higher in PA (409 mg kg(-1)) than in FE (201 mg kg(-1)). The major volatiles in PA were phenol, 4-methylphenol, and hexanoic acid, while the major volatile in FE was 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. No branched C8-C9 fatty acids responsible for mutton flavor were detected in either group. The findings suggest that nutritional strategies can be use during gestation and lactation to modify the aroma of light lamb meat in the light of consumer preferences.

  16. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES, MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allanson, Steven P.; Hudson, Michael J.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of understanding the typical star formation histories of red-sequence galaxies, using linestrength indices and mass-to-light ratios as complementary constraints on their stellar age distribution. We first construct simple parametric models of the star formation history that bracket a range of scenarios, and fit these models to the linestrength indices of low-redshift cluster red-sequence galaxies. For giant galaxies, we confirm the downsizing trend, i.e., the stellar populations are younger, on average, for lower σ galaxies. We find, however, that this trend flattens or reverses at σ ∼ -1 . We then compare predicted stellar mass-to-light ratios with dynamical mass-to-light ratios derived from the fundamental plane (FP), or by the SAURON group. For galaxies with σ ∼ 70 km s -1 , models with a late 'frosting' of young stars and models with exponential star formation histories have stellar mass-to-light ratios that are larger than observed dynamical mass-to-light ratios by factors of 1.7 and 1.4, respectively, and so are rejected. The single stellar population (SSP) model is consistent with the FP, and requires a modest amount of dark matter (between 20% and 30%) to account for the difference between stellar and dynamical mass-to-light ratios. A model in which star formation was 'quenched' at intermediate ages is also consistent with the observations, although in this case less dark matter is required for low mass galaxies. We also find that the contribution of stellar populations to the 'tilt' of the fundamental plane is highly dependent on the assumed star formation history: for the SSP model, the tilt of the FP is driven primarily by stellar-population effects. For a quenched model, two-thirds of the tilt is due to stellar populations and only one-third is due to dark matter or non-homology.

  17. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  18. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N f =2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 PS < or similar 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  19. Neutron absorption profile in a reactor moderated by different mixtures of light and heavy waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Mohamed E.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Gaber, Fatma A.; Dorrah, Mahmoud E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied neutron absorption spectra in a mixed water moderated reactor. • Changing D 2 O% in moderator induced neutron energy spectral shift. • Most of the neutrons absorbed in control rods were epithermal. • Control rods worth changes were not proportional to changes of D 2 O% in moderator. • Control rod arrangement influenced the neutronic behavior of the reactor. - Abstract: A Monte-Carlo parametric study was carried out to investigate the neutron absorption profile in a model of LR-0 reactor when it is moderated by different mixtures of heavy/light waters at molecular ratios ranging from 0% up to 100% D 2 O at increments of 10% in D 2 O. The tallies included; neutron absorption profiles in control rods and moderator, and neutron capture profile in 238 U. The work focused on neutron absorption in control rods entailing; total mass of control rods needed to attain criticality, neutron absorption density and total neutron absorption in control rods at each of the studied mixed water moderators. The aim was to explore whether thermal neutron poisons are the most suitable poisons to be used in control rods of nuclear reactors moderated by mixed heavy/light water moderators

  20. The static-light meson spectrum from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-10-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum with N f =2 flavours of sea quarks using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We consider five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS s mesons. (orig.)

  1. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N{sub f}=2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  2. Study of photophysical processes in organic light-emitting diodes based on light-emission profile reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are emerging as a promising option for energy-efficient, flexible light sources. A key factor that needs to be measured and controlled is the shape of the emission profile, i.e. the spatial distribution of the emitting excitons across the active layer thickness.

  3. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  4. Golden gravitational lensing systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey - II. SDSS J1430+4105: a precise inner total mass profile from lensing alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Bauer, Anne

    2012-12-01

    We study the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey strong-lensing system SDSS J1430+4105 at zl = 0.285. The lensed source (zs = 0.575) of this system has a complex morphology with several subcomponents. Its subcomponents span a radial range from 4 to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. Therefore, we can constrain the slope of the total projected mass profile around the Einstein radius from lensing alone. We measure a density profile that is slightly but not significantly shallower than isothermal at the Einstein radius. We decompose the mass of the lensing galaxy into a de Vaucouleurs component to trace the stars and an additional dark component. The spread of multiple-image components over a large radial range also allows us to determine the amplitude of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components separately. We get a mass-to-light ratio of M de Vauc LB ≈ (5.5±1.5) M⊙L⊙,B and a dark matter fraction within the Einstein radius of ≈20 to 40 per cent. Modelling the star formation history assuming composite stellar populations at solar metallicity to the galaxy's photometry yields a mass-to-light ratio of M, salp LB ≈ 4.0-1.3+0.6 M⊙L⊙,B and M, chab LB ≈ 2.3-0.8+0.3 M⊙L⊙,B for Salpeter and Chabrier initial mass functions, respectively. Hence, the mass-to-light ratio derived from lensing is more Salpeter like, in agreement with results for massive Coma galaxies and other nearby massive early-type galaxies. We examine the consequences of the galaxy group in which the lensing galaxy is embedded, showing that it has little influence on the mass-to-light ratio obtained for the de Vaucouleurs component of the lensing galaxy. Finally, we decompose the projected, azimuthally averaged 2D density distribution of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components of the lensing signal into spherically averaged 3D density profiles. We can show that the 3D dark and luminous matter density within the Einstein radius (REin ≈ 0.6 Reff) of this SLACS galaxy is similar to the

  5. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  6. Volume dependence of light hadron masses in full lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, B.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the GRAL project is to simulate full QCD with standard Wilson fermions at light quark masses on small to medium-sized lattices and to obtain infinite-volume results by extrapolation. In order to establish the functional form of the volume dependence we study systematically the finite-size effects in the light hadron spectrum. We give an update on the status of the GRAL project and show that our simulation data for the light hadron masses depend exponentially on the lattice size.

  7. Volume dependence of light hadron masses in full lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, B.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the GRAL project is to simulate full QCD with standard Wilson fermions at light quark masses on small to medium-sized lattices and to obtain infinite-volume results by extrapolation. In order to establish the functional form of the volume dependence we study systematically the finite-size effects in the light hadron spectrum. We give an update on the status of the GRAL project and show that our simulation data for the light hadron masses depend exponentially on the lattice size

  8. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Amendola, L. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Umetsu, K. [5 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, P. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Mu\\' nchen (Germany); Caminha, G.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Frye, B. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mercurio, A., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de [Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  9. Transcriptome Profiling of the Abdominal Skin of Larimichthys crocea in Light Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaofang; Lv, Changhuan; Xiao, Shijun; Ye, Kun; Zhang, Dongling; Tsai, Huai Jen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2018-04-01

    Large yellow croaker ( Larimichthys crocea), one of the most important marine fish species in China, can change its abdominal skin color when it is shifted from light to dark or from dark to light, providing us an opportunity of investigating the molecular responding mechanism of teleost in light stress. The gene expression profile of fish under light stress is rarely documented. In this research, the transcriptome profiles of the abdominal skin of L. crocea exposed to light or dark for 0 h, 0.5 h and 2 h were produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cluster results demonstrated that stress period, rather than light intensity ( e.g., light or dark), is the major influencing factor. Differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between 0 h and 0.5 h groups, between 0 h and 2 h groups, between 0.5 h light and 0.5 h dark, and between 2 h light and 2 h dark, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation revealed that the genes relating to immunity, energy metabolism, and cytoskeletal protein binding were significantly enriched. The detailed analysis of transcriptome profiles also revealed regular gene expression trends, indicating that the elaborate gene regulation networks underlined the molecular responses of the fish to light stress. This transcriptome analysis suggested that systematic and complicated regulatory cascades were functionally activated in response to external stress, and coloration change caused by light stress was mainly attributed to the change in the density of chromatophores for L. crocea. This study also provided valuable information for skin coloration or light stress research on other marine fish species.

  10. Radiative corrections to light neutrino masses in low scale type I seesaw scenarios and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pavon, J. [SISSA and INFN - sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Molinaro, E. [CP-Origins and Danish Institute for Advanced Study, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Petcov, S.T. [SISSA and INFN - sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Kavli IPMU (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan)

    2015-11-05

    We perform a detailed analysis of the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino mass matrix within low scale type I seesaw extensions of the Standard Model and their implications in experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that a sizable contribution to the effective Majorana neutrino mass from the exchange of heavy Majorana neutrinos is always possible, provided one requires a fine-tuned cancellation between the tree-level and one-loop contribution to the light neutrino masses. We quantify the level of fine-tuning as a function of the seesaw parameters and introduce a generalisation of the Casas-Ibarra parametrization of the neutrino Yukawa matrix, which easily allows to include the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino masses.

  11. New air Cherenkov light detectors to study mass composition of cosmic rays with energies above knee region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki, E-mail: tsunesada@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Katsuya, Ryoichi, E-mail: katsuya@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Mitsumori, Yu; Nakayama, Keisuke; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tokuno, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Tajima, Norio [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miranda, Pedro; Salinas, Juan; Tavera, Wilfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-11-01

    We have installed a hybrid detection system for air showers generated by cosmic rays with energies greater than 3×10{sup 15}eV at Mount Chacaltaya (5200 m above the sea level), in order to study the mass composition of cosmic rays above the knee region. This detection system comprises an air shower array with 49 scintillation counters in an area of 500 m×650 m, and seven new Cherenkov light detectors installed in a radial direction from the center of the air shower array with a separation of 50 m. It is known that the longitudinal development of a particle cascade in the atmosphere strongly depends on the type of the primary nucleus, and an air shower initiated by a heavier nucleus develops faster than that by a lighter primary of the same energy, because of the differences in the interaction cross-section and the energy per nucleon. This can be measured by detecting the Cherenkov radiation emitted from charged particles in air showers at higher altitudes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of our new non-imaging Cherenkov light detectors at Mount Chacaltaya that are operated in conjunction with the air shower array. The arrival directions and energies of air showers are determined by the shower array, and information about the primary masses is obtained from the Cherenkov light data including the time profiles and lateral distributions. The detector consists of photomultiplier tube (PMT), high-speed ADCs, other control modules, and data storage device. The Cherenkov light signals from an air shower are typically 10–100 ns long, and the waveforms are digitized with a sampling frequency of 1 GHz and recorded in situ without long-distance analog signal transfers. All the Cherenkov light detectors record their time-series data by receiving a triggering signal transmitted from the trigger module of the air shower array, which is fired by a coincidence of shower signals in four neighboring scintillation counters. The optical characteristics of the

  12. Phenomenological approach to the modelling of elliptical galaxies: The problem of the mass-to-light ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the phenomenological modelling of elliptical galaxies using various available observational data is presented. Recently, Tortora, Cardona and Piedipalumbo (2007 suggested a double power law expression for the global cumulative mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies. We tested their expression on a sample of ellipticals for which we have the estimates of the mass-to-light ratio beyond ~ 3 effective radii, a region where dark matter is expected to play an important dynamical role. We found that, for all the galaxies in our sample, we have α + β > 0, but that this does not necessarily mean a high dark matter content. The galaxies with higher mass (and higher dark matter content also have higher value of α+β. It was also shown that there is an indication that the galaxies with higher value of the effective radius also have higher dark matter content. .

  13. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  14. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  15. Tritium depth profiling in carbon by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Pilz, W.; Sun, G.; Behrisch, R.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Bekris, N.; Penzhorn, R.-D.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium depth profiling measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry have been performed at the facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. In order to achieve a uniform erosion at the target surface inside a commercial Cs ion sputtering source and to avoid edge effects, the samples were mechanically scanned and the signals were recorded only during sputtering at the centre of the sputtered area. The sputtered negative ions were mass analysed by the injection magnet of the Tandetron. Hydrogen and deuterium profiles were measured with the Faraday cup between the injection magnet and the accelerator, while the tritium was counted after the accelerator with semiconductor detectors. Depth profiles have been measured for carbon samples which had been exposed to the plasma at the first wall of the Garching fusion experiment ASDEX-Upgrade and from the European fusion experiment JET, Culham, UK

  16. Photon mass drag and the momentum of light in a medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that the energy propagating with the light pulse in the medium is entirely carried by the field. Thus, the possibility that the optical force field of the light pulse would drive forward an atomic mass density wave (MDW...... field. We show that a light pulse having a total electromagnetic energy (h) over bar omega propagating in a nondispersive medium transfers a mass equal to delta m = (n(2) - 1) (h) over bar omega/c(2), where n is the refractive index. MDW, which carries this mass, consists of atoms, which are more......) and the related kinetic and elastic energies is neglected. In this work, we present foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces between the induced dipoles and the electromagnetic...

  17. Real-Time 3D Profile Measurement Using Structured Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, Z J; Ma, H; Yu, Y J

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds a real-time system of 3D profile measurement using structured-light imaging. It allows a hand-held object to rotate free in the space-time coded light field, which is projected by the projector. The surface of measured objects with projected coded light is imaged; the system shows surface reconstruction results of objects online. This feedback helps user to adjust object's pose in the light field according to the dismissed or error data, which would achieve the integrality of data used in reconstruction. This method can acquire denser data cloud and have higher reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. According to the real-time requirements, the paper presents the non-restricted light plane modelling which suits stripe structured light system, designs the three-frame stripes space-time coded pattern, and uses the advance ICP algorithms to acquire 3D data alignment from multiple view

  18. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We simulate neutralino dark matter (χDM) haloes from their initial collapse, at ˜ earth mass, up to a few percent solar. Our results confirm that the density profiles of the first haloes are described by a ˜r-1.5 power law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average ˜r-1, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. Using non-cosmological controlled simulations, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by major mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile. This transformation is more significant for shallower initial profiles and for a higher number of merging systems. Depending on the merger details, the resulting profiles can be shallower or steeper than NFW in their inner regions. Interestingly, mergers have a much weaker effect when the profile is given by a broken power law with an inner slope of -1 (such as NFW or Hernquist profiles). This offers an explanation for the emergence of NFW-like profiles: after their initial collapse, r-1.5 χDM haloes suffer copious major mergers, which progressively shallows the profile. Once an NFW-like profile is established, subsequent merging does not change the profile anymore. This suggests that halo profiles are not universal but rather a combination of (1) the physics of the formation of the microhaloes and (2) their early merger history - both set by the properties of the dark matter particle - as well as (3) the resilience of NFW-like profiles to perturbations.

  19. Modeling Nearly Spherical Pure-bulge Galaxies with a Stellar Mass-to-light Ratio Gradient under the ΛCDM and MOND Paradigms. I. Methodology, Dynamical Stellar Mass, and Fundamental Mass Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-06-01

    We carry out spherical Jeans modeling of nearly round pure-bulge galaxies selected from the ATLAS3D sample. Our modeling allows for gradients in the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M ⋆/L) through analytic prescriptions parameterized with a “gradient strength” K introduced to accommodate any viable gradient. We use a generalized Osipkov–Merritt model for the velocity dispersion (VD) anisotropy. We produce Monte Carlo sets of models based on the stellar VD profiles under both the ΛCDM and MOND paradigms. Here, we describe the galaxy data, the empirical inputs, and the modeling procedures of obtaining the Monte Carlo sets. We then present the projected dynamical stellar mass, {M}\\star {{e}}, within the effective radius R e, and the fundamental mass plane (FMP) as a function of K. We find the scaling of the K-dependent mass with respect to the ATLAS3D reported mass as: {log}}10[{M}\\star {{e}}(K)/{M}\\star {{e}}{{A}3{{D}}}]=a\\prime +b\\prime K with a‧ = ‑0.019 ± 0.012 and b‧ = ‑0.18 ± 0.02 (ΛCDM), or a‧ = ‑0.023 ± 0.014 and b‧ = ‑0.23 ± 0.03 (MOND), for 0 ≤ K expectation and only the zero-point scales with K. The median value of K for the ATLAS3D galaxies is ={0.53}-0.04+0.05. We perform a similar analysis of the much larger SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample. In this case, only the VD within a single aperture is available, so we impose the additional requirement that the VD slope be similar to that in the ATLAS3D galaxies. Our analysis of the SDSS galaxies suggests a positive correlation of K with stellar mass.

  20. The strange and light quark contributions to the nucleon mass from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, Gunnar S.; Collins, Sara; Goeckeler, Meinulf

    2011-12-01

    We determine the strangeness and light quark fractions of the nucleon mass by computing the quark line connected and disconnected contributions to the matrix elements m q left angle N vertical stroke anti qq vertical stroke N right angle in lattice QCD, using the non-perturbatively improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert Wilson Fermionic action. We simulate n F =2 mass degenerate sea quarks with a pion mass of about 285 MeV and a lattice spacing ∼0.073 fm. The renormalization of the matrix elements involves mixing between contributions from different quark flavours. The pion-nucleon σ-term is extrapolated to physical quark masses exploiting the sea quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass. We obtain the renormalized values σ πN =(38±12) MeV at the physical point and f T s =σ s /m N =0.012(14) +10 -3 for the strangeness contribution at our larger than physical sea quark mass. (orig.)

  1. The strange and light quark contributions to the nucleon mass from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, Gunnar S.; Collins, Sara; Goeckeler, Meinulf [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-12-15

    We determine the strangeness and light quark fractions of the nucleon mass by computing the quark line connected and disconnected contributions to the matrix elements m{sub q} left angle N vertical stroke anti qq vertical stroke N right angle in lattice QCD, using the non-perturbatively improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert Wilson Fermionic action. We simulate n{sub F}=2 mass degenerate sea quarks with a pion mass of about 285 MeV and a lattice spacing {approx}0.073 fm. The renormalization of the matrix elements involves mixing between contributions from different quark flavours. The pion-nucleon {sigma}-term is extrapolated to physical quark masses exploiting the sea quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass. We obtain the renormalized values {sigma}{sub {pi}}{sub N}=(38{+-}12) MeV at the physical point and f{sub T{sub s}}={sigma}{sub s}/m{sub N}=0.012(14){sup +10}{sub -3} for the strangeness contribution at our larger than physical sea quark mass. (orig.)

  2. microMS: A Python Platform for Image-Guided Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Troy J.; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Do, Thanh D.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2017-09-01

    Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) profiling provides a facile framework for analyzing samples ranging from single cells to tissue sections. The fundamental workflow utilizes a whole-slide microscopy image to select targets of interest, determine their spatial locations, and subsequently perform MS analysis at those locations. Improving upon prior reported methodology, a software package was developed for working with microscopy images. microMS, for microscopy-guided mass spectrometry, allows the user to select and profile diverse samples using a variety of target patterns and mass analyzers. Written in Python, the program provides an intuitive graphical user interface to simplify image-guided MS for novice users. The class hierarchy of instrument interactions permits integration of new MS systems while retaining the feature-rich image analysis framework. microMS is a versatile platform for performing targeted profiling experiments using a series of mass spectrometers. The flexibility in mass analyzers greatly simplifies serial analyses of the same targets by different instruments. The current capabilities of microMS are presented, and its application for off-line analysis of single cells on three distinct instruments is demonstrated. The software has been made freely available for research purposes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  4. Particulate matter speciation profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Baldauf, Richard W; Yanca, Catherine A; Fulper, Carl R

    2014-05-01

    Representative profiles for particulate matter particles less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are developed from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study for use in the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) vehicle emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and for inclusion in the EPA SPECIATE database for speciation profiles. The profiles are compatible with the inputs of current photochemical air quality models, including the Community Multiscale Air Quality Aerosol Module Version 6 (AE6). The composition of light-duty gasoline PM2.5 emissions differs significantly between cold start and hot stabilized running emissions, and between older and newer vehicles, reflecting both impacts of aging/deterioration and changes in vehicle technology. Fleet-average PM2.5 profiles are estimated for cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes. Fleet-average profiles are calculated to include emissions from deteriorated high-emitting vehicles that are expected to continue to contribute disproportionately to the fleet-wide PM2.5 emissions into the future. The profiles are calculated using a weighted average of the PM2.5 composition according to the contribution of PM2.5 emissions from each class of vehicles in the on-road gasoline fleet in the Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The paper introduces methods to exclude insignificant measurements, correct for organic carbon positive artifact, and control for contamination from the testing infrastructure in developing speciation profiles. The uncertainty of the PM2.5 species fraction in each profile is quantified using sampling survey analysis methods. The primary use of the profiles is to develop PM2.5 emissions inventories for the United States, but the profiles may also be used in source apportionment, atmospheric modeling, and exposure assessment, and as a basis for light-duty gasoline emission profiles for countries with limited data. PM2.5 speciation profiles were

  5. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sensitivity of a Chemical Mass Balance model for PM2.5 to source profiles for differing styles of cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, K. L.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-04-01

    Use of a Chemical Mass Balance model is one of the two most commonly used approaches to estimating atmospheric concentrations of cooking aerosol. Such models require the input of chemical profiles for each of the main sources contributing to particulate matter mass and there is appreciable evidence from the literature that not only the mass emission but also the chemical composition of particulate matter varies according to the food being prepared and the style of cooking. In this study, aerosol has been sampled in the laboratory from four different styles of cooking, i.e. Indian, Chinese, Western and African cooking. The chemical profiles of molecular markers have been quantified and are used individually within a Chemical Mass Balance model applied to air samples collected in a multi-ethnic area of Birmingham, UK. The model results give a source contribution estimate for cooking aerosol which is consistent with other comparable UK studies, but also shows a very low sensitivity of the model to the cooking aerosol profile utilised. A survey of local restaurants suggested a wide range of cooking styles taking place which may explain why no one profile gives an appreciably better fit in the CMB model.

  7. Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): the consistency of GAMA and WISE derived mass-to-light ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlety, T.; Hesling, J.; Phillipps, S.; Bremer, M. N.; Cluver, M. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; De Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Kelvin, L. S.; Sutherland, W.; Wright, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that mid-IR wavelengths are optimal for estimating the mass-to-light ratios of stellar populations and hence the stellar masses of galaxies. We compare stellar masses deduced from spectral energy distribution (SED) models, fitted to multiwavelength optical-NIR photometry, to luminosities derived from WISE photometry in the W1 and W2 bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm for non-star forming galaxies. The SED-derived masses for a carefully selected sample of low-redshift (z ≤ 0.15) passive galaxies agree with the prediction from stellar population synthesis models such that M*/LW1 ≃ 0.6 for all such galaxies, independent of other stellar population parameters. The small scatter between masses predicted from the optical SED and from the WISE measurements implies that random errors (as opposed to systematic ones such as the use of different initial mass functions) are smaller than previous, deliberately conservative, estimates for the SED fits. This test is subtly different from simultaneously fitting at a wide range of optical and mid-IR wavelengths, which may just generate a compromised fit: we are directly checking that the best-fitting model to the optical data generates an SED whose M*/LW1 is also consistent with separate mid-IR data. We confirm that for passive low-redshift galaxies a fixed M*/LW1 = 0.65 can generate masses at least as accurate as those obtained from more complex methods. Going beyond the mean value, in agreement with expectations from the models, we see a modest change in M*/LW1 with SED fitted stellar population age but an insignificant one with metallicity.

  8. Influence of light-quark masses in dynamical scale breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos Neto, J.; Chanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that light quark masses may significantly contribute to the logarithmic scale breaking in deep inelastic electromagnetic lepton-nucleon scattering. This is mainly due to the combination of scale variables together with large 'current' masses for u and d quarks, recently reported in the literature. Upper limits for current masses of u and d quarks, using positivity properties of the forward electromagnetic structure function F 2 of the nucleon are also estimated. (Author) [pt

  9. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in the absence of light perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Kupers, R.; Ptito, M.

    2017-01-01

    As light plays an important role in the synchronisation of the internal biological clock to the environmental day/night schedule, we compared the 24-h profiles of biological circadian markers in blind and normal sighted individuals. Salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were collected...... every two hours in eleven blind subjects, reporting no conscious light perception, and eleven age- and sex-matched normal sighted controls. Timing of melatonin onset and associated cortisol quiescence period confirm an increased incidence of abnormal circadian patterns in blindness. Additionally, blind...... subjects showed a greater overall melatonin concentration throughout the 24-h period. Cortisol profiles, including concentration and morning cortisol peaks, on the other hand, did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. These findings support previous reports of an increase in abnormal circadian...

  10. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  11. The ATLAS(3D) project - XX. Mass-size and mass-Sigma distributions of early-type galaxies : bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)(JAM) approximate to (M/L)(r = R-e) within a sphere of radius r = R-e centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)(stars) (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected

  12. Light quark masses with Nf = 2 Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Orth, B.; Schilling, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data on the mass of the light and strange quarks from SESAM/TχL. The results were obtained on lattice-volumes of 16 3 x 32 and 24 3 x 40 points, with the possibility to investigate finite-size effects. Since the SESAM/TχL ensembles at β = 5.6 have been complemented by configurations with β = 5.5, moreover, we are now able to attempt the continuum extrapolation (CE) of the quark masses with standard Wilson fermions

  13. Masses of light quarks in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W; Mallik, S [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1982-12-28

    We try to determine light quark masses by considering sum rules for the vacuum expectation value of the time-ordered correlation function of two divergences of the axial vector current. The evaluation is carried out at momenta high enough for the non-perturbative contributions to be negligible. We find that the average mass of the up and down quark at a momentum of 1 GeV lies between 3.3 and 7.9 MeV while that for the strange quark lies between 84 and 212 MeV. The ranges of values reflect predominantly the uncertainty in the absorptive part in the low energy region (approx. <= 1.7 GeV).

  14. Light vehicle crash avoidance needs and countermeasure profiles for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direc...

  15. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay

    2017-11-01

    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.

  16. INFLUENCE OF LASER BEAM PROFILE ON LIGHT SCATTERING BY HUMAN SKIN DURING PHOTOMETRY BY ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bezuglyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct accounting of laser emitter parameters for improvement of diagnostic authenticity of methods of optical biomedical diagnostic is important problem for applied biophotonic tasks. The purpose of the current research is estimation of influence of energy distribution profile in transversal section of laser beam on light scattering by human skin layers at photometry by ellipsoidal reflectors.Biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors for investigation of biological tissue specimens in transmitted and reflected light uses laser probing radiation with infinitely thin, Gauss-type and uniform cross-section profile. Distribution of beams with denoted profiles, which consist of 20 million photons with wavelength 632.8 nm, was modeled by using of Monte-Carlo simulation in human skin layers (corneous layer, epidermis, derma and adipose tissue of various anatomic thickness and with ellipsoidal reflectors with focal parameter equal to 16.875 mm and eccentricity of 0.66.The modeling results represent that illuminance distribution in zones of photometric imaging is significantly influenced by the laser beam cross-section profile for various thickness of corneous layer and epidermis in transmitted and reflected light, and also derma in reflected light. Illuminance distribution for adipose tissue in reflected and transmitted light, and also derma in transmitted light, practically do not depend of laser beam profile for anatomic thicknesses, which are appropriate for human skin on various sections of body.There are represented results of modified Monte-Carlo simulation method for biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors during biometry of human skin layers. For highly scattered corneous layer and epidermis the illumination of middle and external rings of photometric images changes depending from the laser beam profile for more than 50 % in transmitted and 30 % in reflected light. For weakly scattering skin layers (derma and adipose layer

  17. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  18. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were...

  19. Polydisperse-particle-size-distribution function determined from intensity profile of angularly scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for determining the particle-size-distribution function of a polydispersion of spherical particles is presented. The inversion technique for the particle-size-distribution function is based upon matching the measured intensity profile of angularly scattered light with a summation of the intensity contributions of a series of appropriately spaced, narrowband, size-distribution functions. A numerical optimization technique is used to determine the strengths of the individual bands that yield the best agreement with the measured scattered-light-intensity profile. Because Mie theory is used, the method is applicable to spherical particles of all sizes. Several numerical examples demonstrate the application of this inversion method

  20. Sea quark contribution to the dynamical mass and light quark content of a nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the flavor mixing in the wave function of a light valence quark. For this, we use the idea of dynamical symmetry breaking. A sea quark of a different flavor may appear through the vacuum polarization of a gluon propagator which appears in the gap equation for the dynamical mass. We have also used the fact that any one of these quark lines may undergo condensation. The dependence of the dynamical mass, generated in this way, on the sea quark mass up to quadratic terms has been retained. The momentum dependence is like 1/p 4 , in contrast with the 1/p 2 kind of dependence which occurs for the leading term of the dynamical mass in the subasymptotic region. The extension of the result to the ''mass shell'' yields σ πN =53--54 MeV for the pion-nucleon σ term and m s left-angle p|bar ss|p right-angle=122--264 meV for the strange quark contribution to the proton mass, for different values of parameters. These are in reasonable agreement with current phenomenological estimates of these quantities

  1. Complete orthonormal sets on the past light cone - II: Functions belonging to spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, G.H.

    1987-12-01

    This is the second of a series of papers preparing the mathematical framework for a past light cone formulation for the quantum mechanics of particles of arbitrary mass and spin. The aim of past light cone quantum theory is to define quantum states solely in terms of data accessible to an observer, i.e. information from within his current past light cone. In order to set up such a theory one needs to define on the past light cone complete orthonormal sets of functions which belong to the appropriate representation of the Poincare group. Such functions are interpreted as energy-momentum eigenfunctions. The present paper treats the case of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass. (author). 7 refs

  2. Mass-polariton theory of light in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown that the electromagnetic pulse in a medium is made of mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, which are quantized coupled states of the field and an atomic mass density wave (MDW) [M. Partanen et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.063850]. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media assuming that absorption and scattering losses are very small. Following our previous work, we present two different approaches to the coupled state of light: (1) the MP quasiparticle theory, which is derived by only using the fundamental conservation laws and the Lorentz transformation; (2) the classical optoelastic continuum dynamics (OCD), which is a generalization of the electrodynamics of continuous media to include the dynamics of the medium under the influence of optical forces. We show that the total momentum and the transferred mass of the light pulse can be determined in a straightforward way if we know the field energy of the pulse and the dispersion relation of the medium. In analogy to the nondispersive case, we also find unambiguous correspondence between the MP and OCD theories. For the coupled MP state of a single photon and the medium, we obtain the total MP momentum pMP=npℏ ω /c , where np is the phase refractive index. The field's share of the MP momentum is equal to pfield=ℏ ω /(ngc ) , where ng is the group refractive index and the share of the MDW is equal to pMDW=pMP-pfield . Thus, as in a nondispersive medium, the total momentum of the MP is equal to the Minkowski momentum and the field's share of the momentum is equal to the Abraham momentum. We also show that the correspondence between the MP and OCD models and the conservation of momentum at interfaces gives an unambiguous formula for the optical force. The dynamics of the light pulse and the related MDW lead to nonequilibrium of the medium and to relaxation of the atomic density by sound waves in the same way as for nondispersive media

  3. Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsell, R.; Bode, M. F.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Darnley, M. J.; Mawson, N. R.; Steele, I. A.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    We present light curves of three classical novae (CNe; KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete skymap coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102 minute cadence. The light curves derived from these skymaps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the eruption normally not covered by ground-based observations. They allow us to explore fundamental parameters of individual objects including the epoch of the initial explosion, the reality and duration of any pre-maximum halt (found in all three fast novae in our sample), the presence of secondary maxima, speed of decline of the initial light curve, plus precise timing of the onset of dust formation (in V1280 Sco) leading to estimation of the bolometric luminosity, white dwarf mass, and object distance. For KT Eri, Liverpool Telescope SkyCamT data confirm important features of the SMEI light curve and overall our results add weight to the proposed similarities of this object to recurrent rather than to CNe. In RS Oph, comparison with hard X-ray data from the 2006 outburst implies that the onset of the outburst coincides with extensive high-velocity mass loss. It is also noted that two of the four novae we have detected (V598 Pup and KT Eri) were only discovered by ground-based observers weeks or months after maximum light, yet these novae reached peak magnitudes of 3.46 and 5.42, respectively. This emphasizes the fact that many bright novae per year are still overlooked, particularly those of the very fast speed class. Coupled with its ability to observe novae in detail even when relatively close to the Sun in the sky, we estimate that as many as five novae per year may be detectable by SMEI.

  4. Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Hounsell, R.; Bode, M. F.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Darnley, M. J.; Mawson, N. R.; Steele, I. A.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present light curves of three classical novae (KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete sky-map coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102-minute cadence. The light curves derived from these sky maps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the nova eruption n...

  5. The light gluino mass window revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Janot, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The precise measurements of the ``electroweak observables'' performed at LEP and SLC are well consistent with the standard model predictions. Deviations from the standard model arising from vacuum polarization diagrams (also called ``weak loop corrections'') have been constrained in a model-independent manner with the epsilon formalism. Within the same formalism, additional deviations from new physics production processes can also be constrained, still in a model-independent way. For instance, a 95% C.L. limit of Delta Gamma_had} q qbar gluino gluino process, it allows an absolute lower limit to be set on the gluino mass, m_gluino > 6.3 GeV/c2 at 95% C.L., which definitely closes the so-called light gluino mass window. The precise measurements of the "electroweak observables" performed at LEP and SLC are well consistent with the standard model predictions. Deviations from the standard model arising from vacuum polarization diagrams (also called "weak loop corrections") have been constrained in a model-indepe...

  6. ON THE INVERSION OF STOKES PROFILES WITH LOCAL STRAY-LIGHT CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining the magnetic properties of non-resolved structures in the solar photosphere is always challenging and problems arise because the inversion is carried out through the numerical minimization of a merit function that depends on the proposed model. We investigate the reliability of inversions in which the stray-light contamination is obtained from the same observations as a local average. In this case, we show that it is fundamental to include the covariance between the observed Stokes profiles and the stray-light contamination. The ensuing modified merit function of the inversion process penalizes large stray-light contaminations simply because of the presence of positive correlations between the observables and the stray light, fundamentally produced by spatially variable systematics. We caution that if the wrong merit function is used, artificially large stray-light contaminations might be inferred. Since this effect disappears if the stray-light contamination is obtained as an average over the full field of view, we recommend taking into account stray-light contamination using a global approach.

  7. Cosmological constraint on the light gravitino mass from CMB lensing and cosmic shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osato, Ken; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Shirasaki, Masato [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Kamada, Ayuki, E-mail: ken.osato@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@gmail.com, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: ayuki.kamada@ucr.edu, E-mail: naoki.yoshida@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Light gravitinos of mass ∼< O (10) eV are of particular interest in cosmology, offering various baryogenesis scenarios without suffering from the cosmological gravitino problem. The gravitino may contribute considerably to the total matter content of the Universe and affect structure formation from early to present epochs. After the gravitinos decouple from other particles in the early Universe, they free-stream and consequently suppress density fluctuations of (sub-)galactic length scales. Observations of structure at the relevant length-scales can be used to infer or constrain the mass and the abundance of light gravitinos. We derive constraints on the light gravitino mass using the data of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from Planck and of cosmic shear from the Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey survey, combined with analyses of the primary CMB anisotropies and the signature of baryon acoustic oscillations in galaxy distributions. The obtained constraint on the gravitino mass is m {sub 3/2} < 4.7 eV (95 % C.L.), which is substantially tighter than the previous constraint from clustering analysis of Ly-α forests.

  8. Photographic measurements of the diffuse light in the coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.; Kormendy, J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffuse background light in the Coma cluster is measured using isodensity tracings of B, G, V, and R photographic plates taken with the Palomar 1.2-m Schmidt telescope. The isodensity contours are calibrated using the star profile derived by Kormendy (1973). Between 4 and 14 arc min from the center, the surface brightness of the diffuse light decreases from approximately 26 to approximately 28 G magnitudes arc sec -2 . The total magnitude in this annulus is G = 11.22, which is approximately 45 percent of the light in galaxies alone, or approximately 30 percent of the total. This does little to alleviate the ''missing mass'' problem. The isodensity contours and the equivalent profile of the diffuse light closely parallel the distribution of light in galaxies, implying no strong mass segregation. However, the background light appears to be bluer than the galaxies. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the background consists of stars tidally stripped from galaxies, which generally become bluer at larger radii. The present technique is very different from methods used in the past. Comparison of a variety of measurements shows that a reasonably consistent body of data on the background light now exists

  9. Steroid Profiling by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for Adrenal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Matthew, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis. PMID:22170384

  10. The effect of halogen light stimulation on duration of ultrasound parameters of biophysical profile: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mohammad Ghasem; Sahraeizadeh, Aliakbar

    2018-02-22

    The objective is to assess if fetal halogen light stimulation can reduce the time needed to obtain a normal biophysical profile (BPP). Patients scheduled for a BPP and who satisfied the inclusion criteria were prospectively randomized to halogen light stimulation and no stimulation groups. The study group was exposed to handheld halogen light for 10 s whenever fetal breathing, movement, or tone was absent through the first 5 min of BPP. The time required to achieve complete BPP score was recorded. In patients with complete BPP score who had delivery within 1 week after the test, perinatal morbidity was examined. A total of 598 patients were randomized (light = 302, no light = 296). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of gestational age, maternal age, body mass index, and indication for BPP except for preterm labor (light: 9%, no light: 4%, p = 0.03). Among the patients who had a normal BPP score (n = 507), the mean (light: 7.1 ± 6 min, no light: 12.3 ± 8 min, p BPP score was significantly less in the light stimulation group than the no stimulation group. Perinatal outcomes were not different between groups who had delivery during the first week after BPP. Fetal halogen light stimulation can be utilized to reduce the time needed to complete a BPP. However, further studies should be conducted in order to determine the effect of this method on decreasing non-reassuring test results. The study was submitted to the Registry of Clinical Trials on 04/20/2017 (IRCT2017041633470N1). After IRCT registration on 06/07/2017, we recruited patients from 06/08/2017 till 10/15/2017.

  11. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  12. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  13. Light stop mass limits from Higgs rate measurements in the MSSM: is MSSM electroweak baryogenesis still alive after all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP),University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-22

    We investigate the implications of the Higgs rate measurements from Run 1 of the LHC for the mass of the light scalar top partner (stop) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We focus on light stop masses, and we decouple the second, heavy stop and the gluino to the multi-TeV range in order to obtain a Higgs mass of ∼125 GeV. We derive lower mass limits for the light stop within various scenarios, taking into account the effects of a possibly light scalar tau partner (stau) or chargino on the Higgs rates, of additional Higgs decays to undetectable “new physics”, as well as of non-decoupling of the heavy Higgs sector. Under conservative assumptions, the stop can be as light as 123 GeV. Relaxing certain theoretical and experimental constraints, such as vacuum stability and model-dependent bounds on sparticle masses from LEP, we find that the light stop mass can be as light as 116 GeV. Our indirect limits are complementary to direct limits on the light stop mass from collider searches and have important implications for electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM as a possible explanation for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  14. Light stop mass limits from Higgs rate measurements in the MSSM. Is MSSM electroweak baryogenesis still alive after all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the implications of the Higgs rate measurements from Run 1 of the LHC for the mass of the light scalar top partner (stop) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We focus on light stop masses, and we decouple the second, heavy stop and the gluino to the multi-TeV range in order to obtain a Higgs mass of ∝125 GeV. We derive lower mass limits for the light stop within various scenarios, taking into account the effects of a possibly light scalar tau partner (stau) or chargino on the Higgs rates, of additional Higgs decays to undetectable new physics, as well as of non-decoupling of the heavy Higgs sector. Under conservative assumptions, the stop can be as light as 123 GeV. Relaxing certain theoretical and experimental constraints, such as vacuum stability and model-dependent bounds on sparticle masses from LEP, we find that the light stop mass can be as light as 116 GeV. Our indirect limits are complementary to direct limits on the light stop mass from collider searches and have important implications for electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM as a possible explanation for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  15. Characterisation of the volatile profiles of infant formulas by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Floris, V.; Fayoux, S.

    2006-01-01

    The volatile profiles of 13 infant formulas were evaluated by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS). The infant formulas varied in brand (Aptamil, Cow & Gate, SMA), type (for different infant target groups) and physical form

  16. The community-level effect of light on germination timing in relation to seed mass: a source of regeneration niche differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Willis, Charles G; Burghardt, Liana T; Qi, Wei; Liu, Kun; Souza-Filho, Paulo Roberto de Moura; Ma, Zhen; Du, Guozhen

    2014-11-01

    Within a community, species may germinate at different times so as to mitigate competition and to take advantage of different aspects of the seasonal environment (temporal niche differentiation). We illustrated a hypothesis of the combined effects of abiotic and biotic competitive factors on germination timing and the subsequent upscale effects on community assembly. We estimated the germination timing (GT) for 476 angiosperm species of the eastern Tibetan Plateau grasslands under two light treatments in the field: high (i.e. natural) light and low light. We also measured the shift in germination timing (SGT) across treatments for all species. Furthermore, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to test if GT and SGT were associated with seed mass, an important factor in competitive interactions. We found a significant positive correlation between GT and seed mass in both light treatments. Additionally, small seeds (early germinating seeds) tended to germinate later and large seeds (late germinating seeds) tended to germinate earlier under low light vs high light conditions. Low light availability can reduce temporal niche differentiation by increasing the overlap in germination time between small and large seeds. In turn, reduced temporal niche differentiation may increase competition in the process of community assembly. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Subset of Kappa and Lambda Germline Sequences Result in Light Chains with a Higher Molecular Mass Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhang, Bo; Dasari, Surendra; Murray, David L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-04

    In our previous work, we showed that electrospray ionization of intact polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains isolated from normal serum generates two distinct, Gaussian-shaped, molecular mass distributions representing the light-chain repertoire. During the analysis of a large (>100) patient sample set, we noticed a low-intensity molecular mass distribution with a mean of approximately 24 250 Da, roughly 800 Da higher than the mean of the typical kappa molecular-mass distribution mean of 23 450 Da. We also observed distinct clones in this region that did not appear to contain any typical post-translational modifications that would account for such a large mass shift. To determine the origin of the high molecular mass clones, we performed de novo bottom-up mass spectrometry on a purified IgM monoclonal light chain that had a calculated molecular mass of 24 275.03 Da. The entire sequence of the monoclonal light chain was determined using multienzyme digestion and de novo sequence-alignment software and was found to belong to the germline allele IGKV2-30. The alignment of kappa germline sequences revealed ten IGKV2 and one IGKV4 sequences that contained additional amino acids in their CDR1 region, creating the high-molecular-mass phenotype. We also performed an alignment of lambda germline sequences, which showed additional amino acids in the CDR2 region, and the FR3 region of functional germline sequences that result in a high-molecular-mass phenotype. The work presented here illustrates the ability of mass spectrometry to provide information on the diversity of light-chain molecular mass phenotypes in circulation, which reflects the germline sequences selected by the immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell population.

  18. Global mass spectrometry based metabolomics profiling of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore R Sana

    Full Text Available Malaria is a global infectious disease that threatens the lives of millions of people. Transcriptomics, proteomics and functional genomics studies, as well as sequencing of the Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens genomes, have shed new light on this host-parasite relationship. Recent advances in accurate mass measurement mass spectrometry, sophisticated data analysis software, and availability of biological pathway databases, have converged to facilitate our global, untargeted biochemical profiling study of in vitro P. falciparum-infected (IRBC and uninfected (NRBC erythrocytes. In order to expand the number of detectable metabolites, several key analytical steps in our workflows were optimized. Untargeted and targeted data mining resulted in detection of over one thousand features or chemical entities. Untargeted features were annotated via matching to the METLIN metabolite database. For targeted data mining, we queried the data using a compound database derived from a metabolic reconstruction of the P. falciparum genome. In total, over one hundred and fifty differential annotated metabolites were observed. To corroborate the representation of known biochemical pathways from our data, an inferential pathway analysis strategy was used to map annotated metabolites onto the BioCyc pathway collection. This hypothesis-generating approach resulted in over-representation of many metabolites onto several IRBC pathways, most prominently glycolysis. In addition, components of the "branched" TCA cycle, partial urea cycle, and nucleotide, amino acid, chorismate, sphingolipid and fatty acid metabolism were found to be altered in IRBCs. Interestingly, we detected and confirmed elevated levels for cyclic ADP ribose and phosphoribosyl AMP in IRBCs, a novel observation. These metabolites may play a role in regulating the release of intracellular Ca(2+ during P. falciparum infection. Our results support a strategy of global metabolite profiling by untargeted

  19. Building blocks for future detectors: Silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, R; Britzger, M; Burmeister, O; Danzmann, K; Duck, J; Eberle, T; Friedrich, D; Luck, H; Mehmet, M; Steinlechner, S; Willke, B; Brueckner, F; Nawrodt, R

    2010-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use the combination of quasi-monochromatic, continuous-wave laser light at 1064 nm and fused silica test masses at room temperature. Detectors of the third generation, such as the Einstein-Telescope, will involve a considerable sensitivity increase. The combination of 1550 nm laser radiation and crystalline silicon test masses at low temperatures might be important ingredients in order to achieve the sensitivity goal. Here we compare some properties of the fused silica and silicon test mass materials relevant for decreasing the thermal noise in future detectors as well as the recent technology achievements in the preparation of laser radiation at 1064 nm and 1550 nm relevant for decreasing the quantum noise. We conclude that silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light have the potential to form the future building blocks of gravitational wave detection.

  20. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profile analysis of silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, P.; Kopnarski, M.; Oechsner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Direct Bombardment Mode (DBM) of Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been applied for depth profile analysis of two different multilayer systems containing metal silicides. Due to the extremely high depth resolution obtained with low energy SNMS structural details down to only a few atomic distances are detected. Stoichiometric information on internal oxides and implanted material is supplied by the high quantificability of SNMS. (Author)

  1. Metabolomic profiling using Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry with hydrophilic interaction chromatography : a method with wide applicability to analysis of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamleh, A.; Barrett, M. P.; Wildridge, D.; Burchmore, R. J. S.; Scheltema, R. A.; Watson, D. G.

    It was shown that coupling hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometery (FT-MS) provided an excellent tool for metabolic profiling, principally due to rapid elution of lipids in advance of most metabolites entering the mass spectrometer. We used in

  2. Mass Profile Decomposition of the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0416-2403: Insights on the Dark-matter Inner Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziatella, M.; Bonamigo, M.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Lombardi, M.; Munari, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution dissection of the two-dimensional total mass distribution in the core of the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1‑2403, at z = 0.396. We exploit HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) imaging, VLT/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectroscopy, and Chandra data to separate the stellar, hot gas, and dark-matter mass components in the inner 300 kpc of the cluster. We combine the recent results of our refined strong lensing analysis, which includes the contribution of the intracluster gas, with the modeling of the surface brightness and stellar mass distributions of 193 cluster members, of which 144 are spectroscopically confirmed. We find that, moving from 10 to 300 kpc from the cluster center, the stellar to total mass fraction decreases from 12% to 1% and the hot gas to total mass fraction increases from 3% to 9%, resulting in a baryon fraction of approximatively 10% at the outermost radius. We measure that the stellar component represents ∼30%, near the cluster center, and 15%, at larger clustercentric distances, of the total mass in the cluster substructures. We subtract the baryonic mass component from the total mass distribution and conclude that within 30 kpc (∼3 times the effective radius of the brightest cluster galaxy) from the cluster center the surface mass density profile of the total mass and global (cluster plus substructures) dark-matter are steeper and that of the diffuse (cluster) dark-matter is shallower than an NFW profile. Our current analysis does not point to a significant offset between the cluster stellar and dark-matter components. This detailed and robust reconstruction of the inner dark-matter distribution in a larger sample of galaxy clusters will set a new benchmark for different structure formation scenarios.

  3. Violent mass shootings in Sweden from 1960 to 1995: profiles, patterns, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, O; Lidberg, L

    1998-03-01

    During the past few decades, violent mass shooting in Sweden has increased rapidly. In the 36 years between 1960 and 1995, fourteen such occasions were recorded, during which 32 people were killed and 57 were wounded. The 14 offenders were men between the ages of 17 and 61 years. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1979, five shootings were committed by five offenders, leaving 10 dead and 13 wounded; in the 16 years between 1980 and 1995, there were nine different shootings committed by nine offenders, with 22 dead and 44 wounded. Seven of the shootings were classified as mass shootings, six as spree shootings, and one as a serial shooting. In all but four of these cases, the firearms used were illegal weapons. The four legal firearms belonged to an unemployed young laborer, an officer, a former United Nations (U.N.) soldier, and a member of the Swedish military volunteer corps. Of those killed, 68.8% were strangers to the offender; among the wounded, the corresponding figure was 89.5%. Profiles of the offenders and of the victims were studied. The psychiatric diagnoses among the offenders and the measures taken to prevent the increase in mass shooting in Sweden are presented.

  4. The Speed of Light and the Hubble parameter: The Mass-Boom Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We prove here that Newton's universal gravitation and momentum conservation laws together reproduce Weinberg's relation. It is shown that the Hubble parameter H must be built in this relation, or equivalently the age of the Universe t. Using a wave-to-particle interaction technique we then prove that the speed of light c decreases with cosmological time, and that c is proportional to the Hubble parameter H. We see the expansion of the Universe as a local effect due to the LAB value of the speed of light co taken as constant. We present a generalized red shift law and find a predicted acceleration for photons that agrees well with the result from Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. We finally present a cosmological model coherent with the above results that we call the Mass-Boom. It has a linear increase of mass m with time as a result of the speed of light c linear decrease with time, and the conservation of momentum mc. We obtain the baryonic mass parameter equal to the curvature parameter, Ω m Ω k , so that the model is of the type of the Einstein static, closed, finite, spherical, unlimited, with zero cosmological constant. This model is the cosmological view as seen by photons, neutrinos, tachyons etc. in contrast with the local view, the LAB reference. Neither dark matter nor dark energy is required by this model. With an initial constant speed of light during a short time we get inflation (an exponential expansion). This converts, during the inflation time, the Planck's fluctuation length of 10 -33 cm to the present size of the Universe (about 10 28 cm, constant from then on). Thereafter the Mass-Boom takes care to bring the initial values of the Universe (about 10 15 gr) to the value at the present time of about 10 55 gr

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Zhang, Y., E-mail: Zhangy1@ornl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Morris, J.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Gao, Y.; Wang, Y.G.; Yan, S. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Weber, W.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The determination of stopping powers for slow heavy ions in targets containing light elements is important to accurately describe ion-solid interactions, evaluate ion irradiation effects and predict ion ranges for device fabrication and nuclear applications. Recently, discrepancies of up to 40% between the experimental results and SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) predictions of ion ranges for heavy ions with medium and low energies (<{approx}25 keV/nucleon) in light elemental targets have been reported. The longer experimental ion ranges indicate that the stopping powers used in the SRIM code are overestimated. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation scheme is developed to calculate the ion ranges of heavy ions in light elemental targets. Electronic stopping powers generated from both a reciprocity approach and the SRIM code are used to investigate the influence of electronic stopping on ion range profiles. The ion range profiles for Au and Pb ions in SiC and Er ions in Si, with energies between 20 and 5250 keV, are simulated. The simulation results show that the depth profiles of implanted ions are deeper and in better agreement with the experiments when using the electronic stopping power values derived from the reciprocity approach. These results indicate that the origin of the discrepancy in ion ranges between experimental results and SRIM predictions in the low energy region may be an overestimation of the electronic stopping powers used in SRIM.

  6. Lensing Constraints on the Mass Profile Shape and the Splashback Radius of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    The lensing signal around galaxy clusters can, in principle, be used to test detailed predictions for their average mass profile from numerical simulations. However, the intrinsic shape of the profiles can be smeared out when a sample that spans a wide range of cluster masses is averaged in physical length units. This effect especially conceals rapid changes in gradient such as the steep drop associated with the splashback radius, a sharp edge corresponding to the outermost caustic in accreting halos. We optimize the extraction of such local features by scaling individual halo profiles to a number of spherical overdensity radii, and apply this method to 16 X-ray-selected, high-mass clusters targeted in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. By forward-modeling the weak- and strong-lensing data presented by Umetsu et al., we show that, regardless of the scaling overdensity, the projected ensemble density profile is remarkably well described by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) or Einasto profile out to R˜ 2.5 {h}-1 {Mpc}, beyond which the profiles flatten. We constrain the NFW concentration to {c}200{{c}}=3.66+/- 0.11 at {M}200{{c}}≃ 1.0× {10}15 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , consistent with and improved from previous work that used conventionally stacked lensing profiles, and in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Assuming the profile form of Diemer & Kravtsov and generic priors calibrated from numerical simulations, we place a lower limit on the splashback radius of the cluster halos, if it exists, of {R}{sp}3{{D}}/{r}200{{m}}> 0.89 ({R}{sp}3{{D}}> 1.83 {h}-1 {Mpc}) at 68% confidence. The corresponding density feature is most pronounced when the cluster profiles are scaled by {r}200{{m}}, and smeared out when scaled to higher overdensities. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Society of Japan.

  7. ELLIPTICAL GALAXY MASSES OUT TO FIVE EFFECTIVE RADII: THE REALM OF DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, A. J; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; McCarthy, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the masses of elliptical galaxies out to five effective radii using planetary nebulae and globular clusters as tracers. A sample of 15 elliptical galaxies with a broad variation in mass is compiled from the literature. A distribution function-maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate the overall potential slope, normalization, and velocity anisotropy of the tracers. We assume power-law profiles for the potential and tracer density and a constant velocity anisotropy. The derived potential power-law indices lie in between the isothermal and Keplerian regime and vary with mass: there is tentative evidence that the less massive galaxies have steeper potential profiles than the more massive galaxies. We use stellar mass-to-light ratios appropriate for either a Chabrier/KTG (Kroupa, Tout and Gilmore) or Salpeter initial mass function to disentangle the stellar and dark matter components. The fraction of dark matter within five effective radii increases with mass, in agreement with several other studies. We employ simple models to show that a combination of star formation efficiency and baryon extent are able to account for this trend. These models are in good agreement with both our measurements out to five effective radii and recent Sloan Lens ACS Survey measurements within one effective radii when a universal Chabrier/KTG initial mass function is adopted.

  8. Compression dynamics of quasi-spherical wire arrays with different linear mass profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the implosion of quasi-spherical wire (or metalized fiber) arrays are presented. The goal of the experiments was to achieve synchronous three-dimensional compression of the plasma produced in different regions of a quasi-spherical array into its geometrical center. To search for optimal synchronization conditions, quasi-spherical arrays with different initial profiles of the linear mass were used. The following dependences of the linear mass on the poloidal angle were used: m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"1θ and m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"2θ. The compression dynamics of such arrays was compared with that of quasi-spherical arrays without linear mass profiling, m_l(θ) = const. To verify the experimental data, the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasma compression in quasi-spherical arrays was studied using various diagnostics. The experiments on three-dimensional implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made it possible to study how the frozen-in magnetic field of the discharge current penetrates into the array. By measuring the magnetic field in the plasma of a quasi-spherical array, information is obtained on the processes of plasma production and formation of plasma flows from the wire/fiber regions with and without an additionally deposited mass. It is found that penetration of the magnetic flux depends on the initial linear mass profile m_l(θ) of the quasi-spherical array. From space-resolved spectral measurements and frame imaging of plasma X-ray emission, information is obtained on the dimensions and shape of the X-ray source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical array. The intensity of this source is estimated and compared with that of the Z-pinch formed during the implosion of a cylindrical array.

  9. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of breast cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has achieved attention as a promising technology in oncoproteomics. We performed a systematic review of published reports on protein profiling as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for original...... studies reporting discriminatory protein peaks for breast cancer as either protein identity or as m/ z values in the period from January 1995 to October 2006. To address the important aspect of reproducibility of mass spectrometry data across different clinical studies, we compared the published lists...... of potential discriminatory peaks with those peaks detected in an original MALDI MS protein profiling study performed by our own research group. A total of 20 protein/peptide profiling studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 3 reports included information on protein identity...

  10. Low mass SN Ia and the late light curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Fryer, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The late bolometric light curves of type Ia supernovae, when measured accurately over several years, show an exponential decay with a 56d half-life over a drop in luminosity of 8 magnitudes (10 half-lives). The late-time light curve is thought to be governed by the decay of Co 56 , whose 77d half-life must then be modified to account for the observed decay time. Two mechanisms, both relying upon the positron fraction of the Co 56 decay, have been proposed to explain this modification. One explanation requires a large amount of emission at infra-red wavelengths where it would not be detected. The other explanation has proposed a progressive transparency or leakage of the high energy positrons (Colgate, Petschek and Kriese, 1980). For the positrons to leak out of the expanding nebula at the required rate necessary to produce the modified 56d exponential, the mass of the ejecta from a one foe (10 51 erg in kinetic energy) explosion must be small, M ejec = 0.4M circle-dot with M ejec ∝ KE 0.5 . Thus, in this leakage explanation, any reasonable estimate of the total energy of the explosion requires that the ejected mass be very much less than the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4M circle-dot . This is very difficult to explain with the ''canonical'' Chandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear explosion that disintegrates the original white dwarf star. This result leads us to pursue alternate mechanisms of type Ia supernovae. These mechanisms include sub-Chandrasekhar thermonuclear explosions and the accretion induced collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We will summarize the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanisms with considerable detail spent on our new accretion induced collapse simulations. These mechanisms lead to lower Ni 56 production and hence result in type Ia supernovae with luminosities decreased down to ∼ 50% that predicted by the ''standard'' model

  11. Conformal Gauge Mediation and Light Gravitino of Mass m3/2 < O(10) eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; SLAC; Nakayama, Y.; Yanagida, T.T.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with conformal invariance above the messenger mass scale (conformal gauge mediation). The spectrum of the supersymmetric particles including the gravitino is uniquely determined by the messenger mass. When the conformal fixed point is strongly interacting, it predicts a light gravitino of mass m 3/2 < O(10) eV, which is attractive since such a light gravitino causes no problem in cosmology

  12. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George

    2018-05-01

    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 µm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.

  13. Atmospheric profiles of Black Carbon at remote locations using light-weight airborne Aethalometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. D.; Močnik, G.; Drinovec, L.; Lenarcic, M.

    2012-12-01

    While measurements of atmospheric aerosols are routinely performed at ground-level around the world, there is far less knowledge of their concentrations at altitude: yet this data is a crucial requirement for our understanding of the dispersion of pollutants of anthropogenic origin, with their associated effects on radiative forcing, cloud condensation, and other adverse phenomena. Black Carbon (BC) is a unique tracer for combustion emissions, and can be detected rapidly and with great sensitivity by filter-based optical methods. It has no non-combustion sources and is not transformed by atmospheric processes. Recent technical advances have developed light-weight miniaturized instruments which can be operated on light aircraft or carried aboard commercial passenger flights. From January to April 2012, a single-seat ultra-light aircraft flew around the world on a scientific, photographic and environmental-awareness mission. The flight track crossed all seven continents and all major oceans, with altitudes up to 8.9 km ASL. The aircraft carried a custom-developed high-sensitivity dual-wavelength light-weight Aethalometer, operating at 370 and 880 nm with special provision to compensate for the effects of changing pressure, temperature and humidity. The instrument recorded BC concentrations with high temporal resolution and sensitivity better than 5 ng/m3. We present examples of data from flight tracks over remote oceans, uninhabited land masses, and densely populated areas, analyzing the spectral dependence of absorption to infer the contributions to BC from fossil fuel vs. biomass combustion, and aggregating the data into vertical profiles. The regional and long range transport of BC may be investigated using back-trajectories. We have also operated miniature instruments in the passenger cabins of long-distance commercial aircraft. Since there are no combustion sources within the cabin, any BC in the ventilation air must necessarily have originated from the outside

  14. RESIDUAL GAS MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM AND BIAS IN HYDROSTATIC MEASUREMENTS OF MASS PROFILES OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    We present analysis of bulk and random gas motions in the intracluster medium using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations of 16 simulated clusters, including both very relaxed and unrelaxed systems and spanning a virial mass range of 5 x 10 13 - 2 x 10 15 h -1 M-odot. We investigate effects of the residual subsonic gas motions on the hydrostatic estimates of mass profiles and concentrations of galaxy clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the gas motions contribute up to ∼5%-15% of the total pressure support in relaxed clusters with contribution increasing with the cluster-centric radius. The fractional pressure support is higher in unrelaxed systems. This contribution would not be accounted for in hydrostatic estimates of the total mass profile and would lead to systematic underestimate of mass. We demonstrate that total mass can be recovered accurately if pressure due to gas motions measured in simulations is explicitly taken into account in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Given that the underestimate of mass is increasing at larger radii, where gas is less relaxed and contribution of gas motions to pressure is larger, the total density profile derived from hydrostatic analysis is more concentrated than the true profile. This may at least partially explain some high values of concentrations of clusters estimated from hydrostatic analysis of X-ray data.

  15. The minimum mass of detectable planets in protoplanetary discs and the derivation of planetary masses from high-resolution observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosotti, Giovanni P; Juhasz, Attila; Booth, Richard A; Clarke, Cathie J

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the minimum planet mass that produces observable signatures in infrared scattered light and submillimetre (submm) continuum images and demonstrate how these images can be used to measure planet masses to within a factor of about 2. To this end, we perform multi-fluid gas and dust simulations of discs containing low-mass planets, generating simulated observations at 1.65, 10 and 850 μm. We show that the minimum planet mass that produces a detectable signature is ∼15 M ⊕ : this value is strongly dependent on disc temperature and changes slightly with wavelength (favouring the submm). We also confirm previous results that there is a minimum planet mass of ∼20 M ⊕ that produces a pressure maximum in the disc: only planets above this threshold mass generate a dust trap that can eventually create a hole in the submm dust. Below this mass, planets produce annular enhancements in dust outwards of the planet and a reduction in the vicinity of the planet. These features are in steady state and can be understood in terms of variations in the dust radial velocity, imposed by the perturbed gas pressure radial profile, analogous to a traffic jam. We also show how planet masses can be derived from structure in scattered light and submm images. We emphasize that simulations with dust need to be run over thousands of planetary orbits so as to allow the gas profile to achieve a steady state and caution against the estimation of planet masses using gas-only simulations.

  16. Heavy-to-light correlators beyond the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I.; Simula, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the off-light-cone effects in correlators relevant for the extraction of the heavy-to-light form factors within the method of light-cone sum rules. In a model with scalar constituents, the correlator is calculated in two different ways: (i) by performing the expansion of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of the light meson near the light cone x 2 = 0 and (ii) by adopting the known solution for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude which allows one to calculate the correlator without invoking any expansion. We demonstrate that the contributions to the correlator from the off-light-cone terms x 2 ≠ 0 are not suppressed by any large parameter compared to the contribution of the light-cone term x 2 0. For decays of heavy particles of mass in the range 1.5-5 GeV, the light-cone correlator is shown to systematically overestimate the full correlator, numerically the difference being 10-20%

  17. Heavy-to-light correlators beyond the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I.; Simula, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the off-light-cone effects in correlators relevant for the extraction of the heavy-to-light form factors within the method of light-cone sum rules. In a model with scalar constituents, the correlator is calculated in two different ways: (i) by performing the expansion of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of the light meson near the light cone x 2 = 0 and (ii) by adopting the known solution for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude which allows one to calculate the correlator without invoking any expansion. We demonstrate that the contributions to the correlator from the off-light-cone terms x 2 ≠ 0 are not suppressed by any large parameter compared to the contribution of the light-cone term x 2 = 0. For decays of heavy particles of mass in the range 1.5–5 GeV, the light-cone correlator is shown to systematically overestimate the full correlator, numerically the difference being 10–20%.

  18. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    ) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix was made from each substrate by transferring the complete centroid mass spectrum from 200 to 700 amu as 501 variables to individual columns. No attempt was made to identify ions in the mass......A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA...

  19. Factorization for the light-jet mass and hemisphere soft function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pecjak, Benjamin D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham,DH1 3LE Durham (United Kingdom); Shao, Ding Yu [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-05

    Many collider observables suffer from non-global logarithms not captured by standard resummation techniques. Classic examples are the light-jet mass event shape in the limit of small mass and the related hemisphere soft function. We derive factorization formulas for both of these and explicitly demonstrate that they capture all logarithms present at NNLO. These formulas achieve full scale separation and provide the basis for all-order resummations. A characteristic feature of non-global observables is that the soft radiation is driven by multi-Wilson-line operators, and the ones arising here map onto those relevant for the case of narrow-cone jet cross sections. Numerically, the contributions of non-global logarithms to resummed hemisphere-mass event shapes are sizeable.

  20. Profiling Changes in Histone Post-translational Modifications by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Zhang, Zhaorui; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-11-11

    Top-down mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for charactering post-translational modifications on histones for understanding of gene control and expression. In this protocol, we describe a top-down workflow using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for fast global profiling of changes in histone proteoforms between a wild-type and a mutant of a fungal species. The proteoforms exhibiting different abundances can be subjected to further targeted studies by other mass spectrometric or biochemical assays. This method can be generally adapted for preliminary screening for changes in histone modifications between samples such as wild-type vs. mutant, and control vs. disease.

  1. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Yasmine M; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J

    2017-01-01

    Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux). In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.

  2. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine M. Cissé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1 or 5 weeks (Experiment 2 of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux. In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.

  3. Light hadron spectrum and quark masses from quenched lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Boyd, G.; Ejiri, S.; Kaneko, T.; Nagai, K.; Shanahan, H.P.; Burkhalter, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Fukugita, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the details of simulations for the light hadron spectrum in quenched QCD carried out on the CP-PACS parallel computer. Simulations are made with the Wilson quark action and the plaquette gauge action on lattices of size 32 3 x56-64 3 x112 at four values of lattice spacings in the range a≅0.1-0.05 fm and spatial extent L s a≅3 fm. Hadronic observables are calculated at five quark masses corresponding to m PS /m V ≅0.75-0.4, assuming the u and d quarks are degenerate, but treating the s quark separately. We find that the presence of quenched chiral singularities is supported from an analysis of the pseudoscalar meson data. The physical values of hadron masses are determined using m π , m ρ , and m K (or m φ ) as input to fix the physical scale of lattice spacing and the u, d, and s quark masses. After chiral and continuum extrapolations, the agreement of the calculated mass spectrum with experiment is at a 10% level. In comparison with the statistical accuracy of 1%-3% and systematic errors of at most 1.7% we have achieved, this demonstrates a failure of the quenched approximation for the hadron spectrum: the hyperfine splitting in the meson sector is too small, and in the baryon sector the octet masses and mass splitting of the decuplet are both smaller than experiment. Light quark masses are calculated using two definitions: the conventional one and the one based on the axial-vector Ward identity. The two results converge toward the continuum limit, yielding m ud =4.29(14) -0.79 +0.51 MeV where the first error is statistical and the second one is systematic due to chiral extrapolation. The s quark mass depends on the strange hadron mass chosen for input: m s =113.8(2.3) -2.9 +5.8 MeV from m K and m s =142.3(5.8) -0 +22.0 MeV from m φ , indicating again a failure of the quenched approximation. We obtain the scale of QCD, Λ MS (0) =219.5(5.4) MeV with m ρ used as input. An O(10%) deviation from experiment is observed in the pseudoscalar meson

  4. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling as diagnostic tool in oncology: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis has been heralded as a novel tool for identifying new and specific biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and monitoring of various disease states. Recent years have brought a number of proteomics profiling technologies. Although proteomics profiling has resulted in the detection of disease-associated differences and modification of proteins, current proteomics technologies display certain limitations that are hampering the introduction of these new technologies into clinical laboratory diagnostics and routine applications. In this review, we summarize current advances in mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery. The promises and challenges of this new technology are discussed with particular emphasis on diagnostic perspectives of mass-spectrometry based proteomics profiling for malignant diseases.

  5. Sound of Dark Matter: Searching for Light Scalars with Resonant-Mass Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Van Tilburg, Ken

    2016-01-22

    The fine-structure constant and the electron mass in string theory are determined by the values of scalar fields called moduli. If the dark matter takes on the form of such a light modulus, it oscillates with a frequency equal to its mass and an amplitude determined by the local dark-matter density. This translates into an oscillation of the size of a solid that can be observed by resonant-mass antennas. Existing and planned experiments, combined with a dedicated resonant-mass detector proposed in this Letter, can probe dark-matter moduli with frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz, with much better sensitivity than searches for fifth forces.

  6. Light quark masses from exclusive tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.; Knecht, M.; Fuchs, N.H.

    1993-01-01

    A method of indirect measurement of the light quark running mass m-circumflex = (m d + m u )/2 is elaborated in detail. It is based on measuring 1%-level azimuthal angular asymmetries in the decay τ→ν τ + 3π. The latter are then used in QCD sum rules to obtain experimental lower bounds for m-circumflex. For a sample of 2.5 * 10 5 τ→ν τ + 3π decays free of background, the resulting statistical error in the bound for m-circumflex is estimated to be 1 MeV, i.e., comparable to the systematic error due to the use of QCD sum rules. (authors) 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  8. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  9. On QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type and light quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1981-04-01

    We discuss the relation between the usual dispersion relation sum rules and the Laplace transform type sum rules in quantum chromodynamics. Two specific examples corresponding to the S-coupling constant sum rule and the light quark masses sum rules are considered. An interpretation, within QCD, of Leutwyler's formula for the current algebra quark masses is also given

  10. New Beta-delayed Neutron Measurements in the Light-mass Fission Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); García, A.R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Algora, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Äystö, J. [University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskyä (Finland); Caballero-Folch, R.; Calviño, F. [Secció d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cano-Ott, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortés, G. [Secció d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Eronen, T. [University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskyä (Finland); Gelletly, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gómez-Hornillos, M.B. [Secció d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-06-15

    A new accurate determination of beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities from nuclei in the low mass region of the light fission group has been performed. The measurements were carried out using the BELEN 4π neutron counter at the IGISOL-JYFL mass separator in combination with a Penning trap. The new results significantly improve the uncertainties of neutron emission probabilities for {sup 91}Br, {sup 86}As, {sup 85}As, and {sup 85}Ge nuclei.

  11. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, Karen M.; McNichol, Jesse; McGinn, Patrick J.; O' Leary, Stephen J.B.; Melanson, Jeremy E. [Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Biofuels from photosynthetic microalgae are quickly gaining interest as a viable carbon-neutral energy source. Typically, characterization of algal feedstock involves breaking down triacylglycerols (TAG) and other intact lipids, followed by derivatization of the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, knowledge of the intact lipid profile could offer significant advantages for discovery stage biofuel research such as the selection of an algal strain or the optimization of growth and extraction conditions. Herein, lipid extracts from microalgae were directly analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) using a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Phospholipids, glycolipids, and TAGs were analyzed in the same chromatographic run, using a combination of accurate mass and diagnostic fragment ions for identification. Using this approach, greater than 100 unique TAGs were identified over the six algal strains studied and TAG profiles were obtained to assess their potential for biofuel applications. Under the growth conditions employed, Botryococcus braunii and Scenedesmus obliquus yielded the most comprehensive TAG profile with a high abundance of TAGs containing oleic acid. (orig.)

  12. Pulsed glow discharge mass spectrometry for molecular depth profiling of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.; Pereiro, R.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Bordel, N.; Pisonero, J.; Licciardello, A.; Tuccitto, N.; Tempez, A.; Chapon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays thin films of polymeric materials involve a wide range of industrial applications, so techniques capable of providing in-depth profile information are required. Most of the techniques available for this purpose are based on the use of energetic particle beams which interact with polymers producing undesirable physicochemical modifications. Radiofrequency pulsed glow discharge (rf-pulsed-GD) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) could afford the possibility of acquiring both elemental and molecular information creating minimal damage to surfaces and thereby obtaining depth profiles. This work will evaluate rf-GDs coupled to an orthogonal TOFMS for direct analysis of polymers. (author)

  13. Mass estimates from optical-light curves for binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The small amplitude variations with orbital phase of the optical light from X-ray binaries are caused by the changing geometrical aspect of the primary as seen by a fixed observer. The shape and the amplitude of the light curve depends on the stellar masses and on the orbital elements. The light curve can, therefore, be used to determine, or set limits on, the parameters of the binary system. A self-consistent procedure for the calculation of the light curve can be formulated if the primary is formulated if the primary is uniformly rotating at an angular velocity equal to the angular velocity of its orbital revolution in a circular orbit, and if the primary is in a hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium in the co-rotating frame. When the primary is further approximated to be centrally condensed, the above set of assumptions is called the standard picture. The standard picture is described, its validity discussed and its application to various systems reviewed. (C.F.)

  14. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  15. Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.

  16. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  17. The mass of the black hole in 1A 0620-00, revisiting the ellipsoidal light curve modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grunsven, Theo F. J.; Jonker, Peter G.; Verbunt, Frank W. M.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2017-12-01

    The mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes can provide important clues to supernova modelling, but observationally it is still ill constrained. Therefore, it is of importance to make black hole mass measurements as accurate as possible. The X-ray transient 1A 0620-00 is well studied, with a published black hole mass of 6.61 ± 0.25 M⊙, based on an orbital inclination i of 51.0° ± 0.9°. This was obtained by Cantrell et al. (2010) as an average of independent fits to V-, I- and H-band light curves. In this work, we perform an independent check on the value of i by re-analysing existing YALO/SMARTS V-, I- and H-band photometry, using different modelling software and fitting strategy. Performing a fit to the three light curves simultaneously, we obtain a value for i of 54.1° ± 1.1°, resulting in a black hole mass of 5.86 ± 0.24 M⊙. Applying the same model to the light curves individually, we obtain 58.2° ± 1.9°, 53.6° ± 1.6° and 50.5° ± 2.2° for V-, I- and H-band, respectively, where the differences in best-fitting i are caused by the contribution of the residual accretion disc light in the three different bands. We conclude that the mass determination of this black hole may still be subject to systematic effects exceeding the statistical uncertainty. Obtaining more accurate masses would be greatly helped by continuous phase-resolved spectroscopic observations simultaneous with photometry.

  18. Perturbative determination of mass-dependent renormalization and improvement coefficients for the heavy-light vector and axial-vector currents with relativistic heavy and domain-wall light quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Norikazu; Aoki, Sinya; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu

    2005-01-01

    We determine the mass-dependent renormalization as well as improvement coefficients for the heavy-light vector and axial-vector currents consisting of the relativistic heavy and the domain-wall light quarks through the standard matching procedure. The calculation is carried out perturbatively at the one-loop level to remove the systematic error of O(α s (am Q ) n ap) as well as O(α s (am Q ) n ) (n>=0), where p is a typical momentum scale in the heavy-light system. We point out that renormalization and improvement coefficients of the heavy-light vector current agree with those of the axial-vector current, thanks to the exact chiral symmetry for the light quark. The results obtained with three different gauge actions, plaquette, Iwasaki and DBW2, are presented as a function of heavy quark mass and domain-wall height

  19. Identification of candidate biomarker mass (m/z) ranges in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Amutha; Gopisetty, Gopal; Veluswami, Sridevi; Joyimallaya Subramanium, Malliga; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    To differentiate plasma from ovarian cancer and healthy individuals using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. MALDI-TOF was used to generate profiles of immuno-depleted plasma samples (89 cancers and 199 healthy individuals) that were fractionated using three types of magnetic beads (HIC8, WCX and IMAC-Cu). Differentially expressed mass ranges showing >1.5-2-fold change in expression from HIC8 (30), WCX (12) and IMAC-Cu (6) fractions were identified. Cross validation and recognition capability scores for the models indicated discrimination between the classes. Spectral profiles can differentiate plasma samples of ovarian cancer patients from healthy individuals.

  20. Application of Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to metabolic profiling and metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-02-01

    Metabolomics, as an essential part of genomics studies, intends holistic understanding of metabolic networks through simultaneous analysis of a myriad of both known and unknown metabolites occurring in living organisms. The initial stage of metabolomics was designed for the reproducible analyses of known metabolites based on their comparison to available authentic compounds. Such metabolomics platforms were mostly based on mass spectrometry (MS) technologies enabled by a combination of different ionization methods together with a variety of separation steps including LC, GC, and CE. Among these, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance MS (FT-ICR/MS) is distinguished from other MS technologies by its ultrahigh resolution power in mass to charge ratio (m/z). The potential of FT-ICR/MS as a distinctive metabolomics tool has been demonstrated in nontargeted metabolic profiling and functional characterization of novel genes. Here, we discuss both the advantages and difficulties encountered in the FT-ICR/MS metabolomics studies.

  1. Accurate light-time correction due to a gravitating mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Neil [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bertotti, Bruno, E-mail: ashby@boulder.nist.go [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia (Italy)

    2010-07-21

    This technical paper of mathematical physics arose as an aftermath of the 2002 Cassini experiment (Bertotti et al 2003 Nature 425 374-6), in which the PPN parameter {gamma} was measured with an accuracy {sigma}{sub {gamma}} = 2.3 x 10{sup -5} and found consistent with the prediction {gamma} = 1 of general relativity. The Orbit Determination Program (ODP) of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which was used in the data analysis, is based on an expression (8) for the gravitational delay {Delta}t that differs from the standard formula (2); this difference is of second order in powers of m-the gravitational radius of the Sun-but in Cassini's case it was much larger than the expected order of magnitude m{sup 2}/b, where b is the distance of the closest approach of the ray. Since the ODP does not take into account any other second-order terms, it is necessary, also in view of future more accurate experiments, to revisit the whole problem, to systematically evaluate higher order corrections and to determine which terms, and why, are larger than the expected value. We note that light propagation in a static spacetime is equivalent to a problem in ordinary geometrical optics; Fermat's action functional at its minimum is just the light-time between the two end points A and B. A new and powerful formulation is thus obtained. This method is closely connected with the much more general approach of Le Poncin-Lafitte et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 4463-83), which is based on Synge's world function. Asymptotic power series are necessary to provide a safe and automatic way of selecting which terms to keep at each order. Higher order approximations to the required quantities, in particular the delay and the deflection, are easily obtained. We also show that in a close superior conjunction, when b is much smaller than the distances of A and B from the Sun, say of order R, the second-order correction has an enhanced part of order m{sup 2}R/b{sup 2}, which

  2. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC, that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  3. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ˜4 effective radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj

    2018-06-01

    We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.

  4. Association between muscle mass and adipo-metabolic profile: a cross-sectional study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simone Perna,1,* Davide Guido,2,* Mario Grassi,2 Mariangela Rondanelli1 1Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Medical and Genomic Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sarcopenia, the decrease in muscle mass and function, may lead to various negative health outcomes in elderly. The association among sarcopenia with adiposity and metabolic markers has rarely been studied in the elderly population, with controversial results. The aim of this study is to evaluate this relationship in older subjects.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 290 elderly patients, focusing on the possible association between muscle mass loss, assessed by relative skeletal muscle mass (RSMM, and an adipo-metabolic profile (AMP defined by adiposity and metabolic biochemical markers. Measurements of body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical parameters, such as albumin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine and its related markers (folate and vitamin B12 were measured. Using canonical correlation analysis and structural equation modeling, an individual score of AMP was created and correlated with RSMM.Results: The AMP–RSMM correlation was equal to +0.642 (95% confidence interval, +0.512 to +0.773; P<0.001. Hence, a negative association between sarcopenia severity and adiposity/metabolic biochemical markers was highlighted.Conclusion: This study contained a novel way to examine the relationship between the variables of interest based on a composite index of adiposity and metabolic conditions. Results shed light on the orientation and magnitude of

  5. Profiling of plasma metabolites in canine oral melanoma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Baba, Yuta; Tamai, Reo; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Komori, Masayuki; Mori, Takashi; Takenaka, Shigeo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in the oral cavity of dog. The tumor has a poor prognosis, and methods for diagnosis and prediction of prognosis after treatment are required. Here, we examined metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for development of a discriminant model for evaluation of prognosis. Metabolite profiles were evaluated in healthy and melanoma plasma samples using orthogonal projection to latent structure using discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Cases that were predicted to be healthy using the OPLS discriminant model had no advanced lesions after radiation therapy. These results indicate that metabolite profiling may be useful in diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of canine malignant melanoma.

  6. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  7. TIDAL STIRRING OF SATELLITES WITH SHALLOW DENSITY PROFILES PREVENTS THEM FROM BEING TOO BIG TO FAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Quinn, Thomas, E-mail: mihai@physik.uzh.ch [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The “too big to fail” problem is revisited by studying the tidal evolution of populations of dwarf satellites with different density profiles. The high-resolution cosmological ΛCDM “ErisMod” set of simulations is used. These simulations can model both the stellar and dark matter components of the satellites, and their evolution under the action of the tides of a Milky Way (MW)-sized host halo at a force resolution better than 10 pc. The stronger tidal mass loss and re-shaping of the mass distribution induced in satellites with γ = 0.6 dark matter density distributions, as those resulting from the effect of feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation, are sufficient to bring the circular velocity profiles in agreement with the kinematics of MW’s dSphs. In contrast, in simulations in which the satellites retain cusps at z = 0 there are several “massive failures” with circular velocities in excess of the observational constraints. Various sources of deviations in the conventionally adopted relation between the circular velocity at the half-light radius and the one-dimensional line of sight velocity dispersions are found. Such deviations are caused by the response of circular velocity profiles to tidal effects, which also varies depending on the initially assumed inner density profile and by the complexity of the stellar kinematics, which include residual rotation and anisotropy. In addition, tidal effects naturally induce large deviations in the stellar mass–halo mass relation for halo masses below 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}, preventing any reliable application of the abundance matching technique to dwarf galaxy satellites.

  8. HQE parameters from unquenched lattice data on pseudoscalar and vector heavy-light meson masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Paolo; Melis, Aurora; Simula, Silvano

    2018-03-01

    We present a new lattice determination of some of the parameters appearing both in the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) analysis of the inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays and in the Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE) of the pseudoscalar (PS) and vector (V) heavy-light meson masses. We perform a lattice QCD (LQCD) computation of PS and V heavy-light meson masses for heavy-quark masses mh in the range from mcphys to ≃ 4mbphys. We employed the Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 gauge configurations of the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) at three values of the lattice spacing a ≃ (0.062,0.082,0.089) fm with pion masses in the range Mπ ≃ (210 - 450) MeV. The heavy-quark mass is simulated directly on the lattice up to ≃ 3mcphys. The interpolation to the physical mbphys is performed using the ETMC ratio method and adopting the kinetic mass scheme. We obtain mbkin (1 GeV) = 4.61(20) GeV (m̅b(m̅b) = 4.26(18) GeV in the MS scheme). The lattice data are analyzed in terms of the HQE and the matrix elements of dimension-4 and dimension-5 operators are extracted with good precision, namely: Λ¯ = 0.552(26) GeV, μπ2 = 0.321(32) GeV2 and μG2(mb) = 0.253(25)GeV2. The data also allow for an estimate of the dimension-6 operator matrix elements.

  9. CLS 2+1 flavor simulations at physical light- and strange-quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohler, Daniel; Schaefer, Stefan; Simeth, Jakob

    2017-12-01

    We report recent efforts by CLS to generate an ensemble with physical light- and strange-quark masses in a lattice volume of 192 x 96 3 at β=3.55 corresponding to a lattice spacing of 0.064 fm. This ensemble is being generated as part of the CLS 2+1 flavor effort with improved Wilson fermions. Our simulations currently cover 5 lattice spacings ranging from 0.039 fm to 0.086 fm at various pion masses along chiral trajectories with either the sum of the quark masses kept fixed, or with the strange-quark mass at the physical value. The current status of simulations is briefly reviewed, including a short discussion of measured autocorrelation times and of the main features of the simulations. We then proceed to discuss the thermalization strategy employed for the generation of the physical quark-mass ensemble and present first results for some simple observables. Challenges encountered in the simulation are highlighted.

  10. CLS 2+1 flavor simulations at physical light- and strange-quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, Daniel [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Mainz Univ. (Germany); Schaefer, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Simeth, Jakob [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-12-15

    We report recent efforts by CLS to generate an ensemble with physical light- and strange-quark masses in a lattice volume of 192 x 96{sup 3} at β=3.55 corresponding to a lattice spacing of 0.064 fm. This ensemble is being generated as part of the CLS 2+1 flavor effort with improved Wilson fermions. Our simulations currently cover 5 lattice spacings ranging from 0.039 fm to 0.086 fm at various pion masses along chiral trajectories with either the sum of the quark masses kept fixed, or with the strange-quark mass at the physical value. The current status of simulations is briefly reviewed, including a short discussion of measured autocorrelation times and of the main features of the simulations. We then proceed to discuss the thermalization strategy employed for the generation of the physical quark-mass ensemble and present first results for some simple observables. Challenges encountered in the simulation are highlighted.

  11. Photoionization mass spectrometer for studies of flame chemistry with a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; McIlroy, Andrew; Qi, Fei; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2005-01-01

    A flame-sampling molecular-beam photoionization mass spectrometer, recently designed and constructed for use with a synchrotron-radiation light source, provides significant improvements over previous molecular-beam mass spectrometers that have employed either electron-impact ionization or vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization. These include superior signal-to-noise ratio, soft ionization, and photon energies easily and precisely tunable [E/ΔE(FWHM)≅250-400] over the 7.8-17-eV range required for quantitative measurements of the concentrations and isomeric compositions of flame species. Mass resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is m/Δm=400 and sensitivity reaches ppm levels. The design of the instrument and its advantages for studies of flame chemistry are discussed

  12. Splitting of ISGMR strength in the light-mass nucleus 24Mg due to ground-state deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR strength distribution in 24Mg has been determined from background-free inelastic scattering of 386-MeV α particles at extreme forward angles, including 0∘. The ISGMR strength distribution has been observed for the first time to have a two-peak structure in a light-mass nucleus. This splitting of ISGMR strength is explained well by microscopic theory in terms of the prolate deformation of the ground state of 24Mg.

  13. SN 2010jl: Optical to hard X-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.; Barriére, Nicolas M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Fryer, Chris L.; Even, Wesley; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Bellm, Eric; Grefenstette, Brian; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Laher, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using NuSTAR. The total radiated luminosity of SN 2010jl is extreme—at least 9 × 10 50 erg. By modeling the visible-light data, we robustly show that the mass of the circumstellar material within ∼10 16 cm of the progenitor of SN 2010jl was in excess of 10 M ☉ . This mass was likely ejected tens of years prior to the SN explosion. Our modeling suggests that the shock velocity during shock breakout was ∼6000 km s –1 , decelerating to ∼2600 km s –1 about 2 yr after maximum light. Furthermore, our late-time NuSTAR and XMM spectra of the SN presumably provide the first direct measurement of SN shock velocity 2 yr after the SN maximum light—measured to be in the range of 2000-4500 km s –1 if the ions and electrons are in equilibrium, and ≳ 2000 km s –1 if they are not in equilibrium. This measurement is in agreement with the shock velocity predicted by our modeling of the visible-light data. Our observations also show that the average radial density distribution of the CSM roughly follows an r –2 law. A possible explanation for the ≳ 10 M ☉ of CSM and the wind-like profile is that they are the result of multiple pulsational pair instability events prior to the SN explosion, separated from each other by years.

  14. Normal Weight but Low Muscle Mass and Abdominally Obese: Implications for the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; van de Bool, Coby; van den Borst, Bram; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that low muscle mass affects physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that combined low muscle mass and abdominal obesity may also adversely influence the cardiometabolic risk profile in COPD, even in those with normal weight. The cardiometabolic risk profile and the responsiveness to 4 months high-intensity exercise training was assessed in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass stratified by abdominal obesity. This is a cross-sectional study including 81 clinically stable patients with COPD (age 62.5 ± 8.2 years; 50.6% males; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 55.1 ± 19.5 percentage predicted) with fat-free mass index risk profile. Triglycerides showed a significant decrease, while the HOMA-IR increased. Abdominal obesity is highly prevalent in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass who showed an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with patients without abdominal obesity. This cardiometabolic risk profile was not altered after 4 months of exercise training. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Masses of open-flavour heavy-light hybrids from QCD sum-rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan,Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Harnett, D. [Department of Physics, University of the Fraser Valley,Abbotsford, BC, V2S 7M8 (Canada); Steele, T.G. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan,Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2017-05-29

    We use QCD Laplace sum-rules to predict masses of open-flavour heavy-light hybrids where one of the hybrid’s constituent quarks is a charm or bottom and the other is an up, down, or strange. We compute leading-order, diagonal correlation functions of several hybrid interpolating currents, taking into account QCD condensates up to dimension-six, and extract hybrid mass predictions for all J{sup P}∈{0"±, 1"±}, as well as explore possible mixing effects with conventional quark-antiquark mesons. Within theoretical uncertainties, our results are consistent with a degeneracy between the heavy-nonstrange and heavy-strange hybrids in all J{sup P} channels. We find a similar mass hierarchy of 1{sup +}, 1{sup −}, and 0{sup +} states (a 1{sup +} state lighter than essentially degenerate 1{sup −} and 0{sup +} states) in both the charm and bottom sectors, and discuss an interpretation for the 0{sup −} states. If conventional meson mixing is present the effect is an increase in the hybrid mass prediction, and we estimate an upper bound on this effect.

  17. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  18. Masses of the light hadrons in the chiral and cloudy bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Koichi.

    1983-10-01

    The masses of the light hadrons except for the pion are calculated in the stable chiral and cloudy bag models with the massless or massive u, d quark and pion. Two difficulties in these models, i.e. the lack of stability and the divergence of the quark self-energy, are removed by taking account of a simple non-local quark-pion interaction. The effects of the finite size of the qq-bar pion and the behavior of the quark self-energy are discussed in detail. In our calculation the bag self-energy due to the pion has an important role in the origin of the N-Δ and the Σ-Λ mass differences. The baryon octet and decuplet masses are well reproduced by the present model. (author)

  19. Emission - line theoretical profiles for Wolf- Rayet stars with low-mass companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antokhin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    Profiles of the resonant line λ 765 A and the subordinate line λ 4058 of N4 have been calculated for a binary system medel consisting of the Wolf-Rayet star and the low-mass companion (possibly, a relativistic object) by means of Sobolev approximation. The equations of statistical equilibrium have been solved for the first 32 levels of N4. Two cases have been considered: 1) detached zone of N5 surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star and the companion; 2) common zone of N5. The criteria for detection of presence of a companion in line profile observations have been formulated

  20. A catalogue of masses, structural parameters and velocity dispersion profiles of 112 Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.; Hilker, M.

    2018-05-01

    We have determined masses, stellar mass functions and structural parameters of 112 Milky Way globular clusters by fitting a large set of N-body simulations to their velocity dispersion and surface density profiles. The velocity dispersion profiles were calculated based on a combination of more than 15,000 high-precision radial velocities which we derived from archival ESO/VLT and Keck spectra together with ˜20, 000 published radial velocities from the literature. Our fits also include the stellar mass functions of the globular clusters, which are available for 47 clusters in our sample, allowing us to self-consistently take the effects of mass segregation and ongoing cluster dissolution into account. We confirm the strong correlation between the global mass functions of globular clusters and their relaxation times recently found by Sollima & Baumgardt (2017). We also find a correlation of the escape velocity from the centre of a globular cluster and the fraction of first generation stars (FG) in the cluster recently derived for 57 globular clusters by Milone et al. (2017), but no correlation between the FG star fraction and the global mass function of a globular cluster. This could indicate that the ability of a globular cluster to keep the wind ejecta from the polluting star(s) is the crucial parameter determining the presence and fraction of second generation stars and not its later dynamical mass loss.

  1. Light-induced alterations of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) juice volatiles during accelerated ageing and mass spectrometric studies into their precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Glock, Mona Pia; Lieb, Veronika Maria; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of volatiles during accelerated light-induced ageing of pineapple juice were assessed by HS-SPME-GC-MS in a non-targeted profiling analysis over a 16-week period. Multivariate statistics permitted to reveal substantial chemical markers generally describing the effect of light storage. Volatiles generated comprised phenylpropenes, carbonyls, 2-methylthiophene, toluene, and furfural, while concentrations of methyl and ethyl esters, terpenes, and furanones decreased. In addition, the qualitative composition of phenolic compounds and glycoside-bound volatiles in selected samples was characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n as well as HR-ESI-MS. The fresh juice contained unique pineapple metabolites such as S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl, S-sinapylglutathione, and structurally related derivatives. Among others, the presence of p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and caffeoylisocitrate as well as three 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone glycosides in pineapples could be substantiated by the HR-ESI-MS experiment. Mass spectrometric assignments of selected metabolites are presented, and putative linkages between volatiles and their precursors are established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-08-17

    The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. This force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons ($\\bar{d}$), and $^{3}{\\rm He}$ and $^3\\overline{\\rm He}$ nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirm CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This funda...

  3. Occulting Light Concentrators in Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Cabrera, Anatael; Dusini, Stefano; Grassi, Marco; He, Miao; Wu, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    The experimental efforts characterizing the era of precision neutrino physics revolve around collecting high-statistics neutrino samples and attaining an excellent energy and position resolution. Next generation liquid-based neutrino detectors, such as JUNO, HyperKamiokande, etc, share the use of a large target mass, and the need of pushing light collection to the edge for maximal calorimetric information. Achieving high light collection implies considerable costs, especially when considering detector masses of several kt. A traditional strategy to maximize the effective photo-coverage with the minimum number of PMTs relies on Light Concentrators (LC), such as Winston Cones. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel concept called Occulting Light Concentrators (OLC), whereby a traditional LC gets tailored to a conventional PMT, by taking into account its single-photoelectron collection efficiency profile and thus occulting the worst performing portion of the photocathode. Thus, the OLC shape optimization takes into account not only the optical interface of the PMT, but also the maximization of the PMT detection performances. The light collection uniformity across the detector is another advantage of the OLC system. By considering the case of JUNO, we will show OLC capabilities in terms of light collection and energy resolution.

  4. An integrated strategy for in vivo metabolite profiling using high-resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian; Zhang, Minli; Elmore, Charles S.; Vishwanathan, Karthick

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Profiling the metabolites of model compounds in rats using high resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques. •Demonstrating an integrated strategy in vivo metabolite profiling using data mining tools. •Unusual metabolites generated via thiazole-ring opening were characterized based on processed LC–MS.data. -- Abstract: An ongoing challenge of drug metabolite profiling is to detect and identify unknown or low-level metabolites in complex biological matrices. Here we present a generic strategy for metabolite detection using multiple accurate-mass-based data processing tools via the analysis of rat samples of two model drug candidates, AZD6280 and AZ12488024. First, the function of isotopic pattern recognition was proved to be highly effective in the detection of metabolites derived from [ 14 C]-AZD6280 that possesses a distinct isotopic pattern. The metabolites revealed using this approach were in excellent qualitative correlation to those observed in radiochromatograms. Second, the effectiveness of accurate mass based untargeted data mining tools such as background subtraction, mass defect filtering, or a data mining package (MZmine) used for metabolomic analysis in detection of metabolites of [ 14 C]-AZ12488024 in rat urine, feces, bile and plasma samples was examined and a total of 33 metabolites of AZ12488024 were detected. Among them, at least 16 metabolites were only detected by the aid of the data mining packages and not via radiochromatograms. New metabolic pathways such as S-oxidation and thiomethylation reactions occurring on the thiazole ring were proposed based on the processed data. The results of these experiments also demonstrated that accurate mass-based mass defect filtering (MDF) and data mining techniques used in metabolomics are complementary and can be valuable tools for delineating low-level metabolites in complex matrices. Furthermore, the application of distinct multiple data

  5. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  6. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  7. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-04-27

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  8. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  9. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  10. Triazolobithiophene Light Absorbing Self-Assembled Monolayers: Synthesis and Mass Spectrometry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Séraphin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of five light absorbing triazolobithiophenic thiols, which were utilized for producing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold surfaces, is presented. The monolayer formation was monitored by cyclic voltammetry, indicating excellent surface coverage. The new triazolobithiophenic compounds exhibited an absorption maximum around 340 nm, which is close to the emission wavelength of a standard nitrogen laser. Consequently these compounds could be used to aid ionization in laser desorption mass spectrometry (MS.

  11. Theoretical light curve for the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi - Determination of the white dwarf mass, composition, and distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of steady mass-loss solutions are constructed for the envelopes on a white dwarf with mass 1.33, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, and 1.377 solar mass as models of the decay phase of novae. The envelopes are assumed to have a uniform chemical composition with X = 0.73, 0.6, 0.52, 0.44, 0.33, and 0.11 for hydrogen and Z = 0.02 for heavy elements by weight. An excellent agreement with the observed light curves of UV and optical is obtained in the models with a white dwarf mass of 1.36 solar mass with hydrogen content X = 0.52, and 1.37 solar mass with X = 0.6. The distance of RS Oph is obtained to be 1.6 kpc from the comparison between the theoretical and observed light curves. The success of this wind model is a strong indication from the theoretical point of view that RS Oph is a thermonuclear runaway event. 31 refs

  12. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH STOCHASTICALLY VARYING LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Kepler Science Office, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, Maria [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, P.O. BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Alencar, Silvia H. P.; McGinnis, Pauline; Sousa, Alana [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI:48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    We provide CoRoT and Spitzer light curves and other supporting data for 17 classical T Tauri stars in NGC 2264 whose CoRoT light curves exemplify the “stochastic” light curve class as defined in 2014 by Cody et al. The most probable physical mechanism to explain the optical variability within this light curve class is time-dependent mass accretion onto the stellar photosphere, producing transient hot spots. Where we have appropriate spectral data, we show that the veiling variability in these stars is consistent in both amplitude and timescale with the optical light curve morphology. The veiling variability is also well-correlated with the strength of the He i 6678 Å emission line, predicted by models to arise in accretion shocks on or near the stellar photosphere. Stars with accretion burst light curve morphology also have variable mass accretion. The stochastic and accretion burst light curves can both be explained by a simple model of randomly occurring flux bursts, with the stochastic light curve class having a higher frequency of lower amplitude events. Members of the stochastic light curve class have only moderate mass accretion rates. Their Hα profiles usually have blueshifted absorption features, probably originating in a disk wind. The lack of periodic signatures in the light curves suggests that little of the variability is due to long-lived hot spots rotating into or out of our line of sight; instead, the primary driver of the observed photometric variability is likely to be instabilities in the inner disk that lead to variable mass accretion.

  13. Prediction of the light CP-even Higgs-boson mass of the MSSM. Towards the ILC precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Rzehak, H.

    2014-04-01

    The signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC can be interpreted as the Higgs boson of the Standard Model as well as the light CP-even Higgs boson of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this context the measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role. This precision can be improved substantially below the level of ∝50 MeV at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). Within the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M h , can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should match the one of the experimental measurements. The relatively high experimentally observed value of the mass of about 125.6 GeV has led to many investigations where the supersymmetric (SUSY) partners of the top quark have masses in the multi-TeV range. We review the recent improvements for the prediction for M h in the MSSM for large scalar top masses. They were obtained by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. However, substantial further improvements will be needed to reach the ILC precision. The newly obtained corrections to M h are included into the code FeynHiggs.

  14. Structure of light mass (exotic) nuclei as evidenced by scattering from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Microscopic optical model potentials generated by full folding of realistic two-nucleon (n/N) interactions with nuclear structure specified by large basis shell model calculations have been constructed. With those (nonlocal) optical potentials, predictions of light mass nuclei-hydrogen scattering were obtained at intermediate energies (65 to 800 MeV) that agree well with observations of cross sections and analyzing powers

  15. NMR and GC-MS based metabolic profiling and free-radical scavenging activities of Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under different media and light conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Joo Oh

    Full Text Available Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources.

  16. Serum peptide/protein profiling by mass spectrometry provides diagnostic information independently of CA125 in women with an ovarian tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne; Madsen, Jonna S; Iachina, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the use of a robust and sensitive mass spectrometry based protein profiling analysis was tested as diagnostic tools for women with an ovarian tumor. The potential additional diagnostic value of serum protein profiles independent of the information provided by CA125 were also...... investigated. Protein profiles of 113 serum samples from women with an ovarian tumor (54 malign and 59 benign) were generated using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 98 peaks with a significant difference (pwomen with benign tumors/cysts and malignant ovarian tumors were identified. After...... average linkage clustering, a profile of 46 statistical significant mass peaks was identified to distinguish malignant tumors and benign tumors/cysts. In the subgroup of women with normal CA125 values (

  17. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Baron, R. [CEA-Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blossier, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the {delta} using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm. We check for cut-off effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at {beta}=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 964{+-}28(stat.){+-}8(syst.) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p{sup 3}) and O(p{sup 4}) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p{sup 3}) we find a{sub {beta}}{sub =3.9}=0.0890{+-}0.0039(stat.){+-}0.0014(syst.) fm, and a{sub {beta}}{sub =4.05}=0.0691{+-}0.0034(stat.){+-}0.0010(syst.) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r0m we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the {delta}-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 we find for the masses of the {delta}{sup ++,-} and {delta}{sup +,0} 1316{+-}60(stat.) MeV and 1330{+-}74(stat.) MeV respectively. We confirm

  18. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Blossier, B.

    2008-03-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the Δ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm. We check for cut-off effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at β=3.9 and β=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at β=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 964±28(stat.)±8(syst.) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p 3 ) and O(p 4 ) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p 3 ) we find a β=3.9 =0.0890±0.0039(stat.)±0.0014(syst.) fm, and a β=4.05 =0.0691±0.0034(stat.)±0.0010(syst.) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r0m we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the Δ-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find for the masses of the Δ ++,- and Δ +,0 1316±60(stat.) MeV and 1330±74(stat.) MeV respectively. We confirm that in the continuum limit they are also degenerate. (orig.)

  19. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M G; Brinkman, P; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Bos, L D; de Heer, K; Meijer, M; Janssen, H-G; de Cock, H; Wösten, H A B; Visser, C.E.; van Oers, M H J; Sterk, P J

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  20. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  1. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  2. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Ian D.; Somsen, Govert W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  3. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Koutsou, G.; Baron, R.; Guichon, P.; Blossier, B.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Drach, V.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; Farchioni, F.; Liu, Z.; Pene, O.; Michael, C.; Shindler, A.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.

    2008-01-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the Δ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm at three lattice spacings less than 0.1 fm. We check for cutoff effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at β=3.9 and β=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at β=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 963±12(stat)±8(syst) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p 3 ) and O(p 4 ) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p 3 ) we find a β=3.9 =0.0889±0.0012(stat)±0.0014(syst) fm, and a β=4.05 =0.0691±0.0010(stat)±0.0010(syst) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r 0 m π we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the Δ-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find for the masses of the Δ ++,- and Δ +,0 1315±24(stat) MeV and 1329±30(stat) MeV, respectively. We confirm that in the continuum limit

  4. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji, E-mail: carlos.shimokawa@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Turbino, Míriam Lacalle, E-mail: miturbin@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Harlow, Jessie Eudora, E-mail: jessie.harlow@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Hannah Louise, E-mail: hannlprice@gmail.com [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Richard Bengt, E-mail: richard.price@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, School of Biomedical Engineering and Faculty of Dentistry, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  5. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  6. Shedding light on neutrino masses with dark forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batell, Brian [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center,Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Pospelov, Maxim [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Shuve, Brian [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    Heavy right-handed neutrinos, N, provide the simplest explanation for the origin of light neutrino masses and mixings. If M{sub N} is at or below the weak scale, direct experimental discovery of these states is possible at accelerator experiments such as the LHC or new dedicated beam dump experiments; in these experiments, N decays after traversing a macroscopic distance from the collision point. The experimental sensitivity to right-handed neutrinos is significantly enhanced if there is a new “dark” gauge force connecting them to the Standard Model (SM), and detection of N can be the primary discovery mode for the new dark force itself. We take the well-motivated example of a B−L gauge symmetry and analyze the sensitivity to displaced decays of N produced via the new gauge interaction in two experiments: the LHC and the proposed SHiP beam dump experiment. In the most favorable case in which the mediator can be produced on-shell and decays to right handed neutrinos (pp→X+V{sub B−L}→X+NN), the sensitivity reach is controlled by the square of the B−L gauge coupling. We demonstrate that these experiments could access neutrino parameters responsible for the observed SM neutrino masses and mixings in the most straightforward implementation of the see-saw mechanism.

  7. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Rzehak, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realised in the Standard Model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M{sub h}, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for M{sub h} in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FeynHiggs.

  8. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ciss?, Yasmine M.; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either mai...

  9. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo; Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele; Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range ∼3000 Å to 2.5 μm. At z ≈ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV λ1549, C III] λ1909, Mg II λ2800, and Hα and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (∼<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with Hα line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within ∼0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to Hα. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  10. Exploiting the spatial profiles of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We implement digital holograms for the creation and detection of the spatial modes of light. We make use of modal decomposition theory to determine the numerous properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information...

  11. Light extinction by fine atmospheric particles in the White Mountains region of New Hampshire and its relationship to air mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John F; Dibb, Jack E; Keim, Barry D; Talbot, Robert W

    2002-03-27

    Chemical, optical, and physical measurements of fine aerosols (aerodynamic diameter mass origin. Filter-based, 24-h integrated samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic ions, as well as organic (OC), elemental (EC), and total carbon. Light scattering and light absorption coefficients were measured at 5-min intervals using an integrating nephelometer and a light absorption photometer. Fine particle number density was measured with a condensation particle counter. Air mass origins and transport patterns were investigated through the use of 3-day backward trajectories and a synoptic climate classification system. Two distinct transport regimes were observed: (1) flow from the north/northeast (N/NE) occurred during 9 out of 18 sample-days; and (2) flow from the west/southwest (W/SW) occurred 8 out of 18 sample-days. All measured and derived aerosol and meteorological parameters were separated into two categories based on these different flow scenarios. During W/SW flow, higher values of aerosol chemical concentration, absorption and scattering coefficients, number density, and haziness were observed compared to N/NE flow. The highest level of haziness was associated with the climate classification Frontal Atlantic Return, which brought polluted air into the region from the mid-Atlantic corridor. Fine particle mass scattering efficiencies of (NH4)2SO4 and OC were 5.35 +/- 0.42 m2 g(-1) and 1.56 +/- 0.40 m2 g(-1), respectively, when transport was out of the N/NE. When transport was from the W/SW the values were 4.94 +/- 0.68 m2 g(-1) for (NH4)2SO4 and 2.18 +/- 0.91 m2 g(-1) for OC. EC mass absorption efficiency when transport was from the N/NE was 9.66 +/- 1.06 m2 g(-1) and 10.80 +/- 1.76 m2 g(-1) when transport was from the W/SW. Results from this work can be used to predict visual air quality in the White Mountain National Forest based on a forecasted synoptic climate classification and its associated visibility.

  12. Understanding Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Groups Using Gene Expression Profiling after UV-Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Nikola A; Beveridge, Natalie J; Ashton, Katie A; Baines, Katherine J; Scott, Rodney J

    2015-07-14

    Children with the recessive genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) have extreme sensitivity to UV-light, a 10,000-fold increase in skin cancers from age 2 and rarely live beyond 30 years. There are seven genetic subgroups of XP, which are all resultant of pathogenic mutations in genes in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and a XP variant resultant of a mutation in translesion synthesis, POLH. The clinical symptoms and severity of the disease is varied across the subgroups, which does not correlate with the functional position of the affected protein in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to further understand the biology of XP subgroups, particularly those that manifest with neurological symptoms. Whole genome gene expression profiling of fibroblasts from each XP complementation group was assessed before and after UV-light exposure. The biological pathways with altered gene expression after UV-light exposure were distinct for each subtype and contained oncogenic related functions such as perturbation of cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Patients from the subgroups XP-B and XP-F were the only subgroups to have transcripts associated with neuronal activity altered after UV-light exposure. This study will assist in furthering our understanding of the different subtypes of XP which will lead to better diagnosis, treatment and management of the disease.

  13. Mass flow and velocity profiles in Neurospora hyphae: partial plug flow dominates intra-hyphal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadeh, Aryan; Lew, Roger R

    2013-11-01

    Movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of Neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. The vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in N. crassa. Profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal Hagen-Poiseuille model of flow at low Reynolds number. Instead, the profiles were flat, consistent with a model of partial plug flow due to the high concentration of organelles in the flowing cytosol. The intra-hyphal pressure gradients were manipulated by localized external osmotic treatments to demonstrate the dependence of velocity (and direction) on pressure gradients within the hyphae. The data support the concept that mass transport, driven by pressure gradients, dominates intra-hyphal transport. The transport occurs by partial plug flow due to the organelles in the cytosol.

  14. Temperature-controlled depth profiling in polymeric materials using cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Christine M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States)]. E-mail: christine.mahoney@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Gillen, Greg [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Xu Chang [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States); Batteas, James D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) employing an SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion source was used to depth profile through poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) thin films at a series of temperatures from -125 deg. C to 150 deg. C. It was found that for PMMA, reduced temperature analysis produced depth profiles with increased secondary ion stability and reduced interfacial widths as compared to analysis at ambient temperature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that this improvement in interfacial width may be related to a decrease in sputter-induced topography. Depth profiling at higher temperatures was typically correlated with increased sputter rates. However, the improvements in interfacial widths and overall secondary ion stability were not as prevalent as was observed at low temperature. For PLA, improvements in signal intensities were observed at low temperatures, yet there was no significant change in secondary ion stability, interface widths or sputter rates. High temperatures yielded a significant decrease in secondary ion stability of the resulting profiles. PS films showed rapid degradation of characteristic secondary ion signals under all temperatures examined.

  15. Combined experimental and statistical strategy for mass spectrometry based serum protein profiling for diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E

    2008-01-01

    it in a well-described breast cancer case-control study. A rigorous sample collection protocol ensured high quality specimen and reduced bias from preanalytical factors. Preoperative serum samples obtained from 48 breast cancer patients and 28 controls were used to generate MALDI MS protein profiles. A total...... and controls. A diagnostic rule based on these 72 mass values was constructed and exhibited a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of approximately 85% for the detection of breast cancer. With this method, it was possible to distinguish early stage cancers from controls without major loss of sensitivity...... and specificity. We conclude that optimized serum sample handling and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies in combination with statistical analysis provide a viable platform for serum protein profiling in cancer diagnosis....

  16. Lighting the Way to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, Payton L.

    2017-01-01

    Transforming the Martian atmosphere into something suitable for plant life would require a scientific feat that we currently do not possess the means to achieve, but indoor agriculture with LEDs could be just the alternative. Previous research has shown that light recipes provided by LEDs can alter the growth and nutrition of a plant based on wavelengths emitted, and crops grown in space aboard the International Space Station would respond similarly. By testing various LED light recipes such as ratios of red, green, blue (RGB) wavelengths, along with white (W) and far red (FR) on flight approved crops, harvest data were analyzed for trends to determine best light conditions for plant growth. Crops of Outredgeous Lettuce, Tokyo Bekana Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna were grown for 28 days with harvests on 14, 21, and 28 days after planting. By collecting fresh mass, shoot dimensions, chlorophyll estimates, leaf areanumber, and dry mass, the overall differences per light treatment were compared. For Outredgeous lettuce, a recipe of W+FR LEDs yielded increases in biomass and size compared to RB LEDs alone. However, the RB recipe resulted in smaller plants with higher concentrations in phytonutrients. Overall, the RGB + FR treatment with ratios similar to sunlight provided a promising balance of optimized biomass, size, and nutrient content. The Chinese cabbage, which was grown under various ratios of W and B light, showed no differences between recipes, and exhibited similar physiological responses regardless of the light recipes that were tested. The Mizuna studies are still ongoing. Crops for ISS chambers and astronaut consumption are targeted based on biomass, physiology, and for human psychological benefit. The goal of this research is to provide light recipe recommendations for space crops that have been thoroughly tested on the ground. These results will serve a major benefit for astronauts growing crops in the Advanced Plant Habitat currently in orbit aboard the

  17. Metabolomics by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: the combination of targeted and untargeted profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics is ideal for identifying and quantitating small molecular metabolites (metabolomics easily allows integrating targeted assays for absolute quantification of specific metabolites with untargeted metabolomics to discover novel compounds. Complemented by database annotations using large spectral libraries and validated, standardized standard operating procedures, GC-MS can identify and semi-quantify over 200 compounds per study in human body fluids (e.g., plasma, urine or stool) samples. Deconvolution software enables detection of more than 300 additional unidentified signals that can be annotated through accurate mass instruments with appropriate data processing workflows, similar to liquid chromatography-MS untargeted profiling (LC-MS). Hence, GC-MS is a mature technology that not only uses classic detectors (‘quadrupole’) but also target mass spectrometers (‘triple quadrupole’) and accurate mass instruments (‘quadrupole-time of flight’). This unit covers the following aspects of GC-MS-based metabolomics: (i) sample preparation from mammalian samples, (ii) acquisition of data, (iii) quality control, and (iv) data processing. PMID:27038389

  18. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  19. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  20. Ion implantation artifacts observed in depth profiling boron in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.; Simons, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison study of depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) was recently conducted. The specimens were portions of 5 cm diameter single crystal silicon slices in which B-10 had been implanted at various fluences and energies. NDP measurements were made on a 13 mm diameter area at the center of the wafers. SIMS measurements were taken from a 60 μm diameter area approximately 16 mm from the center of the wafer. One observation that emerged from this work was an apparent discrepancy between the profiles of B-10 measured by DNP and SIMS. The peaks of the SIMS profiles were typically deeper than those of NDP by as much as 30 nm, which is 10% of the projected range for a 70 keV implant. Moreover, the profiles could not be made to coincide by either a constant shift or a proportional change of one depth scale with respect to the other. The lateral inhomogeneity of boron that these experiments have demonstrated arises from the variable contribution of ion channeling during implantation

  1. Hadron spectrum, quark masses and decay constants from light overlap fermions on large lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletly, D.; Horsley, R.; Streuer, T.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    2006-07-01

    We present results from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions with Luescher-Weisz gauge field action on lattices up to 24 3 48 and for pion masses down to ∼250 MeV. Among the quantities we study are the pion, rho and nucleon masses, the light and strange quark masses, and the pion decay constant. The renormalization of the scalar and axial vector currents is done nonperturbatively in the RI-MOM scheme. The simulations are performed at two different lattice spacings, a ∼0.1 fm and ∼0.15 fm, and on two different physical volumes, to test the scaling properties of our action and to study finite volume effects. We compare our results with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory and compute several of its low-energy constants. The pion mass is computed in sectors of fixed topology as well. (orig.)

  2. Hadron spectrum, quark masses and decay constants from light overlap fermions on large lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletly, D.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Guertler, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Streuer, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC]|[Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-07-15

    We present results from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions with Luescher-Weisz gauge field action on lattices up to 24{sup 3} 48 and for pion masses down to {approx}250 MeV. Among the quantities we study are the pion, rho and nucleon masses, the light and strange quark masses, and the pion decay constant. The renormalization of the scalar and axial vector currents is done nonperturbatively in the RI-MOM scheme. The simulations are performed at two different lattice spacings, a {approx}0.1 fm and {approx}0.15 fm, and on two different physical volumes, to test the scaling properties of our action and to study finite volume effects. We compare our results with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory and compute several of its low-energy constants. The pion mass is computed in sectors of fixed topology as well. (orig.)

  3. Alkaloid profiling of the Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi by combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization,

  4. Improved EDELWEISS-III sensitivity for low-mass WIMPs using a profile likelihood approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehn, L. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armengaud, E.; Boissiere, T. de; Gros, M.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Arnaud, Q. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [Institut Neel, CNRS/UJF, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Giuliani, A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E.; Poda, D. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Eitel, K.; Kozlov, V.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Foerster, N.; Heuermann, G.; Scorza, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, Marcoussis (France); Kefelian, C. [Univ Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Lyon (France); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Pari, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piro, M.C. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Schmidt, B. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We report on a dark matter search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) in the mass range m{sub χ} element of [4, 30] GeV/c{sup 2} with the EDELWEISS-III experiment. A 2D profile likelihood analysis is performed on data from eight selected detectors with the lowest energy thresholds leading to a combined fiducial exposure of 496 kg-days. External backgrounds from γ- and β-radiation, recoils from {sup 206}Pb and neutrons as well as detector intrinsic backgrounds were modelled from data outside the region of interest and constrained in the analysis. The basic data selection and most of the background models are the same as those used in a previously published analysis based on boosted decision trees (BDT) [1]. For the likelihood approach applied in the analysis presented here, a larger signal efficiency and a subtraction of the expected background lead to a higher sensitivity, especially for the lowest WIMP masses probed. No statistically significant signal was found and upper limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section can be set with a hypothesis test based on the profile likelihood test statistics. The 90 % C.L. exclusion limit set for WIMPs with m{sub χ} = 4 GeV/c{sup 2} is 1.6 x 10{sup -39} cm{sup 2}, which is an improvement of a factor of seven with respect to the BDT-based analysis. For WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c{sup 2} the exclusion limits found with both analyses are in good agreement. (orig.)

  5. Single-particle measurements of bouncing particles and in situ collection efficiency from an airborne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with light-scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin; Brock, Charles A.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Sueper, Donna T.; Welti, André; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    2017-10-01

    A light-scattering module was coupled to an airborne, compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (LS-AMS) to investigate collection efficiency (CE) while obtaining nonrefractory aerosol chemical composition measurements during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign. In this instrument, particles scatter light from an internal laser beam and trigger saving individual particle mass spectra. Nearly all of the single-particle data with mass spectra that were triggered by scattered light signals were from particles larger than ˜ 280 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. Over 33 000 particles are characterized as either prompt (27 %), delayed (15 %), or null (58 %), according to the time and intensity of their total mass spectral signals. The particle mass from single-particle spectra is proportional to that derived from the light-scattering diameter (dva-LS) but not to that from the particle time-of-flight (PToF) diameter (dva-MS) from the time of the maximum mass spectral signal. The total mass spectral signal from delayed particles was about 80 % of that from prompt ones for the same dva-LS. Both field and laboratory data indicate that the relative intensities of various ions in the prompt spectra show more fragmentation compared to the delayed spectra. The particles with a delayed mass spectral signal likely bounced off the vaporizer and vaporized later on another surface within the confines of the ionization source. Because delayed particles are detected by the mass spectrometer later than expected from their dva-LS size, they can affect the interpretation of particle size (PToF) mass distributions, especially at larger sizes. The CE, measured by the average number or mass fractions of particles optically detected that had measurable mass spectra, varied significantly (0.2-0.9) in different air masses. The measured CE agreed well with a previous parameterization when CE > 0.5 for acidic particles but was sometimes lower than the minimum parameterized CE of 0.5.

  6. The dependence of halo mass on galaxy size at fixed stellar mass using weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paul J. L.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Khatri, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Stellar mass has been shown to correlate with halo mass, with non-negligible scatter. The stellar mass-size and luminosity-size relationships of galaxies also show significant scatter in galaxy size at fixed stellar mass. It is possible that, at fixed stellar mass and galaxy colour, the halo mass is correlated with galaxy size. Galaxy-galaxy lensing allows us to measure the mean masses of dark matter haloes for stacked samples of galaxies. We extend the analysis of the galaxies in the CFHTLenS catalogue by fitting single Sérsic surface brightness profiles to the lens galaxies in order to recover half-light radius values, allowing us to determine halo masses for lenses according to their size. Comparing our halo masses and sizes to baselines for that stellar mass yields a differential measurement of the halo mass-galaxy size relationship at fixed stellar mass, defined as Mh(M_{*}) ∝ r_{eff}^{η }(M_{*}). We find that, on average, our lens galaxies have an η = 0.42 ± 0.12, i.e. larger galaxies live in more massive dark matter haloes. The η is strongest for high-mass luminous red galaxies. Investigation of this relationship in hydrodynamical simulations suggests that, at a fixed M*, satellite galaxies have a larger η and greater scatter in the Mh and reff relationship compared to central galaxies.

  7. Upper Bound on the Hadronic Light-By-Light Contribution to the Muon g-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens; Sanchez, Genaro Toledo

    2006-01-01

    There are indications that hadronic loops in some electroweak observables are almost saturated by parton level effects. Taking this as the hypothesis for this work, we propose a genuine parton level estimate of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a μ LBL (had). Our quark mass definitions and values are motivated in detail, and the simplicity of our approach allows for a transparent error estimate. For infinitely heavy quarks our treatment is exact, while for asymptotically small quark masses a μ LBL (had) is overestimated. Interpolating, this suggests quoting an upper bound. We obtain a μ LBL (had) -9 (95% C.L.)

  8. Observations of the Coronal Mass Ejection with a Complex Acceleration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Kirichenko, A. S.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    We study the coronal mass ejection (CME) with a complex acceleration profile. The event occurred on 2009 April 23. It had an impulsive acceleration phase, an impulsive deceleration phase, and a second impulsive acceleration phase. During its evolution, the CME showed signatures of different acceleration mechanisms: kink instability, prominence drainage, flare reconnection, and a CME–CME collision. The special feature of the observations is the usage of the TESIS EUV telescope. The instrument could image the solar corona in the Fe 171 Å line up to a distance of 2 {R}ȯ from the center of the Sun. This allows us to trace the CME up to the LASCO/C2 field of view without losing the CME from sight. The onset of the CME was caused by kink instability. The mass drainage occurred after the kink instability. The mass drainage played only an auxiliary role: it decreased the CME mass, which helped to accelerate the CME. The first impulsive acceleration phase was caused by the flare reconnection. We observed the two-ribbon flare and an increase of the soft X-ray flux during the first impulsive acceleration phase. The impulsive deceleration and the second impulsive acceleration phases were caused by the CME–CME collision. The studied event shows that CMEs are complex phenomena that cannot be explained with only one acceleration mechanism. We should seek a combination of different mechanisms that accelerate CMEs at different stages of their evolution.

  9. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Instantaneous chemical profiles of banknotes by ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Livia S; Haddad, Renato; Sarabia Neto, Ramon C; Cosso, Ricardo G; Maia, Denison R J; Maldaner, Adriano O; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Sanvido, Gustavo B; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G; Ifa, Demian R; Dill, Allison; Cooks, R Graham; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-10-01

    Using two desorption/ionization techniques (DESI and EASI) and Brazilian real, US$ dollar, and euro bills as proof-of-principle techniques and samples, direct analysis by ambient mass spectrometry is shown to function as an instantaneous, reproducible, and non-destructive method for chemical analysis of banknotes. Characteristic chemical profiles were observed for the authentic bills and for the counterfeit bills made using different printing processes (inkjet, laserjet, phaser and off-set printers). Detection of real-world counterfeit bills and identification of the counterfeiting method has also been demonstrated. Chemically selective 2D imaging of banknotes has also been used to confirm counterfeiting. The nature of some key diagnostic ions has also been investigated via high accuracy FTMS measurements. The general applicability of ambient MS analysis for anti-counterfeiting strategies particularly via the use of "invisible ink" markers is discussed.

  11. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Krishna Tarafder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls’ high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls’ high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%, headache (73%, chest pain (69%, body ache (63%, nausea (69%, and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%. Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes.

  12. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Binoy Krishna; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Islam, Md. Tanvir; Mahmud, Sheikh Abdullah Al; Sarker, Md. Humayun Kabir; Faruq, Imtiaz; Miah, Md. Titu; Arafat, S. M. Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls' high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls' high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%), headache (73%), chest pain (69%), body ache (63%), nausea (69%), and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%). Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes. PMID:27294104

  13. Mass and Cross Section Measurements of light-flavored Squarks at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    WEUSTE, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the prospects for the measurement of TeV-scale light-flavored right-squark masses and and the production cross sections at a 3 TeV e+e- collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis, performed in the framework of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, is based on full Geant4 simulations of the CLIC ILD detector concept, including standard model physics background and machine related hadronic background from two-photon processes. The events were reconstructed using particle flow event reconstruction, and the mass and cross sections were obtained from a template fit built from generator-level simulations with smearing to parametrize the detector response. For an integrated luminosity of 2 ab^-1, a statistical precision of 5.9 GeV, corresponding to 0.52%, was obtained for unseparated first and second generation right squarks. For the combined cross section, a precision of 0.07 fb, corresponding to 5%, was obtained.

  14. Detection of lung cancer using plasma protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Zaridze, David G

    2010-01-01

    There are no satisfactory plasma biomarkers which are available for the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer, one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. The aim of this study is to explore the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) to plasma proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. The EDTA plasma samples have been pre-fractionated using magnetic bead kits functionalized with weak cation exchange coatings. We compiled MS protein profiles for 90 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and compared them with profiles from 187 healthy controls. The MALDI-ToF spectra were analyzed statistically using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Depending on the sample used, up to 441 peaks/spectrum could be detected in a mass range of 1000-20,000 Da; 33 of these proteins had statistically differential expression levels between SCC and control plasma (P 90%) in external validation test. These results suggest that plasma MALDI-ToF MS protein profiling can distinguish patients with SCC and also from healthy individuals with relatively high sensitivity and specificity and that MALDI- ToF MS is a potential tool for the screening of lung cancer.

  15. An Investigation of Intracluster Light Evolution Using Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin; Lin, Weipeng; Cui, Weiguang; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Contini, E.; Yu, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Intracluster light (ICL) in observations is usually identified through the surface brightness limit (SBL) method. In this paper, for the first time we produce mock images of galaxy groups and clusters, using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate the ICL fraction and focus on its dependence on observational parameters, e.g., the SBL, the effects of cosmological redshift-dimming, point-spread function (PSF), and CCD pixel size. Detailed analyses suggest that the width of the PSF has a significant effect on the measured ICL fraction, while the relatively small pixel size shows almost no influence. It is found that the measured ICL fraction depends strongly on the SBL. At a fixed SBL and redshift, the measured ICL fraction decreases with increasing halo mass, while with a much fainter SBL, it does not depend on halo mass at low redshifts. In our work, the measured ICL fraction shows a clear dependence on the cosmological redshift-dimming effect. It is found that there is more mass locked in the ICL component than light, suggesting that the use of a constant mass-to-light ratio at high surface brightness levels will lead to an underestimate of ICL mass. Furthermore, it is found that the radial profile of ICL shows a characteristic radius that is almost independent of halo mass. The current measurement of ICL from observations has a large dispersion due to different methods, and we emphasize the importance of using the same definition when observational results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  16. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    consensually defined sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges and trained. They used the following as criteria: discriminant power, reproducibility and individual consensus. Twelve descriptors were devised showing similarities and differences among the light yogurt samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeter non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The data were analysed by ANOVA, the Tukey test and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference in the sensory profile of light yogurts, where sample C showed more variation. The PCA showed sample A to be more distinguished by the sweetness, flavor of peach and firmness of fruit pieces. Sample B was characterized by the brightness, peach color and creamy aspect. Sample C had a higher intensity of sourness and astringency, a more farinaceous texture and more artificial aroma of peach. According to the acceptability test, all the products were accepted positively for all evaluated attributes. Sample C which contains soy protein in its formulation showed that this ingredient was not noticed by the judges and did not interfere in it being accepted.

  17. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  18. Metabolic profiling of yeast culture using gas chromatography coupled with orthogonal acceleration accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry: application to biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Elsuida; Marriott, Philip J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Morrison, Paul; Adams, Mike

    2014-01-07

    Yeast and yeast cultures are frequently used as additives in diets of dairy cows. Beneficial effects from the inclusion of yeast culture in diets for dairy mammals have been reported, and the aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the accurate mass identification of the 'global' metabolites in order to differentiate a variety of yeasts at varying growth stages (Diamond V XP, Yea-Sacc and Levucell). Microwave-assisted derivatization for metabolic profiling is demonstrated through the analysis of differing yeast samples developed for cattle feed, which include a wide range of metabolites of interest covering a large range of compound classes. Accurate identification of the components was undertaken using GC-oa-ToFMS (gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration-time-of-flight mass spectrometry), followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) for data reduction and biomarker discovery. Semi-quantification (fold changes in relative peak areas) was reported for metabolites identified as possible discriminative biomarkers (p-value 2), including D-ribose (four fold decrease), myo-inositol (five fold increase), L-phenylalanine (three fold increase), glucopyranoside (two fold increase), fructose (three fold increase) and threitol (three fold increase) respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Ichiro; Fujita, Takashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Chow, Wah Soon; Oguchi, Riichi

    2009-04-01

    The literature and our present examinations indicate that the intra-leaf light absorption profile is in most cases steeper than the photosynthetic capacity profile. In strong white light, therefore, the quantum yield of photosynthesis would be lower in the upper chloroplasts, located near the illuminated surface, than that in the lower chloroplasts. Because green light can penetrate further into the leaf than red or blue light, in strong white light, any additional green light absorbed by the lower chloroplasts would increase leaf photosynthesis to a greater extent than would additional red or blue light. Based on the assessment of effects of the additional monochromatic light on leaf photosynthesis, we developed the differential quantum yield method that quantifies efficiency of any monochromatic light in white light. Application of this method to sunflower leaves clearly showed that, in moderate to strong white light, green light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light. The green leaf should have a considerable volume of chloroplasts to accommodate the inefficient carboxylation enzyme, Rubisco, and deliver appropriate light to all the chloroplasts. By using chlorophylls that absorb green light weakly, modifying mesophyll structure and adjusting the Rubisco/chlorophyll ratio, the leaf appears to satisfy two somewhat conflicting requirements: to increase the absorptance of photosynthetically active radiation, and to drive photosynthesis efficiently in all the chloroplasts. We also discuss some serious problems that are caused by neglecting these intra-leaf profiles when estimating whole leaf electron transport rates and assessing photoinhibition by fluorescence techniques.

  20. Detailed polyphenolic profiling of Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca) by a combination of RP-UHPLC and HILIC, both hyphenated to IT-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Ostacolo, Carmine; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Maria Teresa; Novellino, Ettore; Manfra, Michele; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Annurca apple, a Southern Italian cultivar, possesses not only a particular taste and flavor, different from other types of apple, but also several healthy properties. With the aim to thoroughly elucidate the polyphenolic profile of this variety, listed as Protected Geographical Indication product, an extensive qualitative profiling of Annurca apple polyphenolic peel extract was carried out, by employing a combination of ultra high performance reversed phase (RP-UHPLC) and hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometry. A total of 63 compounds were tentatively identified, 25 of which not reported in Annurca apple extract so far. Furthermore, thanks to the different selectivity obtained with the HILIC, in combination with accurate mass measurements, an improved separation and detection of procyanidins, was obtained. Moreover, the obtained profiles were compared with those of a conventional variety, such as Red Delicious (RD), highlighting their differences. This work contributes to increase the knowledge about the polyphenolic fingerprint of this typical apple variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  2. Book Review of - The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2009-01-01

    How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that

  3. Compton profile with synchrotron light - application to Y-123 superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Udayan

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerated to 6 GeV in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France, can deliver highly mono-energetic, intense (10 12 photons/sec at sample at 100 mA ring current) and fine photon beam reaching x-ray and γ energies. So photons of 57 keV from this synchrotron has been used for Compton Profile or CP experiment (at different temperatures down to 70 K) on our YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 or Y-123 single crystals with T c = 91 K. Photons, Compton scattered even at a definite angle, θ, show a distribution (called Compton Profile) of energy and hence of momentum reflecting the EMD or electron momentum distribution in the solid. The temperature variation of S-parameter, defined as the fraction of low momentum electrons, has been found from preliminary CP data. It confirmed the surprising double minimum found from Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation lineshape (DBPARL). The CP set-up at the synchrotron including the detectors and cryogenics as well as the new results are outlined. (author)

  4. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  5. Determination of the profile of DO and its mass transferring coefficient in a biofilm reactor packed with semi-suspended bio-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Song, Haoliang; Bin, Liying; Huang, Shaosong; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fu, Fenglian; Zhao, Yiliang; Chen, Qianyu

    2017-10-01

    The work aims at illustrating the profile of DO and its mass transferring process in a biofilm reactor packed with a novel semi-suspended bio-carrier, and further revealing the main factors that influence the mass transferring coefficient of DO within the biofilm. Results showed that the biofilm was very easy to attach and grow on the semi-suspended bio-carrier, which obviously changed the DO profile inside and outside the biofilm. The semi-suspended bio-carrier caused three different mass transfer zones occurring in the bioreactor, including the zones of bulk solution, boundary layer and biofilm, in which, the boundary layer zone had an obvious higher mass transfer resistance. Increasing the aeration rate might improve the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor and accelerate the mass transfer of DO, but it also detached the biofilm from the surface of bio-carrier, which reduced the consumption of DO, and accordingly, decreased the DO gradient in the bioreactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Texture and Quality Parameters of Slovenian Dry-Cured Ham Kraški pršut According to Mass and Salt Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Andronikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of fresh ham mass and the amount of salt added during processing on the technological, sensorial and physicochemical qualities of Slovenian dry-cured ham (Kraški pršut produced under Protected Geographical Indication. A total of 84 fresh ham samples (pH=5.6–5.9 measured 24 h post mortem originating from pigs (Landrace × Large white were divided into subgroups according to mass (light, 9.5–10.5 kg vs. heavy, 11.5–13.0 kg and salt addition during production (normal vs. low salt. These formed four subgroups for the analyses: light and normally salted, light and low salt, heavy and normally salted, and heavy and low salt. After the salting period, the NaCl concentration in the normally salted muscles was 3.8 to 4.0 %, and in the less salted muscles 2.8 to 3.0 %. During the processing of the dry-cured ham (at the beginning, after salting, and after resting, the semimembranosus (SM and biceps femoris (BF muscles were analysed for water activity (aw, pH, salt content, moisture, total minerals, non-protein nitrogen, and total nitrogen. One year after the processing, the instrumental (stress relaxation and texture profile and sensory qualities were also analysed. After the salting and resting periods, the pH of the samples was significantly decreased in comparison with the fresh ham, although after ageing period this increased again, to reach nearly the initial values (pH=5.59–5.74. At the same time, the aw of both muscles in all experimental groups dropped below 0.90. The total mass losses varied between the groups (34.75–36.63 %, with the samples of heavy and low salt ham showing the greatest mass loss. The light and low salt SM muscles showed slightly higher proteolysis indices (non-protein nitrogen/total nitrogen ratio after one year, which indicated a trend towards more rapid proteolysis as compared to the normally salted hams. Generally, the softer texture of the BF muscle

  7. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  8. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toda, Katsuki; Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Shiiba, Ayaka; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Yasuo; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamato, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd)

  9. Si light-emitting device in integrated photonic CMOS ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaikai; Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl

    2017-07-01

    The motivation for integrated Si optoelectronics is the creation of low-cost photonics for mass-market applications. Especially, the growing demand for sensitive biochemical sensors in the environmental control or medicine leads to the development of integrated high resolution sensors. Here CMOS-compatible Si light-emitting device structures are presented for investigating the effect of various depletion layer profiles and defect engineering on the photonic transition in the 1.4-2.8 eV. A novel Si device is proposed to realize both a two-terminal Si-diode light-emitting device and a three-terminal Si gate-controlled diode light-emitting device in the same device structure. In addition to the spectral analysis, differences between two-terminal and three-terminal devices are discussed, showing the light emission efficiency change. The proposed Si optical source may find potential applications in micro-photonic systems and micro-optoelectro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) in CMOS integrated circuitry.

  10. Kinome profiling reveals an interaction between jasmonate, salicylate and light control of hyponastic petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Ritsema

    Full Text Available Plants defend themselves against infection by biotic attackers by producing distinct phytohormones. Especially jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA are well known defense-inducing hormones. Here, the effects of MeJA and SA on the Arabidopsis thaliana kinome were monitored using PepChip arrays containing kinase substrate peptides to analyze posttranslational interactions in MeJA and SA signaling pathways and to test if kinome profiling can provide leads to predict posttranslational events in plant signaling. MeJA and SA mediate differential phosphorylation of substrates for many kinase families. Also some plant specific substrates were differentially phosphorylated, including peptides derived from Phytochrome A, and Photosystem II D protein. This indicates that MeJA and SA mediate cross-talk between defense signaling and light responses. We tested the predicted effects of MeJA and SA using light-mediated upward leaf movement (differential petiole growth also called hyponastic growth. We found that MeJA, infestation by the JA-inducing insect herbivore Pieris rapae, and SA suppressed low light-induced hyponastic growth. MeJA and SA acted in a synergistic fashion via two (partially divergent signaling routes. This work demonstrates that kinome profiling using PepChip arrays can be a valuable complementary ∼omics tool to give directions towards predicting behavior of organisms after a given stimulus and can be used to obtain leads for physiological relevant phenomena in planta.

  11. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  12. Mass differences of light hadron isomultiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Mass differences of low-lying, non-strange, hadron isomultiplets are investigated in the framework of a relativistic, independent quark potential model, implemented by center-of-mass, one-gluon-exchange and pion-cloud corrections. The introduction of pionic self-energy corrections with non-degenerate intermediate states is instrumental in our analysis, playing also a fundamental role for a successful description of the ρ-ω mass splitting. The effect of the supersposition of all these corrections is discussed in some detail for the p-n, Π + -Π 0 , ρ + -ρ 0 and Δ ++ -Δ 0 mass differences. The corresponding hadronic masses are also calculated with suitable values for the hardronic sizes and quark masses. (author) [pt

  13. A new broadly tunable (7.4-10.2 eV) laser based VUV light source and its first application to aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, S. J.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Simpson, E. A.; Robb, D. B.; Burak, I.; Blades, M. W.; Hepburn, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    A laser based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source using resonance enhanced four wave difference mixing in xenon gas was developed for near threshold ionization of organics in atmospheric aerosol particles. The source delivers high intensity pulses of VUV light (in the range of 1010 to 1013 photons/pulse depending on wavelength, 5 ns FWHM) with a continuously tunable wavelength from 122 nm (10.2 eV) to 168 nm (7.4 eV)E The setup allows for tight (caffeine aerosols vaporized by a pulsed CO2 laser in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Mass spectra from single particles down to 300 nm in diameter were collected. Excellent signal to noise characteristics for these small particles give a caffeine detection limit of 8 × 105 molecules which is equivalent to a single 75 nm aerosol, or approximately 1.5% of a 300 nm particleE The appearance energy of caffeine originating from the aerosol was also measured and found to be 7.91 ± 0.05 eV, in good agreement with literature values.

  14. Targeted metabolite profile of food bioactive compounds by Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry: The 'FancyTiles' approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Ferracane, R.; Palermo, M.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new targeted metabolic profile approach using Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry was described. For each foodmatrix various classes of bioactive compounds and some specificmetabolites of interest were selected on the basis of the existing knowledge creating an easy-to-read

  15. Independent component analysis for the extraction of reliable protein signal profiles from MALDI-TOF mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Petrucci, Francesca; Del Boccio, Piero; Pieragostino, Damiana; Di Nicola, Marta; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Federici, Giorgio; Sacchetta, Paolo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Urbani, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a signal processing technique that can be utilized to recover independent signals from a set of their linear mixtures. We propose ICA for the analysis of signals obtained from large proteomics investigations such as clinical multi-subject studies based on MALDI-TOF MS profiling. The method is validated on simulated and experimental data for demonstrating its capability of correctly extracting protein profiles from MALDI-TOF mass spectra. The comparison on peak detection with an open-source and two commercial methods shows its superior reliability in reducing the false discovery rate of protein peak masses. Moreover, the integration of ICA and statistical tests for detecting the differences in peak intensities between experimental groups allows to identify protein peaks that could be indicators of a diseased state. This data-driven approach demonstrates to be a promising tool for biomarker-discovery studies based on MALDI-TOF MS technology. The MATLAB implementation of the method described in the article and both simulated and experimental data are freely available at http://www.unich.it/proteomica/bioinf/.

  16. Profiling an electrospray plume by laser-induced fluorescence and Fraunhofer diffraction combined to mass spectrometry: influence of size and composition of droplets on charge-state distributions of electrosprayed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Dagany, Xavier; Boutou, Véronique; Broyer, Michel; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Mordehai, Alex; Love, Craig; Werlich, Mark; Fjeldsted, John; Stafford, George

    2012-07-14

    We investigated how physico-chemical properties of charged droplets are affected by the electrospray process, using simultaneous in situ measurements by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Fraunhofer diffraction and mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we implemented a laser-induced-fluorescence profiling setup in conjunction with a fast, high-resolution particle sizing scheme on a modified Agilent Jet Stream electrospray source coupled to a single quadrupole mass analyser. The optical setup permits us to profile the solvent fractionation and the size of the droplets as they evaporate in an electrospray plume by measuring both the angular scattering pattern and emission spectra of a solvatochromic fluorescent dye. Mass spectra are recorded simultaneously. These mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy investigations allow us to study the relation between the observed charge-state distributions of protein anions and physico-chemical properties of evaporating droplets in the spray plume. By mixing water with methanol, a refolding of cytochrome C is observed as the water percentage increases in the plume due to the preponderant evaporation of volatile methanol.

  17. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Day, D. E.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Huffman, J. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Trimborn, A.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2009-11-01

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used were Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients revealed a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: (1) shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; (2) the lower case contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity (RH) to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  18. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    lewis, Kristen A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Chakrabarti, Raj; Carrico, Christian M.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.; Laskin, Alexander; Jimenez, Jose L.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Trimborn, Achim; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.

    2009-11-27

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used are Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients reveal a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: 1. Shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; 2. The contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  19. The acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to blue and red light does not influence the photosynthetic light reaction but strongly disturbs the carbon allocation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jungandreas

    Full Text Available Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL to blue light (BL and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning.

  20. Integrated multi-level quality control for proteomic profiling studies using mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Jennifer H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic profiling using mass spectrometry (MS is one of the most promising methods for the analysis of complex biological samples such as urine, serum and tissue for biomarker discovery. Such experiments are often conducted using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight and SELDI-TOF (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight MS. Using such profiling methods it is possible to identify changes in protein expression that differentiate disease states and individual proteins or patterns that may be useful as potential biomarkers. However, the incorporation of quality control (QC processes that allow the identification of low quality spectra reliably and hence allow the removal of such data before further analysis is often overlooked. In this paper we describe rigorous methods for the assessment of quality of spectral data. These procedures are presented in a user-friendly, web-based program. The data obtained post-QC is then examined using variance components analysis to quantify the amount of variance due to some of the factors in the experimental design. Results Using data from a SELDI profiling study of serum from patients with different levels of renal function, we show how the algorithms described in this paper may be used to detect systematic variability within and between sample replicates, pooled samples and SELDI chips and spots. Manual inspection of those spectral data that were identified as being of poor quality confirmed the efficacy of the algorithms. Variance components analysis demonstrated the relatively small amount of technical variance attributable to day of profile generation and experimental array. Conclusion Using the techniques described in this paper it is possible to reliably detect poor quality data within proteomic profiling experiments undertaken by MS. The removal of these spectra at the initial stages of the analysis substantially improves the

  1. Hemispheric aerosol vertical profiles: anthropogenic impacts on optical depth and cloud nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Antony; Kapustin, Vladimir

    2010-09-17

    Understanding the effect of anthropogenic combustion upon aerosol optical depth (AOD), clouds, and their radiative forcing requires regionally representative aerosol profiles. In this work, we examine more than 1000 vertical profiles from 11 major airborne campaigns in the Pacific hemisphere and confirm that regional enhancements in aerosol light scattering, mass, and number are associated with carbon monoxide from combustion and can exceed values in unperturbed regions by more than one order of magnitude. Related regional increases in a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and AOD imply that direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects are coupled issues linked globally to aged combustion. These profiles constrain the influence of combustion on regional AOD and CCN suitable for challenging climate model performance and informing satellite retrievals.

  2. Meson exchange second class currents and the neutrino mass in the muon capture by light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katkhat, Ch.L.

    1988-01-01

    Influence of the Kubodera-Delorme-Rho model parameters (ζ and ξ), the scalar form factor (F s ) and the muonic neutrino rest mass (m νμ ) on the asymmetry coefficient (α μν ) of neutrino emission with respect to the muon spin orientation in the muon capture by light nuclei is analyzed. It is shown, that the mass m νμ , the parameters of ζ and ξ, and the form factor F s may be estimated by studying the coefficient α μν in O -> O, Gamov-Teller, and mixed transitions, respectively

  3. EVENT DETECTION USING MOBILE PHONE MASS GPS DATA AND THEIR RELIAVILITY VERIFICATION BY DMSP/OLS NIGHT LIGHT IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a method to detect sudden population concentration on a certain day and area, that is, an “Event,” all over Japan in 2012 using mass GPS data provided from mobile phone users. First, stay locations of all phone users were detected using existing methods. Second, areas and days where Events occurred were detected by aggregation of mass stay locations into 1-km-square grid polygons. Finally, the proposed method could detect Events with an especially large number of visitors in the year by removing the influences of Events that occurred continuously throughout the year. In addition, we demonstrated reasonable reliability of the proposed Event detection method by comparing the results of Event detection with light intensities obtained from the night light images from the DMSP/OLS night light images. Our method can detect not only positive events such as festivals but also negative events such as natural disasters and road accidents. These results are expected to support policy development of urban planning, disaster prevention, and transportation management.

  4. Qualitative profiling and quantification of neonicotinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Taira

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid pesticides have been widely applied for the production of fruits and vegetables, and occasionally detected in conventionally grown produce. Thus oral exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides may exist in the general population; however, neonicotinoid metabolites in human body fluids have not been investigated comprehensively. The purpose of this study is the qualitative profiling and quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid metabolites in the human spot urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Human urine samples were collected from three patients suspected of subacute exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides. A qualitative profiling of urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS with a database of nominal molecular weights of 57 known metabolites of three neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, Imidacloprid, and clothianidin, as well as the parent compounds. Then a quantitative analysis of selected urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS with a standard pesticide and metabolite, which were detected by the qualitative profiling. The result of qualitative profiling showed that seven metabolites, i.e. an acetamiprid metabolite, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid; three Imidacloprid metabolites, 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid, 4,5-dihydroxy-imidacloprid, 4,5-dehydro-Imidacloprid; a common metabolite of acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, N-(6-chloronicotinoyl-glycine; and two clothianidin metabolites, N-desmethyl-clothianidin, N-(2-(methylsulfanylthiazole-5-carboxyl-glycine, as well as acetamiprid, were detected in the urine of three cases. The result of the quantitative analysis showed N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was determined in the urine of one case, which had been collected on the first visit, at a concentration of 3.2 ng/mL. This is the first report on the qualitative and quantitative detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in

  5. Mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Setoyama, Daiki; Irie, Miho; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masaharu; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-03-01

    Gemcitabine resistance (GR) is one of the critical issues for therapy for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Our aim was to increase the understanding of GR by metabolic profiling approach. To establish GR cells, 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1, were exposed to increasing concentration of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells obtained by this treatment were subjected to metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses, both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, distinguished metabolic signature of responsiveness and resistance to gemcitabine in both SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 cells. Among significantly different (P metabolic pathways such as amino acid, nucleotide, energy, cofactor, and vitamin pathways. Decreases in glutamine and proline levels as well as increases in aspartate, hydroxyproline, creatine, and creatinine levels were observed in chemoresistant cells from both cell lines. These results suggest that metabolic profiling can isolate distinct features of pancreatic cancer in the metabolome of gemcitabine-sensitive and GR cells. These findings may contribute to the biomarker discovery and an enhanced understanding of GR in pancreatic cancer.

  6. Very light Higgs bosons in extended models at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Guedes, Renato; Santos, Rui; Moretti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider experiments have constrained the mass of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson to be above 114.4 GeV. This bound applies to all extensions of the SM where the coupling of a Higgs boson to the Z boson and also the Higgs decay profile do not differ much from the SM one. However, in scenarios with extended Higgs sectors, this coupling can be made very small by a suitable choice of the parameters of the model. In such cases, the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can in turn be made very small. Such a very light Higgs state, with a mass of the order of the Z boson one or even smaller, could have escaped detection at LEP. In this work we perform a detailed parton level study on the feasibility of the detection of such a very light Higgs particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the production process pp→hj→τ + τ - j, where j is a resolved jet. We conclude that there are several models where such a Higgs state could be detected at the LHC with early data.

  7. Fragments emission from light mass composite nuclei within collective clusterization mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram

    2016-01-01

    Based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM) has been developed by Gupta and Collaborators to study the decay of hot and rotating compound systems. Number of compound nuclei (CN) in different mass regions have been studied quite extensively while taking into consideration nuclear structure effects in the same. It is quite relevant to mention here that in the binary decay of CN nuclear structure effects comes into picture, within DCM, via preformation probability P_0 of the complimentary fragments before penetrating the potential barrier between them with certain probability P . It is interesting to note here that the statistical models treat various decay modes of the CN on different footing contrary to the DCM. In very light mass region the decay of number of composite systems "2"0","2"1","2"2Ne*, "2"6"-"2"9Al, "2"8Si, "3"1P, "3"2S, "3"9K and "4"0Ca*, formed in low energy heavy ion reactions, have been investigated for different reaction mechanisms particularly fusion-fission (FF) and deep inelastic orbiting (DIO) from equilibrated and non-equilibrated compound nucleus processes, respectively

  8. Individual stellar haloes of massive galaxies measured to 100 kpc at 0.3 < z < 0.5 using Hyper Suprime-Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Leauthaud, Alexie; Greene, Jenny E.; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Yen-Ting; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-04-01

    Massive galaxies display extended light profiles that can reach several hundreds of kiloparsecs. We use data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey that is simultaneously wide (˜100 deg2) and deep (>28.5 mag arcsec-2 in i band) to study the stellar haloes of a sample of ˜7000 massive galaxies at z ˜ 0.4. The depth of the HSC data enables us to measure surface mass density profiles to 100 kpc for individual galaxies without stacking. As in previous work, we find that more massive galaxies exhibit more extended outer profiles than smaller galaxies. When this extended light is not properly accounted for (because of shallow imaging and/or inadequate profile modelling), the derived stellar mass function can be significantly underestimated at the high-mass end. Across our sample, the ellipticity of outer light profile increases substantially with radius. We show for the first time that these ellipticity gradients steepen dramatically as a function of galaxy mass, but we detect no mass dependence in outer colour gradients. Our results support the two-phase formation scenario for massive galaxies in which outer envelopes are built up at a later time from a series of merging events. We provide surface mass density profiles in a convenient tabulated format to facilitate comparisons with predictions from numerical simulations of galaxy formation.

  9. Height is more important than light in determining leaf morphology in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Oberbauer, Steven F; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Ryan, Michael G

    2010-06-01

    Both within and between species, leaf physiological parameters are strongly related to leaf dry mass per area (LMA, g/m2), which has been found to increase from forest floor to canopy top in every forest where it has been measured. Although vertical LMA gradients in forests have historically been attributed to a direct phenotypic response to light, an increasing number of recent studies have provided evidence that water limitation in the upper canopy can constrain foliar morphological adaptations to higher light levels. We measured height, light, and LMA of all species encountered along 45 vertical canopy transects across a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. LMA was correlated with light levels in the lower canopy until approximately 18 m sample height and 22% diffuse transmittance. Height showed a remarkably linear relationship with LMA throughout the entire vertical canopy profile for all species pooled and for each functional group individually (except epiphytes), possibly through the influence of gravity on leaf water potential and turgor pressure. Models of forest function may be greatly simplified by estimating LMA-correlated leaf physiological parameters solely from foliage height profiles, which in turn can be assessed with satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing.

  10. Sensitivity of the OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) to a priori assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) algorithm to a number of a priori assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved ozone profile. Then, we studied how to

  11. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)_JAM≈ (M/L)({r}= {R_e}) within a sphere of radius r= {R_e} centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)stars (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected (stellar mass M_star ≳ 6× 10^9 { M_{⊙}}) ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs, ellipticals Es and lenticulars S0s). Here, we use those parameters to study the two orthogonal projections ({M_JAM}, {σ _e}) and ({M_JAM}, {R_e^maj}) of the thin Mass Plane (MP) ({M_JAM}, {σ _e}, {R_e^maj}) which describes the distribution of the galaxy population, where {M_JAM}≡ L× (M/L)_JAM≈ M_star. The distribution of galaxy properties on both projections of the MP is characterized by: (i) the same zone of exclusion (ZOE), which can be transformed from one projection to the other using the scalar virial equation. The ZOE is roughly described by two power laws, joined by a break at a characteristic mass {M_JAM}≈ 3× 10^{10} { M_{⊙}}, which corresponds to the minimum Re and maximum stellar density. This results in a break in the mean {M_JAM}-{σ _e} relation with trends {M_JAM}∝ σ _e^{2.3} and {M_JAM}∝ σ _e^{4.7} at small and large σe, respectively; (ii) a characteristic mass {M_JAM}≈ 2× 10^{11} { M_{⊙}} which separates a population dominated by flat fast rotator with discs and spiral galaxies at lower masses, from one dominated by quite round slow rotators at larger masses; (iii) below that mass the distribution of ETGs' properties on the two projections of the MP tends to be constant along lines of roughly constant σe, or equivalently along lines with {R_e^maj}∝ {M_JAM}, respectively (or even better parallel to the ZOE: {R_e^maj}∝ M_JAM^{0.75}); (iv) it forms a continuous and parallel sequence with the distribution of spiral galaxies; (v) at even lower masses, the distribution of fast-rotator ETGs and late spirals naturally extends to that of dwarf ETGs (Sph

  12. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used were Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum, and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens. Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients revealed a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: (1 shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; (2 the lower case contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity (RH to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  13. On the mean profiles of radio pulsars - II. Reconstruction of complex pulsar light curves and other new propagation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, H. L.; Beskin, V. S.; Philippov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    Our previous paper outlined the general aspects of the theory of radio light curve and polarization formation for pulsars. We predicted the one-to-one correspondence between the tilt of the linear polarization position angle of the the circular polarization. However, some of the radio pulsars indicate a clear deviation from that correlation. In this paper, we apply the theory of the radio wave propagation in the pulsar magnetosphere for the analysis of individual effects leading to these deviations. We show that within our theory the circular polarization of a given mode can switch its sign, without the need to introduce a new radiation mode or other effects. Moreover, we show that the generation of different emission modes on different altitudes can explain pulsars, that presumably have the X-O-X light-curve pattern, different from what we predict. General properties of radio emission within our propagation theory are also discussed. In particular, we calculate the intensity patterns for different radiation altitudes and present light curves for different observer viewing angles. In this context we also study the light curves and polarization profiles for pulsars with interpulses. Further, we explain the characteristic width of the position angle curves by introducing the concept of a wide emitting region. Another important feature of radio polarization profiles is the shift of the position angle from the centre, which in some cases demonstrates a weak dependence on the observation frequency. Here we demonstrate that propagation effects do not necessarily imply a significant frequency-dependent change of the position angle curve.

  14. The DiskMass Survey. II. Error Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.; Martinsson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ_{*}), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25°-35° is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction ({F}_bar) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σdyn), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ^disk_{*}), and disk maximality ({F}_{*,max}^disk≡ V^disk_{*,max}/ V_c). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ~25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  15. The effect of non-sphericity on mass and anisotropy measurements in dSph galaxies with Schwarzschild method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Łokas, Ewa L.; Valluri, Monica

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work we confirmed the reliability of the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild orbit-superposition method to recover the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of spherical dwarf galaxies. Here, we investigate the effect of its application to intrinsically non-spherical objects. For this purpose we use a model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy formed in a numerical simulation of a major merger of two discy dwarfs. The shape of the stellar component of the merger remnant is axisymmetric and prolate which allows us to identify and measure the bias caused by observing the spheroidal galaxy along different directions, especially the longest and shortest principal axis. The modelling is based on mock data generated from the remnant that are observationally available for dwarfs: projected positions and line-of-sight velocities of the stars. In order to obtain a reliable tool while keeping the number of parameters low we parametrize the total mass distribution as a radius-dependent mass-to-light ratio with just two free parameters we aim to constrain. Our study shows that if the total density profile is known, the true, radially increasing anisotropy profile can be well recovered for the observations along the longest axis whereas the data along the shortest axis lead to the inference of an incorrect, isotropic model. On the other hand, if the density profile is derived from the method as well, the anisotropy is always underestimated but the total mass profile is well recovered for the data along the shortest axis whereas for the longest axis the mass content is overestimated.

  16. Mass spectrometry footprinting reveals the structural rearrangements of cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein upon light activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haijun [Washington University; Zhang, Hao [Washington University; King, Jeremy D. [Washington University; Wolf, Nathan R. [Washington University; Prado, Mindy [Washington University; Gross, Michael L. [Washington University; Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington University

    2014-12-01

    The orange carotenoid protein (OCP), a member of the family of blue light photoactive proteins, is required for efficient photoprotection in many cyanobacteria. Photoexcitation of the carotenoid in the OCP results in structural changes within the chromophore and the protein to give an active red form of OCP that is required for phycobilisome binding and consequent fluorescence quenching. We characterized the light-dependent structural changes by mass spectrometry-based carboxyl footprinting and found that an α helix in the N-terminal extension of OCP plays a key role in this photoactivation process. Although this helix is located on and associates with the outside of the β-sheet core in the C-terminal domain of OCP in the dark, photoinduced changes in the domain structure disrupt this interaction. We propose that this mechanism couples light-dependent carotenoid conformational changes to global protein conformational dynamics in favor of functional phycobilisome binding, and is an essential part of the OCP photocycle.

  17. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T; Heinemeyer, S; Hollik, W; Rzehak, H; Weiglein, G

    2014-04-11

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realized in the standard model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, Mh, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for Mh in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FEYNHIGGS.

  18. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  19. The development of retrosynthetic glycan libraries to profile and classify the human serum N-linked glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronewitter, Scott R; An, Hyun Joo; de Leoz, Maria Lorna; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Leiserowitz, Gary S

    2009-06-01

    Annotation of the human serum N-linked glycome is a formidable challenge but is necessary for disease marker discovery. A new theoretical glycan library was constructed and proposed to provide all possible glycan compositions in serum. It was developed based on established glycobiology and retrosynthetic state-transition networks. We find that at least 331 compositions are possible in the serum N-linked glycome. By pairing the theoretical glycan mass library with a high mass accuracy and high-resolution MS, human serum glycans were effectively profiled. Correct isotopic envelope deconvolution to monoisotopic masses and the high mass accuracy instruments drastically reduced the amount of false composition assignments. The high throughput capacity enabled by this library permitted the rapid glycan profiling of large control populations. With the use of the library, a human serum glycan mass profile was developed from 46 healthy individuals. This paper presents a theoretical N-linked glycan mass library that was used for accurate high-throughput human serum glycan profiling. Rapid methods for evaluating a patient's glycome are instrumental for studying glycan-based markers.

  20. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattolo, Emanuela; Gu, Jenny; Bayer, Philipp E; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia A; Spadafora, Antonia; Bernardo, Letizia; Natali, Lucia; Cavallini, Andrea; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in shallow (-5 m) and deep (-25 m) portions of a single meadow, (i) we generated two reciprocal Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii) we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM) engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed.

  1. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eDattolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in the shallow (-5m and a deep (-25m portions of a single meadow, (i we generated two reciprocal EST (Expressed Sequences Tags libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear o be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed.

  2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Very light dilaton and naturally light Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Deog Ki

    2018-02-01

    We study very light dilaton, arising from a scale-invariant ultraviolet theory of the Higgs sector in the standard model of particle physics. Imposing the scale symmetry below the ultraviolet scale of the Higgs sector, we alleviate the fine-tuning problem associated with the Higgs mass. When the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken radiatively à la Coleman-Weinberg, the dilaton develops a vacuum expectation value away from the origin to give an extra contribution to the Higgs potential so that the Higgs mass becomes naturally around the electroweak scale. The ultraviolet scale of the Higgs sector can be therefore much higher than the electroweak scale, as the dilaton drives the Higgs mass to the electroweak scale. We also show that the light dilaton in this scenario is a good candidate for dark matter of mass m D ˜ 1 eV - 10 keV, if the ultraviolet scale is about 10-100 TeV. Finally we propose a dilaton-assisted composite Higgs model to realize our scenario. In addition to the light dilaton the model predicts a heavy U(1) axial vector boson and two massive, oppositely charged, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, which might be accessible at LHC.

  4. On the relativistic mass conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kard, P.

    1979-01-01

    Mass of light is generally substantiated with the use of the Einstein known mental experiment with a cylinder displacing under the pressure of light flare emitted at one of its ends and absorbed at the other. This experiment is not rigorous however and involves a logical circle. Another method is presented to substantiate mass of light. The initial conditions are as follows: the law of momentum conservation, evailability of light pulse, momentum parallelism to a velocity, and the general ralativistic formula of velocity transformation. A consideration is given to directed emission of light flux by a body in two internal systems, viz. in the system of initial rest of the body and in the system moving relatively to it with an arbitrary velocity. The law of momentum conservation being used in both systems, as well as formulae for velocity transformation, the formulae are obtained which show that light has mass. The general law of mass conservation is derived as a consequence of the formulae for mass and momentum transformations

  5. Pattern Of Altered Lipid Profile In Patients With Subclinical And Clinical Hypothyroidism And Its Correlation With Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humerah, S.; Siddiqui, A.; Khan, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Result: Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). An assessment of correlation of lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Hypothyroidism causes alteration of lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population. (author)

  6. Investigating the origin of efficiency droop by profiling the voltage across the multi-quantum well of an operating light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taewoong [Department of Nano-Photonics Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Nano-Photonics Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohmyoung, E-mail: omkwon@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-06

    Efficiency droop is a phenomenon in which the efficiency of a light-emitting diode (LED) decreases with the increase in current density. To analyze efficiency droop, direct experimental observations on the energy conversion occurring inside the LED is required. Here, we present the measured voltage profiles on the cross section of an operating LED and analyze them with the cross-sectional temperature profiles obtained in a previous study under the same operation conditions. The measured voltage profiles suggest that with increases in the injection current density, electron depletion shifts from the multi-quantum well through an electron blocking layer to the p-GaN region. This is because electron leakage increases with increases in current density.

  7. CONSTRAINT ON LIGHT DIPOLE DARK MATTER FROM HELIOSEISMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kadota, Kenji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: kadota.kenji@f.nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the effects of a magnetic dipole moment of asymmetric dark matter (DM) in the evolution of the Sun. The dipole interaction can lead to a sizable DM scattering cross section even for light DM, and asymmetric DM can lead to a large DM number density in the Sun. We find that solar model precision tests, using as diagnostic the sound speed profile obtained from helioseismology data, exclude dipolar DM particles with a mass larger than 4.3 GeV and magnetic dipole moment larger than 1.6 × 10{sup –17} e cm.

  8. Evaporation rates and surface profiles on heterogeneous surfaces with mass transfer and surface reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Schmidt, L D

    1979-01-01

    Simple models incorporating surface reaction and diffusion of volatile products through a boundary layer are developed to calculate effective rates of evaporation and local surface profiles on surfaces having active and inactive regions. The coupling between surface heterogeneities with respect to a particular reaction and external mass transfer may provide a mechanism for the surface rearrangement and metal loss encountered in several catalytic systems of practical interest. Calculated transport rates for the volatilization of platinum in oxidizing environments and the rearrangement of this metal during the ammonia oxidation reaction agree well with published experimental data.

  9. Fatty Acid Profiling of Lipid A Isolated from Indigenous salmonella typhi strain by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbar, A.; Ali, A.; Tawab, A.; Haque, A.; Iqbal, M. [National Inst. for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    Typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. Lipopolysaccharides are one of the main virulence factors of S. Typhi. Hydrophobic lipid A anchors the lipopolysaccharides into the bacterial outer membrane and also serves as the epicenter of endotoxicity, which is linked to the presence of several fatty acid chains. Fatty acid profiling is, therefore, very important to understand the endotoxicity of these pathogenic bacteria. To profile lipid A with respect to its fatty acid constituents, a S. Typhi was isolated from blood culture of a typhoid patient from the Faisalabad region of Pakistan. After its complete identification using biochemical and molecular techniques, this bacterium was cultivated in a fermentor. The cell pellet obtained was subjected to hot phenol process to extract and purify lipopolysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides yielded lipid A, which was subjected to analyses using GC-MS after derivatization into their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified on the basis of their retention times, compared with standards as well as characteristic mass fragmentation patterns of their respective mass spectra. This fatty acid profiling revealed the occurrence of dodecanoic acid (C12:0), tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (3-OH C14:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) in the lipid A component of S. Typhi strain with the relative percentage abundances 8.5%, 12.5%, 55.9% and 23.1%, respectively. (author)

  10. Fatty Acid Profiling of Lipid A Isolated from Indigenous salmonella typhi strain by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, A.; Ali, A.; Tawab, A.; Haque, A.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. Lipopolysaccharides are one of the main virulence factors of S. Typhi. Hydrophobic lipid A anchors the lipopolysaccharides into the bacterial outer membrane and also serves as the epicenter of endotoxicity, which is linked to the presence of several fatty acid chains. Fatty acid profiling is, therefore, very important to understand the endotoxicity of these pathogenic bacteria. To profile lipid A with respect to its fatty acid constituents, a S. Typhi was isolated from blood culture of a typhoid patient from the Faisalabad region of Pakistan. After its complete identification using biochemical and molecular techniques, this bacterium was cultivated in a fermentor. The cell pellet obtained was subjected to hot phenol process to extract and purify lipopolysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides yielded lipid A, which was subjected to analyses using GC-MS after derivatization into their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified on the basis of their retention times, compared with standards as well as characteristic mass fragmentation patterns of their respective mass spectra. This fatty acid profiling revealed the occurrence of dodecanoic acid (C12:0), tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (3-OH C14:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) in the lipid A component of S. Typhi strain with the relative percentage abundances 8.5%, 12.5%, 55.9% and 23.1%, respectively. (author)

  11. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-10

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  12. Precise prediction for the light MSSM Higgs-boson mass combining effective field theory and fixed-order calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, Henning; Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model heavy superparticles introduce large logarithms in the calculation of the lightest CP-even Higgs-boson mass. These logarithmic contributions can be resummed using effective field theory techniques. For light superparticles, however, fixed-order calculations are expected to be more accurate. To gain a precise prediction also for intermediate mass scales, the two approaches have to be combined. Here, we report on an improvement of this method in various steps: the inclusion of electroweak contributions, of separate electroweakino and gluino thresholds, as well as resummation at the NNLL level. These improvements can lead to significant numerical effects. In most cases, the lightest CP-even Higgs-boson mass is shifted downwards by about 1 GeV. This is mainly caused by higher-order corrections to the MS top-quark mass. We also describe the implementation of the new contributions in the code FeynHiggs. (orig.)

  13. Differential proteomic profiling of primary and recurrent chordomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Xu, Wei; Jiao, Jian; Jiang, Dongjie; Liu, Jian; Chen, Tenghui; Wan, Zongmiao; Xu, Leqin; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-05-01

    Chordomas are locally destructive tumors with high rates of recurrence and a poor prognosis. The mechanisms involved in chordoma recurrence remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the proteomic profile of a chordoma primary tumor (CSO) and a recurrent tumor (CSR) through mass spectrum in a chordoma patient who underwent surgery. Bioinformatic analysis of the profile showed that 359 proteins had a significant expression difference and 21 pathways had a striking alteration between the CSO and the CSR. The CSR showed a significant increase in carbohydrate metabolism. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that the cancer stem cell marker activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM or CD166) expression level was higher in the recurrent than that in the primary tumor. The present study analyzed the proteomic profile change between CSO and CSR and identified a new biomarker ALCAM in recurrent chordomas. This finding sheds light on unraveling the pathophysiology of chordoma recurrence and on exploring more effective prognostic biomarkers and targeted therapies against this devastating disease.

  14. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two...... enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (∼25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli Trx......-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass...

  15. Tritium depth profiling in carbon samples from fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Pilz, W.; Sun, G.; Behrisch, R.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Bekris, N.; Penzhorn, R.-D.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium depth profiling by accelerator mass spectrometry has been performed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. Tritium particles are counted after the accelerator using a semiconductor detector, while deuterium and other light elements are simultaneously measured with the Faraday cup between the injection magnet and the accelerator. Depth profiles have been measured in carbon samples cut from the first wall tiles of the Garching fusion experiment ASDEX-Upgrade and of the European fusion experiment JET, Culham/UK. Tritium contents in the JET samples were up to six orders higher than in samples from ASDEX-Upgrade. Tritium beam currents from samples with high tritium content were measured partly in the Faraday cup before the accelerator. A dedicated tritium AMS facility with an air-insulated 100 kV tandem accelerator is under construction

  16. Galaxy Kinematics and Mass Calibration in Massive SZE Selected Galaxy Clusters to z=1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capasso, R.; et al.

    2017-11-27

    The galaxy phase-space distribution in galaxy clusters provides insights into the formation and evolution of cluster galaxies, and it can also be used to measure cluster mass profiles. We present a dynamical study based on $\\sim$3000 passive, non-emission line cluster galaxies drawn from 110 galaxy clusters. The galaxy clusters were selected using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ survey and cover the redshift range $0.2 < z < 1.3$. We model the clusters using the Jeans equation, while adopting NFW mass profiles and a broad range of velocity dispersion anisotropy profiles. The data prefer velocity dispersion anisotropy profiles that are approximately isotropic near the center and increasingly radial toward the cluster virial radius, and this is true for all redshifts and masses we study. The pseudo-phase-space density profile of the passive galaxies is consistent with expectations for dark matter particles and subhalos from cosmological $N$-body simulations. The dynamical mass constraints are in good agreement with external mass estimates of the SPT cluster sample from either weak lensing, velocity dispersions, or X-ray $Y_X$ measurements. However, the dynamical masses are lower (at the 2.2$\\sigma$ level) when compared to the mass calibration favored when fitting the SPT cluster data to a LCDM model with external cosmological priors, including CMB anisotropy data from Planck. The tension grows with redshift, where in the highest redshift bin the ratio of dynamical to SPT+Planck masses is $\\eta=0.63^{+0.13}_{-0.08}\\pm0.05$ (statistical and systematic), corresponding to 2.6$\\sigma$ tension.

  17. SDSS J14584479+3720215: A BENCHMARK JHK{sub S} BLAZAR LIGHT CURVE FROM THE 2MASS CALIBRATION SCANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Ruan, John J.; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Macleod, Chelsea L. [Physics Department, The United States Naval Academy, 572c Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR (NIR) variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHK{sub s}-band light curves from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSS J14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates based on fitting CARMA(1,0) models (damped-random walk) uncovered only seven candidates. All seven were young stellar objects within the ρ Ophiuchus star forming region, five with previous X-ray detections. A significant γ-ray detection (5σ) for the known blazar using 4.5 yr of Fermi photon data is also found. We suggest that strong NIR variability of blazars, such as seen for SDSS J14584479+3720215, can be used as an efficient method of identifying previously unidentified γ-ray blazars, with low contamination from other AGNs.

  18. The distribution of stars around the Milky Way's central black hole. II. Diffuse light from sub-giants and dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, R.; Gallego-Cano, E.; Dong, H.; Nogueras-Lara, F.; Gallego-Calvente, A. T.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Baumgardt, H.

    2018-01-01

    Context. This is the second of three papers that search for the predicted stellar cusp around the Milky Way's central black hole, Sagittarius A*, with new data and methods. Aims: We aim to infer the distribution of the faintest stellar population currently accessible through observations around Sagittarius A*. Methods: We used adaptive optics assisted high angular resolution images obtained with the NACO instrument at the ESO VLT. Through optimised PSF fitting we removed the light from all detected stars above a given magnitude limit. Subsequently we analysed the remaining, diffuse light density. Systematic uncertainties were constrained by the use of data from different observing epochs and obtained with different filters. We show that it is necessary to correct for the diffuse emission from the mini-spiral, which would otherwise lead to a systematically biased light density profile. We used a Paschen α map obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope for this purpose. Results: The azimuthally averaged diffuse surface light density profile within a projected distance of R ≲ 0.5 pc from Sagittarius A* can be described consistently by a single power law with an exponent of Γ = 0.26 ± 0.02stat ± 0.05sys, similar to what has been found for the surface number density of faint stars in Paper I. Conclusions: The analysed diffuse light arises from sub-giant and main-sequence stars with Ks ≈ 19-22 with masses of 0.8-1.5 M⊙. These stars can be old enough to be dynamically relaxed. The observed power-law profile and its slope are consistent with the existence of a relaxed stellar cusp around the Milky Way's central black hole. We find that a Nuker law provides an adequate description of the nuclear cluster's intrinsic shape (assuming spherical symmetry). The 3D power-law slope near Sgr A* is γ = 1.13 ± 0.03model ± 0.05sys. The stellar density decreases more steeply beyond a break radius of about 3 pc, which corresponds roughly to the radius of influence of the

  19. Light-by-light-type corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at four-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Alexander; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2015-08-01

    The numerically dominant QED contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon stem from Feynman diagrams with internal electron loops. We consider such corrections and present a calculation of the four-loop light-by-light-type corrections where the external photon couples to a closed electron or muon loop. We perform an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of electron and muon mass and reduce the resulting integrals to master integrals which we evaluate using analytical and numerical methods. We confirm the results present in the literature which are based on different computational methods.

  20. Prospects for detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters using integrated-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, R.; Trenti, M.; Bianchini, P.; Askar, A.; Giersz, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyse realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance and accuracy in determination of the centre. The mock observations are modelled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. However, even for an IMBH of considerable mass (3 per cent of the total GC mass), the analysis does not yield conclusive results in one out of five cases, because of shot noise due to bright stars close to the IMBH line of sight. This stochastic variability in the modelling outcome grows with decreasing BH mass, with approximately three failures out of four for IMBHs with 0.1 per cent of total GC mass. Finally, we find that our analysis is generally unable to exclude at 68 per cent confidence an IMBH with mass of 103 M⊙ in snapshots without a central BH. Interestingly, our results are not sensitive to GC distance within 5-20 kpc, nor to misidentification of the GC centre by less than 2 arcsec (<20 per cent of the core radius). These findings highlight the value of ground-based integral field spectroscopy for large GC surveys, where systematic failures can be accounted for, but stress the importance of discrete kinematic measurements that are less affected by stochasticity induced by bright stars.

  1. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  2. Interplay of type I and type II seesaw contributions to neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, Evgeny Kh.; Frigerio, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Type I and type II seesaw contributions to the mass matrix of light neutrinos are inherently related if left-right symmetry is realized at high energy scales. We investigate implications of such a relation for the interpretation of neutrino data. We proved recently that the left-right symmetric seesaw equation has eight solutions, related by a duality property, for the mass matrix of right-handed neutrinos M R . In this paper the eight allowed structures of M R are reconstructed analytically and analyzed numerically in a bottom-up approach. We study the dependence of right-handed neutrino masses on the mass spectrum of light neutrinos, mixing angle θ 13 , leptonic CP violation, scale of left-right symmetry breaking and on the hierarchy in neutrino Yukawa couplings. The structure of the seesaw formula in several specific SO(10) models is explored in the light of the duality. The outcome of leptogenesis may depend crucially on the choice among the allowed structures of M R and on the level crossing between right-handed neutrino masses

  3. Serum protein profiling and proteomics in autistic spectrum disorder using magnetic bead-assisted mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurines, Regina; Dudley, Edward; Conner, Alexander C; Grassl, Julia; Jans, Thomas; Guderian, Frank; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Warnke, Andreas; Gerlach, Manfred; Thome, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    The pathophysiology of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood and there are no diagnostic or predictive biomarkers. Proteomic profiling has been used in the past for biomarker research in several non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders and could provide new insights, potentially presenting a useful tool for generating such biomarkers in autism. Serum protein pre-fractionation with C8-magnetic beads and protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) were used to identify possible differences in protein profiles in patients and controls. Serum was obtained from 16 patients (aged 8-18) and age-matched controls. Three peaks in the MALDI-ToF-MS significantly differentiated the ASD sample from the control group. Sub-grouping the ASD patients into children with and without comorbid Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD (ASD/ADHD+ patients, n = 9; ASD/ADHD- patients, n = 7), one peak distinguished the ASD/ADHD+ patients from controls and ASD/ADHD- patients. Our results suggest that altered protein levels in peripheral blood of patients with ASD might represent useful biomarkers for this devastating psychiatric disorder.

  4. Note: a novel vacuum ultraviolet light source assembly with aluminum-coated electrodes for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Keqing; Liu, Chengyuan; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2014-04-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source assembly (VUVLSA) for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometer has been described. The VUVLSA composes of a Krypton lamp and a pair of disk electrodes with circular center cavities. The two interior surfaces that face the photoionization region were aluminum-coated. VUV light can be reflected back and forth in the photoionization region between the electrodes, thus the photoionization efficiency can be greatly enhanced. The performances of two different shaped electrodes, the coated double flat electrodes (DFE), and double conical electrodes, were studied. We showed that the signal amplification of coated DFE is around 4 times higher than that of uncoated electrodes without VUV light reflection. The relationship between the pressure of ionization chamber and mass signal enhancement has also been studied.

  5. Phase shifts and nonellipsoidal light curves: Challenges from mass determinations in x-ray binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew Glenn

    We consider two types of anomalous observations which have arisen from efforts to measure dynamical masses of X-ray binary stars: (1) Radial velocity curves which seemingly show the primary and the secondary out of antiphase in most systems, and (2) The observation of double-waved light curves which deviate significantly from the ellipsoidal modulations expected for a Roche lobe filling star. We consider both problems with the joint goals of understanding the physical origins of the anomalous observations, and using this understanding to allow robust dynamical determinations of mass in X-ray binary systems. In our analysis of phase-shifted radial velocity curves, we discuss a comprehensive sample of X-ray binaries with published phase-shifted radial velocity curves. We show that the most commonly adopted explanation for phase shifts is contradicted by many observations, and consider instead a generalized form of a model proposed by Smak in 1970. We show that this model is well supported by a range of observations, including some systems which had previously been considered anomalous. We lay the groundwork for the derivation of mass ratios based on our explanation for phase shifts, and we discuss the work necessary to produce more detailed physical models of the phase shift. In our analysis of non-ellipsoidal light curves, we focus on the very well-studied system A0620-00. We present new VIH SMARTS photometry spanning 1999-2007, and supplement this with a comprehensive collection of archival data obtained since 1981. We show that A0620-00 undergoes optical state changes within X-ray quiescence and argue that not all quiescent data should be used for determinations of the inclination. We identify twelve light curves which may reliably be used for determining the inclination. We show that the accretion disk contributes significantly to all twelve curves and is the dominant source of nonellipsoidal variations. We derive the disk fraction for each of the twelve curves

  6. DARK MATTER CONTRACTION AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DISFAVORING 'LIGHT' INITIAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Gavazzi, R.; Bolton, A. S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    We use stellar dynamics, strong lensing, stellar population synthesis models, and weak lensing shear measurements to constrain the dark matter (DM) profile and stellar mass in a sample of 53 massive early-type galaxies. We explore three DM halo models (unperturbed Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) halos and the adiabatic contraction models of Blumenthal and Gnedin) and impose a model for the relationship between the stellar and virial mass (i.e., a relationship for the star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass). We show that, given our model assumptions, the data clearly prefer a Salpeter-like initial mass function (IMF) over a lighter IMF (e.g., Chabrier or Kroupa), irrespective of the choice of DM halo. In addition, we find that the data prefer at most a moderate amount of adiabatic contraction (Blumenthal adiabatic contraction is strongly disfavored) and are only consistent with no adiabatic contraction (i.e., an NFW halo) if a mass-dependent IMF is assumed, in the sense of a more massive normalization of the IMF for more massive halos.

  7. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  8. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles and NOAA G-IV Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RGB air mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. The combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting imagery does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and NOAA G-IV dropsondes provide insight about the vertical structure of the air mass represented on the RGB air mass imagery and are a first step to validating the imagery.

  9. Glycerolipid Profiling of Yellow Sarson Seeds Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuning ZHENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa ssp. trillocularis is an important rapeseed-mustard species of Brassica rapa due to its high seed oil content. Glycerolipids and fatty acid composition affect seed germination and determine the quality of seed oil. To date, no information is available on the composition of individual glycerolipids in this species. Therefore, in this study the glycerolipid profiling of yellow sarson seeds was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. A fast and efficient chromatographic separation of glycerolipids was accomplished based on an UPLCTM BEH C8 column within 22 min. In ESI positive ion mode, TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition-product ion scan was carried out to acquire both high resolution MS and MS/MS information from one injection. According to MS/MS spectra, predominant fragmentation patterns of glycerolipids were elucidated in detail. Based on retention time, accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and fragmentation patterns, the composition of 144 glycerolipids and fatty acids were finally identified in yellow sarson seeds, including 77 triacylglycerols, 32 diacylglycerols, 18 sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols, 5 monogalactosyl-diaclyglycerols, and 12 digalactosyl-diacylglycerols. Of them, the most abundant glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds were triacylglycerols, the major storage form of seed oil in plants. In addition, diacylglycerols were found as a minor component of glycerolipids. The lowest amounts of glycerolipids detected in seeds were glycosyl-acylglycerols. The results revealed the composition and relative content of glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds, which will provide a more comprehensive assessment of the quality of seed oil and also help to select functional cultivars with higher beneficial glycerolipids. This profiling method has the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity and good accuracy

  10. Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2010-04-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general.

  11. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on plant growth and development: The importance of green and blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, K. R.; Bugbee, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging technology for plant growth lighting. Due to their narrow spectral output, colored LEDs provide many options for studying the spectral effects of light on plants. Early on, efficient red LEDs were the primary focus of photobiological research; however, subsequent studies have shown that normal plant growth and development cannot be achieved under red light without blue light supplementation. More recent studies have shown that red and blue (RB) LEDs supplemented with green light increase plant dry mass. This is because green light transmits more effectively through the leaf canopy than red and blue light, thus illuminating lower plant leaves and increasing whole-plant photosynthesis. Red, green and blue (RGB) light can be provided by either a conventional white light source (such as fluorescent lights), a combination of RGB LEDs, or from recently developed white LEDs. White LEDs exceed the efficiency of fluorescent lights and have a comparable broad spectrum. As such, they have the potential to replace fluorescent lighting for growth-chamber-based crop production both on Earth and in space. Here we report the results of studies on the effects of three white LED types (warm, neutral and cool) on plant growth and development compared to combinations of RB and RGB LEDs. Plants were grown under two constant light intensities (200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1). Temperature, environmental conditions and root-zone environment were uniformly maintained across treatments. Phytochrome photoequilbria and red/far-red ratios were similar among treatments and were comparable to conventional fluorescent lights. Blue light had a significant effect on both plant growth (dry mass gain) and development (dry mass partitioning). An increase in the absolute amount (μmol m-2 s-1) of blue light from 0-80 μmol m-2 s-1 resulted in a decrease in stem elongation, independent of the light intensity. However, an increase in the relative amount (%) of blue

  12. Light hadrons from lattice QCD with light (u,d), strange and charm dynamical quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.

    2010-04-01

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (N f =2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at two values of the lattice spacing a ∼ 0:078 fm and a ∼0.086 fm with lattice sizes ranging from L∼1.9 fm to L∼2.8 fm. We measure with high statistical precision the light pseudoscalar mass m PS and decay constant f PS in a range 270 PS 0 and anti l 3,4 of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory. We use the two values of the lattice spacing, several lattice sizes as well as different values of the light, strange and charm quark masses to explore the systematic effects. A first study of discretisation effects in light-quark observables and a comparison to N f =2 results are performed. (orig.)

  13. Intracluster light at the Frontier - II. The Frontier Fields Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Mireia; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    Multiwavelength deep observations are a key tool to understand the origin of the diffuse light in clusters of galaxies: the intracluster light (ICL). For this reason, we take advantage of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) survey to investigate the properties of the stellar populations of the ICL of its six massive intermediate redshift (0.3 1015 M⊙) clusters is formed by the stripping of MW-like objects that have been accreted at z < 1, in agreement with current simulations. We do not find any significant increase in the fraction of light of the ICL with cosmic time, although the redshift range explored is narrow to derive any strong conclusion. When exploring the slope of the stellar mass density profile, we found that the ICL of the HFF clusters follows the shape of their underlying dark matter haloes, in agreement with the idea that the ICL is the result of the stripping of galaxies at recent times.

  14. Modelling fat mass as a function of weekly physical activity profiles measured by Actigraph accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Nicole H; Faraway, Julian J; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R

    2012-01-01

    We show results on the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) using a new approach for modelling the relationship between health outcomes and physical activity assessed by accelerometers. The key feature of the model is that it uses the histogram of physical activity counts as a predictor function, rather than scalar summary measures such as average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Three models are fitted: (1a) A regression of fat mass at age 12 (N = 4164) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12; (1b) A regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2403) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12 and (1c) a regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2413) onto the accelerometer counts at age 14. All three models significantly improve on models including MVPA instead of the histogram and improve the goodness of fit of models (2a), (2b) and (2c) from R 2 = 0.267, 0.248 and 0.230 to R 2 = 0.292, 0.263 and 0.258 for models (1a), (1b) and (1c) respectively. The proportion of time spent in sedentary and very light activity (corresponding to slow walking and similar activities) has a positive contribution towards fat mass and time spent in moderate to vigorous activity has a negative contribution towards fat mass. (paper)

  15. Direct mass measurements in the light neutron-rich region using a combined energy and time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, C.; Swenson, L.W.; Vieira, D.J.; Butler, G.W.; Wouters, J.M.; Rokni, S.H.; Vaziri, K.; Remsberg, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    This experiment has demonstrated that direct mass measurements can be performed (albeit of low precision in this first attempt) using the M proportional to ET 2 method. This technique has the advantage that many particle-bound nuclei, produced in fragmentation reactions can be measured simultaneously, independent of their N or Z. The main disadvantage of this approach is that both energy and time-of-flight must be measured precisely on an absolute scale. Although some mass walk with N and Z was observed in this experiment, these uncertainties were largely removed by extrapolating the smooth dependence observed for known nuclei which lie closer to the valley of β-stability. Mass measurements for several neutron-rich light nuclei ranging from 17 C to 26 Ne have been performed. In all cases these measurements agree with the latest mass compilation of Wapstra and Audi. The masses of 20 N and 24 F have been determined for the first time

  16. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS FOR M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: AGE DATING AND A SURPRISING METALLICITY TREND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Huchra, John P.; Smith, Graeme H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Larsen, Soeren

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained velocity dispersions from Keck high-resolution integrated spectroscopy of 10 M31 globular clusters (GCs), including three candidate intermediate-age GCs. We show that these candidates have the same V-band mass-to-light (M/L V ) ratios as the other GCs, implying that they are likely to be old. We also find a trend of derived velocity dispersion with wavelength, but cannot distinguish between a systematic error and a physical effect. Our new measurements are combined with photometric and spectroscopic data from the literature in a re-analysis of all M31 GC M/L V values. In a combined sample of 27 GCs, we show that the metal-rich GCs have lower M/L V than the metal-poor GCs, in conflict with predictions from stellar population models. Fragmentary data for other galaxies support this observation. The M31 GC fundamental plane is extremely tight, and we follow up an earlier suggestion by Djorgovski to show that the fundamental plane can be used to estimate accurate distances (potentially 10% or better).

  17. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, J.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12-30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27-30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking

  18. Variation in light-intercepting area and photosynthetic rate of sun and shade shoots of two Picea species in relation to the angle of incoming light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Hamada, Yoko; Utsugi, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effects of sun- and shade-shoot architecture on the photosynthetic rates of two Picea species by applying light from various angles in the laboratory. Compared with sun shoots, shade shoots were characterized by lower mass allocation per light-intercepting area, less leaf mass per shoot mass, less mutual shading among leaves and more efficient allocation of chlorophyll to photosynthesis. The shoot silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR(ϕ)) decreased with increasing shoot inclination angle (ϕ, the shoot axis angle relative to the projection plane) and was consistently higher for the shade shoots. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the shade shoots resulted in maximum rates of net photosynthesis at ϕ = 0° (P(max,0)) similar to that of the sun shoots when expressed on a leaf mass, total leaf area and chlorophyll basis. When the angle of incoming light was varied, P(max,ϕ) per total leaf area (P(max,ϕ )/A(T)) of the shade shoots increased linearly with increasing STAR(ϕ), while P(max,ϕ) per shoot silhouette area did not change. In contrast, the response of the sun shoots was non-linear, and an optimum angle of incoming light was determined. Our results suggest that shade-shoot morphology is adaptive for utilizing diffuse light incoming from various angles, while sun-shoot morphology is adaptive for avoiding the negative effects of strong direct radiation and for enhancing light diffusion into the canopy. We propose that the angle of incoming light should be taken into account when estimating photosynthetic rates of sun shoots of conifer trees in the field.

  19. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S

    2008-01-01

    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  20. Metabolite profiling and quantification of phytochemicals in potato extracts using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Esther Swee Lan; McGhie, Tony K; Heyes, Julian A; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    Potatoes contain a diverse range of phytochemicals which have been suggested to have health benefits. Metabolite profiling and quantification were conducted on plant extracts made from a white potato cultivar and 'Urenika', a purple potato cultivar traditionally consumed by New Zealand Maori. There is limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of Solanum tuberosum cultivar 'Urenika'. Using ultra-high- performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), a total of 31 compounds were identified and quantified in the potato extracts. The majority of the compounds were identified for the first time in 'Urenika'. These compounds include several types of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, and hydroxycinnamic amides (HCAA). Six classes of compounds, namely organic acids, amino acids, HCA, HCAA, flavonols and glycoalkaloids, were present in both extracts but quantities varied between the two extracts. The unknown plant metabolites in both potato extracts were assigned with molecular formulae and identified with high confidence. Quantification of the metabolites was achieved using a number of appropriate standards. High-resolution mass spectrometry data critical for accurate identification of unknown phytochemicals were achieved and could be added to potato or plant metabolomic database. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Perspectives on the Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP): developing an online data query system to target a variety of user needs and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce B; Franklin, Saul; West, James K

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP) has many distinctive features. These features evolved to maximize the usefulness of this query system for a broad group of users with varied needs, differing levels of knowledge about public health, and diverse experience using public health data. Three major features of MassCHIP help target our large user population. These features are as follows: (1) multiple avenues of entry to initiate queries ranging from an alphabetical list of simple topics to detailed International Classification of Disease codes; (2) the inclusion of data sets from other state agencies in addition to those of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to reflect a broad view of public health; and (3) the capacity to retrieve data for multiple levels of geography, from the neighborhood through the state, including planning districts and hospitals. In this article, we discuss the history and design of MassCHIP, and focus on the features of MassCHIP that target a great variety of user needs and capabilities, and which are distinctive among Web-based data query systems.

  2. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  3. Development of a diamond detector for temporal profile measurements of intense, short ion bunches within the LIGHT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Diana [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Traeger, Michael; Kis, Mladen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport (LIGHT) research project at GSI, laser-driven ion acceleration and beam shaping are explored, combining a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) proton source with conventional accelerator technology. In the LIGHT experimental campaign in 2015, protons were accelerated via the TNSA mechanism, an energy of 7.8 MeV was selected and collimated with a pulsed solenoid and injected into a rf cavity. Through phase focusing, temporally compressed proton bunches were generated to a pulse length of <240 ps (FWHM) with up to 5 x 10{sup 8} particles in a single bunch at a distance of 6 m from the source. An ultrafast diamond detector has been specially developed to measure the temporal profile of these bunches and will be presented.

  4. Leptogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis explains the baryon asymmetry of the universe by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy right-handed neutrinos. In the minimal seesaw model this leads to interesting implications for light neutrino properties. In particular, quasi-degenerate light neutrino masses are incompatible with leptogenesis. An upper bound on light neutrino masses of 0.1 eV can be derived, which will be tested by forthcoming laboratory experiments and cosmology. (author)

  5. Profiling of Indoor Plant to Deteriorate Carbon Dioxide Using Low Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Shamsuri Mohd Mahathir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable grounds that human needs the plants because their abilities reduce carbon dioxide (CO2. However, it is not constantly human with the plants, especially in the building. This paper intends to study the abilities of seven plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Prayer Plants, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to absorb CO2 gas. The research was conducted in chambers (one cubic meter with temperature, lux intensity and CO2 concentration at 25±10C, 300 lux, and 450±10 ppm. Before experimental were carried out, all plants selected should be assimilated with an indoor setting for performance purpose, and the experiment was conducted during daytime (9 am-5 pm. The experiments run in triplicate. Based on the results that are using extremely low light that ever conducted on plants, only Spider Plants are not capable to absorb CO2, instead turn up the CO2 rate during respiration. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant is the most plant performed with CO2 reduction is 7.62%, and this plant also has equivalent results in triplicate study based on an ANOVA test with significant value at 0.072. The conclusions of this research, only Spider Plant cannot survive at indoor condition with extremely low light for plants live and reduce CO2 concentration for indoor air quality (IAQ. The rate of 300 lux is a minimum light at indoor that are set by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia.

  6. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  7. The study of the martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on mars express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Fonteyn, D.; Korablev, O.; Chassefière, E.; Dimarellis, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Hauchecorne, A.; Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Cernogora, G.; Quemerais, E.; Hermans, C.; Kockarts, G.; Lippens, C.; de Maziere, M.; Moreau, D.; Muller, C.; Neefs, B.; Simon, P. C.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Sandel, B.; Stern, A.

    2000-10-01

    SPICAM Light is a small UV-IR instrument selected for Mars Express to recover most of the science that was lost with the demise of Mars 96, where the SPICAM set of sensors was dedicated to the study of the atmosphere of Mars (Spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of mars). The new configuration of SPICAM Light includes optical sensors and an electronics block. A UV spectrometer (118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to Nadir viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar occultation (3.8 kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with H 2O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and ionospheric studies. An IR spectrometer (1.2- 4.8 μm, resolution 0.4-1 nm) is dedicated to vertical profiling during solar occultation of H 2O, CO 2, CO, aerosols and exploration of carbon compounds (3.5 kg). A nadir looking sensor for H 2O abundances (1.0- 1.7 μm, resolution 0.8 nm) is recently included in the package (0.8 kg). A simple data processing unit (DPU, 0.9 kg) provides the interface of these sensors with the spacecraft. In nadir orientation, SPICAM UV is essentially an ozone detector, measuring the strongest O 3 absorption band at 250 nm in the spectrum of the solar light scattered back from the ground. In the stellar occultation mode the UV Sensor will measure the vertical profiles of CO 2, temperature, O 3, clouds and aerosols. The density/temperature profiles obtained with SPICAM Light will constrain and aid in the development of the meteorological and dynamical atmospheric models, from the surface to 160 km in the atmosphere. This is essential for future missions that will rely on aerocapture and aerobraking. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow study of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO +, and CO 2+, and its direct interaction with the solar wind. Also, it will allow a better understanding of escape mechanisms and estimates of their magnitude, crucial for insight

  8. Higgs-boson contributions to gauge-boson mass shifts in extended electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    In the minimal standard model, the difference between the tree-level and one-loop-corrected predictions for the gauge-boson masses, known as the mass shifts, are of the order of 4%. The dominant contribution is from light-fermion loops. The Higgs-dependent terms are small, even if the Higgs boson is heavy. We have analyzed the mass shifts for models with a more complicated Higgs sector. We use the on-shell renormalization scheme, in which the parameters of the theory are the physical masses and couplings. We have considered the 2-doublet, n-doublet, triplet and doublet-triplet models. We have found that the Z-boson mass prediction has a strong dependence on the charged-Higgs mass. In the limit that the charged Higgs is much heavier than the gauge bosons, the Higgs-dependent terms become significant, and may even cancel the light-fermion terms. In the models with a Higgs triplet, there is also a strong dependence on the neutral-Higgs masses, although this contribution tends to be suppressed in realistic models. The W-boson mass shift does not have a strong Higgs dependence. If we use the Z mass as input in determining the parameters of the theory, a scenario which will become attractive as the mass of the Z is accurately measured in the next few years, we find that the W-boson mass shift exhibits the same sort of behavior, differing from the minimal model for the case of the charged Higgs being heavy. We have found that when radiative corrections are taken into account, models with extended Higgs sectors may differ significantly from the minimal standard model in their predictions for the gauge-boson masses. Thus, an accurate measurement of the masses will help shed light on the structure of the Higgs sector. 68 refs

  9. Investigating the size, shape and surface roughness dependence of polarization lidars with light-scattering computations on real mineral dust particles: Application to dust particles' external mixtures and dust mass concentration retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Tahar; Kemppinen, Osku; David, Grégory; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Tyynelä, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Rairoux, Patrick; Miffre, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to the Earth's radiative budget is limited by the complexity of these particles, which present a wide range of sizes, are highly-irregularly shaped, and are present in the atmosphere in the form of particle mixtures. To address the spatial distribution of mineral dust and atmospheric dust mass concentrations, polarization lidars are nowadays frequently used, with partitioning algorithms allowing to discern the contribution of mineral dust in two or three-component particle external mixtures. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the retrieved dust backscattering (βd) vertical profiles with the dust particle size and shape. For that, new light-scattering numerical simulations are performed on real atmospheric mineral dust particles, having determined mineralogy (CAL, DOL, AGG, SIL), derived from stereogrammetry (stereo-particles), with potential surface roughness, which are compared to the widely-used spheroidal mathematical shape model. For each dust shape model (smooth stereo-particles, rough stereo-particles, spheroids), the dust depolarization, backscattering Ångström exponent, lidar ratio are computed for two size distributions representative of mineral dust after long-range transport. As an output, two Saharan dust outbreaks involving mineral dust in two, then three-component particle mixtures are studied with Lyon (France) UV-VIS polarization lidar. If the dust size matters most, under certain circumstances, βd can vary by approximately 67% when real dust stereo-particles are used instead of spheroids, corresponding to variations in the dust backscattering coefficient as large as 2 Mm- 1·sr- 1. Moreover, the influence of surface roughness in polarization lidar retrievals is for the first time discussed. Finally, dust mass-extinction conversion factors (ηd) are evaluated for each assigned shape model and dust mass concentrations are retrieved from polarization lidar measurements. From

  10. THE LUMINOSITY PROFILES OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donzelli, C. J.; Muriel, H.; Madrid, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We have derived detailed R-band luminosity profiles and structural parameters for a total of 430 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), down to a limiting surface brightness of 24.5 mag arcsec -2 . Light profiles were initially fitted with a Sersic's R 1/n model, but we found that 205 (∼48%) BCGs require a double component model to accurately match their light profiles. The best fit for these 205 galaxies is an inner Sersic model, with indices n ∼ 1-7, plus an outer exponential component. Thus, we establish the existence of two categories of the BCG luminosity profiles: single and double component profiles. We found that double profile BCGs are brighter (∼0.2 mag) than single profile BCGs. In fact, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to these subsamples indicates that they have different total magnitude distributions, with mean values M R = -23.8 ± 0.6 mag for single profile BCGs and M R = -24.0 ± 0.5 mag for double profile BCGs. We find that partial luminosities for both subsamples are indistinguishable up to r = 15 kpc, while for r > 20 kpc the luminosities we obtain are on average 0.2 mag brighter for double profile BCGs. This result indicates that extra-light for double profile BCGs does not come from the inner region but from the outer regions of these galaxies. The best-fit slope of the Kormendy relation for the whole sample is a = 3.13 ± 0.04. However, when fitted separately, single and double profile BCGs show different slopes: a single = 3.29 ± 0.06 and a double = 2.79 ± 0.08. Also, the logarithmic slope of the metric luminosity α is higher in double profile BCGs (α double = 0.65 ± 0.12) than in single profile BCGs (α single = 0.59 ± 0.14). The mean isophote outer ellipticity (calculated at μ ∼ 24 mag arcsec -2 ) is higher in double profile BCGs (e double = 0.30 ± 0.10) than in single profile BCGs (e single = 0.26 ± 0.11). Similarly, the mean absolute value of inner minus outer ellipticity is also higher in double profile BCGs. From a

  11. Surgical lights. Making a purchase decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M M

    1987-11-01

    Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.

  12. Non-targeted glycosidic profiling of international wines using neutral loss-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Serra, M; Larcher, R

    2018-07-06

    Many metabolites naturally occur as glycosides, since sugar moieties can be crucial for their biological activity and increase their water solubility. In the plant kingdom they may occur as glycosides or sugar esters, depending on precursor chemical structure, and in wine they have traditionally attracted attention due to their organoleptic properties, such as astringency and bitterness, and because they affect the colour and aroma of wines. A new approach directed at detailed description of glycosides in a large selection of monovarietal wines (8 samples each of Pinot Blanc, Muller Thurgau, Riesling, Traminer, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon) was developed by combining high performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical separation was performed on an Accucore™ Polar Premium LC column, while mass analysis was performed in negative ion mode with an non-targeted screening approach, using a Full MS/AIF/NL dd-MS 2 experiment at a resolving power of 140,000 FWHM. Over 280 glycoside-like compounds were detected, of which 133 (including low-molecular weight phenols, flavonoids and monoterpenols) were tentatively identified in the form of pentose (6), deoxyhexose (17), hexose (73), hexose-pentose (16), hexose-deoxyhexose (7), dihexose (5) and hexose ester (9) derivatives. It was not possible to univocally define the corresponding chemical structure for the remaining 149 glycosides. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed it was possible to well characterise the glycosylated profile of all red and Traminer wines, while the identified glycosides were almost entirely lacking in Pinot Blanc, Riesling and Muller Thurgau wines. Also Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p wines from each other according to their glycosylated profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Peptidome profiling of human serum of uveal melanoma patients based on magnetic bead fractionation and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find new biomarkers for uveal melanoma (UM by analyzing the serum peptidome profile. METHODS: Proteomic spectra in patients with UM before and after operation were analyzed and compared with those of healthy controls. Magnetic affinity beads were used to capture serum peptides and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used to compile serum peptide profiles. RESULTS: A panel of 49 peptides were differentially expressed between UM patients and controls, of which 33 peptides were of higher intensities in patient group and 16 peptides were of higher intensities in control group. Based on combined use of these potential markers, peptides with mean molecular masses of 1467 and 9289.0 Da provide high sensitivity (83.3%, specificity (100% and accuracy rate (93.0% together to differentiate melanoma patients from healthy controls. At the time point of 6mo postoperatively, the levels of many peptides differentially expressed before surgery showed no more statistical difference between the patients and the control group. Fibrinogen α-chain precursors were identified as potential UM markers. CONCLUSION: We have shown that a convenient and fast proteomic technique, affinity bead separation and MALDI-TOF analysis combined with bioinformatic software, facilitates the identification of novel biomarkers for UM.

  14. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-01

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  15. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Quantitative Profiling of Major Neutral Lipid Classes in Human Meibum by Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to better understand lipid composition in human meibum. Methods. Intact lipids in meibum samples were detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in positive detection mode using sodium iodide (NaI) as an additive. The peak intensities of all major types of lipid species, that is, wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs) were corrected for peak overlapping and isotopic distribution; an additional ionization efficiency correction was performed for WEs and CEs, which was simplified by the observation that the corresponding ionization efficiency was primarily dependent on the specific lipid class and saturation degree of the lipids while independent of the carbon chain length. A set of WE and CE standards was spiked in meibum samples for ionization efficiency determination and absolute quantitation. Results. The absolute amount (μmol/mg) for each of 51 WEs and 31 CEs in meibum samples was determined. The summed masses for 51 WEs and 31 CEs accounted for 48 ± 4% and 40 ± 2%, respectively, of the total meibum lipids. The mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated species were determined to be 75 ± 2% and 25 ± 1% for CEs and 14 ± 1% and 86 ± 1% for WEs. The profiles for two types of DEs were also obtained, which include 42 α,ω Type II DEs, and 21 ω Type I-St DEs. Conclusions. Major neutral lipid classes in meibum samples were quantitatively profiled by ESI-MS analysis with NaI additive. PMID:23847307

  17. Quantitative detection of mass concentration of sand-dust storms via wind-profiling radar and analysis of Z- M relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Ming, Hu; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Lianhui; Yang, Di

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to achieve quantitative monitoring of sand-dust storms in real time, wind-profiling radar is applied to monitor and study the process of four sand-dust storms in the Tazhong area of the Taklimakan Desert. Through evaluation and analysis of the spatial-temporal distribution of reflectivity factor, it is found that reflectivity factor ranges from 2 to 18 dBz under sand-dust storm weather. Using echo power spectrum of radar vertical beams, sand-dust particle spectrum and sand-dust mass concentration at the altitude of 600 ˜ 1500 m are retrieved. This study shows that sand-dust mass concentration reaches 700 μg/m3 under blowing sand weather, 2000 μg/m3 under sand-dust storm weather, and 400 μg/m3 under floating dust weather. The following equations are established to represent the relationship between the reflectivity factor and sand-dust mass concentration: Z = 20713.5 M 0.995 under floating dust weather, Z = 22988.3 M 1.006 under blowing sand weather, and Z = 24584.2 M 1.013 under sand-dust storm weather. The retrieval results from this paper are almost consistent with previous monitoring results achieved by former researchers; thus, it is implied that wind-profiling radar can be used as a new reference device to quantitatively monitor sand-dust storms.

  18. RED FRACTION AMONG SATELLITE GALAXIES WITH DISK-LIKE LIGHT PROFILES: EVIDENCE FOR INFLOW IN THE H I DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between color, characterized with respect to the g - r red sequence; stellar structure, as determined using the i-band Sersic index; and group membership are explored using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new results place novel constraints on theories of galaxy evolution, despite the strong correlation between color and stellar structure. Observed correlations are of three independent types-those based on stellar structure, on the color of disk-like galaxies, and on the color of elliptical galaxies. Of particular note, the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence measured among galaxies with disk-like light profiles is enhanced for satellite galaxies compared to central galaxies. This fraction increases with group mass. When these new results are considered, theoretical treatments of galaxy evolution that adopt a gas accretion model centered on the hot galactic halo cannot consistently account for all observations of disk galaxies. The hypothesis is advanced that inflow within the extended H I disk prolongs star formation in satellite galaxies. When combined with partial ram pressure stripping (RPS) of this disk, this new scenario is consistent with the observations. This is demonstrated by applying an analytical model of RPS of the extended H I disk to the SDSS groups. These results motivate incorporating more complex modes of gas accretion into models of galaxy evolution, including cold mode accretion, an improved treatment of gas dynamics within disks, and disk stripping.

  19. Measuring and engineering the atomic mass density wave of a Gaussian mass-polariton pulse in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that only the energy of the field propagates inside the medium. Consequently, they neglect the transport of mass density by the medium atoms. We have recently presented foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a nondispersive medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces [Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017)]. In particular, we have shown that the mass is transferred by an atomic mass density wave (MDW), which gives rise to mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, i.e., covariant coupled states of the field and matter having a nonzero rest mass. Another key observation of the mass-polariton theory of light is that, in common semiconductors, most of the momentum of light is transferred by moving atoms, e.g., 92% in the case of silicon. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media and consider experimental measurement of the mass transferred by the MDW atoms when an intense light pulse propagates in a silicon fiber. In particular, we consider optimal intensity and time dependence of a Gaussian pulse and account for the breakdown threshold irradiance of the material. The optical shock wave property of the MDW, which propagates with the velocity of light instead of the velocity of sound, prompts for engineering of novel device concepts like very high frequency mechanical oscillators not limited by the acoustic cutoff frequency.

  20. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  1. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  2. Profiling analysis of low molecular weight heparins by multiple heart-cutting two dimensional chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yilan; Zeng, Yangyang; Rong, Yinxiu; Song, Yue; Shi, Lv; Chen, Bo; Yang, Xinlei; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are polydisperse and microheterogenous mixtures of polysaccharides used as anticoagulant drugs. Profiling analysis is important for obtaining deeper insights into the structure of LMWHs. Previous oligosaccharide mapping methods are relatively low resolution and are unable to show an entire picture of the structural complexity of LMWHs. In the current study a profiling method was developed relying on multiple heart-cutting, two-dimensional, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This represents an efficient, automated, and robust approach for profiling LMWHs. Using size-exclusion chromatography and ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography in a two-dimensional separation, LMW components of different sizes and LMW components of the same size but with different charges and polarities can be resolved, providing a more complete picture of a LMWH. Structural information on each component was then obtained with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 80 and 120 oligosaccharides were observed and unambiguously assigned from the LMWHs, nadroparin and enoxaparin, respectively. This method might be useful for quality control of LMWHs and as a powerful tool for heparin-related glycomics.

  3. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  4. Light hadrons from lattice QCD with light (u,d), strange and charm dynamical quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Boucaud, P. [CNRS et Paris-Sud 11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Carbonell, J. [Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (FR)] (and others)

    2010-04-15

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (N{sub f}=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at two values of the lattice spacing a {approx} 0:078 fm and a {approx}0.086 fm with lattice sizes ranging from L{approx}1.9 fm to L{approx}2.8 fm. We measure with high statistical precision the light pseudoscalar mass m{sub PS} and decay constant f{sub PS} in a range 270light, strange and charm quark masses to explore the systematic effects. A first study of discretisation effects in light-quark observables and a comparison to N{sub f}=2 results are performed. (orig.)

  5. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  6. LOGISTIC FUNCTION PROFILE FIT: A least-squares program for fitting interface profiles to an extended logistic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, William H.

    2012-01-01

    The extended logistic function provides a physically reasonable description of interfaces such as depth profiles or line scans of surface topological or compositional features. It describes these interfaces with the minimum number of parameters, namely, position, width, and asymmetry. Logistic Function Profile Fit (LFPF) is a robust, least-squares fitting program in which the nonlinear extended logistic function is linearized by a Taylor series expansion (equivalent to a Newton–Raphson approach) with no apparent introduction of bias in the analysis. The program provides reliable confidence limits for the parameters when systematic errors are minimal and provides a display of the residuals from the fit for the detection of systematic errors. The program will aid researchers in applying ASTM E1636-10, “Standard practice for analytically describing sputter-depth-profile and linescan-profile data by an extended logistic function,” and may also prove useful in applying ISO 18516: 2006, “Surface chemical analysis—Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy—determination of lateral resolution.” Examples are given of LFPF fits to a secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profile, an Auger surface line scan, and synthetic data generated to exhibit known systematic errors for examining the significance of such errors to the extrapolation of partial profiles.

  7. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Stacey A; Silander, John A

    2006-07-01

    When plants are subjected to leaf canopy shade in forest understories or from neighboring plants, they not only experience reduced light quantity, but light quality in lowered red : far red light (R : FR). Growth and other developmental responses of plants in reduced R : FR can vary and are not consistent across species. We compared how an invasive liana, Celastrus orbiculatus, and its closely related native congener, C. scandens, responded to changes in the R : FR under controlled, simulated understory conditions. We measured a suite of morphological and growth attributes under control, neutral shading, and low R : FR light treatments. Celastrus orbiculatus showed an increase in height, aboveground biomass, and total leaf mass in reduced R : FR treatments as compared to the neutral shade, while C. scandens had increased stem diameter, single leaf area, and leaf mass to stem mass ratio. These differences provide a mechanistic understanding of the ability of C. orbiculatus to increase height and actively forage for light resources in forest understories, while C. scandens appears unable to forage for light and instead depends upon a light gap forming. The plastic growth response of C. orbiculatus in shaded conditions points to its success in forested habitats where C. scandens is largely absent.

  8. Listening to Shells: Galaxy Masses from Disrupted Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle; Sanderson, R.

    Our ability to measure the dynamical mass of an individual galaxy is limited by the radial extent of the luminous tracers of its potential. For elliptical galaxies, it is difficult to go much beyond two effective radii using integrated light. Appealing to particle tracers like globular clusters has

  9. Liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with metabolic profiling of human urine as a tool for environmental analysis of dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma

    2012-10-12

    We use the combination of liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) and urine metabolic profiling to find and identify the metabolites of dextromethorphan, a common over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant. Next, we use the combination of ion masses, their MS/MS fragmentation, and retention times to determine dextromethorphan and its metabolites in surface water impacted by wastewater. Prior to this study, neither dextromethorphan nor its metabolites have been reported in surface water; in spite of its common use in over 100 various OTC medications. We found that the concentration of the dextrorphan metabolite in surface water greatly exceeded the parent compound by factors of 5-10 times, which reflects the urine profile, where parent compound is approximately <2% of the total excreted drug based on ion intensities. Urine profiling also indicated that glucuronide metabolites are major phase 2 products (92% of the total) in urine and then are completely hydrolyzed in wastewater to dextrorphan and N-demethyldextrorphan, which are phase 1 metabolites-a "kind of reversal" of human metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. O Star Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock Physics from X-ray Line Profiles in Archival XMM RGS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    O stars are characterized by their dense, supersonic stellar winds. These winds are the site of X-ray emission from shock-heated plasma. By analyzing high-resolution X-ray spectra of these O stars, we can learn about the wind-shock heating and X-ray production mechanism. But in addition, the X-rays can also be used to measure the mass-loss rate of the stellar wind, which is a key observational quantity whose value affects stellar evolution and energy, momentum, and mass input to the Galactic interstellar medium. We make this X-ray based mass-loss measurement by analyzing the profile shapes of the X-ray emission lines observed at high resolution with the Chandra and XMM-Newton grating spectrometers. One advantage of our method is that it is insensitive to small-scale clumping that affects density-squared diagnostics. We are applying this analysis technique to O stars in the Chandra archive, and are finding mass-loss rates lower than those traditionally assumed for these O stars, and in line with more recent independent determinations that do account for clumping. By extending this analysis to the XMM RGS data archive, we will make significant contributions to the understanding of both X-ray production in O stars and to addressing the issue of the actual mass-loss rates of O stars. The XMM RGS data archive provides several extensions and advantages over the smaller Chandra HETGS archive: (1) there are roughly twice as many O and early B stars in the XMM archive; (2) the longer wavelength response of the RGS provides access to diagnostically important lines of nitrogen and carbon; (3) the very long, multiple exposures of zeta Pup provide the opportunity to study this canonical O supergiant's X-ray spectrum in unprecedented detail, including looking at the time variability of X-ray line profiles. Our research team has developed a sophisticated empirical line profile model as well as a computational infrastructure for fitting the model to high-resolution X-ray spectra

  11. Postmortem interval estimation: a novel approach utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based biochemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszynski, Richard H; Nishiumi, Shin; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    While the molecular mechanisms underlying postmortem change have been exhaustively investigated, the establishment of an objective and reliable means for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) remains an elusive feat. In the present study, we exploit low molecular weight metabolites to estimate postmortem interval in mice. After sacrifice, serum and muscle samples were procured from C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) at seven predetermined postmortem intervals (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h). After extraction and isolation, low molecular weight metabolites were measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and examined via semi-quantification studies. Then, PMI prediction models were generated for each of the 175 and 163 metabolites identified in muscle and serum, respectively, using a non-linear least squares curve fitting program. A PMI estimation panel for muscle and serum was then erected which consisted of 17 (9.7%) and 14 (8.5%) of the best PMI biomarkers identified in muscle and serum profiles demonstrating statistically significant correlations between metabolite quantity and PMI. Using a single-blinded assessment, we carried out validation studies on the PMI estimation panels. Mean ± standard deviation for accuracy of muscle and serum PMI prediction panels was -0.27 ± 2.88 and -0.89 ± 2.31 h, respectively. Ultimately, these studies elucidate the utility of metabolomic profiling in PMI estimation and pave the path toward biochemical profiling studies involving human samples.

  12. Proteomic profiling of human pleural effusion using two-dimensional nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Pleural effusion, an accumulation of pleural fluid, contains proteins originated from plasma filtrate and, especially when tissues are damaged, parenchyma interstitial spaces of lungs and/or other organs. This study details protein profiles in human pleural effusion from 43 lung adenocarcinoma patients by a two-dimensional nano-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) system. The experimental results revealed the identification of 1415 unique proteins from human pleural effusion. Among these 124 proteins identified with higher confidence levels, some proteins have not been reported in plasma and may represent proteins specifically present in pleural effusion. These proteins are valuable for mass identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in proteomics database and screening biomarker to further study in human lung adenocarcinoma. The significance of the use of proteomics analysis of human pleural fluid for the search of new lung cancer marker proteins, and for their simultaneous display and analysis in patients suffering from lung disorders has been examined.

  13. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  14. Sub-keV secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling: comparison of sample rotation and oxygen flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.; Wee, A.T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Following the increasingly stringent requirements in the characterization of sub-micron IC devices, an understanding of the various factors affecting ultra shallow depth profiling in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become crucial. Achieving high depth resolution (of the order of 1 nm) is critical in the semiconductor industry today, and various methods have been developed to optimize depth resolution. In this paper, we will discuss ultra shallow SIMS depth profiling using B and Ge delta-doped Si samples using low energy 0.5 keV O 2 + primary beams. The relationship between depth resolution of the delta layers and surface topography measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is studied. The effect of oxygen flooding and sample rotation, used to suppress surface roughening is also investigated. Oxygen flooding was found to effectively suppress roughening and gives the best depth resolution for B, but sample rotation gives the best resolution for Ge. Possible mechanisms for this are discussed

  15. TOF spectrometer with improved sensitivity for ERDA of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siketic, Z.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF ERDA) is a well established and powerful ion beam analytical technique. It is used for simultaneous and quantitative analysis of elemental depth distributions of light and medium mass elements in both light and heavy matrices. Contrary to silicon particle detectors, the efficiency of the carbon-foil MCP time detectors in TOF system depends on energy and electronic stopping power of analyzing recoil atoms in the C foil and it is often less than 100% for light elements (H, He, Li). This is particularly critical for hydrogen isotopes where detection efficiency can be drastically reduced (∼ 10%). Therefore, TOF ERDA spectrometers were so far not the best choice for depth profiling and quantification of light elements. To improve the detection efficiency of TOF ERDA, the electron emission of C foils (∼ 0.3 μg/cm 2 ) has been enhanced by evaporating a thin LiF layer on the foil. That procedure improved significantly detection efficiency of hydrogen and other light elements, making TOF ERDA spectrometer more suitable for multielemental analysis applications. The capabilities of upgraded spectrometer were demonstrated on samples with well known as well as unknown concentration and depth distribution of H and D.(author)

  16. Leading isospin-breaking corrections to pion, kaon, and charmed-meson masses with twisted-mass fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, D.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Martinelli, G.; Sanfilippo, F.; Simula, S.; Tantalo, N.; RM123 Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We present a lattice computation of the isospin-breaking corrections to pseudoscalar meson masses using the gauge configurations produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with Nf=2 +1 +1 dynamical quarks at three values of the lattice spacing (a ≃0.062 , 0.082, and 0.089 fm) with pion masses in the range Mπ≃210 - 450 MeV . The strange and charm quark masses are tuned at their physical values. We adopt the RM123 method based on the combined expansion of the path integral in powers of the d - and u -quark mass difference (m^d-m^u) and of the electromagnetic coupling αe m. Within the quenched QED approximation, which neglects the effects of the sea-quark charges, and after the extrapolations to the physical pion mass and to the continuum and infinite volume limits, we provide results for the pion, kaon, and (for the first time) charmed-meson mass splittings, for the prescription-dependent parameters ɛπ0, ɛγ(M S ¯ ,2 GeV ) , ɛK0(M S ¯ ,2 GeV ) , related to the violations of the Dashen's theorem, and for the light quark mass difference (m^ d-m^ u)(M S ¯ ,2 GeV ) .

  17. Explaining dark matter and neutrino mass in the light of TYPE-II seesaw model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Shaw, Avirup

    2018-02-01

    With the motivation of simultaneously explaining dark matter and neutrino masses, mixing angles, we have invoked the Type-II seesaw model extended by an extra SU(2) doublet Φ. Moreover, we have imposed a Z2 parity on Φ which remains unbroken as the vacuum expectation value of Φ is zero. Consequently, the lightest neutral component of Φ becomes naturally stable and can be a viable dark matter candidate. On the other hand, light Majorana masses for neutrinos have been generated following usual Type-II seesaw mechanism. Further in this framework, for the first time we have derived the full set of vacuum stability and unitarity conditions, which must be satisfied to obtain a stable vacuum as well as to preserve the unitarity of the model respectively. Thereafter, we have performed extensive phenomenological studies of both dark matter and neutrino sectors considering all possible theoretical and current experimental constraints. Finally, we have also discussed a qualitative collider signatures of dark matter and associated odd particles at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider.

  18. Bump masses for BL Her stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    The masses of classical Cepheids can be determined by using the phase of the Hertzsprung bump on the light or velocity curve, Cox-Stewart opacities, and nonlinear pulsation theory. The fact that these bump masses are some 60% lower than the evolutionary masses raises some questions about this approach. In support of our method, we calculate the light curve for BL Her, a population II Cepheid, with an observed bump on the declining portion of its light curve. The nonlinear hydrodynamic model we use (Davis and Davison - 1978) resolves the light curve by dynamic zoning and allows us the opportunity to make a direct comparison of the calculated light curve to the observations, using a prescribed mass, luminosity and effective temperature. The parameters for BL Her are from a linear model (Hodson, Cox, and King - 1982) that has nearly the correct period (1./sup d/2) and the correct period ratio from resonance theory (π 2 /π 0 = 0.53) for a bump to appear on the declining portion of the light curve as observed. These parameters are: M = 0.55 M, L = 95.0 L, and T/sub eff/ = 6500 K. This mass is near the evolutionary mass as described by Schwartzschild and Haerm (1970). The model results agree well with the observations and the color-T/sub eff/ relation has the same slope as that observed for RR Lyrae stars by the Oke, Giver and Searle (1965) relationship

  19. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-02-15

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)

  20. Urinary Metabolomic Profiling to Identify Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Behcet’s Disease by Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight−Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Kyong Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing Behcet’s disease (BD is challenging because of the lack of a diagnostic biomarker. The purposes of this study were to investigate distinctive metabolic changes in urine samples of BD patients and to identify urinary metabolic biomarkers for diagnosis of BD using gas chromatography/time-of-flight–mass spectrometry (GC/TOF−MS. Metabolomic profiling of urine samples from 44 BD patients and 41 healthy controls (HC were assessed using GC/TOF−MS, in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 110 urinary metabolites were identified. The urine metabolite profiles obtained from GC/TOF−MS analysis could distinguish BD patients from the HC group in the discovery set. The parameter values of the orthogonal partial least squared-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA model were R2X of 0.231, R2Y of 0.804, and Q2 of 0.598. A biomarker panel composed of guanine, pyrrole-2-carboxylate, 3-hydroxypyridine, mannose, l-citrulline, galactonate, isothreonate, sedoheptuloses, hypoxanthine, and gluconic acid lactone were selected and adequately validated as putative biomarkers of BD (sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 93.3%, area under the curve 0.974. OPLS-DA showed clear discrimination of BD and HC groups by a biomarker panel of ten metabolites in the independent set (accuracy 88%. We demonstrated characteristic urinary metabolic profiles and potential urinary metabolite biomarkers that have clinical value in the diagnosis of BD using GC/TOF−MS.

  1. Effects of Galaxy collisions on the structure and evolution of Galaxy clusters. I. Mass and luminosity functions and background light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin)

    1983-01-01

    The role of galaxy collisions in controlling the form of the galaxy mass and luminosity functions and in creating a diffuse background light is investigated by means of a direct computer simulation. Galaxy collisions are treated in a realistic manner, including both galaxy mergers and tidal encounters. A large number of theoretical studies of a galaxy collisions were consulted to formulate the basic input physics of collision cross sections. Despite this large number of studies, there remains considerable uncertainty in the effects of a collision on a galaxy due mainly to our lack of knowledge of the orbital distribution of matter in galaxies. To improve this situation, some methods of semiempirical calibration are suggested: for example, a survey of background light in clusters of different richness and morphological classes. If real galaxies are represented by galaxy models where the bulk of the matter is on radial, rather than circular, orbits, then tidal collisions are more damaging and there are a number of interesting effects: Repeated tidal encounters lead to galaxy mass and luminosity functions which are largely independent of model parameters and the initial galaxy mass function. It appears unlikely that the form of the average present-day luminosity function characteristic of both field and cluster galaxies is due to collisions, but certain observed deviations from the average found by Heiligman and Turner and by Dressler may be a signature of collisions, in particular a flat faint-end slope. The amount of luminous matter stripped from the galaxies in the simulations agrees with the amount of diffuse background light seen in the Coma Cluster

  2. Light-by-Light Scattering Constraint on Born-Infeld Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E; You, Tevong

    2017-06-30

    The recent measurement by ATLAS of light-by-light scattering in LHC Pb-Pb collisions is the first direct evidence for this basic process. We find that it excludes a range of the mass scale of a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of QED that is ≲100  GeV, a much stronger constraint than those derived previously. In the case of a Born-Infeld extension of the standard model in which the U(1)_{Y} hypercharge gauge symmetry is realized nonlinearly, the limit on the corresponding mass reach is ∼90  GeV, which, in turn, imposes a lower limit of ≳11  TeV on the magnetic monopole mass in such a U(1)_{Y} Born-Infeld theory.

  3. Formation of truncated proteins and high-molecular-mass aggregates upon soft illumination of photosynthetic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Campostrini, Natascia; Antonioli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Different spot profiles were observed in 2D gel electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes performed either under complete darkness or by leaving the sample for a short time to low visible light. In the latter case, a large number of new spots with lower molecular masses, ranging between 15,000 and 25......,000 Da, were observed, and high-molecular-mass aggregates, seen as a smearing in the upper part of the gel, appeared in the region around 250 kDa. Identification of protein(s) contained in these new spots by MS/MS revealed that most of them are simply truncated proteins deriving from native ones...

  4. Evaluation of fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under the influence of phosphorus, pH and light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Nayaka, S; Ramteke, P W

    2016-02-01

    The present study dealt with biomass, lipid concentration, fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under different phosphate concentrations, pH and light intensities, one at a time. Among different phosphate concentrations, higher biomass (770.10±11.0mg/L) and lipid concentration (176.87±4.6mg/L) were at the concentration of 60mg/L. Light intensity at 6000lux yielded higher biomass and lipid concentration of 742.0±9.7 and 243.15±9.1mg/L, respectively. The biomass (769.0±12.3mg/L) and lipid (179.47±5.5mg/L) concentration were highest at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. All the culture treatments showed marked effect on the fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of the extracted oil. FAME derived biodiesel properties were compared with European biodiesel standards (EN 14214), Indian biodiesel standards (IS 15607) and American biodiesel standards (ASTM D 6751-08) to assess the suitability of algal oil as biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Project Profile: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Tower (HFCML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding innovative solutions that improve the operational performance of ground support equipment while providing environment and cost benefits, as well. Through the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Tower (HFCML) project, NASA gained operational exposure to a novel application of high efficiency technologies. Traditionally, outdoor lighting and auxiliary power at security gates, launch viewing sites, fallback areas, outage support, and special events is provided by diesel generators with metal halide lights. Diesel generators inherently contribute to C02, NOx, particulate emissions, and are very noisy. In 2010, engineers from NASA's Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) introduced KSC operations to a novel technology for outdoor lighting needs. Developed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the technology pairs a 5kW hydrogen fuel cell with robust high efficiency plasma lights in a towable trailer. Increased efficiency, in both the fuel cell power source and lighting load, yields longer run times between fueling operations while providing greater auxiliary power. Because of the unit's quiet operation and no exhaust fumes, it is capable of being used indoors and in emergency situations, and meets the needs of all other operational roles for metal halide/diesel generators. The only discharge is some water and warm air. Environmental benefits include elimination of diesel particulate emissions and estimated 73% greenhouse gas emissions savings when the hydrogen source is natural gas (per GREET model). As the technology matures the costs could become competitive for the fuel cell units which are approximately 5 times diesel units. Initial operational . concerns included the hydrogen storage tanks and valves, lightning safety/grounding, and required operating and refueling procedures. TEERM facilitated technical information exchange (design drawings, technical standards, and operations

  6. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT VARIATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL FUNDAMENTAL PLANE SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies is observed to have finite thickness and to be tilted from the virial relation. Both of these represent departures from the simple assumption that dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M dyn /L) are constant for all early-type galaxies. We use a sample of 16,000 quiescent galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to map out the variations in M dyn /L throughout the three-dimensional FP space defined by velocity dispersion (σ), effective radius (R e ), and effective surface brightness (I e ). Dividing M dyn /L into multiple components allows us to separately consider the contribution to the observed M dyn /L variation due to stellar population effects, initial mass function (IMF) variations, and variations in the dark matter fraction within one R e . Along the FP, we find that the stellar population contribution given some constant IMF (M *,IMF /L) scales with σ such that M *,IMF /L ∝ f(σ). Meanwhile, the dark matter and/or IMF contribution (M dyn /M *,IMF ) scales with M dyn such that M dyn /M *,IMF ∝ g(M dyn ). This means that the two contributions to the tilt of the FP rotate the plane around different axes in the three-dimensional space. The observed tilt of the FP requires contributions from both, with dark matter/IMF variations likely comprising the dominant contribution. Looking at M dyn /L variations through the thickness of the FP, we find that M dyn /L variations must be dominated either by IMF variations or by real differences in the dark matter fraction with R e . This means that the finite thickness of the FP is due to variations in the stellar mass surface density within R e (Σ *,IMF ), not the fading of passive stellar populations. It therefore represents genuine structural differences between early-type galaxies. These structural variations are correlated with galaxy star formation histories such that galaxies with higher M dyn /M *,IMF have higher [Mg/Fe], lower metallicities, and older mean

  7. Development of SEM/STEM-WDX for highly sensitive detection of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Y.; Koguchi, M.; Kimura, T.; Sekiguchi, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, to detect the light element lithium (Li) and to detect low dosed Boron (B) in the local area at nm order, we developed an analytical electron microscope equipped with an improved serial (S)-type WDX (wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system. In detail, to detect Li, we developed a high-conductivity multi-capillary X-ray (MCX) lens, and a diffractor with a lattice spacing (d) of 15 nm, and with a spacing variation (δ d) of 0.8 nm. Moreover, to detect low dosed light element B, we designed a high-conductivity MCX lens based on the soft X-ray reflectivity in the capillary and calculation. We developed a large-solid-angle MCX lens whose conductivity of the characteristic X-rays of B became 20 times higher than that of an MCX lens with a 30-mm focal length. Our developed analytical electron microscope was applied to a LiAl specimen and a low B-doped Si substrate specimen, and the performance of this analytical electron microscope was evaluated. As a results, this analytical electron microscope could detect the characteristic X-rays of Li with a minimum mass fraction (MMF) of 8.4 atomic % (at. %). The energy resolution was 1 eV at 55 eV. From the results of measuring the line profile of B for the unpatterned B-implantation area on a B-doped Si substrate specimen, the measured line profile data were in good agreement with secondary ion mass spectrometry data up to a depth of 100 nm with a B concentration of 0.05 at. %.

  8. ATLAS Event Display: Light-by-Light Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    An event display of light-by-light scattering in ultra-peripheral lead+lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The event 461251458 from run 287931 recorded on 13 December 2015 at 09:51:07 is shown. Two back-to-back photons with an invariant mass of 24 GeV with no additional activity in the detector are presented. All calorimeter cells with E>500 MeV are shown.

  9. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  10. Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals a Correlation between the Host Phylogeny, Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles in Cyprinid Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Li, Huan; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Xujie; Zhang, Qianqian; Feng, Dongyue; Li, Aihua

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota play key roles in host nutrition and metabolism. However, little is known about the relationship between host genetics, gut microbiota and metabolic profiles. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry approaches to characterize the microbiota composition and the metabolite profiles in the gut of five cyprinid fish species with three different feeding habits raised under identical husbandry conditions. Our results showed that host species and feeding habits significantly affect not only gut microbiota composition but also metabolite profiles (ANOSIM, p ≤ 0.05). Mantel test demonstrated that host phylogeny, gut microbiota, and metabolite profiles were significantly related to each other (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, the carps with the same feeding habits had more similarity in gut microbiota composition and metabolite profiles. Various metabolites were correlated positively with bacterial taxa involved in food degradation. Our results shed new light on the microbiome and metabolite profiles in the gut content of cyprinid fishes, and highlighted the correlations between host genotype, fish gut microbiome and putative functions, and gut metabolite profiles. PMID:28367147

  11. Mass spectrometry protein expression profiles in colorectal cancer tissue associated with clinico-pathological features of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Christopher CL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of several tumour types have shown that expression profiling of cellular protein extracted from surgical tissue specimens by direct mass spectrometry analysis can accurately discriminate tumour from normal tissue and in some cases can sub-classify disease. We have evaluated the potential value of this approach to classify various clinico-pathological features in colorectal cancer by employing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Methods Protein extracts from 31 tumour and 33 normal mucosa specimens were purified, subjected to MALDI-Tof MS and then analysed using the 'GenePattern' suite of computational tools (Broad Institute, MIT, USA. Comparative Gene Marker Selection with either a t-test or a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR test statistic was used to identify and rank differentially expressed marker peaks. The k-nearest neighbours algorithm was used to build classification models either using separate training and test datasets or else by using an iterative, 'leave-one-out' cross-validation method. Results 73 protein peaks in the mass range 1800-16000Da were differentially expressed in tumour verses adjacent normal mucosa tissue (P ≤ 0.01, false discovery rate ≤ 0.05. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis classified most tumour and normal mucosa into distinct cluster groups. Supervised prediction correctly classified the tumour/normal mucosa status of specimens in an independent test spectra dataset with 100% sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval: 67.9-99.2%. Supervised prediction using 'leave-one-out' cross validation algorithms for tumour spectra correctly classified 10/13 poorly differentiated and 16/18 well/moderately differentiated tumours (P = P = P = 0.001; ROC error, 0.212. Conclusions Protein expression profiling of surgically resected CRC tissue extracts by MALDI-TOF MS has potential value in studies aimed at improved molecular

  12. A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate Vertical Profile Classes of Phytoplankton in a Eutrophic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extension and frequency of algal blooms in surface waters can be monitored using remote sensing techniques, yet knowledge of their vertical distribution is fundamental to determine total phytoplankton biomass and understanding temporal variability of surface conditions and the underwater light field. However, different vertical distribution classes of phytoplankton may occur in complex inland lakes. Identification of the vertical profile classes of phytoplankton becomes the key and first step to estimate its vertical profile. The vertical distribution profile of phytoplankton is based on a weighted integral of reflected light from all depths and is difficult to determine by reflectance data alone. In this study, four Chla vertical profile classes (vertically uniform, Gaussian, exponential and hyperbolic were found to occur in three in situ vertical surveys (28 May, 19–24 July and 10–12 October in a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu. We developed and validated a classification and regression tree (CART to determine vertical phytoplankton biomass profile classes. This was based on an algal bloom index (Normalized Difference algal Bloom Index, NDBI applied to both in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs and MODIS Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc data in combination with data of local wind speed. The results show the potential of retrieving Chla vertical profiles information from integrated information sources following a decision tree approach.

  13. Light--light scattering tensor and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraev, E.A.; Silagadze, Z.K.; Cheshel', A.A.; Schiller, A.

    1989-01-01

    A general expression is obtained for the tensor that describes the effect of light--light scattering on the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. An explicit expression is derived for the electron-loop contribution, for which an analytic evaluation is carried out of the coefficient in front of the logarithm of the ratio of the muon mass to the electron mass in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Logarithmic contributions due to radiative corrections are shown to originate exclusively from the inclusion of the polarization of the vacuum of virtual photons

  14. Analysis of chemical degradation mechanism of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices by laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo de Moraes, Ines; Scholz, Sebastian; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much interest for their potential application in full color flat-panel displays and as an alternative lighting source. However, low efficiency, and the short operation lifetime, in particular in the case of blue emitting devices, are the major limitations for the current OLEDs commercialization. In order to overcome these limitations, a deep knowledge about the aging and the degradation mechanism is required. Our work focuses on the chemical degradation mechanism of different iridium based emitter materials like FIrpic (light blue) and Ir(ppy)3 (green), commonly used in OLEDs. For this purpose, the devices were aged by electrical driving until the luminance reached 6% of the initial luminance. The laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine specific degradation pathways.

  15. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  16. Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of pleural effusions: fatty acids as novel cancer biomarkers for malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-05

    Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling is a powerful analytical method used for broad-spectrum identification and quantification of metabolites in biofluids in human health and disease states. In this study, we exploit metabolomic profiling for cancer biomarker discovery for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. We envisage the result will be clinically useful since currently there are no cancer biomarkers that are accurate enough for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. Metabolomes of 32 malignant pleural effusions from lung cancer patients and 18 benign effusions from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were analyzed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600. MS spectra were analyzed using XCMS, PeakView, and LipidView. Metabolome-Wide Association Study (MWAS) was performed by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Explorer and Tester (ROCCET). Insignificant markers were filtered out using a metabolome-wide significance level (MWSL) with p-value pleural effusions. Using a ratio of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0), the area-under-ROC was further increased to 0.99 (95% CI = 0.91-1.00) with sensitivity 93.8% and specificity 100.0%. Using untargeted metabolomic profiling, the diagnostic cancer biomarker with the largest area-under-ROC can be determined objectively. This lipogenic phenotype could be explained by overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in cancer cells. The diagnostic performance of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0) ratio supports its use for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions.

  17. Instantaneous Characterization Of Vegetable Oils Via Tag And Ffa Profiles By Easy Ambient Sonic-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2015-01-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil an...

  18. Photoelectic BV Light Curves of Algol and the Interpretations of the Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized B and V photoelectric light curves of Algol are made with the observations obtained during 1982-84 with the 40-cm and the 61-cm reflectors of Yonsei University Observatory. These light curves show asymmetry between ascending and descending shoulders. The ascending shoulder is 0.02 mag brighter than descending shoulder in V light curve and 0.03 mag in B light curve. These asymmetric light curves are interpreted as the result of inhomogeneous energy distribution on the surface of one star of the eclipsing pair rather than the result of gaseous stream flowing from KOIV to B8V star. The 180-year periodicity, so called great inequality, are most likely the result proposed by Kim et al. (1983 that the abrupt and discrete mass losses of cooler component may be the cause of this orbital change. The amount of mass loss deduced from these discrete period changes turned out to be of the order of 10^(-6 - 10^(-5 Msolar.

  19. Effect of Light- and Dark-Germination on the Phenolic Biosynthesis, Phytochemical Profiles, and Antioxidant Activities in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Fengyuan; Li, Quan; Hu, Jianguang; Brennan, Charles Stephen

    2017-06-10

    Sweet corn is one of the most widely planted crops in China. Sprouting of grains is a new processes to increase the nutritional value of grain products. The present study explores the effects of light on the nutritional quality of sweet corn sprouts. Gene expression of phenolic biosynthesis, phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity were studied. Two treatments (light and dark) were selected and the morphological structure of sweet corn sprouts, as well as their biochemical composition were investigated to determine the effects of light on the regulation of genes responsible for nutritional compounds. Transcription analyses for three key-encoding genes in the biosynthesis of the precursors of phenolic were studied. Results revealed a negative regulation in the expression of Zm PAL with total phenolic content (TPC) in the light group. TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased during germination and this was correlated with an increase in antioxidant activity ( r = 0.95 and 1.0). The findings illustrate that the nutritional value of sweet corn for the consumer can be improved through germination to the euphylla stage.

  20. Measurement of light charged particles in the decay channels of medium-mass excited compound nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdré S.

    2014-03-01

    Indeed, in this mass region (A ~ 100 models predict that shape transitions can occur at high spin values and relatively scarce data exist in the literature about coincidence measurements between evaporation residues and light charged particles. Signals of shape transitions can be found in the variations of the lineshape of high energy gamma rays emitted from the de-excitation of GDR states gated on different region of angular momenta. For this purpose it is important to keep under control the FE and FF processes, to regulate the statistical model parameters and to control the onset of possible pre-equilibrium emissions from 300 to 600 MeV bombarding energy.

  1. Higgs-boson contributions to gauge-boson mass shifts in extended electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author analyzed the mass shifts for models with a more complicated Higgs sector. He uses the on-shell renormalization scheme, in which the parameters of the theory are the physical masses and couplings. The author has considered the 2-doublet, n-doublet, triplet and doublet-triplet models. He has found that the Z-boson mass prediction has a strong dependence on the charged-Higgs mass. In the limit that the charged Higgs is much heavier than the gauge bosons, the Higgs-dependent terms become significant, and may even cancel the light-fermion terms. If the author uses the Z mass as input in determining the parameters of the theory, a scenario which will become attractive as the mass of the Z is accurately measured in the next few years, it is found that the W-boson mass shift exhibits the same sort of behavior, differing from the minimal model for the case of the charged Higgs being heavy. The author has found that when the radiative corrections are taken into account, models with extended Higgs sectors may differ significantly from the minimal standard model in this predictions for the gauge-boson masses. Thus, an accurate measurement of the masses will help shed light on the structure of the Higgs sector

  2. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  3. SALPETER NORMALIZATION OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key parameter for studying galaxy evolution. Here we measure the IMF mass normalization for a sample of 68 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.7-0.9 within the Extended Groth Strip. To do this we derive the total (stellar + dark matter) mass-to-light [(M/L)] ratio using axisymmetric dynamical models. Within the region where we have kinematics (about one half-light radius), the models assume (1) that mass follows light, implying negligible differences between the slope of the stellar and total density profiles, (2) constant velocity anisotropy (β z ≡1−σ z 2 /σ R 2 =0.2), and (3) that galaxies are seen at the average inclination for random orientations (i.e., i = 60°, where i = 90° represents edge-on). The dynamical models are based on anisotropic Jeans equations, constrained by Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and the central velocity dispersion of the galaxies, extracted from good-quality spectra taken by the DEEP2 survey. The population (M/L) are derived from full-spectrum fitting of the same spectra with a grid of simple stellar population models. Recent dynamical modeling results from the ATLAS 3D project and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution indicate that the dark matter fraction within the central regions of our galaxies should be small. This suggests that our derived total (M/L) should closely approximate the stellar M/L. Our comparison of the dynamical (M/L) and the population (M/L) then implies that for galaxies with stellar mass M * ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , the average normalization of the IMF is consistent with a Salpeter slope, with a substantial scatter. This is similar to what is found within a similar mass range for nearby galaxies

  4. The estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction in recent light-duty vehicles on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane, 2012). Societal fatality risk includes the risk to both the occupants of the case vehicle as well as any crash partner or pedestrians. The current analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. This paper replicates the Kahane analysis and extends it by testing the sensitivity of his results to changes in the definition of risk, and the data and control variables used in the regression models. An assessment by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in Kahane's previous studies, and is statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars (Wenzel, 2012a). The estimated effects of a reduction in mass or footprint (i.e. wheelbase times track width) are small relative to other vehicle, driver, and crash variables used in the regression models. The recent historical correlation between mass and footprint is not so large to prohibit including both variables in the same regression model; excluding footprint from the model, i.e. allowing footprint to decrease with mass, increases the estimated detrimental effect of mass reduction on risk in cars and crossover utility vehicles (CUVs)/minivans, but has virtually no effect on light trucks. Analysis by footprint deciles indicates that risk does not consistently increase with reduced mass for vehicles of similar footprint. Finally, the estimated effects of mass and footprint reduction are sensitive to the measure of exposure used (fatalities per induced exposure crash, rather than per VMT), as well as other changes in the data or control variables used. It appears that the safety penalty from lower mass can be mitigated with careful vehicle design, and that manufacturers can

  5. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  6. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  7. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, Hans Gunter [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca (Costa Rica); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  8. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  9. Light curve and pulse profile of the x-ray pulsar Vela X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumiaki; Hayakawa, Satio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Sato, Naohisa; Makishima, Kazuo.

    1983-01-01

    The following properties of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1 are presented by reference to its observations in March 1980. The light curve shows a high state and a low state in the first and second halves of an orbital period, respectively, but they may rather be defined as a soft state and hard state, respectively, since the intensity above 9 keV does not appreciably change between these two states. The energy spectra in these states indicate the presence of circumstellar absorption. The pulse profiles at high (9-22 keV) and low (1-9 keV) energies are different, indicating the absorption by cold matter which is probably in the accretion column. The absorber which is responsible for the soft and hard states is attributed to the stellar wind whose flow pattern is consistent with that obtained from optical absorption spectra. The orbital period is obtained by a combined analysis of X-ray data since 1972. No appreciable change of the period gives a constraint on the dynamical behavior of the binary system. (author)

  10. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Flurin; Gloess, Alexia N; Keller, Marco; Wetzel, Andreas; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2012-03-01

    A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

  11. A naturally light Higgs without light Top Partners

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of a realistic lepton sector can relax significantly the upper bound on top partner masses in minimal composite Higgs models, induced by the lightness of the Higgs boson. To that extend, we present a comprehensive survey of the impact of different realizations of the fermion sectors on the Higgs potential, with a special emphasis on the role of the leptons. The non-negligible compositeness of the $\\tau_R$ in a general class of models that address the flavor structure of the lepton sector and the smallness of the corresponding FCNCs, can have a significant effect on the potential. We find that, with the $\\tau_R$ in the symmetric representation of $SO(5)$, an increase in the maximally allowed mass of the lightest top partner of $\\gtrsim 1$ TeV is possible for minimal quark setups like the MCHM$_{5,10}$, without increasing the tuning. A light Higgs boson $m_H \\sim(100-200)$ GeV is a natural prediction of such models, which thus provide a new setup that can evade ultra-light top ...

  12. Geometrical theory to predict eccentric photorefraction intensity profiles in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Austin; Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Bobier, W. R.

    1995-08-01

    In eccentric photorefraction, light returning from the retina of the eye is photographed by a camera focused on the eye's pupil. We use a geometrical model of eccentric photorefraction to generate intensity profiles across the pupil image. The intensity profiles for three different monochromatic aberration functions induced in a single eye are predicted and show good agreement with the measured eccentric photorefraction intensity profiles. A directional reflection from the retina is incorporated into the calculation. Intensity profiles for symmetric and asymmetric aberrations are generated and measured. The latter profile shows a dependency on the source position and the meridian. The magnitude of the effect of thresholding on measured pattern extents is predicted. Monochromatic aberrations in human eyes will cause deviations in the eccentric photorefraction measurements from traditional crescents caused by defocus and may cause misdiagnoses of ametropia or anisometropia. Our results suggest that measuring refraction along the vertical meridian is preferred for screening studies with the eccentric photorefractor.

  13. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  14. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  15. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendt, Alois; Geissler, Robert; Streibel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. ► Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. ► Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. ► The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. ► The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  16. Molar mass, radius of gyration and second virial coefficient from new static light scattering equations for dilute solutions: application to 21 (macro)molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien, Bertrand; Ying, Ruifeng

    2009-05-11

    New static light scattering (SLS) equations for dilute binary solutions are derived. Contrarily to the usual SLS equations [Carr-Zimm (CZ)], the new equations have no need for the experimental absolute Rayleigh ratio of a reference liquid and solely rely on the ratio of scattered intensities of solutions and solvent. The new equations, which are based on polarizability equations, take into account the usual refractive index increment partial differential n/partial differential rho(2) complemented by the solvent specific polarizability and a term proportional to the slope of the solution density rho versus the solute mass concentration rho(2) (density increment). Then all the equations are applied to 21 (macro)molecules with a wide range of molar mass (0.2equations clearly achieve a better agreement with supplier M values. For macromolecules (M>500 kg mol(-1)), for which the scattered intensity is no longer independent of the scattering angle, the new equations give the same value of the radius of gyration as the CZ equation and consistent values of the second virial coefficient.

  17. The expression profile of phosphatidylinositol in high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Goto

    Full Text Available High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (HR-MALDI-IMS is an emerging application for the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ionized molecules in situ on tissue slides. HR-MALDI-IMS in negative mode in a mass range of m/z 500-1000 was performed on optimal cutting temperature (OCT compound-embedded human prostate tissue samples obtained from patients with prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy. HR-MALDI-IMS analysis of the 14 samples in the discovery set identified 26 molecules as highly expressed in the prostate. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS showed that these molecules included 14 phosphatidylinositols (PIs, 3 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs and 3 phosphatidic acids (PAs. Among the PIs, the expression of PI(18:0/18:1, PI(18:0/20:3 and PI(18:0/20:2 were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in benign epithelium. A biomarker algorithm for prostate cancer was formulated by analyzing the expression profiles of PIs in cancer tissue and benign epithelium of the discovery set using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in the 24 validation set samples were 87.5 and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, HR-MALDI-IMS identified several PIs as being more highly expressed in prostate cancer than benign prostate epithelium. These differences in PI expression profiles may serve as a novel diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  18. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle H Nielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO, NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD and multiple sclerosis (MS. Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4 seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32, patients with MS (n = 46 and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31 were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups.The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002. Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.

  19. Vector mesons on the light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.; Maedan, S.; Itakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the light-front quantization to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction, and compute vector meson's mass and light-cone wavefunction in the large N limit. Following the same procedure as in the previous analyses for scalar and pseudo-scalar mesons, we derive the bound-state equations of a qq-bar system in the vector channel. We include the lowest order effects of the vector interaction. The resulting transverse and longitudinal components of the bound-state equation look different from each other. But eventually after imposing an appropriate cutoff, one finds these two are identical, giving the same mass and the same (spin-independent) light-cone wavefunction. Mass of the vector meson decreases as one increases the strength of the vector interaction

  20. Possibility of faster-than-light particles with real mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author derives a new expression for the dependence of mass on velocity without using any space-time conception. This expression is more general than the corresponding law of the special theory of relativity (STR). The deviations from the STR increase with increasing rest mass. Thus one should measure the dependence of mass on velocity for particles (or systems) with a large rest mass. The theory predicts that particles with real mass can travel with hyperlight velocities. The space-time picture discussed here is very close to Mach's conception: it is assumed that the cause for the dynamical behaviour of a particle, which is in uniform translational motion, is due to the action of all the other masses in the universe. Space-time is eliminated as an active cause and, in contrast with the STR, space-time does not form an absolute continuum within the theory discussed here. It turns out that effects based on the transformation formulas (existing between the coordinates and time in a stationary frame and the coordinates and time in a moving frame) are identical to those expected from the Lorentz transformations. (Auth.)

  1. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  2. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; Pprofile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.

  3. Fatal attraction of short-tailed shearwaters to artificial lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airam Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999-2013. We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4-8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive. While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.

  4. LoCuSS: THE MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTERS AT z = 0.2 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Smith, Graham P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Takada, Masahiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Futamase, Toshifumi, E-mail: okabe@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gps@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3, based on observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We develop a new method for selecting lensed background galaxies from which we estimate that our sample of red background galaxies suffers just 1% contamination. We detect the stacked tangential shear signal from the full sample of 50 clusters, based on this red sample of background galaxies, at a total signal-to-noise ratio of 32.7. The Navarro-Frenk-White model is an excellent fit to the data, yielding sub-10% statistical precision on mass and concentration: M{sub vir}=7.19{sup +0.53}{sub -0.50} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}, c{sub vir}=5.41{sup +0.49}{sub -0.45} (c{sub 200}=4.22{sup +0.40}{sub -0.36}). Tests of a range of possible systematic errors, including shear calibration and stacking-related issues, indicate that they are subdominant to the statistical errors. The concentration parameter obtained from stacking our approximately mass-selected cluster sample is broadly in line with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the uncertainty on our measurement is comparable with the differences between the different predictions in the literature. Overall, our results highlight the potential for stacked weak-lensing methods to probe the mean mass density profile of cluster-scale dark matter halos with upcoming surveys, including Hyper-Suprime-Cam, Dark Energy Survey, and KIDS.

  5. A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fye, Haddy K S; Mrosso, Paul; Bruce, Lesley; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Rwegasira, Gration L; Makani, Julie; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane 'ghost' fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT and MaxQuant platforms to assess their scope and diversity. The results obtained demonstrate a robust method for membrane enrichment enabling consistent MS based characterisation of > 900 RBC membrane proteins in single LC-MS/MS analyses. Non-detergent based membrane solubilisation methods using the tissue and supernatant fractions of isolated ghost membranes are shown to offer effective haemoglobin removal as well as diverse recovery including erythrocyte membrane proteins of high and low abundance. The methods described in this manuscript propose a medium to high throughput framework for membrane proteome profiling by LC-MS of potential applicability to larger clinical cohorts in a variety of disease contexts.

  6. Development and evaluation of a light-emitting diode endoscopic light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Li, Rui; Rogers, Kevin; Driscoll, Paul; Excel, Peter; Yandle, Ron; Hanna, George; Copner, Nigel; Elson, Daniel S.

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) based endoscopic illumination devices have been shown to have several benefits over arclamp systems. LEDs are energy-efficient, small, durable, and inexpensive, however their use in endoscopy has been limited by the difficulty in efficiently coupling enough light into the endoscopic light cable. We have demonstrated a highly homogenised lightpipe LED light source that combines the light from four Luminus LEDs emitting in the red, green, blue and violet using innovative dichroics that maximise light throughput. The light source spectrally combines light from highly divergent incoherent sources that have a Lambertian intensity profile to provide illumination matched to the acceptance numerical aperture of a liquid light guide or fibre bundle. The LED light source was coupled to a standard laparoscope and performance parameters (power, luminance, colour temperature) compared to a xenon lamp. Although the total illuminance from the endoscope was lower, adjustment of the LEDs' relative intensities enabled contrast enhancement in biological tissue imaging. The LED light engine was also evaluated in a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) box trainer and in vivo during a porcine MIS procedure where it was used to generate 'narrowband' images. Future work using the violet LED could enable photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  7. Listening to Shells: Galaxy Masses from Disrupted Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Kyle; Sanderson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to measure the dynamical mass of an individual galaxy is limited by the radial extent of the luminous tracers of its potential. For elliptical galaxies, it is difficult to go much beyond two effective radii using integrated light. Appealing to particle tracers like globular clusters has allowed for mass measurements out to ten effective radii. The extended atomic-gas disks of spiral galaxies allow one to measure rotation curves well beyond the optical disk to a few effective radii; however, such mass measurements are limited to a single plane and can often be confused by warps. As surface-brightness limits have pushed ever deeper, the revealed abundance of disrupted satellites in galaxy halos may present a unique opportunity for determining the enclosed mass at very large radii (more than five effective radii), provided our technology is up to the challenge. Here, we discuss the prospect of using integrated light spectroscopy of tidal shells to measure the masses of individual galaxies at redshifts of up to 0.1. Our study considers the limitations of current and projected instrumentation on 4-, 10-, and 30-meter class telescopes. The observational constraints are indeed very stringent, requiring both high sensitivity (with V-band surface brightness limits below 25 mag per square arsecond) and high spectral resolution (R>10k), whereas spatial resolution is effectively irrelevant. Bigger is not necessarily better for our application because of the limited field-of-view (FOV) of large telescopes, which dramatically limits their total grasp. We find the two most-promising setups are (1) a large FOV (1 square arcminute) integral-field unit (IFU) on a 4-meter class telescope and (2) a multiplexed suite of small FOV (10 square arcseconds) IFUs on a 10- or 30-meter class telescope. Two prospective instruments that may meet these requirements are WEAVE, an instrument currently planned for the William Herschel Telescope at La Palma, and an OPTIMOS

  8. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  9. Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra and other Advances in Light-Front QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-05-01

    Light-front holography, together with superconformal algebra, have provided new insights into the physics of color confinement and the spectroscopy and dynamics of hadrons. As shown by de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the procedure of de Alfaro et al. to the frame-independent light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confining q \\bar{q} potential κ ^4 ζ ^2, where ζ ^2 is the light-front radial variable related in momentum space to the q \\bar{q} invariant mass. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography—the duality between the front form and AdS_5, the space of isometries of the conformal group—if one modifies the action of AdS_5 by the dilaton e^{κ ^2 z^2} in the fifth dimension z. When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions lead to a a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including supersymmetric relations between their masses and their wavefunctions. One also predicts hadronic light-front wavefunctions and observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes. The mass scale κ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ_{\\overline{MS}} in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling α _s(Q^2) defined at all momenta. The matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes determines a scale Q_0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. I also discuss a number of applications of light-front phenomenology.

  10. He, U, and Th Depth Profiling of Apatite and Zircon Using Laser Ablation Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry and SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.; Hervig, R.; Boyce, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional (U-Th)/He thermochronology utilizes single or multiple grain analyses of U- and Th-bearing minerals such as apatite and zircon and does not allow for assessment of spatial variation in concentration of He, U, or Th within individual crystals. As such, age calculation and interpretation require assumptions regarding 4He loss through alpha ejection, diffusive redistribution of 4He, and U and Th distribution as an initial condition for these processes. Although models have been developed to predict 4He diffusion parameters, correct for the effect of alpha ejection on calculated cooling ages, and account for the effect of U and Th zonation within apatite and zircon, measurements of 4He, U, and Th distribution have not been combined within a single crystal. We apply ArF excimer laser ablation, combined with noble gas mass spectrometry, to obtain depth profiles within apatite and zircon crystals in order to assess variations in 4He concentration with depth. Our initial results from pre-cut, pre-heated slabs of Durango apatite, each subjected to different T-t schedules, suggest a general agreement of 4He profiles with those predicted by theoretical diffusion models (Farley, 2000). Depth profiles through unpolished grains give reproducible alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite that deviate from alpha ejection profiles predicted for ideal, homogenous crystals. SIMS depth profiling utilizes an O2 primary beam capable of sputtering tens of microns and measuring sub-micron resolution variation in [U], [Th], and [Sm]. Preliminary results suggest that sufficient [U] and [Th] zonation is present in Durango apatite to influence the form of the 4He alpha ejection profile. Future work will assess the influence of measured [U] and [Th] zonation on previously measured 4He depth profiles. Farley, K.A., 2000. Helium diffusion from apatite; general behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite. J. Geophys. Res., B Solid Earth Planets 105 (2), 2903-2914.

  11. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly un...

  12. What masses for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    To understand the evolution of giant stars, it is important to pin down the masses for Cepheids. The 7- to 10-day bump Cepheids imply lower than evolutionary mass (60%). Recent theoretical work, though, indicates that for Cepheids with periods of 15 to 16 days, the best understanding of the light curves results from using evolutionary masses

  13. Qualitative Beam Profiling of Light Curing Units for Resin Based Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenel, Thomas; Hausnerová, Berenika; Steinhaus, Johannes; Moeginger, Ing Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates two technically simple methods to determine the irradiance distribution of light curing units that governs the performance of a visible-light curing resin-based composites. Insufficient light irradiation leads to under-cured composites with poor mechanical properties and elution of residual monomers. The unknown irradiance distribution and its effect on the final restoration are the main critical issues requiring highly sophisticated experimental equipment. The study shows that irradiance distributions of LCUs can easily be determined qualitatively with generally available equipment. This significantly helps dentists in practices to be informed about the homogeneity of the curing lights. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  14. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 μm) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  18. Light impurity transport in JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Giroud, C.; Angioni, C.; Manas, P.; Menmuir, S.; Contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    A series of experimental observations of light impurity profiles was carried out in JET (Joint European Torus) ITER-like wall (ILW) L-mode plasmas in order to investigate their transport mechanisms. These discharges feature the presence of 3He, Be, C, N, Ne, whose profiles measured by active Charge Exchange diagnostics are compared with quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations. The peaking of 3He density follows the electron density peaking, Be and Ne are also peaked, while the density profiles of C and N are flat in the mid plasma region. Gyro-kinetic simulations predict peaked density profiles for all the light impurities studied and at all the radial positions considered, and fail predicting the flat or hollow profiles observed for C and N at mid radius in our cases.

  19. Psychobehavioral Profiles to Assist Tailoring of Interventions for Patients With Hypertension: Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rika; Nolan, Robert P

    2018-05-11

    Practice guidelines advocate combining pharmacotherapy with lifestyle counseling for patients with hypertension. To allow for appropriate tailoring of interventions to meet individual patient needs, a comprehensive understanding of baseline patient characteristics is essential. However, few studies have empirically assessed behavioral profiles of hypertensive patients in Web-based lifestyle counseling programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) specify baseline psychobehavioral profiles of patients with hypertension who were enrolled in a Web-based lifestyle counseling trial, and (2) examine mean differences among the identified profile groups in demographics, psychological distress, self-reported self-care behaviors, physiological outcomes, and program engagement to determine prognostic implications. Participants (N=264; mean age 57.5 years; 154/264, 58.3% female; 193/264, 73.1% white) were recruited into a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, designed to evaluate an online lifestyle intervention for hypertensive patients. A series of latent profile analyses identified psychobehavioral profiles, indicated by baseline measures of mood, motivation, and health behaviors. Mean differences between profile groups were then explored. A 2-class solution provided the best model fit (the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is 10,133.11; sample-size adjusted BIC is 10,006.54; Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio test is 65.56, P=.001). The 2 profile groups were (1) adaptive adjustment, marked by low distress, high motivation, and somewhat satisfactory engagement in health behaviors and (2) affectively distressed, marked by clinically significant distress. At baseline, on average, affectively distressed patients had lower income, higher body mass index, and endorsed higher stress compared with their adaptive adjustment counterparts. At 12-months post intervention, treatment effects were sustained for systolic blood pressure and Framingham risk index

  20. Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies allow the high-throughput profiling of metabolic status from a blood specimen (metabolomics). We investigated whether metabolite profiles could predict the development of diabetes. Among 2,422 normoglycemic individuals followed for 12 years, 201 developed diabetes. Amino acids, amines, and other polar metabolites were profiled in baseline specimens using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cases and controls were matched for age, body mass index and fasting g...

  1. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1H CPMG NMR metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it was investigated if any genotypic footprints from the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) SNP could be found in 600 MHz 1H CPMG NMR profiles of around 1,000 human plasma samples from healthy Danish twins. The problem was addressed with a combination of univariate and multivariate...

  2. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras Menor, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Santos, dos Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S.; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P.; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of

  3. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  4. BioSunMS: a plug-in-based software for the management of patients information and the analysis of peptide profiles from mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuemin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With wide applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS, statistical comparison of serum peptide profiles and management of patients information play an important role in clinical studies, such as early diagnosis, personalized medicine and biomarker discovery. However, current available software tools mainly focused on data analysis rather than providing a flexible platform for both the management of patients information and mass spectrometry (MS data analysis. Results Here we presented a plug-in-based software, BioSunMS, for both the management of patients information and serum peptide profiles-based statistical analysis. By integrating all functions into a user-friendly desktop application, BioSunMS provided a comprehensive solution for clinical researchers without any knowledge in programming, as well as a plug-in architecture platform with the possibility for developers to add or modify functions without need to recompile the entire application. Conclusion BioSunMS provides a plug-in-based solution for managing, analyzing, and sharing high volumes of MALDI-TOF or SELDI-TOF MS data. The software is freely distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/biosunms/.

  5. Light, rest mass and electric charge quanta all formed by neutrinos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In high energy physics experiments the electric charge and rest mass of particles can commonly transform into the photons, vice versa. Its reason QFT can only give a vague answer: based on the particle creation and annihilation operators. There are not more clear answers or conjecture? At least, light, electric charge and rest mass should have a collective structure component, if not, the transformation is unable understanding. An elementary answer is that neutrino and antineutrino as their collective structure component. In the paper ‘Chen Qiliang & Wang Bin, The formation and characteristics of Chen Shaoguang's formula, China Science &Technology Overview 127101-103 (2011)’, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta la _{0}nuυ, ra nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta lb (0) nuυ, rb nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit photon la-ra _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back-photon lb-rb (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass ra-rb nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass la-lb _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge la-rb _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge ra-lb nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a

  6. Profiling the triacylglyceride contents in bat integumentary lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Risch, Thomas S; Savary, Brett J

    2013-09-05

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals.

  7. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-07-23

    Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries.

  8. Addendum: ``The Dynamics of M15: Observations of the Velocity Dispersion Profile and Fokker-Planck Models'' (ApJ, 481, 267 [1997])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, J. D.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Murphy, B. W.; Seitzer, P. O.; Callanan, P. J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Charles, P. A.

    2003-03-01

    It has recently come to our attention that there are axis scale errors in three of the figures presented in Dull et al. (1997, hereafter D97). This paper presented Fokker-Planck models for the collapsed-core globular cluster M15 that include a dense, centrally concentrated population of neutron stars and massive white dwarfs. These models do not include a central black hole. Figure 12 of D97, which presents the predicted mass-to-light profile, is of particular interest, since it was used by Gerssen et al. (2002) as an input to their Jeans equation analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) STIS velocity measurements reported by van der Marel et al. (2002). On the basis of the original, incorrect version of Figure 12, Gerssen et al. (2002) concluded that the D97 models can fit the new data only with the addition of an intermediate-mass black hole. However, this is counter to our previous finding, shown in Figure 6 of D97, that the Fokker-Planck models predict the sort of moderately rising velocity dispersion profile that Gerssen et al. (2002) infer from the new data. Baumgardt et al. (2003) have independently noted this apparent inconsistency. We appreciate the thoughtful cooperation of Roeland van der Marel in resolving this issue. Using our corrected version of Figure 12 (see below), Gerssen et al. (2003) now find that the velocity dispersion profile that they infer from the D97 mass-to-light ratio profile is entirely consistent with the velocity dispersion profile presented in Figure 6 of D97. Gerssen et al. (2003) further find that there is no statistically significant difference between the fit to the van der Marel et al. (2002) velocity measurements provided by the D97 intermediate-phase model and that provided by their model, which supplements this D97 model with a 1.7+2.7-1.7×103Msolar black hole. Thus, the choice between models with and without black holes will require additional model predictions and observational tests. We present corrected versions of

  9. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are associated to overweight and lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Cano-García, Francisco J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Fernández-Riejo, Patricia; Moreno Fernández, Ana M; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; De Miguel, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    In order to analyze the association between body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and clinical symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia, we assessed BMI levels, lipid profile and its association with clinical symptoms in 183 patients with fibromyalgia. The patients were evaluated using tender points, FIQ and Visual Analogue Scales of pain (VAS). Serum lipid profile analysis (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL), and biochemical parameters were measured in the biochemistry laboratory. The BMI distribution of the nonobese, overweight and obese patients' groups were relatively even with 37.7, 35.5 and 26.8%, respectively, with a mean BMI of 27.3 ± 4.9. The number of tender points showed significantly positive correlation with higher BMI (P BMI, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed high association with some clinical parameters. Overweight and lipid profile could be associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. A treatment program with weight loss strategies, and control in diet and increased physical activity is advised to patients.

  10. Progress in light cone physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1973-01-01

    A very brief review is given of the progress made in the physics of the light cone in the past year. Included are the light cone expansion, gauge invariance and the consequences of precocious scaling near threshold, the light cone description of the muon pair experiment, light cone expansions, and the assessment and exploitation of analyticity properties in both mass and energy of light cone amplitudes. (U.S.)

  11. Feeling the Pull: A Study of Natural Galactic Accelerometers. II. Kinematics and Mass of the Delicate Stellar Stream of the Palomar 5 Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Thomas, Guillaume; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott

    2017-06-01

    We present two spectroscopic surveys of the tidal stellar stream of the Palomar 5 globular cluster undertaken with the VLT/FLAMES and AAT/AAOmega instruments. We use these data in conjunction with photometric data presented in the previous contribution in this series to classify the survey stars in terms of their probability of belonging to the Palomar 5 stellar stream. We find that high-probability candidates are only found in a very narrow spatial interval surrounding the locus of the stream on the sky. PanSTARRS RR Lyrae stars in this region of the sky are also distributed in a similar manner. The absence of significant “fanning” of this stellar stream confirms that Palomar 5 does not follow a chaotic orbit. Previous studies have found that Palomar 5 is largely devoid of low-mass stars, and we show that this is true also of the stellar populations along the trailing arm out to 6^\\circ . Within this region, which contains 73% of the detected stars, the population is statistically identical to the core, implying that the ejection of the low-mass stars occurred before the formation of the stream. We also present an updated structural model fit to the bound remnant, which yields a total mass of 4297+/- 98{M}ȯ and a tidal radius 0.145+/- 0.009 {kpc}. We estimate the mass of the observed system including the stream to be 12,200 ± 400 M⊙, and the initial mass to have been ~47,000 ± 1500 M⊙. These observational constraints will be employed in our next study to model the dynamics of the system in detail. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 081

  12. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  13. Sensitivity of molecular marker-based CMB models to biomass burning source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Zheng, Mei; Wang, Bo

    To assess the contribution of sources to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) at four sites in North Carolina, USA, a molecular marker chemical mass balance model (MM-CMB) was used to quantify seasonal contributions for 2 years. The biomass burning contribution at these sites was found to be 30-50% of the annual OC concentration. In order to provide a better understanding of the uncertainty in MM-CMB model results, a biomass burning profile sensitivity test was performed on the 18 seasonal composites. The results using reconstructed emission profiles based on published profiles compared well, while model results using a single source test profile resulted in biomass burning contributions that were more variable. The biomass burning contribution calculated using an average regional profile of fireplace emissions from five southeastern tree species also compared well with an average profile of open burning of pine-dominated forest from Georgia. The standard deviation of the results using different source profiles was a little over 30% of the annual average biomass contributions. Because the biomass burning contribution accounted for 30-50% of the OC at these sites, the choice of profile also impacted the motor vehicle source attribution due to the common emission of elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total mobile organic carbon contribution was less effected by the biomass burning profile than the relative contributions from gasoline and diesel engines.

  14. CLASH: PRECISE NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE MASS PROFILE OF THE GALAXY CLUSTER A2261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Donahue, Megan; Medezinski, Elinor; Zheng Wei; Lemze, Doron; Carrasco, Mauricio; Anguita, Timo; Infante, Leopoldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Rines, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Nonino, Mario; Molino, Alberto; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2012-01-01

    We precisely constrain the inner mass profile of A2261 (z = 0.225) for the first time and determine that this cluster is not 'overconcentrated' as found previously, implying a formation time in agreement with ΛCDM expectations. These results are based on multiple strong-lensing analyses of new 16-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble. Combining this with revised weak-lensing analyses of Subaru wide-field imaging with five-band Subaru + KPNO photometry, we place tight new constraints on the halo virial mass M vir = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10 15 M ☉ h –1 70 (within r vir ≈ 3 Mpc h –1 70 ) and concentration c vir = 6.2 ± 0.3 when assuming a spherical halo. This agrees broadly with average c(M, z) predictions from recent ΛCDM simulations, which span 5 ∼ 2500 ∼ 600 kpc. Agreement can be achieved by a halo elongated with a ∼2:1 axis ratio along our LOS. For this elongated halo model, we find M vir = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 15 M ☉ h –1 70 and c vir = 4.6 ± 0.2, placing rough lower limits on these values. The need for halo elongation can be partially obviated by non-thermal pressure support and, perhaps entirely, by systematic errors in the X-ray mass measurements. We estimate the effect of background structures based on MMT/Hectospec spectroscopic redshifts and find that these tend to lower M vir further by ∼7% and increase c vir by ∼5%.

  15. Light-light and heavy-light mesons in the model of QCD string with quarks at the ends

    CERN Document Server

    Nefediev, A V

    2002-01-01

    The variational einbein field method is applied to the model of the QCD string with quarks at the ends for the case of light-light and heavy-light mesons. Special attention is payed to the proper string dynamics. The correct string slope of the Regge trajectories is reproduced for light-light states which comes out from the picture of rotating string. Masses of several low-lying orbitally and radially excited states in the D, D_s, B, and B_s meson spectra are calculated and a good agreement with the experimental data as well as with recent lattice calculations is found. The role of the string correction to the interquark interaction is discussed at the example of the identification of D*'(2637) state recently claimed by DELPHI Collaboration. For the heavy-light mesons the standard constants used in Heavy Quark Effective Theory are extracted and compared to the results of other approaches.

  16. Serum metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hu; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Zu-Li; Liu, Huan-Liang; Zeng, Yi-Ke; Shi, Xian-Ping; Lu, Bi-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis plays an important role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to non-invasively identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of human gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of gastric cancer and to identify biomarkers associated with morbidity. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the serum metabolites of 30 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 30 healthy controls. Diagnostic models for gastric cancer were constructed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Acquired metabolomic data were analyzed by the nonparametric Wilcoxon test to find serum metabolic biomarkers for gastric cancer. The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer and non-cancer cohorts while the model failed to discriminate different pathological stages (I-IV) of gastric cancer patients. A total of 44 endogenous metabolites such as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and steroids were detected, of which 18 differential metabolites were identified with significant differences. A total of 13 variables were obtained for their greatest contribution in the discriminating OPLS-DA model [variable importance in the projection (VIP) value >1.0], among which 11 metabolites were identified using both VIP values (VIP >1) and the Wilcoxon test. These metabolites potentially revealed perturbations of glycolysis and of amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol, and nucleotide metabolism of gastric cancer patients. These results suggest that gastric cancer serum metabolic profiling has great potential in detecting this disease and helping to understand its metabolic mechanisms

  17. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendt, Alois [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Geissler, Robert [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Streibel, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.streibel@uni-rostock.de [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  18. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P.; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M Hi ) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M Hi /L B < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within the last few

  19. Measuring light-by-light scattering at the LHC and FCC

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    Elastic light-by-light scattering, $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$, can be measured in electromagnetic interactions of lead (Pb) ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC), using the large (quasi)real photon fluxes available in ultraperipheral collisions. The $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ cross sections for diphoton masses m$_{\\gamma\\gamma}>$ 5 GeV in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at LHC ($\\sqrt{\\rm s_{_{NN}}}$ = 5.5, 8.8, 14 TeV) and FCC ($\\sqrt{\\rm s_{_{NN}}}$ = 39, 63, 100 TeV) center-of-mass energies are presented. The measurement has controllable backgrounds in PbPb collisions, and one expects about 70 and 2500 signal events per year at the LHC and FCC respectively, after typical detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency selections.

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular mass and function, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Egyptian children with growth hormone deficiency: A single-center prospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD in adults is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that may contribute to an increased mortality for cardiovascular disease. In children, relatively few studies have investigated the effect of GHD and replacement therapy on cardiac performance and metabolic abnormalities that may place them at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD at an early age. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the left ventricular function, lipid profile, and degree of insulin resistance in Egyptian children with GHD before and after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Thirty children with short stature due to GHD were studied in comparison to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched children. All subjects were subjected to history, clinical examination, auxological assessment, and echocardiography to assess the left ventricular function. Blood samples were collected for measuring IGF-1, lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and atherogenic index (AI, fasting blood sugar, and fasting insulin levels. In addition, basal and stimulated GH levels were measured in children with suspected GHD. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test was used for parametric data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for non-parametric data. Results: Total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI, and insulin were significantly higher in children with GHD than in healthy controls at baseline. After 12 months of GH replacement therapy, total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI and insulin were significantly decreased, while homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was significantly increased compared to both pre-treatment and control values. At baseline, the left ventricular mass (LVM and left ventricular mass index (LVMi were significantly lower in GHD children than in controls. After 12 months of GH

  1. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. IV. DISCOVERY OF FOUR NEW LOW-MASS WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS IN THE KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloemen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. BOX 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17–3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19–0.22 M{sub ⊙}, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R{sub ⊙}, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ∼1.5 × 10{sup −3}. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.

  2. The reports of thick discs' deaths are greatly exaggerated. Thick discs are NOT artefacts caused by diffuse scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Knapen, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have made the community aware of the importance of accounting for scattered light when examining low-surface-brightness galaxy features such as thick discs. In our past studies of the thick discs of edge-on galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies - the S4G - we modelled the point spread function as a Gaussian. In this paper we re-examine our results using a revised point spread function model that accounts for extended wings out to more than 2\\farcm5. We study the 3.6 μm images of 141 edge-on galaxies from the S4G and its early-type galaxy extension. Thus, we more than double the samples examined in our past studies. We decompose the surface-brightness profiles of the galaxies perpendicular to their mid-planes assuming that discs are made of two stellar discs in hydrostatic equilibrium. We decompose the axial surface-brightness profiles of galaxies to model the central mass concentration - described by a Sérsic function - and the disc - described by a broken exponential disc seen edge-on. Our improved treatment fully confirms the ubiquitous occurrence of thick discs. The main difference between our current fits and those presented in our previous papers is that now the scattered light from the thin disc dominates the surface brightness at levels below μ 26 mag arcsec-2. We stress that those extended thin disc tails are not physical, but pure scattered light. This change, however, does not drastically affect any of our previously presented results: 1) Thick discs are nearly ubiquitous. They are not an artefact caused by scattered light as has been suggested elsewhere. 2) Thick discs have masses comparable to those of thin discs in low-mass galaxies - with circular velocities vc< 120 km s-1 - whereas they are typically less massive than the thin discs in high-mass galaxies. 3) Thick discs and central mass concentrations seem to have formed at the same epoch from a common material reservoir. 4) Approximately 50% of the up

  3. Different Metabolomic Responses to Carbon Starvation between Light and Dark Conditions in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Nanako; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2018-03-29

    Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark. After starvation for 5 d in the light, cells showed increases in the amount of ATP and the NAD + /NADH ratio. Decreases in the amounts of most metabolites related to glycolysis and the TCA cycle in energy-rich starved cells suggest the active utilization of these metabolites for the modification of cellular components. Starvation in the dark induced the consumption of cellular compounds such as amino acids, indicating that the degradation of these cellular components produced ATP in order to maintain viability under energy-poor conditions. The present results suggest that intracellular energy levels alter survival strategies under carbon-starved conditions through metabolism.

  4. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J.; Hoňková, K.

    2017-01-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  5. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00, Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic); Hoňková, K., E-mail: korda@sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of Czech Astronomical Society, Vsetínská 941/78, CZ-757 01, Valašské Meziříčí (Czech Republic)

    2017-07-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  6. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Correct primary structure assessment and extensive glyco-profiling of cetuximab by a combination of intact, middle-up, middle-down and bottom-up ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Daniel; Jabs, Wolfgang; Resemann, Anja; Evers, Waltraud; Evans, Catherine; Main, Laura; Baessmann, Carsten; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Suckau, Detlev; Beck, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency received recently the first marketing authorization application for a biosimilar monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adopted the final guidelines on biosimilar mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins. The agency requires high similarity between biosimilar and reference products for approval. Specifically, the amino acid sequences must be identical. The glycosylation pattern of the antibody is also often considered to be a very important quality attribute due to its strong effect on quality, safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and potency. Here, we describe a case study of cetuximab, which has been marketed since 2004. Biosimilar versions of the product are now in the pipelines of numerous therapeutic antibody biosimilar developers. We applied a combination of intact, middle-down, middle-up and bottom-up electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques to characterize the amino acid sequence and major post-translational modifications of the marketed cetuximab product, with special emphasis on glycosylation. Our results revealed a sequence error in the reported sequence of the light chain in databases and in publications, thus highlighting the potency of mass spectrometry to establish correct antibody sequences. We were also able to achieve a comprehensive identification of cetuximab's glycoforms and glycosylation profile assessment on both Fab and Fc domains. Taken together, the reported approaches and data form a solid framework for the comparability of antibodies and their biosimilar candidates that could be further applied to routine structural assessments of these and other antibody-based products.

  8. JWFront: Wavefronts and Light Cones for Kerr Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos Alfaro, Francisco; Grave, Frank; Müller, Thomas; Adis, Daria

    2015-04-01

    JWFront visualizes wavefronts and light cones in general relativity. The interactive front-end allows users to enter the initial position values and choose the values for mass and angular momentum per unit mass. The wavefront animations are available in 2D and 3D; the light cones are visualized using the coordinate systems (t, x, y) or (t, z, x). JWFront can be easily modified to simulate wavefronts and light cones for other spacetime by providing the Christoffel symbols in the program.

  9. Word Embeddings to Enhance Twitter Gang Member Profile Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Gang affiliates have joined the masses who use social media to share thoughts and actions publicly. Interestingly, they use this public medium to express recent illegal actions, to intimidate others, and to share outrageous images and statements. Agencies able to unearth these profiles may thus be able to anticipate, stop, or hasten the investigation of gang-related crimes. This paper investigates the use of word embeddings to help identify gang members on Twitter. Building on our previous wo...

  10. Extending LHC coverage to light pseudoscalar mediators and coy dark sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Martin, Travis A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Many dark matter models involving weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) feature new, relatively light pseudoscalars that mediate dark matter pair annihilation into Standard Model fermions. In particular, simple models of this type can explain the gamma ray excess originating in the Galactic Center as observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. In many cases the pseudoscalar’s branching ratio into WIMPs is suppressed, making these states challenging to detect at colliders through standard dark matter searches. Here, we study the prospects for observing these light mediator states at the LHC without exploiting missing energy techniques. While existing searches effectively probe pseudoscalars with masses between 5–14 GeV and above 90 GeV, the LHC reach can be extended to cover much of the interesting parameter space in the intermediate 20–80 GeV mass range in which the mediator can have appreciable Yukawa-like couplings to Standard Model fermions but would have escaped detection by LEP and other experiments. Models explaining the Galactic Center excess via a light pseudoscalar mediator can give rise to a promising signal in this regime through the associated production of the mediator with bottom quarks while satisfying all other existing constraints. We perform an analysis of the backgrounds and trigger efficiencies, detailing the cuts that can be used to extract the signal. A significant portion of the otherwise unconstrained parameter space of these models can be conclusively tested at the 13 TeV LHC with 100 fb −1 , and we encourage the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to extend their existing searches to this mass range.

  11. Determination of 114Pd cumulative yield and investigation of the fine-structure at light peak in mass distribution of 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Runlan; Li Xueliang; Cui Anzhi; Guo Jingru; Yan Shuhen; Tang Peijia; Liu Daming

    1991-07-01

    A rapid radiochemical procedure for Pd separation was developed. It was the first time to use radiochemical techniques to determine 114 Pd cumulative yield (2.50 ± 0.14)% in 252 Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative yields of (3.50 ± 0.13)% and (3.70 ± 0.11)% for 112 Pd and 113g Ag were also obtained. These are in agreement with Skovorodkin's results. The cumulative yields determined show that there is a fine-structure at light peak of mass number A = 113 in the mass distribution of 252 Cf spontaneous fission

  12. Combined Multipoint Remote and In Situ Observations of the Asymmetric Evolution of a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, T.; Moestl, C.; Temmer, M.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Vrsnak, B.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zic, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the...

  13. Light weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2017-08-01

    Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.

  14. Collider signatures of a light NMSSM pseudoscalar in neutralino decays in the light of LHC results

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeno, David G; Park, Chan Beom; Peiro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate signatures induced by a very light pseudoscalar Higgs in neutralino decays in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and determine their observability at the LHC. We concentrate on scenarios which feature two light scalar Higgs bosons (one of them is SM-like with a mass of 125 GeV and a singlet-like lighter one) with a very light (singlet-like) pseudoscalar Higgs in the mass range 2m_tau X_1 a1, which leads to topologies involving multi-leptons and missing transverse energy. We determine a set of selection cuts that can effectively isolate the signal from backgrounds of the Standard Model or the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We also exemplify the procedure with a set of benchmark points, for which we compute the expected number of events and signal strength for LHC with 8 TeV center of mass energy. We show that this si