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Sample records for a431 human epidermoid

  1. Thiol protease-specific inhibitor E-64 arrests human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells at mitotic metaphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji-Kasai, Y.; Senshu, M.; Iwashita, S.; Imahori, K.

    1988-01-01

    E-64-d /ethyl (2S, 3S)-3-[(S)-3-methyl-1-(3-methylbutylcarbamoyl)butylcarbamoyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate/, a membrane-permeant derivative of the thiol protease-specific inhibitor E-64, was found to arrest human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells at mitotic metaphase. This effect was dose-dependent with a threshold of 20μg/ml in chemically defined culture medium. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that the relative proportion of the G 2 /M population increased 2.5-fold after treatment of the cells with E-64 (100 μg/ml) for 5 hr. In addition, time-lapse video analysis showed that E-64-treated cells remained at metaphase for an extended period after rounding-up, whereas untreated cells were able to complete mitosis within 42.0 +/- 5.7 min. Some treated cells were able to complete mitosis, while others did not do so within limits of the authors observation. An approach to the molecular basis of this phenomenon, they have shown that several cellular proteins can be labeled by incubation of cells with radioactive E-64-d

  2. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, KH; Huang, D; Wong, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. Experimental approach: We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Key results: Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. Conclusion and implications: This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. PMID:20233216

  3. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, K H; Huang, D; Wong, S H

    2010-04-01

    Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death.

  4. Simulation of microgravity by magnetic levitation and random positioning: Effect on human A431 cell morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, M.J.A.; Gielen, J.C.; Bleichrodt, R.J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Boonstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Simulation of weightlessness is a desired replenishment for research in microgravity since access to space flights is limited. In real microgravity conditions, the human epidermoid cell line A431 exhibits specific changes in the actin cytoskeleton resulting ultimately in the rounding-up of cells.

  5. SNX3-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking and degradation by aspirin in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Kher Hsin; Tan, Yingrou; Chua, Rong Yuan; Huang, Dachuan; Ng, Mah Lee Mary; Torta, Federico; Wenk, Markus R; Wong, Siew Heng

    2012-05-01

    Since being introduced globally as aspirin in 1899, acetylsalicylic acid has been widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammation, anti-pyretic, and anti-thrombotic drug for years. Aspirin had been reported to down-regulate surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII in myeloid dendritic cells (DC), which played essential roles in regulating the immune system. We hypothesized that the down-regulation of these surface membrane proteins is partly due to the ability of aspirin in regulating trafficking/sorting of endocytosed surface membrane proteins. By using an established epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A-431), which overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfnR), we show that aspirin (1) reduces cell surface expression of EGFR and (2) accumulates endocytosed-EGFR and -TfnR in the early/sorting endosome (ESE). Further elucidation of the mechanism suggests that aspirin enhances recruitment of SNX3 and SNX5 to membranes and consistently, both SNX3 and SNX5 play essential roles in the aspirin-mediated accumulation of endocytosed-TfnR at the ESE. This study sheds light on how aspirin may down-regulate surface expression of EGFR by inhibiting/delaying the exit of endocytosed-EGFR from the ESE and recycling of endocytosed-EGFR back to the cell surface.

  6. Induction of apoptosis and antiproliferative activity of naringenin in human epidermoid carcinoma cell through ROS generation and cell cycle arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sultan Ahamad

    Full Text Available A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01 with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001 dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation.

  7. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; panalysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  9. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Ballestas, Mary E; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Brazilian Green Propolis on Human Laryngeal Epidermoid Carcinoma (HEp-2 Cells

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    Michelle C. Búfalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a sticky dark-colored material showing a very complex chemical composition that honeybees collect from plants. It has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to several biological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, among others. Its antitumor action in vivo and in vitro has also been reported, using propolis extracts or its isolated compounds. The goal of this work was to evaluate propolis's cytotoxic action in vitro on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (Hep-2 cells. These cells were incubated with different concentrations of this bee product for different time periods, and morphology and the number of viable HEp-2 cells analyzed. Data showed that propolis exhibited a cytotoxic effect in vitro against HEp-2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent way. Propolis solvent had no effects on morphology and number of viable cells, proving that the cytotoxic effects were exclusively due to propolis components. Since humans have been using propolis for a long time, further assays will provide a better comprehension of propolis's antitumor action.

  12. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  13. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  14. Cytotoxic Effect of Thymus caramanicus Jalas on Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Afzali, Mehrad; Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Aminizadeh, Maryam; Mostafavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Identifying new chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side effects is a major concern for scientists today. Thymus caramanicus Jalas (Lamiaceae family) is one of the species of Thymus that grows wild in different regions of Iran. Traditionally, leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Here was investigated the cytotoxic property of Thymus caramanicus essential oil and extract in human oral epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays. The cells were exposed to different concentrations of essential oil (0.05-1 µL/mL) and extract (25-150 µg/mL) for 24 h. Doxorubicin was used as anticancer control drug. The data showed that the essential oil (IC50=0.44 µL/mL) and extract (IC50=105 µg/mL) induce potent cytotoxic property. Surprisingly, cytotoxic effects of essential oil and extract of this plant on KB cancer cells were greater than those on normal gingival HGF1-PI1 cell line. In addition, Thymus caramanicus could potentiate the effect of doxorubicin in sub-effective concentrations. The results of the present study indicate that essential oils and extracts of Thymus caramanicus have potential anti-proliferative property on KB cells and can be used as pharmaceutical case study for oral cancer treatments.

  15. Designed Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Based Drug Nanocarrier for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery toward the Treatment of Human Epidermoid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Govindan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The morphologies of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites show 15 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in the form of rods. The BET result shows that the synthesized samples have a high specific surface area of 80 m2 g−1 with mesoporous structures. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample has high saturation magnetization of 18 emu/g with low coercivity. The Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites had a large specific surface area (SSA, high mesoporous volume, and good magnetic property, which made it a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent, andrographolide, was used to investigate the drug delivery behavior of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites. The human epidermoid skin cancer cells (A431 were used as the model targeting cell lines by treating with andrographolide loaded Fe3O4/HAp nanosystems and were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activities and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the present nanocomposite shows better biocompatibility, therefore it can be used as suitable drug vehicle for cancer therapy applications.

  16. Endostatin improves radioresponse and blocks tumor revascularization after radiation therapy for A431 xenografts in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasaka, Satoshi; Komaki, Ritsuko; Herbst, Roy S.; Shibuya, Keiko; Shintani, Tomoaki D.D.S.; Hunter, Nancy R. M.S.; Onn, Amir; Bucana, Corazon D.; Milas, Luka; Ang, K. Kian; O'Reilly, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents used alone for advanced malignancy have been disappointing but preclinical studies suggest that the addition of radiation therapy could improve antitumor efficacy. To test the hypothesis that antiangiogenic therapy combined with radiation therapy can overcome the limitations of antiangiogenic monotherapy, we studied the effects of endostatin combined with radiation on the growth and vascularization of A431 human epidermoid carcinomas growing intramuscularly in the legs of mice. Methods and Materials: Mice with established A431 human epidermoid leg tumors were treated with radiation, endostatin, both radiation and endostatin, or vehicle control. The experiment was repeated and mice from each group were killed at 2, 7, and 10 days after irradiation so that tumor tissue could be obtained to further analyze the kinetics of the antitumor, antivascular, and antiangiogenic response to therapy. Results: Endostatin enhanced the antitumor effects of radiation, and prolonged disease-free survival was observed in the combined treatment group. Endothelial cell proliferation was increased in tumors after irradiation but was blocked by the concurrent administration of endostatin, and the combination of endostatin with radiation enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis within 48 h after irradiation. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were increased in tumors after irradiation, and this increase was blocked by concurrent administration of endostatin. Conclusion: These data indicate that endostatin can block tumor revascularization after radiation therapy and thereby augment radioresponse

  17. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

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    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  18. Giant earlobe epidermoid cyst

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    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation.

  19. Aromadendrene oxide 2, induces apoptosis in skin epidermoid cancer cells through ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway.

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    Pavithra, P S; Mehta, Alka; Verma, Rama S

    2018-03-15

    Aromadendrene oxide 2 (AO-(2)) is an oxygenated sesquiterpene naturally found as a chemical component of essential oils. In the present study anticancer activity of AO-(2) has been investigated on A431 human epidermoid cancer and precancerous HaCaT cells. Cell viability was used to detect cytotoxic activity. Mechanism of cell death induced by AO-(2) treatments was studied using Annexin V-FITC/PI binding, cell cycle analysis, measurement of MMP and ROS generation by flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis related proteins was investigated by western blot. AO-(2) inhibited the growth and colony formation ability of A431 and HaCaT cells in concentration dependent manner. It induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis through intracellular ROS accumulation. Inhibition of intracellular ROS by ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine treatment completely blocked apoptotic effect. N-acetyl cysteine treatment significantly reversed G0/G1 arrest induced by AO-(2). AO-(2) treatment caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9) and PARP cleavage. AO-(2) also significantly inhibited the growth of multicellular tumor spheroids of A431 and HaCaT cells. The results of the present study reveals that AO-(2) a chemical component of essential oils induces apoptosis in A431 and HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidermal growth factor-receptor interaction in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and human epidermoid A431 cells: Biochemical and ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Boonstra, J.; Mummery, C.L.; Defize, L.; Leunissen, J.; Verkleij, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12) have specific plasmamembrane receptors for both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). These growth factors have however, opposite biological effects in PC12 cells; EGF acts mitogenically, while NGF induces differentiation and causes

  1. Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Francis P

    2010-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

  2. Intrascrotal extratesticular epidermoid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A; Agarwal, K

    2011-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare tumours, which account for 1% of all testicular tumours. Very rarely, they are intrascrotal but extratesticular. We present a rare case of an intrascrotal extratesticular cyst. The triad of findings were sonographic appearance of an onion ring, avascularity on Doppler sonography and negative results of tumour markers; these are highly suggestive of an epidermoid cyst.

  3. Selective cytotoxicity of Aniba rosaeodora essential oil towards epidermoid cancer cells through induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sœur, Jérémie; Marrot, Laurent; Perez, Philippe; Iraqui, Ismail; Kienda, Guy; Dardalhon, Michèle; Meunier, Jean-Roch; Averbeck, Dietrich; Huang, Meng-Er

    2011-01-10

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of odorous and volatile compounds derived from secondary plant metabolism. They can be isolated from many plants by mechanical pressing or hydro- and steam-distillation and are known to induce a wide range of biological effects through their antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. In order to explore their beneficial properties on human skin cells, we investigated the effects of an essential oil from rosewood Aniba rosaeodora (REO) on the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431, on immortal HaCaT cells thought to represent an early stage of skin carcinogenesis, on transformed normal HEK001 keratinocytes and on primary normal NHEK keratinocytes. In a defined range of concentrations, REO selectively killed A431 and HaCaT cells. The same treatments had only a minor cytotoxic effect on HEK001 and NHEK cells. Preferentially in A431 and HaCaT cells, REO triggered the production of reactive oxygen species, induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and caused caspase-dependent cell death characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization, an early marker of apoptosis. Both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were implicated in REO-induced cell death. The identification of selective induction of apoptosis in precancerous and cancerous skin cells by REO highlights the potential anticancer activity of this essential oil. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between radiation induced activation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in human cell line A431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Keun Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between radiation-induced acivation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in A431 cell line. Five and 25 Gys of gamma radiation were given to A431 cells by a Cs-137 cell irradiator. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression of DNA repair genes was evaluated by both Northern and Western blot analyses. The number of apoptotic cells increased with the increased radiation dose. It increased most significantly at 12 hours after irradiation. Expression of p53, p21, and ℎRAD50 reached the highest level at 12 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. In response to 25 Gy irradiation, ℎRAD50 and p21 were expressed maximally at 12 hours, but p53 and GADD45 genes showed the highest expression level after 12 hours. Induction of apoptosis and DNA repair by ionizing radiation were closely correlated. The peak time of inducing apoptosis and DNA repair was 12 hours in this study model. ℎRAD50, a recently discovered DNA repair gene, was also associated with radiation-induced apoptosis.=20

  5. Canine intracranial epidermoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S R; Graham, J; Chrisman, C L; Adjiri-Awere, A; Clemmons, R M

    1999-01-01

    A 7-year-old intact male pitbull presented with a 2-month history of progressive dysequilibrium. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was indicative of a central inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. A cerebellar cystic structure was identified on magnetic resonance imaging which was found to be an epidermoid cyst on histopathology.

  6. FGF2 mediates DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Melanie; Hafner, Sophie; Moratille, Sandra; Vaigot, Pierre; Rigaud, Odile; Martin, Michele T.; Mine, Solene

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a well-known survival factor. However, its role in DNA repair is poorly documented. The present study was designed to investigate in epidermoid carcinoma cells the potential role of FGF2 in DNA repair. The side population (SP) with cancer stem cell-like properties and the main population (MP) were isolated from human A431 squamous carcinoma cells. Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair were assessed using the alkaline comet assay. FGF2 expression was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SP cells exhibited rapid repair of radiation induced DNA damage and a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. Blocking FGF2 signaling abrogated the rapid DNA repair. In contrast, in MP cells, a slower repair of damage was associated with low basal expression of FGF2. Moreover, the addition of exogenous FGF2 accelerated DNA repair in MP cells. When irradiated, SP cells secreted FGF2, whereas MP cells did not. FGF2 was found to mediate DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells. We postulate that carcinoma stem cells would be intrinsically primed to rapidly repair DNA damage by a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. In contrast, the main population with a low FGF2 content exhibits a lower repair rate which can be increased by exogenous FGF2. (authors)

  7. Intradiploic epidermoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, E.; Latorre, F.F.; Revert, A.; Menor, F.; Riesgo, P.; Liano, F.; Diaz, C.

    1996-01-01

    We studied 37 intradiploic epidermoid cysts, reviewing typical and atypical radiological features and the differential diagnosis. The most common clinical feature was a long standing lump in the scalp, occurring in 25 patients (67.7 %). Plain films were the most cost-effective radiological technique in diagnosis. The typical finding was a well-defined lytic lesion with sclerotic border, seen in 29 cases (78 %). Atypical lesions were those larger than 5 cm and/or with an ill-defined edge, being observed in 8 cases (22 %). CT and MRI were the best methods for assessing atypical ones. In all cases with typical radiological findings a preoperative diagnosis of intradiploic epidermoid cyst was suggested. (orig.). With 8 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Differentiated nasosinusal epidermoid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Luna, Jorge; Bestard Hartman, Isel de la Caridad; Fe Soca, Andres Manuel de la

    2012-01-01

    Two case reports of young patients, who were treated in the Otolaryngology Department from 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba are presented. One of the cases presented nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea and facial pain, for 7 months; the other one presented an increase of volume in the right ocular globe. In both, the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of differentiated nasosinusal epidermoid carcinoma

  9. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  10. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  11. Radiobiological parameters of a human tumor parent line and four tumor clones of a human epidermoid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.; Dahlberg, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the radiobiological parameters of a parent tumor line and four tumor clones of a human squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The parent line and clones have a tumor morphology, aneuploid karyotype, and the ability to passage continuously in vitro. With the exception of clone F2A, all cell lines form tumors in nude mice. The parent line, SCC-12 has a D/sub o/ of 154 and an n 7.5 In four tumor clones, D/sub o/ ranges from 131 (clone V) to 266 (clone B2); n ranges from 22.8 in clone V to 2.1 in clone B2. PLDR following 1100 rad ranges from 1.7 in clone B2 to 13.1 in clone V. However, PLDR following equitoxic doses of radiation is similar in the parent and all sub-clones. Radiobiological heterogeneity may complicate predictive assays for clinical radiotherapy

  12. JNK signaling maintains the mesenchymal properties of multi-drug resistant human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells through snail and twist1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xia; Feng, Xiaobing; Kong, Ying; Chen, Yi; Tan, Wenfu

    2013-01-01

    In addition to possess cross drug resistance characteristic, emerging evidences have shown that multiple-drug resistance (MDR) cancer cells exhibit aberrant metastatic capacity when compared to parental cells. In this study, we explored the contribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling to the mesenchymal phenotypes and the aberrant motile capacity of MDR cells utilizing a well characterized MDR cell line KB/VCR, which is established from KB human epidermoid carcinoma cells by vincristine (VCR), and its parental cell line KB. Taking advantage of experimental strategies including pharmacological tool and gene knockdown, we showed here that interference with JNK signaling pathway by targeting JNK1/2 or c-Jun reversed the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells to epithelial phenotypes and suppressed the motile capacity of KB/VCR cells, such as migration and invasion. These observations support a critical role of JNK signaling in maintaining the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, we observed that JNK signaling may control the expression of both snail and twist1 in KB/VCR cells, indicating that both snail and twist1 are involved in controlling the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells by JNK signaling. JNK signaling is required for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype of KB/VCR cells; and JNK signaling may maintain the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells potentially through snail and twist1

  13. Epidermoid cyst in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Saral; Thakur, Sudeep; Menon, Santosh; Desai, Sangeeta B

    2011-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of an epidermoid cyst in the kidney of a 74-year-old man who had presented with painless hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a cyst in the kidney that was thought to be neoplastic. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and we received the nephrectomy specimen. A 6-cm cyst with no solid areas was seen. On histologic examination, this was an epidermoid cyst. We reviewed the published data and discuss the possible theories of origin of this rare condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  15. Giant Epidermoid Cyst of the Thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NH Mohamed Haflah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is a common benign cutaneous swelling frequently encountered in surgical practice. It usually presents as a painless lump frequently occurring in hairbearing areas of the body particularly the scalp, scrotum, neck, shoulder and back. Giant epidermoid cysts commonly occur in hairy areas such as the scalp. We present here the case of a rare occurrence of a giant epidermoid cyst in the less hairy area of the right upper thigh mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. Steps are highlighted for the management of this unusual cyst.

  16. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  17. Epidermoid Causing Ischemic Stroke in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors may rarely cause stroke. We report an epidermoid cyst causing stroke in a pediatric patient. We have also reviewed the literature and pathogenesis of stroke caused by intracranial tumors.

  18. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  19. Sublingual epidermoid cyst in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kumari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst that can occur in any part of the body. The most common age group for this cyst is 20–40 years. It's extremely rare in oral cavity accounting for only 1.6%. The cyst develops from the ectodermal tissue. It represents the most common cutaneous cysts. A 6 years old female patient presented with a complaint of swelling in the floor of the mouth. It measured 4 × 5 cm in size. Surgical excision with primary closure was performed. We present this case because of its rare location, mistaken for other entities, like a ranula and its occurrence at an early age. After excision, an oval-shaped mass of 4 × 5 cm has been described in this case. The histopathological report confirms the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. The epidermoid cyst commonly occurs in middle-aged adult group, especially over the face, scalp & trunk area. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice in such case. Epidermoid cyst of the oral cavity is an uncommon entity. Although it's common in middle-aged adult but sometimes it may occur in pediatrics age group.

  20. [Multiple intracranial epidermoid cysts: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeur, P; Okhremchuk, I; Morvan, J B; Vatin, L; Rivière, D; de Faria, A; Joubert, C; Dagain, A

    Epidermoid cyst is a benign and rare tumor, that evolves slowly. We describe the case of a 55 years-old woman, who came to our consultation for atypical trigeminal neuralgia of left V1 and V2 nerves. Brain MRI found two tumors: T1W hypointense with no appreciable enhancement after gadolinium injection and T2W and diffusion hyperintense. This last feature was in favour of an epidermoid cyst, but the multiplicity of cerebral lesions was definitely not in favor of such a diagnos­tic. They were located behind the right eye and in the left Meckel’s cave (trigeminal cave). The surgical strategy consis­ted in removal the retro orbital tumor witch was the most acces­si­ble of both the diagnostic of epidermoid cyst was retaned thanks to the anatomopathology report. As these lesions had the exact same characteristics, we concluded that they were simi­lar. The second epidermoid cyst was not removed because of surgical risk, its benign nature and low evolutionary potential.

  1. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Submandibular Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermoid and epidermoid cysts in the oral cavity frequently develop in the midline or sublingual region of the floor of the mouth. Here, we report a rare case of an epidermoid cyst in the submandibular region. The patient was a 69-year-old man with a chief complaint of a mass in the right submandibular region. A mobile, elastic, relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in this region. The skin covering the mass was normal. MRI showed a cystic lesion measuring 3.5 × 3.0 cm under the platysma in the right submandibular region. Cystectomy was performed under general anesthesia. There was no adhesion to surrounding tissue and the right submandibular gland was preserved. The surgical specimen was cystic and contained soybean cord-like materials. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 28 months.

  2. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. Case Outline. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Niš, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Conclusion. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  3. Rare Locations of Epidermoid Cyst: Case Reports and Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PubMed database search made on January 2016 yielded 674 articles of epidermoid cyst in the head and neck region. In that there is only one case reported occuring in the lower one third of face. In the current report, we outline the second case of epidermoid cyst localized to the right mandibular body region without ...

  4. A rare site of epidermoid cyst of the eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand C Bubanale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are slow- growing, benign tumors that result from proliferation of epidermal cells within a confined space. Epidermoid cysts of the eyelid typically present during adolescence through adulthood as a solitary, elevated, round, freely mobile subcutaneous mass with smooth overlying skin. The most common site for the sebaceous or epidermoid cysts is the meibomian glands of the upper tarsus due to retention of meibomian gland material. We report a case of a 32- year- old male who presented with chief complains of painless swelling on the right upper lid since 1 year. It was an extrameibomian site, i.e., at the lateral superior aspect of the eyelid. It is a rare site for the epidermoid cyst to grow to such an extent. The lesion was excised completely, and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst.

  5. Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan. (author)

  6. Epidermoid cyst causing hemifacial spasm epidermoid cyst in cerebellopontine angle presenting with hemifacial spasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Alemdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemifacial Spasm (HS occurs idiopathically or secondary to the lesions compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve symptomatically. Symptomatic HS is generally due to vascular compression. We report on a 23-year-old male with right sided HS for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a well-demarcated epidermoid cyst in the right cerebellopontine cistern. It was hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging without contrast enhancement, hyperintense on DWI, and slightly hypointense on ADC relative to the brain. Although it caused shifting of the pons and medulla to the left side and compression of the right cerebellar peduncles and fourth ventricle, the sole symptom of the patient was HS. Clinicians are advised to request MRI/scan for brainstem lesions from the patients with HS. Epidermoid cysts in cerebellopontine cistern may present with HS as the sole symptom.

  7. Oral Rehabilitation of a Patient with Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nourizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, histologically benign and slow- growing lesions. Their frequency among primitive intracranial tumors is about 1% and they account for 40% of all intracranial epidermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA; the most common symptom which brings about difficulties in oral rehabilitation of these patients is facial weakness which diversely affects impression processes and use of prosthesis. We report the oral rehabilitation of a patient with a cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst using neutral zone approach.   Keywords: Soft tissue thickness; Facial reconstruction; Cone Beam Computed Tomography

  8. Carcinoma epidermoide primario do estomago Primary epidermoid carcinoma of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Penna de Azevedo

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. chamam a attenção para a raridade deste typo histologico de tumor do estomago e descrevem um caso verificado pela autopsia, em individuo branco, brasileiro, de 67 annos de edade. O tumor localiza-se na pequena curvatura do estomago, sob o aspecto de uma formação crateriforme de 3,5 cms. de diametro e com adherencias ao pancreas. O esophago e o cardia não são de modo algum comprometidos pelo processo. Foram encontradas metastases no coração, no figado, na capsula do pancrea, no pulmão e glandulas suprarenaes. O exame histologico mostra tratar-se de um carcinoma epidermoide, não só no tumor primitivo, como tambem nos fócos metastaticos. As AA. são inclinados a acreditar que o tumor tenha se originado por intermedio de um processo d metaplasia epidermoide da mucosa gastrica.Attention is called by the AA. to the rarity of this histological feature of gastric tumor verified and described, on post mortem examination, in a white Brazilian male, 57 years old. The tumor is located on the lesser curvature of the stomach under the appearance of a crateriform formation, 3.5 cms. in diameter, fast adhering to the pancreas. The esophagus and cardia are not affected by this process. Metastases were found in the heart, liver, capsule of the pancreas, lungs and adrenal glands. The histological examination reveals in te primary tumor and in the metastatic foci a carcinoma of epidermoid type. The AA. are inclined to believe that the tumor might have arisen through an epidermoid-metaplastic process of the gastric mucosa.

  9. Posttransplant epidermoid cysts secondary to small graft hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, D A; Stough, D B

    1995-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts sometimes result from small-graft hair transplantation. Although hair transplant surgeons are aware of this complication, it has not been reported to date. Our purpose is to report the clinical and histological features of posttransplant epidermoid cysts. Four patients with posttransplant cysts, and the histological features of two of these cysts, were reviewed. All cysts occurred at the site of a recent micro- or minigraft, and were small; one had become infected. Serial sectioning of one scalp biopsy showed a micrograft lying in the subcutaneous tissue in close proximity to an epidermoid cyst. The cyst apparently arose from the follicular infundibulum of the graft. Posttransplant epidermoid cysts are examples of epidermal inclusion cysts. They are treated by conservative excision, and may require drainage for secondary infection. Careful operative technique should prevent some of these cysts.

  10. Total excision of intramedullary epidermoid cyst in one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU Ke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical experience of total excision in a 14-year-old female with intramedullary epidermoid cyst was reported. The patient with L3-4 intramedullary epidermoid cyst underwent total excision through posterior median approach under microscopy. The patient was admitted for progressive strephexopodia and urinary and fecal incontinence. Preoperative imaging examination showed scoliosis, incontionous L4-S1 and abnormal signal of L3-4. Total excision and spinal remodeling were performed under intraoperative neurophysiological monitoning. Epidermoid cyst and its membrane were totally removed without aseptic meningitis after surgery, and the neurologic symptoms of the patient were gradually improved. Completely removing the membrane of epidermoid cyst is the key point to prevent recurrence and aseptic meningitis postoperatively. Dissection should be strictly in accordance with the boundaries of the membrane and the spinal cord, in order to avoid spinal cord injury.

  11. Epidermoid/Dermoid cysts mimicking odontogenic infections: review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rahpeyma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid/Epidermoid cysts are rare pathologic lesions that may involve the floor of the mouth. Infection and inflammation of the cyst can produce a clinical picture very similar to the submandibular and submental abscesses with odontogenic origin. Dermoid/epidermoid cysts are on the floor of the mouth with submental or submandibular component can be mistaken for odontogenic infections. Methods: Four biopsy proven dermoid/epidermoid cysts operated in the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Ghaem hospital (2012-2013, were reviewed. Results: Four patients, including two classic cases and two infected dermoid/epidermoid cysts, were erroneously diagnosed as odontogenic infection. Discussion: The lesions located solely below mylohyoid muscle need to be removed through anextraoral approach but the lesions above the mylohyoid muscle or those that have both supra- and infra-mylohyoid components can be removed through an intraoral incision.Conclusion: Dermoid/epidermoid cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of submental/submandibular swellings. In the absence of an odontogenic cause of infection, fine-needle aspiration biopsy and appropriate imaging evaluation techniques with sonography, CT or MRI are mandatory for correct diagnosis and surgical treatment planning. The clinicians should be very cautious to differentiate odontogenic infections from infected dermoid/epidermoid cysts.

  12. Epidermoid cyst of the posterior fossa: a case report Cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts of the central nervous system are uncommon conditions, which are frequently located in the cerebellopontine angle and around the pons. They are covered with keratinized squamous epithelium and keratin lamella, which give its contents a soft, white-pearly appearance. Epidermoid cysts are mostly originated from malformations, presumably associated with surface elements of the nervous system ectoderm during the closure of the neural groove or formation of secondary cerebral vesicles. The authors describe a case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa causing hydrocephalus and review morphologic and diagnostic criteria of this lesion.Os cistos epidermoides do sistema nervoso central (SNC são condições incomuns, estando localizados mais frequentemente no ângulo pontocerebelar e ao redor da ponte. Eles são revestidos por epitélio escamoso queratinizado e lamelas de queratina, tornando seu conteúdo branco-perolado e pastoso. Os cistos epidermoides são, na maioria das vezes, originados de malformações, possivelmente associados ao entremeio de elementos superficiais do ectoderma do SNC durante o fechamento da placa neural, ou formação das vesículas cerebrais secundárias. Os autores descrevem um caso de cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior determinando hidrocefalia e revisam critérios morfológicos e diagnósticos dessa lesão.

  13. A new A431/cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists from Radix sophorae flavescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicen; Sun, Meng; Zhang, Yanmin; Du, Hui; He, Langchong

    2010-08-06

    The intracellular kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in some tumor cells such as human epidermal squamous cells (A(431) cells) are an important target for drug discovery. We have developed a new A(431)/cell membrane chromatography (A(431)/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method for screening EGFR antagonists from medicinal herbs such as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, A(431) cells with high EGFR expression levels were used to prepare cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) in an A(431)/CMC model. The retention fractions eluted from the CMSP column were enriched onto an ODS pre-column and then switched into an HPLC/MS system by combining a 10 port columns switching valve. The screening results found that oxymatrine and matrine from Radix sophorae flavescentis (RSF) were the targeted components which could act on EGFR in similar manner of gefitinib as a control drug. There was a good relationship of their inhibiting effects on EGFR secretion and A(431) cell growth in vitro. This new A(431)/CMC-online-HPLC/MS method can be applied for screening EGFR antagonists from TCMs such as RSF. It will be a useful method for drug discovery with natural medicinal herbs as a leading compound resource. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidermoid cyst of the ovay in young woman: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jung Hee; Kim, See Hyung; Kang, Yu Na; Kim, Mi Jeong [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In general, ovarian epidermoid cysts coexist with surface epithelial ovarian tumors. Pure epidermoid cysts are extremely rare diseases, comprising less than 1% of surface ovarian tumors. We present here a pathologically proven epidermoid cyst of the ovary in a young woman with ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance findings.

  15. Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: Myelo-CT and MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visciani, A.; Balestrini, M.R.; Solero, C.L.; Savoiardo, M.

    1989-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy, treated for acute lymphatic leukemia at the age of 2 with intrathecal injections of Methotrexate, presented with a two year history of pain and signs of lumbo-sacral lesion. MRI, myelography and myelo-CT demonstrated an intradural L4-L5 epidermoid tumor which was removed. Iatrogenic implantation of epithelial cells at the age of two with lumbar punctures is most likely. Decline in incidence of lumbar iatrogenic epidermoid cysts, now an exceedingly rare event, is probably related to improved needles for lumbar punctures. (orig.).

  16. Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: Myelo-CT and MRI diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visciani, A.; Balestrini, M.R.; Solero, C.L.; Savoiardo, M.

    1989-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy, treated for acute lymphatic leukemia at the age of 2 with intrathecal injections of Methotrexate, presented with a two year history of pain and signs of lumbo-sacral lesion. MRI, myelography and myelo-CT demonstrated an intradural L4-L5 epidermoid tumor which was removed. Iatrogenic implantation of epithelial cells at the age of two with lumbar punctures is most likely. Decline in incidence of lumbar iatrogenic epidermoid cysts, now an exceedingly rare event, is probably related to improved needles for lumbar punctures. (orig.)

  17. Ruptured splenic epidermoid cyst: case report and imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, N.J.B.; Arthur, R.J.; Stringer, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of a splenic epidermoid cyst is a rare but recognised cause of ''acute abdomen'' in a child. We describe such a case occurring after very minor trauma, show the influence that imaging had in making an accurate diagnosis, and discuss how this influenced clinical management. (orig.). With 1 fig

  18. Large and small cells non-keratinizing epidermoid vaginal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maso Anaya, Ofelia; Morales Larramendi, Maria Elena; Diaz Perez, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Five case reports of patients who were assisted at the cervix Pathology Department from 'Mariana Grajales Coello' Provincial Gynecological Obstetrical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba due to vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, leukorrhea and vaginal injuries are presented. The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of squamous or epidermoid cells carcinoma

  19. Pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a rare entity. Siham El Aziz, Asma Chadli, Atika Obbiba, Hassan El Ghomari, Ahmed Farouqi. Abstract. A 56-years-old woman was referred to our unit for partially treated acromegaly. She had a high level of insulin growth factor. She did not complain of any ...

  20. Epidermoid cyst: a case report and review of literature | Gotmare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidermoid cysts are quite rare in the head and neck region. They present as an asymptomatic swelling. The differential diagnosis of these lesions include dermoid cyst, milia, pilar cyst, etc. Although benign they need to be treated as soon as a possible as they can cause disfigurement of the head and neck region.

  1. Evolution of vestibular schwannoma after removal of epidermoid cyst of the same location: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Sugawara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Ryu; Akamatsu, Yousuke; Mikawa, Shigeki; Seki, Hirofumi

    2009-10-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with vestibular schwannoma manifesting as hearing disturbance and truncal ataxia 16 years after removal of a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoid cyst, and located adjacent to the remnant lesion. The patient first presented with a 6-month history of right trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroimaging demonstrated a right CPA lesion, suggestive of an epidermoid cyst. Right lateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. A small lesion remained, but the symptoms were relieved. Sixteen years later, the patient presented with right auditory disturbance, vertigo, and truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multiple cystic mass adjacent to the remnant epidermoid cyst in the right CPA. The lesion was removed and the histological diagnosis was vestibular schwannoma associated with the epidermoid cyst. The irritative effect of the remnant epidermoid cyst or surgical procedures may have caused the vestibular schwannoma, but no evidence of the evolution of the different types of tumors was found.

  2. Intratesticular and intraovarian epidermoid inclusion cysts: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme José Morgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two rare cases of intragonadal epidermoid inclusion cysts are described. Their etiology remains controversial and a possible hypothesis is monodermal abortive teratomas, with no mesodermal and endodermal components. As the ultrasound test results were inconclusive, it became difficult to rule out the possibility of neoplasm. Therefore, patients were submitted to radical therapy. The definitive diagnosis for both cases was provided by the anatomopathological examination.

  3. Comparação entre dois métodos de detecção de DNA de papilomavírus humano em carcinoma epidermoide de lábio Comparison between two methods for human papilomavírus DNA detection in lip squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Demathe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Recentemente o papilomavírus humano (HPV tem sido associado à carcinogênese oral. A metodologia empregada na detecção do vírus é uma das maiores causas observadas da grande variabilidade nas taxas de detecção do HPV. Objetivo: Este estudo comparou a sensibilidade de detecção do DNA do HPV em casos de carcinoma epidermoide de lábio utilizando a amplificação do DNA viral por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR ou nPCR. Material e método: Foram utilizadas 33 amostras provenientes de casos de carcinoma epidermoide de lábio. Para as extrações do DNA utilizou-se o sistema QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Como controle interno utilizou-se o gene da b-globina. Das 33 amostras iniciais, 30 foram positivas para o gene b-globina, sendo utilizadas para detectar o DNA viral. Comparou-se a amplificação do DNA viral pelos métodos da PCR com os oligonucleotídeos MY09/MY11 e nPCR, empregando-se os pares de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MY09/MY11 e, na segunda etapa, o par GP5+/GP6+. O controle positivo para a presença do DNA do HPV utilizado foi a linhagem de células HeLa e, como controle negativo, a mistura de amplificação sem DNA. A análise dos produtos de PCR e nPCR para HPV foi realizada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida a 8%. Resultados: Utilizando-se o método da PCR, a amplificação do DNA do HPV foi constatada em dois casos. Com a nPCR foi verificada presença de DNA viral em 13 das 30 amostras. Conclusão: Com a utilização da nPCR, a detecção do HPV nos casos estudados aumentou mais de seis vezes.Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV has been currently associated with oral carcinogesis. The methodology applied in virus detection is one of the main reasons for the great variability observed in HPV detection. Objectives: This study compared HPV DNA detection efficiency in lip squamous cell carcinoma samples (SCC using viral DNA amplification by PCR or nPCR. Methods: Thirty three samples of lip squamous cell

  4. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  5. Malignant Transformation Six Months after Removal of Intracranial Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Lakhdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial epidermoid cysts are uncommon benign tumors of developmental origin; malignant transformation of benign epidermoid cysts is rare, and their prognosis remains poor. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the cerebellopontine angle. A 52-year-old man presented with left facial paralysis and cerebellar ataxia. He had undergone total removal of a benign epidermoid cyst six months previously. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a heterogeneous and cystic lesion in the left cerebellopontine angle with hydrocephalus. The cyst wall was enhanced by gadolinium. He underwent ventricle-peritoneal shunt and removal again; the histopathological examination revealed a squamous cell carcinoma possibly arising from an underlying epidermoid cyst. This entity is being reported for its rarity. The presence of contrast enhancement at the site of an epidermoid cyst combined with an acute, progressive neurological deficit should alert the neurosurgeon to the possibility of a malignant transformation.

  6. Dorsal intramedullary spinal epidermoid cysts: Report of two cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincu Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary epidermoid cysts of the spinal cord are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. About 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only seven cases have had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies. We report two cases of spinal intramedullary epidermoid cysts with MR imaging. Both were not associated with spina bifida. In one patient, the tumor was located at D4 vertebral level; while in the other, within the conus medullaris. The clinical features, MRI characteristics and surgical treatment of intramedullary epidermoid cyst are presented with relevant review of the literature.

  7. Phosphoproteomic fingerprinting of epidermal growth factor signaling and anticancer drug action in human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoon-Pin; Diong, Lang-Shi; Qi, Robert; Druker, Brian J; Epstein, Richard J

    2003-12-01

    Many proteins regulating cancer cell growth are tyrosine phosphorylated. Using antiphosphotyrosine affinity chromatography, thiourea protein solubilization, two-dimensional PAGE, and mass spectrometry, we report here the characterization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphoproteome in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Using this approach, more than 50 distinct tyrosine phosphoproteins are identifiable within five main clusters-cytoskeletal proteins, signaling enzymes, SH2-containing adaptors, chaperones, and focal adhesion proteins. Comparison of the phosphoproteomes induced in vitro by transforming growth factor-alpha and platelet-derived growth factor demonstrates the pathway- and cell-specific nature of the phosphoproteomes induced. Elimination of both basal and ligand-dependent phosphoproteins by cell exposure to the EGF receptor catalytic inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) suggests either an autocrine growth loop or the presence of a second inhibited kinase in A431 cells. By identifying distinct patterns of phosphorylation involving novel signaling substrates, and by clarifying the mechanism of action of anticancer drugs, these findings illustrate the potential of immunoaffinity-based phosphoproteomics for guiding the discovery of new drug targets and the rational utilization of pathway-specific chemotherapies.

  8. Analysis of the role of the gene coding the Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) in the radio-sensitivity of epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract infected by the human papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihard, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Ramolu, L.; Macabre, C.; Abecassis, J.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    As the human papillomavirus (HPV) is at the origin of 25% of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, and as these tumours present an increased radio-sensitivity compared to other tumours, probably due to a greater transcriptional activity of p53, the authors report the study on the influence of a decrease of the expression of the APP-BP1 in these tumours which could favour a radio-induced apoptosis. By using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), they assessed the APP-BP1 expression levels as well as expression levels of transcriptions coding onco-proteins known to be over-expressed in HPV+ tumours. They compared the radio-sensitivities of HPV+ and HPV- cells, the first one appearing to be greater than the second one. Short communication

  9. Natural Malignant Transformation of an Intracranial Epidermoid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Hao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC is very rare, and when it does occur, the clinical course is aggressive. We present an unusual case of natural malignant transformation of an intracranial EC, without a history of surgery. A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with an EC in the right cerebellopontine angle and prepontine cistern 6 years before the operation described in this report. Her neurological symptoms deteriorated in the 2 months prior to the present admission. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an irregular, nodular enhanced lesion in the cerebellopontine angle, prepontine cistern, and temporoparietal lobe. Subtotal resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological examination revealed malignant transformation of the EC. The patient died on postoperative day 36 from brainstem infarction, chemical meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Spontaneous rupture of the EC could have contributed to the malignant transformation. This could have been avoided by early removal of the EC.

  10. Carcinoma epidermoide del margen anal contra calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Reyes Argudín

    Full Text Available La calidad de vida de los pacientes debe tenerse en cuenta. Esta representa el resultado final de la actuación médica desde la perspectiva del paciente. En ocasiones solo nos basamos en este criterio para tomar decisiones terapéuticas ante determinadas enfermedades, como el carcinoma epidermoide de margen anal en estadío terminal. El tratamiento y conducta con fines paliativos tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de estas personas. Presentamos el caso de paciente varón de 48 años de edad que acude a consulta por presentar lesión en el ano que no le permitía sentarse y después de realizársele todo el estudio necesario para determinar su diagnóstico definitivo (carcinoma epidermoide de ano evaluarlo y determinar el tratamiento requerido para el grado de la enfermedad, nos percatamos que el tratamiento radical no cambiaba la evolución de su estado y se decide tratamiento paliativo para mejorar la calidad de vida. En ocasiones acuden a consulta pacientes que al culminar su estudio, obtienen el diagnóstico de una enfermedad avanzada y es, a partir de este momento, que nuestro pensamiento médico debe cambiar y encaminar nuestros esfuerzos a mejorar la calidad de vida y no llevarlos a un final tormentoso con el objetivo de revertir la evolución de una enfermedad que no tiene regresión.

  11. Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, D; Pivetta, M; Bowlt, K; Volmer, C; Holloway, A; Dennis, R

    2014-08-01

    This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors' knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Intraspinal Dermoid and Epidermoid Tumors : Report of 18 Cases and Reappraisal of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalst, J.; Hoekstra, F.; Beuls, E. A. M.; Cornips, E. M. J.; Weber, J. W.; Sival, D. A.; Creytens, D. H. K. V.; Vles, J. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors are two histopathological subtypes of cutaneous inclusion tumors of the spine. This classification is based on obsolete embryological knowledge. In fact, according to current embryology, both tumor types consist of ectodermal derivatives. Therefore, we

  13. Diffusion tensor mode in imaging of intracranial epidermoid cysts: one step ahead of fractional anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolapara, Milan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Saini, Jitender; Patro, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman; Bodhey, Narendra; Radhakrishnan, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    The signal characteristics of an epidermoid on T2-weighted imaging have been attributed to the presence of increased water content within the tumor. In this study, we explore the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor metrics (DTM) in knowing the microstructural anatomy of epidermoid cysts. DTI was performed in ten patients with epidermoid cysts. Directionally averaged mean diffusivity (D av ), exponential diffusion, and DTM-like fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusion tensor mode (mode), linear (CL), planar (CP), and spherical (CS) anisotropy were measured from the tumor as well as from the normal-looking white matter. Epidermoid cysts showed high FA. However, D av and exponential diffusion values did not show any restriction of diffusion. Diffusion tensor mode values were near -1, and CP values were high within the tumor. This suggested preferential diffusion of water molecules along a two-dimensional geometry (plane) in epidermoid cysts, which could be attributed to the parallel-layered arrangement of keratin filaments and flakes within these tumors. Thus, advanced imaging modalities like DTI with DTM can provide information regarding the microstructural anatomy of the epidermoid cysts. (orig.)

  14. [Epidermoid neoplasm of the fourth ventricle. Report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Vallejo-Moncada, Cristóbal; Collado-Arce, Griselda; Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Sandoval-Balanzario, M

    2013-01-01

    epidermoid neoplasm (EN) accounts for 1 % of whole intracranial neoplasms. Usually, it is found at the cerebello-pontine angle and the location in the fourth ventricle (FV) is rare. The aim was to report two cases of EN of the FV. case 1: a female 22 year old presented with an intense headache with a history of 3 months. At the hospital entry, symptoms and signs of high intracranial pressure were found. Tomography images showed hydrocephalus with high pressure in the FV. She was treated with a shunt from ventricular to peritoneal cavity. After that an encapsulated neoplasm was drawn. It had a pearled aspect. The histology report showed an EN originating in the FV. Case 2: a female 44 year old with a history of five years of dizziness; three years before admission she presented intermittent diplopia and disophagia. At the hospital admission the patient presented paresis of the 6th and 7th cranial nerve. The tomography and the magnetic resonance studies showed a mass in the FV. The neoplasm was extirpated. the EN of the FV is an infrequent benign lesion. Magnetic resonance is the standard diagnostic study, but it could lead to confusion with neurocisticercosis. The extirpation and the treatment of the hydrocephalus are indicated.

  15. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  16. Acquired Encephalocele With Hydrocephalus and Pineal Region Epidermoid Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yilmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Bayoumi, Ahmed B; Akakin, Akin; Yener, Yasin; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kiliç, Türker

    2016-07-01

    A combination of trauma and a missed inflammatory response (nasal operation) concomitant with hydrocephalus and tumor in secondary encephalocele has not been described in the English literature yet. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the clinic with rhinorrhea that started 3 months ago. In his medical history, nothing abnormal was present except a nasal operation performed 1 year ago. Brain magnetic resonance imaging depicted left frontal encephalocele concomitant with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by an epidermoid cyst originated from the pineal region. A 2-staged surgery was planned. In the first stage, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was conveyed successfully. In the second-stage surgery, the herniated brain tissue was excised, and the frontal sinus was cleansed with serum saline combined with antibiotic. The bony defect and the dura defect were repaired. The patient's presenting complaint recovered fully, and he was discharged to home in a well condition. Acquired encephalocele is a rare entity. In case of rhinorrhea and encephalocele, even in the presence of prior history of nasal surgery, intracranial evaluation should be conveyed to exclude the presence of hydrocephalus and/or tumor. The cranial defect should be repaired to prevent future infections and brain tissue damage.

  17. Human glioblastoma and carcinoma xenograft tumors treated by combined radiation and imatinib (Gleevec {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, S.; Krempien, R.; Lindel, K.; Zabel, A.; Milker-Zabel, S.; Bischof, M.; Lipson, K.E.; Peschke, P.; Debus, J.; Abdollahi, A.; Huber, P.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, and Univ. of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: imatinib (Gleevec {sup registered}, Glivec {sup registered}) is an inhibitor of {alpha}-and {beta}-platelet-derived growth factor receptors and other tyrosine kinases, that are also associated with the function of growth factors. Imatinib has been approved for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors and is under investigation for the therapy of several other malignant tumors. Since radiotherapy is an important treatment option in many tumors, combined effects of imatinib and radiation were analyzed here. Material and methods: in vitro, U87 cells (human glioblastoma), A431 cells (human epidermoid carcinoma), and HUVECs (human umbilical, venous endothelial cells) were treated with imatinib alone and in combination with radiation. Clonogenic survival and cell proliferation were determined with and without additional radiation (0-10 Gy). In vivo, U87 and A431 cells (5 x 10{sup 6}) were subcutaneously injected into hind limbs of balb c nu/u mice. Drug and radiation treatments started on day 0 when tumor volumes were approximately 400-500 mm{sup 3}. Tumors were treated with 5 x 5 Gy (U87) or 6 x 5 Gy (A431) on consecutive days from day 0. Imatinib was administered orally via the mouse diet starting on day 0 until the end of observation. Tumor growth and microvessel density (CD31 IHC) were analyzed. Results: in vitro, imatinib increased radiosensitivity of U87 and A431 tumor cells as well as HUVECs in both clonogenic and cell number/proliferation assays. The enhancement of radiosensitivity in HUVECs was comparable to that observed in the tumor cells. In vivo, the concurrent and continuous administration of imatinib increased tumor growth delay of fractionated radiotherapy in the carcinoma and the glioblastoma models at reduced microvessel densities. No apparent additional toxicity by the combination of radiation and imatinib versus monotherapies was observed in terms of weight, skin, or general behavior

  18. Impact of flavonoids on matrix metalloproteinase secretion and invadopodia formation in highly invasive A431-III cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Chuen Lin

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. Invadopodia are considered to be crucial structures that allow cancer cells to penetrate across the extracellular matrix (ECM by using matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Previously, we isolated a highly invasive A431-III subline from parental A431 cells by Boyden chamber assay. The A431-III cells possess higher invasive and migratory abilities, elevated levels of MMP-9 and an enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In this study, we discovered that A431-III cells had an increased potential to form invadopodia and an improved capacity to degrade ECM compared with the original A431 cells. We also observed enhanced phosphorylation levels of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells; these phosphorylated proteins have been reported to be the main regulators of invadopodia formation. Flavonoids, almost ubiquitously distributed in food plants and plant food products, have been documented to exhibit anti-tumor properties. Therefore, it was of much interest to explore the effects of flavonoid antioxidants on the metastatic activity of A431-III cells. Exposure of A431-III cells to two potent dietary flavonoids, namely luteolin (Lu and quercetin (Qu, caused inhibition of invadopodia formation and decrement in ECM degradation. We conclude that Lu and Qu attenuate the phosphorylation of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells. As a consequence, there ensues a disruption of invadopodia generation and the suppression of MMP secretion. These changes, in concert, bring about a reduction in metastasis.

  19. Leech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirudo medicinalis sucks blood directly through the external mammalian skin. We recently observed a healthy 64-year-old Iranian man, who presented with numerous asymptomatic multilobular oval-to-round well-defined 0.5 to 1.5 cm cystic lesions with central umbilication (central black eschar over the upper portion of his chest. We made the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, giant comedone and leech bite on the basis of the constellation of clinical features. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin at a dose of 2 g daily, and 2% topical erythromycin solution. Despite improvement, the evidence of cystic lesions persisted. There was no history of similar lesions in any other family member. There was no history of trauma. The patient was not using any topical or systemic medication. Two weeks before his visit, he had a history of leech therapy under the supervision of a general practitioner. His medical history was significant for leech therapy of the lesions, five days previously. He was followed up for another two weeks and after disappearance of the inflammation, with the patient under local anesthesia, the well-circumscribed mass was completely evacuated with a sharp curette and comedone extractor. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of leeches, it would be favorable to breed a germ-free leech. In Iran, the use of the leeches in surgery, in recent years, has been infrequent. It appears that the positive effects of this ancient remedy may now be explained through scientific methods, promising potentially even more uses of this admirable creature in medicine.

  20. Iso-effect tables and therapeutic ratios for epidermoid cancer and normal tissue stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1983-01-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to normal tissue stroma and ablation of epidermoid carcinoma was surveyed. Computer programs (RAD3 and RAD1) were then used to derive cell kinetic parameters and generate iso-effect tables for the relevant tissues. The two tables provide a set of limiting doses for tolerance of normal connective tissue (16% risk of injury) and for ablation of epidermoid cancer (16% risk of recurrence) covering a wide range of treatment schedules. Calculating the ratios of normal tissue tolerance to tumor control doses for each treatment scheme provides an array of therapeutic ratios, from which appropriate treatment schemes can be selected

  1. Multiplexed evaluation of a cell-based assay for the detection of antidrug neutralizing antibodies to panitumumab in human serum using automated fluorescent microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennucci, Jason; Swanson, Steve; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Gupta, Shalini

    2010-07-01

    The method described here employs a high-content cell-based assay format for the detection of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to panitumumab, a fully human monoclonal antagonistic antibody to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in human serum (screening assay). A specificity assay was also developed and qualified to confirm that the neutralizing activity was attributable to the presence of NAbs and not due to serum interference (serum interference assay). The ArrayScan IV HCS reader was used for the measurement of tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT-1 redistribution between the cytoplasm and nucleus in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. Assay conditions were developed by (1) optimizing the response of the A431 cells to recombinant human EGF in pooled human serum, (2) evaluating the ability of panitumumab to inhibit the EGF response, and (3) assessing the assay's sensitivity for detecting a positive control affinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-panitumumab antibody. Panitumumab dose-dependently inhibited 4 ng/mL EGF, and the positive control antibody showed a dose-dependent neutralization of 50 ng/mL panitumumab. The experiments indicated that in comparison to STAT-1 translocation, EGFR phosphorylation was the optimal endpoint for the screening and serum interference assays. Assay cut points were derived for the screening and serum interference assays by obtaining normalized ratios of mean fluorescence intensity values obtained with EGFR phosphorylation by testing sera from healthy human donor sera. The assay sensitivity was determined to be 0.125 microg/mL for the positive control antibody.

  2. Qualidade de vida de doentes esofagectomizados: adenocarcinoma versus carcinoma epidermoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricilda Regina Pereira

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar a qualidade de vida de pacientes esofagectomizados para tratamento de adenocarcinoma da junção esofagogástrica e de carcinoma epidermoide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal no pós-operatório de doentes esofagectomizados por adenocarcinoma da junção esofagogástrica (Adenoca e carcinoma epidermóide (CEC, empregando o questionário SF-36 aplicado em 24 pacientes (10 por Adenoca e 14 por CEC, a partir do 5º mês de pós-operatório, incluindo os sintomas clínicos e a variação de peso. RESULTADOS: A avaliação da QV mostrou melhor resultado de capacidade funcional (p=0,018 para o grupo Adenoca. Houve correlação entre os domínios "saúde mental" e "limitação por aspectos emocionais" (p=0,003 e entre "dor" e "limitação por aspectos físicos" (p=0,003 nos dois tipos histológicos. A perda de peso foi maior nos esofagectomizados por Adenoca (45,9Kg, sem diferença significativa entre o IMC atual (p>0,66. A disfagia foi relatada por 83,3% dos pacientes, a anorexia por 58,3%, a dificuldade de mastigação por 42%, a náuseas e os vômitos por 41,7% e a diarréia por 29,2%, sem correlação com a QV relatada (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O escore mais alto para capacidade funcional indica que o paciente com Adenoca foi capaz de realizar todo tipo de atividade física, incluindo as mais vigorosas em um nível maior que o paciente com CEC. Alguns sintomas persistiram no pós-operatório, porém não interferiram na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.

  3. Concurrent Extravasation Mucocele and Epidermoid Cyst of the Lower Lip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Wang

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of concurrent extravasation mucocele and epidermoid cyst in the lower lip of a 13-year-old boy is described. To our knowledge, there is no other report of such a concurrence, neither at the same site nor at different locations, involving these two lesions in the oral mucosa.

  4. Structure of the gene for human β2-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with β 2 AR properties. Southern blot analyses with β 2 AR-specific probes show that a single β 2 AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the β 2 AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins

  5. Gardner syndrome associated with multiple osteomas, intestinal polyposis, and epidermoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Gardner syndrome is known as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. This syndrome is characterized by multiple intestinal polyposes, osteomas, and epidermoid cysts. In addition, dental abnormalities include an increased frequency of multiple odontomas, as well as supernumerary and impacted teeth. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with Gardner syndrome. Radiographic findings revealed multiple osteomas in both sides of the maxilla, multiple diffuse enostoses in both jaws, and a complex odontoma in the left mandibular body. Two years later, multiple epidermoid cysts on the scalp were found. Since this patient was suspected to have Gardner syndrome, the authors recommended gastrointestinal endoscopy to check for intestinal polyposis. Gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed multiple polyposes in the upper gastrointestinal tract and fundus of the stomach. As a result, the final diagnosis was Gardner syndrome.

  6. Gardner syndrome associated with multiple osteomas, intestinal polyposis, and epidermoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A

    2016-01-01

    Gardner syndrome is known as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. This syndrome is characterized by multiple intestinal polyposes, osteomas, and epidermoid cysts. In addition, dental abnormalities include an increased frequency of multiple odontomas, as well as supernumerary and impacted teeth. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with Gardner syndrome. Radiographic findings revealed multiple osteomas in both sides of the maxilla, multiple diffuse enostoses in both jaws, and a complex odontoma in the left mandibular body. Two years later, multiple epidermoid cysts on the scalp were found. Since this patient was suspected to have Gardner syndrome, the authors recommended gastrointestinal endoscopy to check for intestinal polyposis. Gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed multiple polyposes in the upper gastrointestinal tract and fundus of the stomach. As a result, the final diagnosis was Gardner syndrome

  7. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Pascual Dabán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst.

  8. Subtemporal keyhole approach to Meckel′s cave epidermoid cyst: Case report and review of literature

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    Qing Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of subtemporal keyhole surgery approach with neuronavigation and endoscopy, for total resection of an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst of the Meckel′s cave in a 43-year-old woman who presented with paroxysmal headache and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imagines revealed the tumor location on the right area of the cavernous sinus. Postoperative examinations showed complete recovery of symptoms.

  9. The place of radiotherapy in muco-epidermoid carcinomas of salivary glands in child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Temam, S.; Orbach, D.; Nicollas, R.; Penicaud, M.; Toussaint, B.; Makeieff, M.; Laprie, A.; Castillo, L.; Vedrin, P.

    2011-01-01

    As muco-epidermoid carcinomas are the most frequent tumours of salivary glands for child, the authors report the study of the role of radiotherapy. This study is based on a survey performed in 34 paediatric departments. The authors analyse the age and gender, the use of irradiation, the tumour location, the tumour grade and size, the use of surgery and of radiotherapy, and survival. Radiotherapy is beneficial for high grade tumours, but cannot be recommended for low and intermediate grades. Short communication

  10. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

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    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  11. Evaluation of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for anal canal epidermoid cancer in our center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kunihiko; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Yamana, Tetsuro; Okamoto, Kinya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Furukawa, Satomi; Okada, Daisuke; Kaneko, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of radiotherapy (RT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal canal epidermoid cancer were evaluated. Twenty-four patients with anal canal epidermoid cancer were treated in our center between 1988 and 2006, consisting of 13 patients treated by RT and 11 by CRT. In these patients, the efficacy and safety of RT and CRT were evaluated in terms of adverse events, 5-year local control rates, 5-year disease-free survival rates, and 5-year survival rates. No grade 3 or higher adverse events were noted in patients receiving RT. In contrast, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and anemia were observed in 33.3%, 10%, 33.3%, and 10%, respectively, of the patients receiving CRT. The anal preserving rate, 5-year local control rate, 5-year disease-free survival rate, and 5-year survival rate were 66.7%, 73%, 77.5%, and 88.4%, respectively. RT and CRT for anal canal epidermoid cancer should be first-line treatments because of their safety and efficacy. (author)

  12. Prognostic significance of s-phase fraction detected by antithymidine antibodies in epidermoid cervix carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamulaeva, Irina A.; Podgorodnichenko, Vladimir K.; Guseva, Ludmila I.; Krikunova, Ludmila I.; Saenko, Alexander S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive value of pretreatment proliferative activity of epidermoid cervix carcinoma cells with respect to short- and long-term results of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The proliferative activity of 25 epidermoid cervix carcinomas was evaluated as the immunofluorescent labelling index (LI) by rabbit antithymidine antibodies reacting specifically with single-stranded DNA of replication forks in S-phase cells. The short-term clinical outcome was estimated at 3-6 months after treatment by visual and palpatory examination. Three-year follow-up data were obtained through hospital charts and correspondence with referring physicians for only 19 patients. Results: There was no statistically significant association between LI and such conventional prognostic factors as clinical stage. The LI value of cervix carcinomas was significantly associated with complete regression at 3-6 months after radiotherapy and 3-year disease-free survival. Complete regression at 3-6 months was observed in 87.5% patients with fast proliferating tumors (LI > 7.0%), and only in 41.2% patients with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.03). Probability of 3-year disease-free survival was 85.7% in patients with fast proliferating tumors and 50.0% in those with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.05). Conclusions: The immunofluorescent LI of epidermoid cervix carcinoma is able to provide prognostic information on short-term tumor response to radiotherapy and disease-free survival

  13. Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

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    Claudia A Benavente

    Full Text Available Sirtuins (SIRTs and poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, NAD(+-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3, actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7. Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+, the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention.

  14. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  15. Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor associated with cytoskeletons of A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) have been shown to be associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton of A431 cells, where they retained both a functional ligand-binding domain and tyrosine kinase activity. In the present study we have characterized the tyrosine kinase and ligand binding activities of this cytoskeletally associated EGF-R. The tyrosine kinase activity of the cytoskeletally associated EGF-R was stimulated by EGF treatment of intact cells as evidenced by increased autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate angiotensin II (AII). The kinetic behavior of the EGF-R associated with cytoskeletons of EGF-treated cells was similar to that of purified receptors. The stimulation of the receptor kinase activity required EGF treatment of intact cells prior to Triton extraction. If cytoskeletons were prepared from untreated cells and then incubated with EGF, there was no stimulation of the detergent-insoluble receptor kinase activity, indicating that the immobilized receptor was unable to undergo EGF-stimulated activation. Comparison of peptide maps from soluble and cytoskeletally associated EGF-R revealed qualitatively similar patterns; however, they are distinguished by a prominent 46 kD band in digests of the cytoskeletal EGF-R. Saturable binding of 125I-EGF to A431 cytoskeletons prepared from adherent and suspended cells demonstrated the presence of specific receptors on the cytoskeleton. High-affinity EGF-R were preferentially retained upon detergent extraction of adherent cells, whereas both low- and high-affinity receptors were solubilized from the cytoskeletons of suspended cells. Suspension of cells resulted in the solubilization of an additional 15% of the EGF-R to that solubilized in adherent cells, indicating that EGF-R can reversibly associate with the structural elements of the cell

  16. Evisceración modificada en un caso de carcinoma epidermoide invasivo de conjuntiva

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    Norma Aide Castro-Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma epidermoide de conjuntiva es una patología de baja incidencia, pero se considera que es la tumoración maligna de conjuntiva más frecuente. Se caracteriza por presentar una masa gelatinosa con focos de leucoplasia en conjuntiva bulbar interpalpebral cerca del limbo. Las opciones de tratamiento incluyen escisión simple, pudiendo agregar tratamiento adyuvante como crioterapia, radioterapia o quimioterapia tópica. Si la lesión es invasiva se puede considerar realizar enucleación o exenteración. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años con historial de tumoración ocular derecha y disminución de agudeza visual de 3 años de evolución, en el cual después de valoración clínica complementada con estudios auxiliares se diagnosticó carcinoma epidermoide invasivo de la conjuntiva, por lo que se decide realizar una evisceración modificada con esclerectomía perilímbica subyacente evitando tocar el borde palpebral y tumoral. El estudio patológico confirmó el diagnóstico.

  17. Quistes epidermoides del suelo de boca: presentación de dos casos y revisión de la literatura Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth: presentation of two cases and review of the literature

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    Lorena Sanz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los quistes epidermoides son una patología frecuente, pero su localización en la cavidad oral es excepcional. Para el abordaje quirúrgico son factores determinantes su tamaño y las relaciones anatómicas. Presentamos dos casos clínicos diagnosticados en el servicio de ORL entre 1999 y 2007, que consultaron por tumoración de crecimiento progresivo en el suelo de boca. Se realiza una revisión acerca del diagnóstico y de los abordajes quirúrgicos de los quistes epidermoides para intentar estandarizar su tratamiento.Epidermoid cysts are a frequent pathology; nevertheless their location in the oral cavity is exceptional. Their size and anatomical location are determining factors in the surgical approach. We present two cases diagnosed in our ENT Department between 1999 and 2007, which were referred to us due to slow growing masses on the floor of the mouth. A literature review was made on the diagnosis, surgical techniques and management of epidermoid cysts in an attempt to standardise their management.

  18. Isolation and characterization of transforming growth factors from human malignant gliomas: possible role of transforming growth factors in the pathogenesis of the gliosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutka, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    This study provides the first direct experimental evidence that human malignant gliomas secrete soluble polypeptides with TGF-like activity. The conditioned medium from three well-characterized malignant glioma cell lines promote the growth of NRK indicator cells in soft agar. Following acid extraction and gel filtration, TGF-like activity was recovered from all three cell lines. Active fractions from gel filtration in two of the glioma cell lines (U-343 MG-A and SF-210) were further purified by reverse-phase HPLC. The TGF isolated from U-343 MG-A by HPLC is an acid- and heat-stable protein complex whose activity is destroyed by reducing agents and incubation with monospecific anti-TGF-alpha monoclonal antibodies. The NRK colony stimulating activity of this TGF is potentiated by the addition of TGF-beta. The partially purified U-343 MG-A TGF competes with radiolabeled (/sup 125/I)-ECF for the EGF-receptor on A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Finally, a total RNA preparation from U-343- MG-A contains a 4.8 kilobase mRNA for TGF-alpha. Therefore, U-343 MG-A secretes a soluble polypeptide with TGF-alpha-like activity. In contrast, the purified SF-210 malignant glioma cell line secretes an acid- and heat-stable TGF with neither TGF-alpha- nor TGF-beta-like activity.

  19. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

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    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  20. [Current perspectives in the treatment of epidermoid cancer of the esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozac'h, P

    1995-06-24

    Prior to the eighties, most patients with a diagnosis of epidermoid oesophageal cancer only received palliative symptomatic care. To date, most all undergo either surgery or medical treatment or both. Late diagnosis due to lack of clinical signs in the early phases of the disease, and perhaps insufficient attempts at identifying patients at risk who could benefit from systematic screening, is still an important problem although the number of diagnosed cases continues to rise (from 104 in 1985 to 151 in 1989 in Finistere in western France). Two different therapeutic attitudes could improve the prognosis: extensive surgery as proposed by the Japonese with dissection of all invaded lymph nodes whatever the localization and a multimodal approach combining radiochemotherapy and surgery. Although outcome can apparently be improved in certain types of oesophageal cancer, the proposal of aggressive extensive dissection could have an effect on respiratory complications and would not necessarily be adapted to the risk involved in western patients. Certain teams have nevertheless taken this route and will soon report their results. In France two phase II trials combining radiotherapy, chemotherapy (cisplatinum) and surgery have reported encouraging results with complete sterilization in 24% of the cases and 50% survival at 18 months. In our own series of 68 patients, we have obtained 41% sterilization and 56.3% survival at 3 years with the multi-modal protocol. The high number of non-responders to chemotherapy emphasies the importance of maintaining surgical resection whenever possible. The discouraging reports published before 1980 have been contradicted by improvements in outcome achieved over the last decade. Today, all patients with a diagnosis of epidermoid cancer of the oesophagus should benefit from either palliative or curative care based on the latest advances in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery.

  1. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  2. Granulomatosis de Wegener Semejando Cáncer Epidermoide de Nasofaringe y Metástasis Pulmonares.

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    Gustavo Adolfo Martín Small

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La granulomatosis de Wegener (GW es una enfermedad idiopática, con posible componente autoinmune, que aparece generalmente en la quinta década de vida, caracterizándose por lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes y vasculitis en vías aéreas y riñón. Paciente femenino de 54 años, quien desde Noviembre del 2008, presenta rinorrea, prurito y eritema en borde nasal inferior izquierdo, recibe antibióticos sin mejoría de los síntomas. En las radiografías torácicas, se observan dos radiopacidades redondeadas, de 4 cm de diámetro, sugestivas de lesiones tumorales en ambos campos pulmonares. La biopsia reporta cáncer epidermoide de alto grado, sospechándose primario en nasofaringe. Es remitida, por deterioro de condiciones, al Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas el 18/03/2009, presentando disnea, tos productiva, placas purpúricas dolorosas en manos y pies, hipoacusia, hiperpigmentación del paladar duro, leucoplaquias y lesiones costrosas en lengua, insuficiencia renal (creatinina en 6,11 mg/dL y trombocitopenia. En TAC de tórax, se evidencian tumores mayores de 5 cm de diámetro, algunos con bordes bien definidos y otros mal delimitados con broncograma aéreo. Diagnostico definitivo de GW por serología. La GW con su afectación sistémica puede simular otras entidades como neoplasias de cabeza y cuello con metástasis pulmonares. Cuando las manifestaciones sistémicas son floridas debe sospecharse GW como diagnóstico diferencial. Palabras claves: Wegener, Granulomatosis, Vasculitis, Cáncer epidermoide.

  3. Cacospongionolide and scalaradial, two marine sesterterpenoids as potent apoptosis-inducing factors in human carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Stefano

    Full Text Available Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical defence mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and acts by eliminating potentially deleterious cells without causing such adverse effects, as inflammatory response and ensuing scar formation. Therefore, targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. In last decades, marine natural products, such as sesterterpenoids, have played an important role in the discovery and development of new drugs. Interestingly, many of these compounds have a strong potential as anticancer drugs by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or inducing cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of scalaradial and cacospongionolide, two sesterterpenoids from Cacospongia scalaris and Fasciospongia cavernosa marine sponges, on the apoptotic signalling pathway in three different human tumoral cells. Results were obtained by using DNA fragmentation, comet and viability assays, quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Western blot. The T47D (human breast carcinoma, A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma, HeLa (human cervix carcinoma and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma cells were incubated for 24 h with scalaradial or cacospongionolide. Treatment of T47D cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h brought about a significant increase in DNA migration as well as fragmentation. Moreover, incubation of HCT116 and HeLa cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h caused an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, scalaradial or cacospongionolide, added to HCT116 and HeLa cells overnight, induced a significant and concentration-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, an early apoptosis signalling event. These effects paralleled with those achieved with p50 and p65, NF-κB subunits, nuclear level. In conclusion, scalaradial and cacospongionolide, by determining human

  4. Quantification of diffusion and anisotropy in intracranial epidermoids using diffusion tensor metrics and p: q tensor decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Thomas, B; Shah, D; Kannath, S K; Menon, G; Sandhyamani, S; Kesavadas, C; Kapilamoorthy, T R

    2016-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the diffusion tensor metrics p, q, L and fractional anisotropy in intracranial epidermoids in comparison with normal white matter in the splenium of the corpus callosum. This retrospective study included 20 consecutive patients referred to our institute. All patients had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study on a 1.5-Tesla MR system. A spin-echo echo-planar DTI sequence with diffusion gradients along 30 non-collinear directions was performed. The eigen values (λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ) were computed for each voxel and, using p: q tensor decomposition, the DTI metrics p, q and L-values and fractional anositropy (FA) were calculated. The region of interest (ROI) (6 pixels each) was placed within the lesion in all the cases and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean FA in the lesion and splenium were 0.50 and 0.88 respectively, with a statistically significant difference between them (Ptensor decomposition, the mean p-value in the epidermoid was 1.55±0.24 and 1.35±0.20 in the splenium; the mean q-values in the epidermoid was 0.67±0.13 and 1.27±0.17 in the splenium; the differences were statistically significant (P=0.01 and <0.01 respectively). The significant difference between p- and q-values in epidermoids compared with the splenium of callosum was probably due to structural and orientation differences in the keratin flakes in epidermoids and white matter bundles in the callosum. However, no significant statistical difference in L-values was noted (P=0.44). DTI metrics p and q have the potential to quantify the diffusion and anisotropy in various tissues thereby gaining information about their internal architecture. The results also suggest that significant differences of DTI metrics p and q between epidermoid and the splenium of the corpus callosum are due to the difference in structural organization within them. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Definitive radiation therapy for clinical stage N0-N1 epidermoid carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Kazushige; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Nakayama, Yuko; Katano, Susumu; Furuta, Masaya; Niibe, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    From 1976 through 1989, 94 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the lung without mediastinal nodal involvement were treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) at Gunma University Hospital. All patients were treated with 10 MV X-rays and the mediastinum was treated in 86% of the patients. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 80 Gy with once-daily conventional fractionation. The actuarial two and five-year survival rates of the entire group were 44% and 22%, respectively, with a median survival time (MST) of 17 months. Patients with a performance status of 0-1 lived longer than those with a status of 2 or more (MST 22.5 vs. 12 months). The survival of 60 patients with T2 tumors was better than that of 24 patients with T3 tumors (MST 19 vs. 13.5 months). Forty-seven patients with tumors less than 5 cm in diameter had a two-year progression rate of 25%, in comparison with 39% for 47 patients with tumors greater than 5 cm. The survival difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). Patients given a total dose of 80 Gy or over had only 20% local progression at the time of the last follow-up, but they had a lower long-term survival rate than those given a total dose of 60-74 Gy because of the development of pulmonary insufficiency after high-dose irradiation. There was no relapse in the field given 40 Gy or more to the mediastinum for prophylaxis in the patients with no evidence of primary progression. The actuarial five-year survival rates for the patients given 40 Gy or more to the mediastinum, and for the patients given less than 40 Gy were 32% and 9%, respectively. These was a statistically significant difference between these two survival curves, (p<0.05). Differences in survival did not depend on age, sex, or location of the primary tumor. These results should provide support for definitive RT to manage patients with medically inoperable or unresectable epidermoid carcinoma of the lung without mediastinal nodal involvement. (author)

  6. Cutaneous epidermoid carcinoma (spinocellular carcinoma): clinical practice recommendations for diagnosis and therapy. Full report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Ludovic; Bonerandi, Jean-Jacques; Brugneaux, Julie; Beauvillain, Claude; Chassagne, Jean-Francois; Clavere, Pierre; Grolleau, Jean-Louis; Grossin, Maggy; Sei, Jean-Francois; Caquant, Ludovic; Chaussade, Veronique; Desouches, Christophe; Garnier, Francois; Jourdain, Alain; Lemonnier, Jean-Yves; Maillard, Herve; Ortonne, Nicolas; Rio, Emmanuel; Simon, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    This guide aims at providing practitioners taking into care patients presenting a cutaneous cancer with recommendations based on scientific evidences or expert agreements. More precisely, the objectives are to clarify the terminology used to describe the different forms of cutaneous epidermoid carcinoma (CEC) and of their precursors (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease), to propose a prognosis classification of CECs adapted to the previously identified prognosis factors, to optimise the diagnosis and therapy of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease according to recent publications, and to recall the principles of a primary prevention of CECs and of their precursors, and of screening of high risk individuals. Thus, the different parts of this report address the following issues: anatomic-clinical forms and epidemiology of CECs and of their precursors, prognosis factors of CECs, means of treatment of CECs and of their precursors (medical, physical, surgical, radiation-based, and chemical treatments). Radiotherapy notably comprises external radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy. Indications for radiotherapy are discussed with respect to existing guides and to the clinical situation. The authors address the care of CECs and of their precursors (prevention, screening and clinical diagnosis, care of invasive CECs, keratoacanthoma treatment). They finally discuss quality criteria aimed at practice improvement, and perspectives regarding the evolution of this guide and studies to be performed

  7. Balancing the shortcomings of microscope and endoscope: endoscope-assisted technique in microsurgical removal of recurrent epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F H; Roser, F; Thaher, F; Schittenhelm, J; Tatagiba, M

    2010-10-01

    We report about endoscope-assisted surgery of epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa focusing on the application of neuro-endoscopy and the clinical outcome in cases of recurrent epidermoid cysts. 25 consecutively operated patients with an epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa were retrospectively analysed. Surgeries were performed both with an operating microscope (OPMI Pentero or NC 4, Zeiss Company, Oberkochen, Germany) and endoscopic equipment (4 mm rigid endoscopes with 30° and 70° optics; Karl Storz Company, Tuttlingen, Germany) under continuous intraoperative monitoring. Surgical reports and DVD-recordings were evaluated for identification of adhesion areas and surgical details. 7 (28%) of the 25 patients were recurrences of previously operated epidermoid cysts. Mean time to recurrence was 17 years (8-22 years). In 5 cases the endoscope was used as an adjunctive tool for inspection/endoscope-assisted removal of remnants. The effective time of use of the endoscope was limited to the end stage of the procedure, but was very effective. In a modern operative setting and with the necessary surgical experience recurrent epidermoid cysts may be removed with excellent clinical results. The combined use of microscope and endoscope offers relevant advantages in demanding anatomic situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Carcinoma broncogénico epidermoide en un hombre de 21 años Epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma in a 21 year old black man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hombre de 21 años de edad de raza negra, natural del Chocó (Colombia, quien ha desempeñado diversos oficios; presentó un síndrome de dificultad respiratoria de dos meses de evolución, dolor pleurítico derecho, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva y síntomas sistémicos. En la necropsia se encontró una masa tumoral blanco-grisácea de 10 x 8 cm, homogénea, con áreas de necrosis, originada en el bronquio principal de los lóbulos inferior y medio derechos y que invadió por vecindad en forma de coraza todo el pericardio causando una pericarditis constrictiva tumoral. El estudio microscópico correspondió a un carcinoma broncogénico tipo epidermoide bien diferenciado. El carcinoma broncogénico se asocia frecuentemente con el consumo de cigarrillo pero su incidencia ha c.umentado entre las personas no fumadoras, lo que sugiere la posibilidad de otros factores que influyen en su presentación como son los contaminantes atmósféricos, la predisposición genética, la dieta deficiente en vitamina A y carotenos, la presencia de ciertos virus y cambios inmunológicos. Este tumor constituye el 16% de todos los cánceres en el hombre y e113% en las mujeres; aparece con mayor frecuencia entre los 40 y los 70 años y sólo del1 al 5% de los casos se presenta en menores de 40 años. A 21 year cid black man, native from Chocó (Colombia, variously employed, who presented with a respiratory difficulty syndrome of two months of evolution, right pleuritic pain, congestive cardiac failure and systemic symptoms. A homogeneic white .grayish tumor measuring 8 by 10 cm with necrotic areas was found at necropsy. The tumor originated in the main bronchial tube of the lower and middle lobes of the right lung and invaded the entire pericardial vicinity forming a cuirass and causing tumoral constrictive pericarditis. Microscopic studies revealed a well differentiated squamous type bronchogenic carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinomas are frequently associated with

  9. Review of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate in actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas Moya, Said

    2013-01-01

    A bibliographic review was conduced on the use of 5-methyl aminolevulinate in dermatology, specifically in the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. The basic fundamentals of photodynamic therapy are described. The preparation and method of use of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) are detailed. The clinical studies that were realized with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mentioned. Different photo-inducible agents and other current therapeutic options of first-line are compared. The MAL-PDT has have the advantage of to present less side effects and the same have been more tolerable than liquid nitrogen and 5 fluorouracil. The MAL-PDT has been considered as an effective option for the treatment of Bowen's disease. Invasive epidermoid carcinoma has existed without evidence to support the routine use of this therapeutic. For superficial basal cell carcinoma, the MAL-PDT has presented a high cure rate and transient and manageable side effects in extensive and multiple lesions. The MAL-PDT has been an effective and safe treatment in patients with basal cell carcinoma, for those with less depth of 2mm. The MAL-PDT could play an important role in the field of prevention with immunosuppressed patients, particularly, those that have required transplant and its immunosuppression has been pharmacological. The use or not of the MAL-PDT, should be evaluated individually for each patient and to have suitable characteristics for each disease that was cited in this review. The photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate has been a therapeutic modality of considerable economy, however, it should be evaluated in the context of number of inquiries and side effects that have offered other therapeutic modalities [es

  10. Intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts in the brain: diagnostic value of MR diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X.-Y. [Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, C.-H. [Imaging Center, Soochow University (China)], E-mail: wpdrhxy@hotmail.com; Fang, X.-M.; Cui, L.; Zhang, Q.-H. [Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) maps in the diagnosis of intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts (ECs). Materials and methods: Six cases of histopathologically proven intraparenchymal ECs were studied. All patients were examined with conventional MR (T1WI, T2WI, contrast-enhanced T1WI) and DWI sequences. Along with the mean ADC values (mADC) of the ECs, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (GM) were measured. Qualitative and quantitative assessments, as well as MRI findings, were retrospectively analysed using a double blind method by three radiologists in consensus. Results: Four lesions were located in the cerebellum, among them, one was accompanied by an arachnoid cyst; one huge lesion crossed the parenchyma of the frontal and temporal lobes; the other was located in the left temporal lobe. Two lesions had a homogeneous CSF-like intensity on both T1WI and T2WI. The other four were of mixed-intensity on both T1WI and T2WI. All lesions were strikingly hyperintense on DWI, and iso- or slightly hypointense on ADC (relative to the brain). The mADCs of the ECs were significantly higher than that of GM, but significantly lower than that of CSF. Three cases (3/6) were accurately diagnosed using conventional MR sequences without DWI, but in the remaining three cases, correct diagnosis could only be made with help of DWI. Conclusion: DWI sequences can facilitate the diagnosis of intraparenchymal ECs, thus alerting surgeons of the risk of chemical meningitis at surgery. The MR findings of intraparenchymal ECs are basically as the same as those of extracerebral ECs, but the former is likely to have a mixed signal. The hyperintense signal of ECs on DWI is probably caused by the T2 shine-through effect in tumour tissue.

  11. Granulomatosis de Wegener Semejando Cáncer Epidermoide de Nasofaringe y Metástasis Pulmonares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Martín Small

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La granulomatosis de Wegener (GW es una enfermedad idiopática, con posible componente autoinmune, que aparece generalmente en la quinta década de vida, caracterizándose por lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes y vasculitis en vías aéreas y riñón. Paciente femenino de 54 años, quien desde Noviembre del 2008, presenta rinorrea, prurito y eritema en borde nasal inferior izquierdo, recibe antibióticos sin mejoría de los síntomas. En las radiografías torácicas, se observan dos radiopacidades redondeadas, de 4 cm de diámetro, sugestivas de lesiones tumorales en ambos campos pulmonares. La biopsia reporta cáncer epidermoide de alto grado, sospechándose primario en nasofaringe. Es remitida, por deterioro de condiciones, al Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas el 18/03/2009, presentando disnea, tos productiva, placas purpúricas dolorosas en manos y pies, hipoacusia, hiperpigmentación del paladar duro, leucoplaquias y lesiones costrosas en lengua, insuficiencia renal (creatinina en 6,11 mg/dL y trombocitopenia. En TAC de tórax, se evidencian tumores mayores de 5 cm de diámetro, algunos con bordes bien definidos y otros mal delimitados con broncograma aéreo. Diagnostico definitivo de GW por serología. La GW con su afectación sistémica puede simular otras entidades como neoplasias de cabeza y cuello con metástasis pulmonares. Cuando las manifestaciones sistémicas son floridas debe sospecharse GW como diagnóstico diferencial.

  12. Iridium-192 curietherapy for T1 and T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.J.; Grimard, L.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Piedbois, P.; Martin, M.; Marinello, G.; Nair, R.C.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Pierquin, B.

    1990-01-01

    From 1970 to 1986, 117 patients with T1 (47) or T2 (70) epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of the mouth (SCC) were treated by iridium-192 implantation (192 Ir). The dose was prescribed according to the Paris System and varied over those years. Follow-up information was available on 116 patients. There were 46 T1N0, 47 T2N0, and 23 T2N1-3. Neck management varied for the 93 N0 patients consisting of surveillance (24 T1, 17 T2) or elective neck dissection (22 T1:all pN-, 30 T2: 20 pN-, 10 pN+). Cause specific survival rates were 94% for T1N0, 61.5% for T2N0, and 28% for T2N1-3 at 5 years. Primary local control was 93.5%, 74.5%, and 65%, respectively, and 98%, 79%, and 65% after salvage. Patients with gingival extension or a tumor size over 3 cm (T2b) had a local control of 50% (9/18) and 58% (15/26), respectively. Nodal control was 93.5% for Stage I, 85% for Stage II, and 48% for T2N1-3 patients. There was no difference in nodal control with regard to treatment policy for Stage I-II patients. There were few complications including three deaths: two from surgery and one from 192 Ir. Nodal status, tumor size defined as T1, T2a (less than or equal to 3 cm), T2b (greater than 3 cm), and gingival extension were the only independent prognostic factors. The management of T1N0 and T2N0 SCC by 192 Ir to a dose of 65 or 70 Gy, using the Paris System, is recommended for lesions 3 cm or less and without gingival extension

  13. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldi G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Baldi,1 Costanza Ravagli,1 Filippo Mazzantini,1 George Loudos,2 Jaume Adan,3 Marc Masa,3 Dimitrios Psimadas,2 Eirini A Fragogeorgi,2 Erica Locatelli,4 Claudia Innocenti,5,6 Claudio Sangregorio,5,7 Mauro Comes Franchini4 1CERICOL, Sovigliana-Vinci, Italy; 2Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Leitat Technological Center, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Industrial Chemistry Toso Montanari, University of Bologna, Bologna, 5Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM, 6Dipartimento di Chimica U Schiff, Università di Firenze, Firenze, 7Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche (ICCOM – CNR, Firenze, Italy Abstract: Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide-b-poly(ethylene glycol-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with 99mTc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with 99mTc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, polymeric nanocarriers, skin cancer, hyperthermia, single-photon emission computed tomography, imaging

  14. Thoracic Intradural-Extramedullary Epidermoid Tumor: The Relevance for Resection of Classic Subarachnoid Space Microsurgical Anatomy in Modern Spinal Surgery. Technical Note and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; Maione, Massimiliano; Raudino, Giuseppe; Certo, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Intradural epidermoid tumors of the spinal cord are commonly associated with spinal cord dysraphism or invasive procedures. We report the particular relationships between spinal subarachnoid compartments and thoracic intradural-extramedullary epidermoid tumor, highlighting the relevant anatomic changes that may influence microsurgery. A 40-year-old woman from compressive myelopathy owing to a thoracic epidermoid tumor extending from T3 to T4 and not associated with spina bifida, trauma, previous surgery, or lumbar spinal puncture underwent microsurgical excision. Accurate tumor membrane dissection, respecting spinal arachnoidal compartments, was performed. Reposition of a laminoplasty plateau helped in restoring thoracic spine anatomic integrity. Safe gross total tumor resection was achieved. Complete neurologic recovery as well as absence of recurrent tumor was documented at 4-year follow-up. A literature review revealed only 2 other cases of "isolated" thoracic spine epidermoid tumor. However, description of the relationship between tumor membranes and spinal subarachnoid compartments was not available in either case. A thorough knowledge of spinal subarachnoid space anatomy is helpful to distinguish between tumor membranes and arachnoidal planes and to achieve a safe and complete resection to avoid recurrences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate in epidermal growth factor-induced Ca2+ signaling in A431 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A R; Bird, G S; Obie, J F

    1991-01-01

    The effects of epidermal growth factor on Ca2+ signaling in A431 cells were investigated. Epidermal growth factor induced a transient Ca2+ signal in the absence of external Ca2+ and a sustained response in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, indicating an ability to mobilize intracellular Ca2...... to thapsigargin. In nominally Ca(2+)-free medium, the addition of bradykinin to A431 cells rapidly but transiently increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and, in parallel fashion, transiently increased cytosolic Ca2+. Unexpectedly, under these experimental conditions, epidermal growth factor elicited a small...... inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation in bradykinin-treated cells. Furthermore, the Ca2+ signals elicited by both bradykinin and epidermal growth factor were blocked in cells microinjected with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist heparin, whereas the intracellular Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor...

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized with a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas Fruits: Effects on Human Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perde-Schrepler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were obtained by green synthesis with an extract from Cornus mas fruits (GNPs-CM, characterized by several methods, and their biologic effects were evaluated on two cell lines: HaCaT, normal keratinocytes, and A431, epidermoid carcinoma. GNPs were spherical with sizes between 2 and 24 nm. Their optical spectra had a dominant plasmonic band centered at 525 nm; zeta potential distribution was narrow, centered at −19.7 mV, and the mean hydrodynamic diameter was 58 nm. GNPs were visualized in both cell types entering the cells by endocytosis. The amount of gold uptaken by the cells was dose and time dependent. The intracellular concentration of Au ions was higher in HaCaT compared to A431 cells. The toxicity of GNPs-CM was dose dependent being significant only when the highest concentrations were employed. A431 cells were less affected compared to HaCaT cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. ROS production was not significant, except in HaCaT cells at the highest concentration. The comet assay revealed no significant supplementary DNA lesions, while the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by the presence of GNPs only when the cells were additionally irradiated with UVB. These results recommend GNPs-CM for further testing and possible dermatological applications.

  17. Platelet-derived growth factor type BB and collagen matrix for soft tissue reconstruction after muco-epidermoid carcinoma removal: A possible therapeutic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cicciù

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-epidermoid carcinoma (MEC is a rare malignant tumor occurring in major and minor salivary glands. The described case shows a patient undergoing tumor resection without neck dissection. A quick diagnosis performed through clinical investigation and incisional biopsy revealed the nature of the tumor. A porcine collagen matrix was applied after the surgery in order to improve soft tissue healing. The matrix was saturated with platelet-derived growth factor type BB in order to favorite healing process and then fixed on the palate with a dental support device. Follow-up visit performed at first, second, and third weeks highlighted a quick healing of oral mucosa. Here reported is a case of a 34-year-old man who developed a muco-epidermoid oral carcinoma localized in the left upper jaw palatal side. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings, plus differential diagnoses of the case and reconstructive treatment options are also presented.

  18. Cerebello-pontine angle epidermoid cyst, with special reference to metrizamide CT cisternographic findings suggesting communication of the cyst with the subarachnoid space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Nagashima, Chikao

    1984-01-01

    A case of left C-P angle epidermoid cyst with possible communication with the subarachnoid space based on the findings of metrizamide CT cisternography, RI cisternography and surgery, is described. A 46-year-old female was admitted due to left hemifacial spasm, ringing and loss of auditory of the left ear, and gait disturbance of over ten years' duration. CT-scan revealed a large low density area in the posterior fossa (+4 to +5 Hounsfield units) with partial capsular enhancement. On metrizamide CT cisternography, a bizarre-shaped area of high density appeared within the confines of the low density area at 1 hour after intrathecal injection of metrizamide and persisted for hours. This suggested metrizamide penetration from the subarachnoid space into the cyst through the capsule. RI cisternography revealed definitely increased RI uptake into the cyst in the same sequence as the metrizamide CT cisternography. Following left suboccipital craniectomy, a cystic pearly tumor was noted beneath the left cerebellar hemisphere. Its thin capsule was in contact with the distended cisterna magna. Following aspiration of the cyst fluid, the distended cisterna magna collapsed synchronously. These findings, including those of metrizamide CT and RI cisternography, clearly suggested the existence of communication of fluid between the epidermoid cyst and subarachnoid space. Histological examination confirmed epidermoid cyst. (author)

  19. Tumores dermóides e epidermóides intra-espinhas Intraspinal epidermoid and dermoid tumours

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    Oscar Fontenelle Filho

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois casos de tumores epidermóides e um de tumor dermóide, todos intrarraquianos. Este último era de localização epidural ao nível da coluna torácica (caso 3; os dois tumores epidermóides situavam-se na coluna tóraco-lombar (caso 1 e lombar (caso 2, respectivamente, sendo o primeiro intramedular e o segundo intradural. Em dois casos (casos 2 e 3 os tumores associavam-se a fístula dérmica congênita. Um paciente (caso 3 foi operado aos dois meses de idade; a descoberta do tumor deveu-se à realização da raquimanometria que revelou bloqueio, apesar do paciente não apresentar qualquer sinal neurológico de compressão medular. Os autores são de opinião que, em presença de fístula dérmica congênita ao nível da coluna vertebral, principalmente quando localizada acima do segmento lombosacro, deve-se sempre suspeitar da possibilidade do tumor epidermóide ou dermóide intrarraquiano, mesmo na ausência de sinais neurológicos. A combinação de sintomas neurológicos de longa duração, a evidência radiológica de erosão e alargamento do canal raquiano e a história de fístula dérmica congênita proporcionaram o diagnóstico pré-operatório correto no caso 2.Two cases of epidermoids and one case of dermoid intraspinal tumours are reported. The last case was located at thoracic level (T7 (case 3 and was epidural in localization. The two epidermoids tumours were located at the thoracic-lumbar (case 1 and lumbar (case 2 level, respectively; the first was intramedullary and the second subdural in localization. In two (cases 2 and 3 there was associated communicating pilonidal sinuses. One of the patients (case 3 was operated within the second month of age. The early discovery of the tumour in this patient was made through a lumbar raquimanometry that disclosed a complete subarachnoid block. In spite of this the patient did not presented any neurological symptoms. The authors are of opinion that in presence of a

  20. Presence of human papillomavirus-18 and Epstein-Barr virus in a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old patient. Case report and review of the current literature; Presence dans un cancer epidermoide de la langue d'un papillomavirus HPV-18 et d'un virus d'Epstein-Barr chez une patiente de 20 ans. Case-report et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, R.M.; Pradier, O.; Christiansen, H.; Schmidberger, H. [Georg-August Gottingen Universitat, Dept. of Radiotherapy (Germany); Fuzesi, L. [Georg-August Gottingen Universitat, Dept. of Pathology (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    We report on a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old woman with co-infection of the tumor with human papilloma virus type 18 and Epstein-Barr virus.To our knowledge, this is the first case of co-infection in carcinoma of the tongue to be reported. We review the present data and theories concerning viral onco-genesis of oral carcinomas. (author)

  1. DNA transfer and cell killing in epidermoid cells by diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Song, Jianming

    2003-04-01

    DNA transfer by sonoporation and cell killing in monolayer cells were examined by contrast-aided low-power diagnostic ultrasound (US). Culture chambers with epidermoid cell monolayers were scanned at about 1 mm/s with a 1.5-MHz scan head aimed upward at the chamber in a 37 degrees C water bath. For DNA transfer tests, plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to the medium, and GFP expression was assessed by flow cytometry after 2 days. In separate tests, cell killing was determined immediately after treatment. GFP-positive cell counts were 0.4% (0.7% SD) for shams and 3.7% (1.2% SD) of cells for exposure at 2.3 MPa with 2% Optison contrast agent. The fraction of dead cells was 3.4% (1.7% SD) in shams and 28.6% (6.3% SD) in exposed chambers. Both effects increased for increasing Optison concentration and increasing peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. Contrast-aided diagnostic US has a potential therapeutic application for gene transfer, but a trade-off appears to exist with cell killing.

  2. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential Oil from Cryptomeria japonica Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells via Mitochondrial Stress and Activation of Caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle, and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The essential oil induced the apoptosis of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the sub-G1 ratio. The essential oil also induced rapid and transient caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP of the KB cells. Treating the cells with the oil also caused changes in the mitochondrial level of the Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The essential oil of C. japonica may have potential as a cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agent.

  4. Role of inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate in epidermal growth factor-induced Ca2+ signaling in A431 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A R; Bird, G S; Obie, J F

    1991-01-01

    to thapsigargin. In nominally Ca(2+)-free medium, the addition of bradykinin to A431 cells rapidly but transiently increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and, in parallel fashion, transiently increased cytosolic Ca2+. Unexpectedly, under these experimental conditions, epidermal growth factor elicited a small...... but significant Ca2+ signal after the addition of bradykinin. Experiments were designed to determine whether the Ca2+ response to epidermal growth factor after bradykinin results from mobilization of Ca2+ by an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-independent mechanism. Epidermal growth factor stimulated additional...... inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation in bradykinin-treated cells. Furthermore, the Ca2+ signals elicited by both bradykinin and epidermal growth factor were blocked in cells microinjected with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist heparin, whereas the intracellular Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor...

  5. Neoplasias associadas ao carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago Esophageal epidermoid cancer associated neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Schirmer

    1997-12-01

    ção importante com neoplasias gástricas.INTRODUCTION. The esophageal epidermoid cancer has an important association with aerodigestive tract neoplasms and possibly share the same risk factors. Furthermore, other neoplasms can be associated with esophagus cancer. OBJECTIVE. To analyze retrospectively the patients with esophageal epidermoid cancer (EEC and associated neoplasms, treated by the Esophagus Stomach and Small Intestine Group of Surgery at Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre from January 1988 to June 1995. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Nineteen (7.28% of the 261 studied patients had associated neoplasms to the EEC. Ten patients presented synchronic tumours and 9 metachronic ones. The predominant sex was the masculine with 17 cases. The mean age was 62.52 years in the moment of the esophageal cancer diagnostic. RESULTS. The aerodigestive tumours, squamous carcinomas in totality, represented the predominant associated neoplasm histological type in 68.42% of the cases. The most frequent associated aerodigestive tumours site was the respiratory tract (53.8%, followed by the oral cavity and oropharynx (23% and larynx (23%. In our sample, twelve patients were smokers and 9 were alcohol abusers. In relation to the EEC treatment, surgery was performed in 6 patients. The associated neoplasm was treated with radical surgery in 11 patients and radiotherapy in 5. Surprisingly 4 cases (21% of gastric adenocarcinoma associated to the EEC were diagnosed, treated with radical surgery in 3 patients. CONCLUSION. The authors call attention to the importance of a criterial staging as well as the follow up in patients with EEC owing to the significant association with others neoplasms, principally with aerodigestive tumours, and discuss the common risk factors possibility: tobacco and alcohol use. Important association with gastric neoplasms were found in this casuistry.

  6. Penis epidermoidal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiara Alvarez, Alfredo Ediel; Ruiz Hernandez, Ihosvany; Vazquez Hurtado, Jose Francisco; Misiara Alvarez Naybe

    2009-01-01

    It deals with a 58-years-old male, white man, with antecedents of blood hypertension, and increasing lesions in the penis since around 20 years ago, with changing locations. Two years ago it was diagnosed as acuminated condylomas, but it was not treated. The patient attended our hospital because twenty days ago the lesions adopted a tumor like aspect, and began to get abscessed, to ulcerate. The case was evaluated together with Dermatology and Urology. After some antibiotic treatments, it was obtained a biopsy of the lesion. The case is interesting because of the uncommon localization of the lesions in our patient and the increased level of the disease

  7. Ultraviolet C Irradiation Induces Different Expression of Cyclooxygenase 2 in NIH 3T3 Cells and A431 Cells: The Roles of COX-2 Are Different in Various Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiu Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet C (UVC is a DNA damage inducer, and 20 J/m2 of UVC irradiation caused cell growth inhibition and induced cell death after exposure for 24–36 h. The growth of NIH 3T3 cells was significantly suppressed at 24 h after UVC irradiation whereas the proliferation of A431 cells was inhibited until 36 h after UVC irradiation. UVC irradiation increased COX-2 expression and such up-regulation reached a maximum during 3–6 h in NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast, UVC-induced COX-2 reached a maximum after 24–36 h in A431 cells. Measuring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 level showed a biphasic profile that PGE2 release was rapidly elevated in 1–12 h after UVC irradiation and increased again at 24 h in both cell lines. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-791, during maximum expression of COX-2 induction, attenuated the UVC induced-growth inhibition in NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast, SC-791 treatment after UVC irradiation enhanced death of A431 cells. These data showed that the patterns of UVC-induced PGE2 secretion from NIH 3T3 cells and A431 cells were similar despite the differential profile in UVC-induced COX-2 up-regulation. Besides, COX-2 might play different roles in cellular response to UVC irradiation in various cell lines.

  8. Carcinoma epidermoide de palato mole: relato de tratamento não convencional com radiação: externa (IMRT e braquiterapia (HDR

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    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma epidermoide de palato mole (CEPM é uma neoplasia de baixa prevalência que representa a minoria dos tumores que podem acometer a orofaringe. Quando diagnosticados em estádios iniciais, as opções de radioterapia ou cirurgia são aventadas para abordagem terapêutica com taxas de controle locorregional e sobrevida semelhantes. Este estudo tem como objetivo: relatar o caso de um paciente encaminhado ao Departamento de Radioterapia do Centro de Oncologia do Hospital Sírio-Libanês com diagnóstico de CEPM e tratado de forma curativa com radioterapia (teleterapia com técnica de modulação de intensidade de feixe e braquiterapia de altas doses com irídio -192.

  9. Epidermal growth factor treatment of A431 cells alters the binding capacity and electrophoretic mobility of the cytoskeletally associated epidermal growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor interacts with structural elements of A431 cells and remains associated with the cytoskeleton following extraction with nonionic detergents. Extraction of cells with 0.15% Triton X-100 resulted in detection of only approximately 40% of the EGF binding sites on the cytoskeleton. If the cells were exposed to EGF prior to extraction, approximately twofold higher levels of low-affinity EGF binding sites were detected. The difference in number of EGF binding sites was not a consequence of differences in numbers of EGF receptors associated with the cytoskeleton; equal amounts of 35S-labeled receptor were immunoprecipitated from the cytoskeletons of both control and EGF-treated cells. The effect of EGF pretreatment on binding activity was coincident with a change in the mobility of the receptor from a doublet of Mr approximately 160-180 kDa to a single sharp band at 180 kDa. The alteration in receptor mobility was not a simple consequence of receptor phosphorylation in that the alteration was not reversed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, nor was the shift produced by treatment of the cells with phorbol ester. The two EGF receptor species demonstrated differential susceptibility to V8 proteinase digestion. The EGF-induced 180 kDa species was preferentially digested by the proteinase relative to the 160 kDa species, indicating that EGF binding results in a conformational change in the receptor. The EGF-mediated preservation of binding activity and altered conformation may be related to receptor oligomerization

  10. Inhibition of STAT-3 results in radiosensitization of human squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, James A.; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Willey, Christopher D.; Plants, Brian A.; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) is a downstream component of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr) signaling process that may facilitate the resistance of tumor cells to conventional cancer treatments. Studies were performed to determine if inhibition of this downstream protein produces radiosensitization. Methods/Results: A431 cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cells with EGFr overexpression) were found to be sensitized to radiation after treatment with STAT-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Therefore, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against STAT-3 was designed and cloned into a pBABE vector system modified for shRNA expression. Following transfection, clone 2.1 was selected for further study as it showed a dramatic reduction of STAT-3 protein (and mRNA) when compared to A431 parental cells or a negative control shRNA cell line (transfected with STAT-3 shRNA with 2 base pairs mutated). A431 2.1 showed doubling times of 25-31 h as compared to 18-24 h for the parental cell line. The A431 shRNA knockdown STAT-3 cells A431 were more sensitive to radiation than A431 parental or negative STAT-3 control cells. Conclusion: A431 cells stably transfected with shRNA against STAT-3 resulted in enhanced radiosensitivity. Further work will be necessary to determine whether the inhibition of STAT-3 phosphorylation is a necessary step for the radiosensitization that is induced by the inhibition of EGFr.

  11. Recombinant expression and purification of L2 domain of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was cloning and expressing the fragment coding for L2 region of human EGFR for the production of recombinant L2 protein. The total RNA from A431 cells line was extracted and used for amplification of the sequence coding for L2 domain of EGFR by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain ...

  12. Carcinoma epidermoide como complicação letal de lesões crônicas de cromoblastomicose Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cromoblastomicose é uma micose subcutânea, ocasionada por fungos dermatófitos, dos gêneros: Fonsecaea, Phialophora e Cladophialophora. As complicações habituais são: infecções secundárias, linfedema e elefantíase. Em lesões crônicas, tem-se documentado malignização. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 72 anos de idade, com cromoblastomicose de 30 anos de evolução, em região glútea, com desenvolvimento de carcinoma epidermoide.Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Qualidade de vida de doentes esofagectomizados: adenocarcinoma versus carcinoma epidermoide Quality of life of esophagectomized patients: adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricilda Regina Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar a qualidade de vida de pacientes esofagectomizados para tratamento de adenocarcinoma da junção esofagogástrica e de carcinoma epidermoide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal no pós-operatório de doentes esofagectomizados por adenocarcinoma da junção esofagogástrica (Adenoca e carcinoma epidermóide (CEC, empregando o questionário SF-36 aplicado em 24 pacientes (10 por Adenoca e 14 por CEC, a partir do 5º mês de pós-operatório, incluindo os sintomas clínicos e a variação de peso. RESULTADOS: A avaliação da QV mostrou melhor resultado de capacidade funcional (p=0,018 para o grupo Adenoca. Houve correlação entre os domínios "saúde mental" e "limitação por aspectos emocionais" (p=0,003 e entre "dor" e "limitação por aspectos físicos" (p=0,003 nos dois tipos histológicos. A perda de peso foi maior nos esofagectomizados por Adenoca (45,9Kg, sem diferença significativa entre o IMC atual (p>0,66. A disfagia foi relatada por 83,3% dos pacientes, a anorexia por 58,3%, a dificuldade de mastigação por 42%, a náuseas e os vômitos por 41,7% e a diarréia por 29,2%, sem correlação com a QV relatada (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O escore mais alto para capacidade funcional indica que o paciente com Adenoca foi capaz de realizar todo tipo de atividade física, incluindo as mais vigorosas em um nível maior que o paciente com CEC. Alguns sintomas persistiram no pós-operatório, porém não interferiram na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the quality of life (QOL of patients undergoing esophagectomy for treatment of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in postoperative patients submitted to esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (ACA and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, using the SF-36 questionnaire applied in 24 patients (10 ACAs and 14 SCCs, from the 5th months

  14. Ki-67 and p53 correlation prognostic value in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and tongue Valor prognóstico da correlação do Ki-67 e p53 em carcinomas epidermoides da cavidade oral e língua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Da Ros Motta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid carcinomas represent from 90% to 95% of oral cavity malignant neoplasias, making up 13,470 cases/year. AIMS: To correlate p53 and Ki-67 expressions in mouth and tongue carcinomas with lymph node status, gender, histological grade, tumor volume and pathological stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 28 cases of mouth and tongue epidermoid carcinomas. They were submitted to immunohistochemical study in order to check the expression of p53 and Ki-67 antibodies and statistically compare them in terms of lymph node status, gender, histological grade, tumor volume and pathological staging. RESULTS: The individually analyzed p53 proved to have statistical significance (pO carcinoma epidermoide representa 90% a 95% das neoplasias malignas da cavidade oral, responsável por 13.470 casos/ano. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar a expressão do p53 e Ki-67 nos carcinomas epidermoides de cavidade oral e língua com o estado linfonodal, sexo, grau histológico, volume tumoral e estadiamento patológico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 28 casos de carcinomas epidermoides da cavidade oral e língua. Estes foram submetidos à técnica de imunoistoquímica para verificar a expressão dos anticorpos p53 e Ki-67 e compará-los estatisticamente quanto ao status linfonodal, sexo, grau histológico, volume tumoral e estadiamento patológico. RESULTADOS: O p53 analisado individualmente mostrou significância estatística (p<0,05 quando comparado com o volume tumoral (p=0,029. Apesar de uma forte tendência, a relação de p53 com estado linfonodal não foi significativa. Quando o p53 + Ki67 foram analisados, o volume tumoral mostrou p < 0,05 (p = 0,029. DISCUSSÃO: A literatura mostra que a expressão dos marcadores p53 e Ki-67 está relacionada com presença de metástases para linfonodos e pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: Nos carcinomas epidermoides da cavidade oral e língua o p53 e o Ki-67 est

  15. Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of Genistein Chemopreventive Capacity as a Result of Esterification and Cyclodextrin Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Danciu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma, A2780 (ovary carcinoma, and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma. The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment.

  16. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  17. Cell assay using a two-photon-excited europium chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P; Kotz, Kenneth T; Faris, Gregory W

    2011-08-01

    We report application of two-photon excitation of europium chelates to immunolabeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cell surface proteins on A431 cancer cells. The europium chelates are excited with two photons of infrared light and emit in the visible. Europium chelates are conjugated to antibodies for EGFR. A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells are labeled with this conjugate and imaged using a multiphoton microscope. To minimize signal loss due to the relatively long-lived Eu(3+) emission, the multiphoton microscope is used with scanning laser two-photon excitation and non-scanning detection with a CCD. The chelate labels show very little photobleaching (less than 1% during continuous illumination in the microscope for 20 minutes) and low levels of autofluorescence (less than 1% of the signal from labeled cells). The detection limit of the europium label in the cell assay is better than 100 zeptomoles.

  18. Expressão imunoistoquímica da endoglina (CD105 e do fator de von Willebrand em carcinoma epidermoide oral e sua relação com parâmetros clinicopatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Porpino Mafra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Contexto A angiogênese tem sido associada à progressão de neoplasias malignas e, embora haja estudos acerca de marcadores angiogênicos no carcinoma epidermoide oral (CEO, existem resultados conflitantes na literatura. Objetivos Avaliar a expressão imunoistoquímica do CD105 e do fator de von Willebrand (FvW em CEO e sua relação com parâmetros clínicos do tumor. Métodos A imunoexpressão dos referidos biomarcadores foi analisada em 30 casos de CEO e correlacionada a parâmetros clínicos do tumor (idade e sexo dos pacientes, localização anatômica e estadiamento clínico Tumor, Nodo e Metástase, TNM. Resultados A imunomarcação com o anticorpo anti-FvW foi mais efetiva que a do CD105 no CEO. No que concerne à localização anatômica, o assoalho bucal e a região retromolar apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto aos índices angiogênicos (p = 0,004, determinados pela técnica de contagem microvascular (MVC. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre o estadiamento clínico TNM e os índices angiogênicos, com os dois biomarcadores. Conclusões Com base nos achados deste estudo, sugere-se um envolvimento da neoformação vascular na carcinogênese oral, embora não tenha sido evidenciada associação significativa com o estágio clínico da lesão.

  19. [Microsatellite instability and human papilloma virus genotypes in preneoplastic and neoplastic uterine cervix lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa S, Juan Carlos; Martínez S, Ricardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Roa E, Iván; Capurro V, Italo; Ibacache S, Gilda; Melo A, Angélica

    2007-01-01

    The association between some specific human papilloma virus (HPV) types and cervix cancer is well known. However, the genetic conditions that favor the development of cervical cancer are less well known. To determine the presence of satellite instability (MSI) in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix and correlate these findings with HPV genotypes. Biopsy samples of cervical lesions were studied. Sixteen had low grade lesions, 22 had high grade lesions and 28 had an epidermoid cancer. Viral types were identified with polymerase chain reaction, dot-blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism. MSI was determined using a panel of eight highly informative microsatellites. Microsatellite instability in at least one locus was observed in 91, 56 and 69% of low grade lesions, high grade lesions and epidermoid carcinomas, respectively. MSI-High grade, MSI-Low grade instability and microsatellite stability were observed in 5, 60 and 46% of samples, respectively. Two of three samples with high grade instability had HPV 52 genotype. Other viral subtypes had frequencies that ranged from 78% to 100%, with the exception of HPV16 that was present in only 53% of samples with low grade instability. Two thirds of biopsy samples from cervical lesions had MSI, mechanism that can be involved in the first stages of cervical carcinogenesis. The low frequency of high grade instability, its association with HPV52 and the low frequency of HPV16 in samples with low grade instability, suggest different coadjutant mechanisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  20. Recombinant human erythropoietin alpha improves the efficacy of radiotherapy of a human tumor xenograft, affecting tumor cells and microvessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevey, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Bereczky, B.; Gilly, R.; Kenessey, I.; Raso, E.; Simon, E.; Timar, J. [Dept. of Tumor Progression, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Dobos, J. [Dept. of Tumor Progression, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); Vago, A. [Central Lab., National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Kasler, M. [Head and Neck Surgery, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Doeme, B. [National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); Tovari, J. [National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); 1. Inst. of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-01-15

    Background and purpose: tumor-induced anemia often occurs in cancer patients, and is corrected by recombinant human erythropoietins (rHuEPOs). Recent studies indicated that, besides erythroid progenitor cells, tumor and endothelial cells express erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) as well; therefore, rHuEPO may affect their functions. Here, the effect of rHuEPO{alpha} on irradiation in EPOR-positive human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft was tested. Material and methods: A431 tumor-bearing SCID mice were treated from the tumor implantation with rHuEPO{alpha} at human-equivalent dose. Xenografts were irradiated (5 Gy) on day 14, and the final tumor mass was measured on day 22. The systemic effects of rHuEPO{alpha} on the hemoglobin level, on tumor-associated blood vessels and on hypoxia-inducible factor-(HIF-)1{alpha} expression of the tumor xenografts were monitored. The proliferation, apoptosis and clonogenic capacity of A431 cancer cells treated with rHuEPO{alpha} and irradiation were also tested in vitro. Results: in vitro, rHuEPO{alpha} treatment alone did not modify the proliferation of EPOR-positive A431 tumor cells but enhanced the effect of irradiation on proliferation, apoptosis and clonogenic capacity. In vivo, rHuEPO{alpha} administration compensated the tumor-induced anemia in SCID mice and decreased tumoral HIF-1{alpha} expression but had no effect on tumor growth. At the same time rHuEPO{alpha} treatment significantly increased the efficacy of radiotherapy in vivo (tumor weight of 23.9 {+-} 4.7 mg and 34.9 {+-} 4.6 mg, respectively), mediated by increased tumoral blood vessel destruction. Conclusion: rHuEPO{alpha} treatment may modulate the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy not only by reducing systemic hypoxia and tumoral HIF-1{alpha} expression, but also by destroying tumoral vessels. (orig.)

  1. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein is toxic to cells lacking signal peptide peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-M.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a toxin secreted by activated human eosinophils. The properties of mature ECP have been well studied but those of the signal peptide of ECP (ECPsp) are not clear. In this study, several chimeric proteins containing N-terminal fusion of ECPsp were generated, and introduced into Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 to study the function of ECPsp. We found that expression of ECPsp chimeric proteins inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. pastoris but not A431 cells. Primary sequence analysis and in vitro transcription/translation of ECPsp have revealed that it is a potential substrate for human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), an intramembrane protease located in endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, knockdown of the hSPP mRNA expression in ECPsp-eGFP/A431 cells caused the growth inhibitory effect, whereas complementally expression of hSPP in P. pastoris system rescued the cell growth. Taken together, we have demonstrated that ECPsp is a toxic signal peptide, and expression of hSPP protects the cells from growth inhibition

  2. O impacto do nível da metástase cervical no prognóstico dos pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de cavidade oral Prognostic impact of the level of neck metastasis in oral cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fontan Köhler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide oral, classifica-se o pescoço pelo número, tamanho e lateralidade das metastáses. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco para metástase em nível IV/V e seu impacto no prognóstico do carcinoma epidermoide oral. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo. Critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico de CEC, sítio primário em andar inferior da boca sem extensão para sítios extraorais, ausência de tratamento prévio, realização de EC e presença de metástases linfáticas. Por regressão logística, definiram-se fatores de risco e por análise de sobrevivência, fatores prognósticos de recorrência. Análise classificatória realizada por particionamento recursivo. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 307 pacientes. Em regressão logística univariada, o estágio pN, embolização vascular, e múltiplos linfonodos comprometidos foram fatores de risco para metástases em nível IV/V. Embolização vascular e múltiplos linfonodos comprometidos permaneceram significativos em análise multivariada. A análise de sobrevivência demonstrou os estágios pT e pN, infiltração perineural, embolização vascular, número de linfonodos metastáticos, razão linfonodal e metástases em níveis IV/V como significativos. Na análise multivariada, PT, pN, embolização vascular linfática e metástases em níveis IV/V permaneceram significativas. Na análise classificatória, o estágio pN não foi significativo quando há metástases em níveis IV/V. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de metástases em níveis IV/V foi significativa para sobrevivência doença-específica.Neck staging in oral cancer depends on the number of compromised nodes, their size and side of occurrence. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to evaluate risk factors for metastatic nodes in levels IV/V and their prognostic impact on patients with oral carcinoma. METHOD: Retrospective study. Inclusion criteria: pathologist's diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, primary tumor in the

  3. Metástasis cervical contralateral en el carcinoma epidermoide de la cavidad oral: Estudio clínico analítico retrospectivo en 315 pacientes primariamente tratados con cirugía Contralateral neck metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: An analytical retrospective clinical study of 315 patients primarily treated with surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-García

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Existen en la literatura numerosos estudios en relación con los factores pronósticos implicados en la aparición de metástasis cervicales ipsilaterales en el carcinoma epidermoide de cavidad oral. Sin embargo, no existen estudios clínicos amplios acerca de la asociación de factores clínico-patológicos y la aparición de metástasis cervicales contralaterales tras la resección quirúrgica del tumor primario. El propósito de este estudio es el análisis de los factores implicados en la aparición de metástasis cervical contralateral en pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de cavidad oral primariamente tratados con cirugía. Pacientes y métodos. Se analizó una serie de 315 pacientes consecutivos con carcinoma epidermoide de la cavidad oral no tratados previamente. Se realizó un estudio complementario del subgrupo de 203 pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del borde lateral de la lengua libre, por tratarse de un grupo muy prevalente en la serie analizada. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico con o sin tratamiento radioterápico adyuvante. Varias fueron las variables clínicas e histopatológicas analizadas, como son: las características clínicas del tumor, el estadio tumoral, el grado de diferenciación histológica, el tipo de disección cervical, la supervivencia enfermedad- específica, los márgenes quirúrgicos en la pieza resecada, la extensión ganglionar extracapsular, la diseminación perineural y la afectación ósea. Resultados. La duración media del seguimiento de los pacientes que sobrevivieron fue de 70,9 ± 49,6 meses. Ochenta y tres pacientes murieron a causa de la enfermedad a lo largo del seguimiento. Cuarenta y siete de estos pertenecían al subgrupo de pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de lengua. Un total de 147 pacientes permanecía vivo sin evidencias de recurrencia de la enfermedad al final del periodo de seguimiento, 116 de los cuales correspondían al subgrupo de pacientes con

  4. Chemically Modified Bacteriophage as a Streamlined Approach to Noninvasive Breast Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    unless otherwise noted), and non-breast cancer cells (U87MG (glioblastoma/astrocytoma), A431 (epidermoid carcinoma), Jurkat (T-cell leukemia), L3.6pl...HER2, and –BoNT/A (control) phage in breast cancer and other cell lines (A431, HCC1954, Jurkat , L3.6pl, M6, M6c, MCF-7, MCF-7 clone 18, MDA-MB-231

  5. Photodynamic Therapy with the Silicon Phthalocyanine Pc 4 Induces Apoptosis in Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Lam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current focus on the effects of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT using silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 photosensitizer on malignant T lymphocytes arose due to preclinical observations that Jurkat cells, common surrogate for human T cell lymphoma, were more sensitive to Pc 4-PDT-induced killing than epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Mycosis fungoides (MF as well as Sezary syndrome (SS are variants of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL in which malignant T-cells invade the epidermis. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Pc 4-PDT in peripheral blood cells obtained from patients with SS and in skin biopsies of patients with MF. Our data suggest that Pc 4-PDT preferentially induces apoptosis of CD4+CD7− malignant T-lymphocytes in the blood relative to CD11b+ monocytes and nonmalignant T-cells. In vivo Pc 4-PDT of MF skin also photodamages the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy with the Silicon Phthalocyanine Pc 4 Induces Apoptosis in Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Minh; Lee, YooJin; Deng, Min; Hsia, Andrew H.; Morrissey, Kelly A.; Yan, Chunlin; Azzizudin, Kashif; Oleinick, Nancy L.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Baron, Elma D.

    2010-01-01

    Our current focus on the effects of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 photosensitizer on malignant T lymphocytes arose due to preclinical observations that Jurkat cells, common surrogate for human T cell lymphoma, were more sensitive to Pc 4-PDT-induced killing than epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Mycosis fungoides (MF) as well as Sezary syndrome (SS) are variants of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in which malignant T-cells invade the epidermis. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Pc 4-PDT in peripheral blood cells obtained from patients with SS and in skin biopsies of patients with MF. Our data suggest that Pc 4-PDT preferentially induces apoptosis of CD4+CD7− malignant T-lymphocytes in the blood relative to CD11b+ monocytes and nonmalignant T-cells. In vivo Pc 4-PDT of MF skin also photodamages the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. PMID:21197103

  7. Extracellular domain shedding influences specific tumor uptake and organ distribution of the EGFR PET tracer 89Zr-imgatuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Martin; Kol, Arjan; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Gerdes, Christian A; de Jong, Steven; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G T

    2016-10-18

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a mismatch between in vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and EGFR antibody tracer tumor uptake. Shed EGFR ectodomain (sEGFR), which is present in cancer patient sera, can potentially bind tracer and therefore influence tracer kinetics. To optimize EGFR-PET, we examined the influence of sEGFR levels on tracer kinetics and tumor uptake of EGFR monoclonal antibody 89Zr-imgatuzumab in varying xenograft models. Human cancer cell lines A431 (EGFR overexpressing, epidermoid), A549 and H441 (both EGFR medium expressing, non-small cell lung cancer) were xenografted in mice. Xenografted mice received 10, 25 or 160 μg 89Zr-imgatuzumab, co-injected with equal doses 111In-IgG control. MicroPET scans were made 24, 72 and 144 h post injection, followed by biodistribution analysis. sEGFR levels in liver and plasma samples were determined by ELISA. 89Zr-imgatuzumab uptake in A431 tumors was highest (29.8 ± 5.4 %ID/g) in the 160 μg dose group. Contrary, highest uptake in A549 and H441 tumors was found at the lowest (10 μg) 89Zr-imgatuzumab dose. High 89Zr-imgatuzumab liver accumulation was found in A431 xenografted mice, which decreased with antibody dose increments. 89Zr-imgatuzumab liver uptake in A549 and H441 xenografted mice was low at all doses. sEGFR levels in liver and plasma of A431 bearing mice were up to 1000-fold higher than levels found in A549, H441 and non-tumor xenografted mice. 89Zr-imgatuzumab effectively visualizes EGFR-expressing tumors. High sEGFR levels can redirect 89Zr-imgatuzumab to the liver, in which case tumor visualization can be improved by increasing tracer antibody dose.

  8. Carcinoma epidermoide (variante pequenas células vs. carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão: diagnóstico diferencial em material de biópsia Small cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma vs. small cell carcinoma of the lung: differential diagnosis in biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Martins Marinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico diferencial entre a variante pequenas células do carcinoma epidermoide e do carcinoma de pequenas células nem sempre é fácil. Apesar de os descritores alertarem que o primeiro deva manter suas características morfológicas e, muitas vezes, diferenciação escamosa focal, a escassez de material aliada a artefatos de fixação frequentes nessas biópsias podem dificultar a vida do patologista. Entretanto, a definição entre um e outro pode alterar significativamente a escolha da modalidade terapêutica do paciente e, em alguns casos, influenciar seu prognóstico. Procuramos nesta publicação alertar para o problema e facilitar essa diferenciação, sugerindo um painel imuno-histoquímico.The differential diagnosis between small cell variant of squamous carcinoma and small cell carcinoma is not always simple. Despite the fact that studies show the former keeps its morphologic characteristics and focal squamous differentiation, the scarcity of the material as well as frequent fixation artifacts in these biopsies may hinder analysis. However, this differentiation between them may change significantly the choice of therapeutic approach and, in some cases, influence prognosis. In this paper, we draw attention to this problem and suggest a immunohistochemical panel to facilitate this differential diagnosis.

  9. Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl-1-(aromatic methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar H A Boakye

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the anti-skin cancer and chemopreventive potential of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl-1-(p-chlorophenyl methane (DIM-D using an in vitro model.In vitro cell cytotoxicity and viability assays were carried out in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK respectively by crystal violet staining. Apoptosis induction in A431 cells (DIM-D treated and NHEK cells pretreated with DIM-D (2 hr prior to UVB irradiation, were assessed. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells (2 hr prior to UVB exposure was also determined. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis was performed to determine cleaved caspase 3 and DNA damage markers in DIM-D treated A431 cells and in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells prior to UVB irradiation.The IC50 values of DIM-D were 68.7 ± 7.3, 48.3 ± 10.1 and 11.5 ± 3.1 μM whilst for Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG were 419.1 ± 8.3, 186.1 ± 5.2 and 56.7 ± 3.1 μM for 24, 48 and 72 hr treatments respectively. DIM-D exhibited a significantly (p<0.05 greater induction of DNA fragmentation in A431 cells compared to EGCG with percent cell death of 38.9. In addition, DIM-D induced higher expression in A431 cells compared to EGCG of cleaved caspase 3 (3.0-fold vs. 2.4-fold changes, Nurr1 (2.7-fold vs. 1.7-fold changes and NFκB (1.3-fold vs. 1.1-fold changes. DIM-D also exhibited chemopreventive activity in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells by significantly (p<0.05 reducing UVB-induced ROS formation and apoptosis compared to EGCG. Additionally, DIM-D induced expression of Nurr1 but reduced expression of 8-OHdG significantly in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells compared to EGCG and UV only.Our results suggest that DIM-D exhibits Nurr1-dependent transactivation in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells and it protects NHEK cells against UVB-induced ROS formation and DNA damage.

  10. Blockage of JNK pathway enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is well known as a carcinogen predisposing humans to some severe diseases and also as an effective medicine for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, and psoriasis. Multiple active mechanisms, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, have been proposed in therapy; however, the opposing effects of arsenic remain controversial. Our previous study found that arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced activation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 (p21) led to A431 cell death through the antagonistic effects of the signaling of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of JNK1 on ATO-induced p21 expression were explored. Over-expression of JNK1 in A431 cells could inhibit p21 expression, which was associated with HDAC1 and TGIF. Using the GST pull-down assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-108) of TGIF, critical to its binding with c-Jun, was found. Using reporter assays, requirement of the C-terminal domain (amino acids 138-272) of TGIF to suppress ATO-induced p21 expression was observed. Thus, the domains of TGIF that carried out its inhibitory effects on p21 were identified. Finally, treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could enhance ATO-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by using flow cytometry.

  11. [The identification of viruses of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk and evaluation of physical status of viral DNA using technique of polymerase-chain reaction under affection of cervical epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazovaia, A A; Kuevda, D A; Trofimova, O B; Shipulina, O Iu; Ershov, V A; Lialina, L V; Narvskaia, O V

    2013-08-01

    The DNA of virus of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk was detected in 116 cervical samples. At that, the morphological symptoms of background processes are detected in 19 samples, CIN 1 in 9, CIN 2 in 23, CIN 3 in 54 (and out of them carcinoma in situ in 13), epidermoid cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) in 11 cases. The viral load of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk in all samples of DNA exceeded threshold of clinical value (3 lg copies of DNA of human papilloma/105 cells). The genetic typing of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk revealed the dominance of human papilloma of type 16 in 49.7%, type 33 in 15.3%, type 31 in 12.3% and type 45 in 5.5%. In women with background processes in cervix of the uterus DNA of human papilloma type 16 was detected more often in episome form. In case of dysplastic alterations of epithelium and cervical cancer DNA of human papilloma type 16 is detected in mixt form with different degree of integration into cell genome.

  12. Bi‑lobed Perirectal Epidermoid Cyst: An Unusual Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor markers were unremarkable. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a. 7.5 cm × 5 cm × 6 cm homogenous bi‑lobed cystic mass in the pelvis adherent to the left lateral wall of the rectum and posteriorly to the sacrum with a displacement of the rectum anteriorly and to the right. There was no pelvic sidewall ...

  13. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 inhibits adhesion of Candida albicans by interacting with yeast cell-wall carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Tsai

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the major fungal pathogen of humans. Fungal adhesion to host cells is the first step of mucosal infiltration. Antimicrobial peptides play important roles in the initial mucosal defense against C. albicans infection. LL-37 is the only member of the human cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides and is commonly expressed in various tissues and cells, including epithelial cells of both the oral cavity and urogenital tract. We found that, at sufficiently low concentrations that do not kill the fungus, LL-37 was still able to reduce C. albicans infectivity by inhibiting C. albicans adhesion to plastic surfaces, oral epidermoid OECM-1 cells, and urinary bladders of female BALB/c mice. Moreover, LL-37-treated C. albicans floating cells that did not adhere to the underlying substratum aggregated as a consequence of LL-37 bound to the cell surfaces. According to the results of a competition assay, the inhibitory effects of LL-37 on cell adhesion and aggregation were mediated by its preferential binding to mannan, the main component of the C. albicans cell wall, and partially by its ability to bind chitin or glucan, which underlie the mannan layer. Therefore, targeting of cell-wall carbohydrates by LL-37 provides a new strategy to prevent C. albicans infection, and LL-37 is a useful, new tool to screen for other C. albicans components involved in adhesion.

  14. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a (99m)Tc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-02-25

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm(3) by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm(3) ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm(3) ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10.

  15. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  16. Detection and partial characterization of a midlamina lucida-hemidesmosome-associated antigen (19-DEJ-1) present within human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Jester, J

    1989-01-01

    immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated localization of 19-DEJ-1 to the level of the midlamina lucida, directly underneath hemidesmosomes; absent staining was noted beneath melanocytes. 19-DEJ-1 antigen was detectable in unfixed A431 cells grown on coverslips. After radioincorporation of 35S-methionine into A431...

  17. Imunolocalização das proteínas dos genes supressores de tumores TP53 e p16CDKN2 no front invasivo do carcinoma epidermóide de cavidade bucal Immunolocalization of TP53 and p16CDKN2 tumour suppressor genes proteins in invasive front of oral epidermoid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Maurício Batista De-Paula

    2006-08-01

    vias moleculares independentes.BACKGROUND: Oral carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which genetic events lead to the disruption of the normal regulatory pathways that control basic cellular functions. Epidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity (ECOC appears as a consequence of multiple molecular events induced by the effects of several carcinogens influenced by environmental factors against a background of genetic resistance or susceptibility. Consequent genetic damage affects many chromosomes and genes, and the accumulation of these changes seems to lead to ECOC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical and morphological value of p53 and p16 immunolocalization at the invasive tumor front in a representative series of 35 routinely processed ECOC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of ECOC were investigated in this study. TNM system was employed for clinical staging and the invasive front grading system was employed for morphological grading of the lesions. Immunohistochemical technique in paraffin-embedded and formalin-fixed tissues was utilized to immunolocalization of p53 and p16 proteins. Counts were performed and submitted to specific statistical treatments. RESULTS: p53 and p16 immunolocalizations were detected in 63% and 66%, respectively, of 35 carcinomas studied. No correlation was found between p53 and p16 expressions and clinico-morphological parameters statistically analyzed. No correlation was found between the relationship p53/p16 expressions. CONCLUSION: p53 and p16 immunolocalization did not influence the clinico-morphological parameters analyzed in this study and apparently do not represent a molecular basis for the biologic significance of the invasive tumor front. Lack of a strong correlation between p53 and p16 immunolocalization suggests that both could participate in biological activities in the cell cycle control by independent molecular pathways.

  18. Activity of the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid against Human Head and Neck Carcinoma Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund Seshadri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC constitute a majority of the tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and continue to present a significant therapeutic challenge. To explore the potential of vascular-targeted therapy in HNSCC, we investigated the antivascular, antitumor activity of the potent vascular-disrupting agent (VDA 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA against two HNSCC xenografts with markedly different morphologic and vascular characteristics. Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous FaDu (human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and A253 (human submaxillary gland epidermoid carcinoma tumors were administered a single dose of DMXAA (30 mg/kg, i.p. Changes in vascular function were evaluated 24 hours after treatment using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and immunohistochemistry (CD31. Signal enhancement (E and change in longitudinal relaxation rates (ΔR1 were calculated to measure alterations in vascular perfusion. MRI showed a 78% and 49% reduction in vascular perfusion in FaDu and A253 xenografts, respectively. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections revealed three-fold (FaDu and two-fold (A253 reductions in microvessel density (MVD 24 hours after treatment. DMXAA was equally effective against both xenograffs, with significant tumor growth inhibition observed 30 days after treatment. These results indicate that DMXAA may be beneficial in the management of HNSCC, alone or in combination with other treatments.

  19. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya R Stateva

    Full Text Available Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7 inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred.

  20. Niacin activates the PI3K/Akt cascade via PKC- and EGFR-transactivation-dependent pathways through hydroxyl-carboxylic acid receptor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawang Sun

    Full Text Available Niacin has been demonstrated to activate a PI3K/Akt signaling cascade to prevent brain damage after stroke and UV-induced skin damage; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for HCA2-induced Akt activation remain to be elucidated. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HCA2 and A431 cells, a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional HCA2 receptors, we first demonstrated that niacin induced a robust Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 in a time-dependent fashion, with a maximal activation at 5 min and a subsequent reduction to baseline by 30 min through HCA2, and that the activation was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. The HCA2-mediated activation of Akt was also significantly inhibited by the PKC inhibitors GF109203x and Go6983 in both cell lines, by the PDGFR-selective inhibitor tyrphostin A9 in CHO-HCA2 cells and by the MMP inhibitor GM6001 and EGFR-specific inhibitor AG1478 in A431 cells. These results suggest that the PKC pathway and PDGFR/EGFR transactivation pathway play important roles in HCA2-mediated Akt activation. Further investigation indicated that PI3K and the Gβγ subunit were likely to play an essential role in HCA2-induced Akt activation. Moreover, Immunobloting analyses using an antibody that recognizes p70S6K1 phosphorylated at Thr389 showed that niacin evoked p70S6K1 activation via the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of our study provide new insight into the signaling pathways involved in HCA2 activation.

  1. EFFICACY EVALUATION OF A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTORS RECEPTOR IN THE MODEL OF SUBCUTANEOUS XENOGRAFT IN IMMUNODEFICIENT MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. Yu. Ustyugov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the comparative antitumor efficacy study of two test articles of therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR manufactured by Russian biopharmaceutical company CJSC “Biocad” and the commercial drug “Erbitux®” (Merck, Germany in subcutaneous xenografts model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431NS cell line. EGFR overexpression in epithelial tumor cells is a commonly known fact that determines use of this receptor as a target for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The basic mechanism of action of such drugs is blocking of epithelial cells proliferation through competitive binding to EGFR. Evaluation of tumor growth dynamics in immunodeficient (Nu/Nu mice was performed during in vivo experiment using two parameters: tumor growth index and tumor growth inhibition (TGI, %. The results received with used study design show that antitumor effects of the test articles manufactured by CJSC “Biocad” and the commercial comparator drug “Erbitux®” estimated by values of TGI and tumor growth index are comparable.

  2. 7α,8α-Epoxynagilactones and their glucosides from the twigs of Podocarpus nagi: Isolation, structures, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuan-Dong; Bai, Gang; Tang, Chunping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Yao, Sheng; Tong, Lin-Jiang; Feng, Fang; Li, Yan; Ding, Jian; Xie, Hua; Ye, Yang

    2018-03-01

    A phytochemical investigation of twigs of Podocarpus nagi resulted in the identification of eight new type B nagilactones (1-8), all bearing a 7α,8α-epoxy-9(11)-enolide substructure, along with two known analogs (9-10). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRESIMS, IR and NMR experiments, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. In vitro cytotoxic assay exhibited that compounds 1, 2, 9 and 10 could induce antiproliferation against three different types of human cancer cells while compounds 3 and 5 were inactive. Notably, the IC 50 value of compound 1 is 0.208μM for A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, reaching the same level as the positive control combretastatin A-4 (0.104μM). Furthermore, compound 1 performed a strong inhibition of cancer cells by triggering apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at G 1 phase. These results unfold potential anticancer therapeutic applications of type B nagilactones. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  4. Proposal of a high dose rate brachytherapy model for in vitro radiobiology studies; Proposta de um modelo de braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para estudos de radiobiologia in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Jony M.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Andrade, Lidia M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Trindade, Cassia [Hospital Luxemburgo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Furtado, Clascidia A.; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando, E-mail: jony.marques@mariopenna.org.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CTDN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an easy and reproducible approach for experimental HDR brachytherapy allowing in vitro irradiation studies based on clinical parameters. An acrylic platform was designed to attach T25 tissue culture flasks and multi-well tissue culture plates as well as kept the catheters in a fixed position during irradiation. CT images were taken and the irradiation was planned for 550cGy dose applied on adherent tumor cells. Dosimetric measurements were done and all relevant uncertainties were taken into account in order to figure out the correct dose range received by the cells. Tumor cells were irradiated two times over an interval of 24h between irradiations. Proof of concepts of this approach was carried out by biological effects analysis using a radioresistant human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line. Cellular proliferation and cell cycle phase were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and DNA content analysis by flow cytometry, respectively. This approach allowed uniform dose distribution around the arrangement in all types of tissue culture plastics evaluated. Corrections due to uncertainties were managed. Regarding in vitro assays there was a significant (p<0.05) decreasing of cellular proliferation rate in irradiated cells. Moreover, increased percentage of cells arrested in G2/M phase (32.3 ± 1.5%) were observed for treated group compared with untreated cells. (author)

  5. Proposal of a high dose rate brachytherapy model for radiobiology studies in vitro; Proposta de um modelo de braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para estudos de radiobiologia in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Jony M.; Andrade, Lidia M., E-mail: jony.marques@mariopenna.org.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Trindade, Cassia [Hospital Luxemburgo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Luciana B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Furtado, Clascidia A.; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CTDN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an easy and reproducible approach for experimental HDR brachytherapy allowing in vitro irradiation studies based on clinical parameters. An acrylic platform was designed to attach T25 tissue culture flasks and multi-well tissue culture plates as well as kept the catheters in a fixed position during irradiation. CT images were taken and the irradiation was planned for 550cGy dose applied on adherent tumor cells. Dosimetric measurements were done and all relevant uncertainties were taken into account in order to figure out the correct dose range received by the cells. Tumor cells were irradiated two times over an interval of 24h between irradiations. Proof of concepts of this approach was carried out by biological effects analysis using a radioresistant human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line. Cellular proliferation and cell cycle phase were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and DNA content analysis by flow cytometry, respectively. This approach allowed uniform dose distribution around the arrangement in all types of tissue culture plastics evaluated. Corrections due to uncertainties were managed. Regarding in vitro assays there was a significant (p<0.05) decreasing of cellular proliferation rate in irradiated cells. Moreover, increased percentage of cells arrested in G2/M phase (32.3 ± 1.5%) were observed for treated group compared with untreated cells. (author)

  6. Cellular Functions Regulated by Phosphorylation of EGFR on Tyr845

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Src gene product (Src and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are prototypes of oncogene products and function primarily as a cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinase and a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, respectively. The identification of Src and EGFR, and the subsequent extensive investigations of these proteins have long provided cutting edge research in cancer and other molecular and cellular biological studies. In 1995, we reported that the human epidermoid carcinoma cells, A431, contain a small fraction of Src and EGFR in which these two kinase were in physical association with each other, and that Src phosphorylates EGFR on tyrosine 845 (Y845 in the Src-EGFR complex. Y845 of EGFR is located in the activation segment of the kinase domain, where many protein kinases contain kinase-activating autophosphorylation sites (e.g., cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Src family kinases, transmembrane receptor type tyrosine kinases or trans-phosphorylation sites (e.g., cyclin-dependent protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt protein kinase. A number of studies have demonstrated that Y845 phosphorylation serves an important role in cancer as well as normal cells. Here we compile the experimental facts involving Src phosphorylation of EGFR on Y845, by which cell proliferation, cell cycle control, mitochondrial regulation of cell metabolism, gamete activation and other cellular functions are regulated. We also discuss the physiological relevance, as well as structural insights of the Y845 phosphorylation.

  7. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proposal of a high dose rate brachytherapy model for in vitro radiobiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Jony M.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Andrade, Lidia M.; Trindade, Cassia; Furtado, Clascidia A.; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an easy and reproducible approach for experimental HDR brachytherapy allowing in vitro irradiation studies based on clinical parameters. An acrylic platform was designed to attach T25 tissue culture flasks and multi-well tissue culture plates as well as kept the catheters in a fixed position during irradiation. CT images were taken and the irradiation was planned for 550cGy dose applied on adherent tumor cells. Dosimetric measurements were done and all relevant uncertainties were taken into account in order to figure out the correct dose range received by the cells. Tumor cells were irradiated two times over an interval of 24h between irradiations. Proof of concepts of this approach was carried out by biological effects analysis using a radioresistant human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line. Cellular proliferation and cell cycle phase were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and DNA content analysis by flow cytometry, respectively. This approach allowed uniform dose distribution around the arrangement in all types of tissue culture plastics evaluated. Corrections due to uncertainties were managed. Regarding in vitro assays there was a significant (p<0.05) decreasing of cellular proliferation rate in irradiated cells. Moreover, increased percentage of cells arrested in G2/M phase (32.3 ± 1.5%) were observed for treated group compared with untreated cells. (author)

  9. Hapten-Anti-Hapten Technique for Two-Color IHC Detection of Phosphorylated EGFR and H2AX Using Primary Antibodies Raised in the Same Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jodi; Schwartz, David; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex staining of cell and tissue sections with antibodies raised in the same host species is a serious challenge because of unwanted but inevitable cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies with irrelevant primary antibodies. Several techniques can be used to overcome this obstacle including direct labeling of primary antibodies with fluorescent tags and using tyramide signal amplification. Unfortunately these techniques either lack sensitivity, or require a long multistep protocol which can cause physical damage of specimens. As an alternative, we have developed a protocol based on conjugation of primary antibodies to small-size hapten molecules which can be detected with hapten-specific fluorescent secondary antibodies. This technique has been used for two-color labeling of Y845 phosphorylated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX protein in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Our novel hapten-anti-hapten detection chemistry allows for generating a stronger fluorescent signal and completely avoid cross-interactions of secondary antibodies with irrelevant primary antibodies.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes Tethering EGFR-Inhibiting 4-Anilinoquinazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Kang, Yan; Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Yu; Wang, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Qun; Wu, Kui; Wang, Fuyi

    2016-05-02

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes are promising antitumor agents for their low system toxicity and versatile chemical structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be overexpressed in a broad range of tumor cells and is regarded as a drug target in developing novel antitumor drugs. In this work, five ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes containing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores were synthesized and characterized. These complexes showed both high EGFR-inhibiting activity and strong DNA minor groove-binding activity. In vitro antiproliferation screening demonstrated that the prepared ruthenium complexes are highly cytotoxic against a series of cancer cell lines, in particular non-small-cell lung A549 and human epidermoid carcinoma A431. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the most active complex, K4, induced much more late-stage cell apoptosis and necrosis than gefitinib, the first EGFR-targeting antitumor drug in clinical use. These results indicate that the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazolines possess highly active dual-targeting anticancer activity and are promising in developing new anticancer agents.

  11. Curcumin loaded NIPAAM/VP/PEG-A nanoparticles: physicochemical and chemopreventive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Pezhman; Makhoul, Georges; Roy, Ranjan; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Mood, Zhoobin A; Daniel, Sam J

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at modifying the synthesis method of preparing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM)/N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP)/Polyethylene glycol monoacrylate (PEG-A) polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin as a model drug. The optimal concentration of nanoparticle reagents was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Curcumin nanoparticles mean hydrodynamic size was found to be 104 nm with zeta potential of 3 ± 13 mV. The release kinetic study of curcumin nanoparticles indicates that a maximum release of curcumin at 24 h positively correlates with increase in temperature; however, change in pH did not produce any substantial drug release. In vitro cell viability assay performed on cancer cells exposed to various concentrations of model compound displayed the IC50 ranging between 100 and 200 μg/mL for human prostate cancer cells (PC3 cells) and 50 and 200 μg/mL for epidermoid carcinoma (A431 cell line). The Hoechst staining and phase contrast micrographs for 48 h exposure of curcumin nanoparticles at a concentration of 400 μg/mL resulted in almost 92% of cells death in both cell lines. This study concludes that the physiochemical characteristics of NIPAAM/VP/PEG-A polymer with key features of water solubility, sustained drug release, small particle size make these nanoparticles a prominent drug delivery device.

  12. Glucose is required to maintain high ATP-levels for the energy utilizing steps during PDT-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdanner, C.; Plaetzer, K.; Kiesslich, T.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may trigger apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells. Several steps in the induction and execution of apoptosis require high amounts of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Since the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) decreases early in apoptosis, we raised the question about the mechanisms of maintaining a sufficiently high ATP-level. We therefore monitored ΔΨ and the intracellular ATP-level of apoptotic human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) after photodynamic treatment with aluminium (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride. A maximum of caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation was found at fluences of about 4 J.cm -2 . Under these conditions apoptotic cells reduced ΔΨ rapidly, while the ATP-level remained high for 4 to 6 hours after treatment for cells supplied with glucose. To analyze the contribution of glycolysis to the energy supply during apoptosis experiments were carried out with cells deprivated of glucose. These cells showed a rapid drop of ATP-content and neither caspase-activation nor nuclear fragmentation could be detected. We conclude that the use of glucose as a source of ATP is obligatory for the execution of PDT-induced apoptosis. (author)

  13. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane M. Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines.Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay.Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts.Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents.HIGHLIGHTSDifferent macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted

  14. Expression of E-cadherin in human mast cell line HMC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Minoru; Kawai, Kenzo; Tanaka, Makoto; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Arizono, Naoki

    2003-11-01

    E-cadherin is one of the cell adhesion molecules normally expressed on epithelial cells. We previously reported that murine bone marrow-derived mast cells express E-cadherin that could be involved in homophilic binding with epithelial cell E-cadherin. In the present study we examined whether E-cadherin is also expressed in human mast cell HMC-1. Gene expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin was observed in HMC-1 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while N-cadherin expression was undetectable. cDNA sequencing of HMC-1 E-cadherin revealed no deletions or mutations. E-cadherin expression in HMC-1 was confirmed by immunoblotting as well as by flow cytometric analyses. In the presence of E-cadherin blocking antibody or a synthetic E-cadherin decapeptide with HAV sequence in culture medium, adhesion of HMC-1 cells to the A431 epithelial cell monolayer was slightly but significantly suppressed. In contrast, N- or P-cadherin decapeptides did not suppress the binding. These results indicated that human mast cell HMC-1 expresses E-cadherin, and is possibly involved in cellular interactions with epithelial cells, while other functions still remain to be elucidated.

  15. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  16. Enhanced constitutive invasion activity in human nontumorigenic keratinocytes exposed to a low level of barium for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen D; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ichihara, Gaku; Kato, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that exposure to barium for a short time (≤4 days) and at a low level (5 µM = 687 µg/L) promotes invasion of human nontumorigenic HaCaT cells, which have characteristics similar to those of normal keratinocytes, suggesting that exposure to barium for a short time enhances malignant characteristics. Here we examined the effect of exposure to low level of barium for a long time, a condition mimicking the exposure to barium through well water, on malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes. Constitutive invasion activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein expression and activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) protein expression in primary cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and HSC5 and A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were augmented following an increase in malignancy grade of the cells. Constitutive invasion activity, FAK phosphorylation, and MMP14 expression levels of HaCaT keratinocytes after treatment with 5 µM barium for 4 months were significantly higher than those of control untreated HaCaT keratinocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to a low level of barium for a long time enhances constitutive malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes via regulatory molecules (FAK and MMP14) for invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  18. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  19. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  20. Internalization of cystatin C in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Ulf; Wallin, Hanna; Lorenzo, Julia; Holmqvist, Bo; Abrahamson, Magnus; Avilés, Francesc X

    2008-09-01

    Altered protease activity is considered important for tumour invasion and metastasis, processes in which the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L are involved. Their natural inhibitor cystatin C is a secreted protein, suggesting that it functions to control extracellular protease activity. Because cystatins added to cell cultures can inhibit polio, herpes simplex and coronavirus replication, which are intracellular processes, the internalization and intracellular regulation of cysteine proteases by cystatin C should be considered. The extension, mechanism and biological importance of this hypothetical process are unknown. We investigated whether internalization of cystatin C occurs in a set of human cell lines. Demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, A-431, MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468 and Capan-1 cells internalized fluorophore-conjugated cystatin C when exposed to physiological concentrations (1 microm). During cystatin C incubation, intracellular cystatin C increased after 5 min and accumulated for at least 6 h, reaching four to six times the baseline level. Western blotting showed that the internalized inhibitor was not degraded. It was functionally intact and extracts of cells exposed to cystatin C showed a higher capacity to inhibit papain and cathepsin B than control cells (decrease in enzyme activity of 34% and 37%, respectively). The uptake of labelled cystatin C was inhibited by unlabelled inhibitor, suggesting a specific pathway for the internalization. We conclude that the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized in significant quantities in various cancer cell lines. This is a potentially important physiological phenomenon not previously described for this group of inhibitors.

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  3. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16 INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  4. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  5. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  6. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  7. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  8. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  9. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  10. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  11. Cell-surface galactosyltransferase acts as a modulator of rat and human acinar cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Beher, M G; Zelles, T; Maeda, N; Purushotham, K R; Cassisi, N; Schneyer, C A

    1990-06-01

    Several physiological parameters were examined for inducing acinar cell proliferation and corresponding increased expression of beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase. In this study, dietary changes causing acinar cell proliferation included the following: the introduction of animals to a liquid diet (causing gland atrophy) followed by re-introduction of solid chow, gustatory stimulation provided by the introduction of 0.5% citric acid to animal drinking water, and removal of the submandibular gland with subsequent reliance on the parotid gland for saliva protein and fluid. Alterations in growth factor levels were produced by injecting animals with a chronic (three-day) regimen of either nerve growth factor (NGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). In all cases of acinar cell proliferation in vivo, generated by the above treatments, cell-surface galactosyltransferase was detected along with the unique expression of a 4.5-kb proliferation-associated mRNA. Parotid gland proliferation could be blocked in all cases by the injection of the galactosyltransferase specific modifier protein, alpha-lactalbumin. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, blocked proliferation in all cases except EGF treatment. EGF-induced proliferation could, however, be prevented if the animals were treated with monoclonal antibody to EGF receptor or with the galactosyltransferase modifier alpha-lactalbumin. As a comparison, human parotid tissue samples obtained from neoplastic pleomorphic adenomas, muco-epidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a bulimia patient were analyzed for galactosyltransferase expression by Northern blot of mRNA and plasma membrane isolation. Elevated levels of galactosyltransferase were found in all neoplastic tissue preparations as well as in the bulimia sample. Amylase synthesis was reduced in samples compared with surrounding normal tissue from the same patient. In vitro cell culturing of pleomorphic adenoma cells in the presence of

  12. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  13. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  14. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  15. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  16. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  17. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  18. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting, and preser......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  19. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  20. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  1. Parameters Derived from Integrated Nuclear Fluorescence, Syntactic Structure Analysis, and Vascularization in Human Lung Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kayser

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined measurements of integrated nuclear fluorescence (INF and vascularization were performed on surgical specimens of human lung carcinomas. Histological slides of formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded tissue samples were treated with Texas Red‐labeled antibody to factor VIII and the fluorochrome DAPI. The resulting images were analyzed with an epi‐illumination fluorescence microscope and two different filter blocks. The first image displayed the vessels, and the second the DAPI‐stained nuclei of surrounding cells. The extent of vascularization was assessed by calculating the volume fraction (Vv, the surface fraction (Sv, the area, and the minimum diameter of the vessels. The INF was measured in tumour cells and lymphocytes, and was grouped according to the distance from the nearest vascular boundary into the intervals of 0–20, 21–40, 41–60, 61–80, and >80 μ. The numerical densities (Nv as well as the percentages of S‐phase‐related tumour cell fraction (SPRF and of tumour cells with an INF > 5C were computed. A minimum of 50 vessels and 300 tumour cells were examined. The material included 100 cases with primary lung carcinoma (39 epidermoid carcinomas, 39 adenocarcinomas, 13 large cell carcinomas, three small cell anaplastic carcinomas, and 6 carcinoid tumours. On the average, the volume density of the stroma amounts to 16.7%, and that of the vessels (Vv to 12.8%. The minimum diameter of the intratumoral vessels is 13 μ and the measured circumference 138 μ. The numerical densities of tumour cells (lymphocytes decrease with increasing distance from the vascular boundary from 6.3 (1.7 to 1.0 (0.1. A reduction is also seen in the percentage of the SPRF from 10.7 to 8.1%. The percentage of tumour cells with an INF > 5C, however, is positively correlated to the distance from the vascular surfaces from 34.2 to 38.2%. The measurements reveal that tumour cells are densely positioned and have an increased proportion of

  2. Human mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Siniša B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an independent group of plant kingdom which members do not contain chlorophyll and have no capability of photo synthesizing, meaning that they can not synthesize nutritive compounds, so they exist as the saprophytes or parasites of plants, animals and humans. Between 50.000 and 100.000 species are known, but only about 100 species cause diseases (mycoses of humans or animals, while many other cause diseases of plants. Only the dermatophytes and species of genus Candida are usually transferable from human to human. The importance of fungi was certainly less than that of the bacteria and viruses for the time being, but their role as the opportunist pathogens is unavoiding, especially for immunocompromised patients. Incidence of fungal infections grows steadily, even in the countries with high level of general and health culture. Diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections are many times unadequate. Prophylaxis is still an object of discussion.

  3. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... and their coverage in LCIA methods. Section 4 provides an overview of the main LCIA methods available to address human toxicological impacts. Section 5 presents the range of variation of factor across chemicals, the main sources of uncertainty and good interpretation practice of results from human toxicity...... all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty...

  4. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  5. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  6. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  7. Increased Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure Facilitates the Uptake of Therapeutic Macromolecules in a Xenograft Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hofmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP is a characteristic of most solid tumors. Clinically, TIFP may hamper the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumor tissue reducing their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, a means of modulating TIFP to increase the flux of macromolecules into tumor tissue is presented, which is based on the rationale that elevated plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP pulls water from tumor interstitium lowering the TIFP. Concentrated human serum albumin: (20% HSA, used as an agent to enhance COP, reduced the TIFP time-dependently from 8 to 2 mm Hg in human tumor xenograft models bearing A431 epidermoid vulva carcinomas. To evaluate whether this reduction facilitates the uptake of macromolecules, the intratumoral distribution of fluorescently conjugated dextrans (2.5 mg/ml and cetuximab (2.0 mg/ml was probed using novel time domain nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. This method permitted discrimination and semiquantification of tumor-accumulated conjugate from background and unspecific probe fluorescence. The coadministration of 20% HSA together with either dextrans or cetuximab was found to lower the TIFP significantly and increase the concentration of the substances within the tumor tissue in comparison to control tumors. Furthermore, combined administration of 20%HSA plus cetuximab reduced the tumor growth significantly in comparison to standard cetuximab treatment. These data demonstrate that increased COP lowers the TIFP within hours and increases the uptake of therapeutic macromolecules into the tumor interstitium leading to reduced tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to facilitate the delivery of therapeutics into tumor tissue, particularly monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  9. Green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tripti [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that β-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on β-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of β-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of β-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear β-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1α, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and increased phosphorylation of β-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of β-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of β-catenin. Inactivation of β-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of β-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of β-catenin signaling and that the β-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of β-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of β-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG

  10. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  11. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  12. Human vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siqueira, José Eduardo; Segre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We consider essential when addressing human vulnerability, to perceive it under two diverse prisms, therefore, complementary: the individual and the collective. The first part will present the human being as the protagonist isolated from this circumstance and it will be performed in the first person, in a nearly colloquial manner. One's vulnerability, while a part of a social network, will be addressed in the second part of the text. It will not be difficult to realize how the individual on the condition of autonomous being or integrated element in a wide social network dies of the same illness, which seems to be a strong characteristic of post-modernity.

  13. [Chronic ulceration of the hand in a mechanic: epidermoid carcinoma should be suspected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, Ilhame; Hassam, Baderddine

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor developed from the epidermis or the squamous mucosa. It may occur de novo or, most often, on precancerous lesions, including actinic keratoses. This tumor can sometimes be secondary to physical or chemical hazardous conditions encountered during the professional activity. We here report the case of a 40-year old mechanic presenting with ulceration of the dorsal side of his right wrist, evolving over 6 months. The lesion had first appeared as a small keratosic lesion that had transformed into an erosion and then into an ulceration increasing rapidly in size. The patient had no initial trauma and he had no particular previous history except the handling of chemicals (fuels, mineral oil, paint) without gloves for about the last 30 years. Physical examination showed a large sized ulcero-budding tumor (5 × 6 cm) on the dorsal side of his right wrist (A), associated with diffuse multiple actinic keratosis lesions on his two forearms and on the back of his hands (B). The patient also had two painless hard mobile adenopathies measuring 1.5 cm in diameter, on the ipsilateral epitrochlear and axillary regions. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal. Viral hepatitis serology test, treponemal test and retrovirus (HIV) test were negative. Histological examination of a biopsy sample confirmed the diagnosis of well differentiated and infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma. The biopsy of the axillary adenopathy objectified ganglionic metastasis with capsular break-in and extension to the periganglionar tissue. The remainder of the staging was without abnormalities. The patient underwent wide resection of the lesion with lymph node dissection followed by radiation therapy. Patient's evolution was marked by early local recurrence (two months later) requiring reoperation. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  14. 20 years of experience in the treatment of epidermoid carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: An experimental, longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was designed (Phase II) with the purpose to evaluate the efficacy of concomitant chemoradiotherapy in local control, toxicity and survival squamous cell carcinoma Anal Canal. Material and Methods: Between 01/01/1989 and 31/12/2008, 120 consecutive patients were treated who had not received any cancer treatment, and did not show neoplasia simultaneously and all were HIV (-). The average age was 59.3 years (Range 34-74) and 80% were females; the performance status was 0-2 ECOG and the TNM (AJCC) classification in the distributed: T1, 36 (30%); T2, 43 (36%); T3 17 (14%); T4, 24 (20%); N0, 86 (72%); N1, 24 (20%); N2, 5 (4%); N3, 5 (4%); M0, 120 (100%). Radiotherapy megavoltage photons used as recommended ICRU-50 (GTV, CTV, PTV); a conventional fractionation was used with fractions 1.8 Gy daily, 5 times per week until 50.40 Gy, using multiple fields ( b ox technique ) ; CDDP chemotherapy was administered, 75 mg / m2 i / v 1 and 24 and 5-FU, 1000 mg / m2 continuous infusion i / v on days 1-5, and 24-28 the course of radiotherapy. The monitoring and the objective of the evaluation was performed according to the RTOG / EORTC and the Kaplan-Meyer recommendations. Results: Local control was : complete remission, 84%; partial remission, 2%; lesional stabilization, 6%; lesion progression, 8%; toxicity was cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and peripheral haematological, grades 2 and 3, and primarily acute neuropathy; There were no deaths due to the combined proceeding or increase colostomies. Survival Overall at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years it was 80%, 75%, 72% and 72% respectively. Conclusions: 1)The results of our study are comparable to those reported in the international literature; 2) Reconsider the current indications of the radiotherapy ( s plit-course, boost, total dose ) and chemotherapy ( i nduction adjuvant, new drugs ) ; 3) The concomitant radiochemotherapy remains the treatment universally accepted standard in the oncological pathology

  15. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl S; Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that ...

  16. Presence of skin metastasis related to an epidermoid carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danta Fundora, Debora; Collado Otero, Juan Carlos; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Paredes Lopez, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Appearance of spreading skin metastases in colorectal cancer and of anal canal is infrequent. The aim of present paper was to show an interesting case of skin metastasis related to an advanced carcinoma of anal canal infiltrating rectum

  17. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  18. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  19. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  20. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  1. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  2. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  3. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  4. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. ► Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. ► Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-β and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial–mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  5. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  6. Characterization of the cell death modes and the associated changes in cellular energy supply in response to AIPcS4-PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesslich, T.; Plaetzer, K.; Oberdanner, C.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can result in apoptosis and/or necrosis. Several steps in the apoptotic program depend on ATP and the intracellular ATP level is one determinant in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis. Therefore, photochemical damage of cellular targets involved in energy supply might play a crucial role for the mode of cell death being executed. The present study aimed at the characterization of changes in cellular energy supply and the associated cell death modes in response to PDT. Using the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 and aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (2.5 μM) as a photosensitizer, we studied the changes in mitochondrial function and intracellular ATP-level after irradiation with different light doses. Employing assays for caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, 50 % of the cells were found to undergo apoptosis after irradiation with light doses between 2.5 to 3.5 J.cm -2 . At light doses above 6 J.cm -2 cells died exclusively by necrosis, indicated by rapid and complete loss of ATP and mitochondrial function and an absence of caspase activation and nuclear fragmentation. With apoptotic cell populations the ATP-level was maintained at near control levels for up to eight hours which was far beyond the onset of morphological changes. These data suggest that necrosis as well as apoptosis can be induced with AIPcS4 mediated PDT and that photo damage in energy supplying cellular targets may influence the mode of cell death. Further, it is speculated that cells undergoing apoptosis after PDT maintain high ATP levels long enough to complete the apoptotic program. (author)

  7. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  8. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  9. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  10. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  11. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available vulnerability. These factors are location specific, related to particular local climate, topology and human settlement patterns.” (Department of Environmental Affairs 2014b, p.6).Urban settlements across Africa are experiencing immense changes at a swift rate... CSIR calculations based on latest census figures of each SADC country (projected figures used in case of missing census data, e.g. Angola). Urbanisation rates used as reported by UN ESA (2014). Calculations exclude Mauritius and Seychelles. C H A P...

  12. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  13. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  14. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  15. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  16. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  17. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    to the rupture of the follicle wall and the release of an oocyte. The administration of gonadotropins in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leads to supraphysiological steroid concentrations of a very different profile compared with those seen during natural cycles. It has been suggested that these high...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  18. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  19. [Human microsporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcay, L

    2001-05-01

    This review shows the Microsporidia as unicellular protozoa strictly intracellular eukaryotic parasites of animals and humans. These study concerns life cycles, cytology, host-parasite relationships in animal models experimentally infected with microsporidia from human feces, demonstrating the host-inespecificity and visceral dissemination with histopathological studies in digestive, tract, kidney, liver, spleen, brain, heart, pancreas, thyroid, suprarenal glands. It is presented the microsporidiosis in Venezuela in immunocompetent patients and immunodeficients HIV+, with diarrheic syndromes with keratoconjuntivitis microsporidial punctata diffuse and with disseminated microsporidia in urine, tracheobronchial sputum, nasal and pharyngeal exudates. Also we have found the microsporidia in river and lake waters and in animals relationed with the man: dogs, cats, pigs, monkeys, donkeys, guts. The patients are treated specially with Albendazole and also with Trimethoprim-Sulphametoxazol for the children until two years of age. We use as laboratory diagnosis the technique of Kinyoun stain, in support of the acid resistance property of these parasites, and also the Chromotrope staining. Our recommendations for a proper identification of the Microspora species, should be done with Electron Microscopy and the TCR reaction.

  20. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  1. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  2. Therapy of human carcinoma xenografts with antibodies to EGFr and HER-2 conjugated to radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, M.J.; Goldenberg, David M. [Garden State Cancer Center at the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Belleville, NJ (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Low-energy electrons (10-50 keV) can be effective and specific cytotoxic agents when delivered to the cell surface by antibodies, because their path length in tissue is comparable to a cell diameter. In this study, we have begun to evaluate the therapeutic potential of antibodies (Abs) conjugated to {sup 111}In against carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Abs to EGFr or HER-2 were labeled with {sup 111}In to a high specific activity of approximately 1.48 GBq/mg (40 mCi/mg). They were injected into nude mice 5-6 days after inoculation of human carcinoma cells, either A431 or SK-OV-3, and tumor growth was monitored. In preliminary in vitro experiments, we calculated the cumulative decays per cell, estimated the centigray dose delivered to the nucleus, and related this to the fraction surviving. Abs to both antigens provided significant protection in nude mouse xenograft models (p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.001). Some mice appeared to be cured, but most had delayed tumor growth. The specificity of the effect was demonstrated by testing non-reactive Abs labeled in the same way. The radioactivity was required, because unconjugated Abs had no therapeutic effect. The maximum tolerated dose was required in order for therapy to be effective, but most of the treated mice had no significant weight loss or other overt signs of toxicity. Abs labeled with nuclides emitting low-energy electrons, such as {sup 111}In, can be effective therapeutic agents against microscopic s.c. tumors. This strategy should be considered for clinical applications. (orig.)

  3. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  4. Papilomavírus humano associado a lesões de cérvice uterina Human papillomavirus associated to uterine cervix lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Noronha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV em 228 mulheres portadoras de lesões em cérvice uterina, atendidas no Instituto Ofir Loiola, em Belém, Pará, no período de março de 1992 a maio de 1996. As pacientes foram submetidas à biópsia de colo uterino, sendo o material encaminhado para histopatologia e pesquisa de HPV por PCR e hibridização por dot-blot. Distribuíram-se as participantes em três grupos, conforme diagnóstico histopatológico. O grupo A constituiu-se de 155 mulheres com carcinoma epidermóide invasor ou com adenocarcinoma, o grupo B de 54 portadoras de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical grau II ou III, e o grupo C de 19 pacientes com cervicite crônica. Observaram-se prevalências de HPV em 70,3%, 63,0% e 36,8% das mulheres dos grupamentos A, B e C, respectivamente, sendo o HPV 16 registrado em 60,4% das amostras positivas do grupo A e 54,5% daquelas do grupo B. Os tipos 16, 18 e 33 representaram 71,4% dos detectados no grupo C.It was studied the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV among 228 women with lesions of uterine cervix attending the Ofir Loiola Institute, in Belem, Para, from March 1992 to May 1996. Histopathological examination was performed with all cervical biopsy samples obtained from these patients. In addition, specimens were analysed by both polimerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization to detect HPV DNA. The patients were assigned to three groups, according to the diagnosis made by histopathology, as follows: A, including 155 women suffering from invasive epidermoid carcinoma or adenocarcinoma; B, 54 patients having either cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or III; and C, involving 19 women with chronic cervicitis. The prevalence rates of HPV in groups A, B and C were 70.3%, 63% and 36.8% respectively. HPV 16 accounted for 60.4% and 54.5% of types identified in groups A and B, respectively. Altogether HPV types 16, 18 and 33 were detected in 71.4% of positive patients

  5. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santana Gastardelo

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1 has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide, Boc2 (antagonist of FPR and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth

  6. Expert Assessment of Human-Human Stigmergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parunak, H. Van Dyke

    2005-01-01

    Human-Human Stigmergy is pervasive. A wide range of pre-computer social systems fit the pattern of stigmergic coordination, and have provided a rich set of metaphors on which a diverse set of computer-enabled systems for enabling human...

  7. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  8. Human Rights, Human Security and Political Theologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorite Escorihuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights, particularly in the form of international human rights law, intersect with religion and peace at foundational levels, as symbolically highlighted by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The Preamble to the Declaration proclaims in its very first line that respect for human dignity is the foundation of peace, and proceeds to declare that freedom of belief, alongside freedom of speech and freedom from fear, are the highest aspirations of humankind. One could similarly highlight the special relationship between the project of human rights, peace and religion, particularly religious tolerance, in the texts of the universal, as well as regional, human rights instruments adopted since 1948, as well as the text of the Charter of the United Nations of 1945. The relationship between contemporary human rights, on the one hand, and religion and peace on the other, is arguably determined by the structure of international human rights law as a political discourse, which describes the relationship between individuals, society and the State. The visible influence of social contract theory on the wording of the Universal Declaration reminds us that from its inception, the project of human rights is intimately linked to religious diversity (because of the birth of modern sovereignty in European wars of religion and evangelical imperialism and peace (because of the connection that the Declaration draws between the stability of States and respect for the human dignity of citizens. Against this known conceptual and historical backdrop, this paper starts with the displacement, at the global level, of human rights by the ambiguous discourse of "human security," since the early 1990s. A general idea is that "human security", which has rapidly evolved to become an organizing principle of policy-making for governments as well as non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, constitutes an alternative, sometimes deliberately

  9. Taking the "human" out of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    Human rights are universally acknowledged to be important, although they are, of course, by no means universally respected. This universality has helped to combat racism and sexism and other arbitrary and vicious forms of discrimination. Unfortunately, as we shall see, the universality of human rights is both too universal and not universal enough. It is time to take the "human" out of human rights. Indeed, it is very probable that in the future there will be no more humans as we know them no...

  10. Localizing human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Feyter, De, Koen

    2007-01-01

    International human rights lawyers tend to focus on establishing the universality of human rights rather than on improving the usefulness of human rights in addressing local problems. This paper draws attention to the need to make human rights more locally relevant, particularly in a context of economic globalisation. Human rights can be made more locally relevant by interpreting existing global norms in the light of needs identified by community organisations, and by developing human rights ...

  11. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  12. Engineered human vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  13. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  14. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  15. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  16. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  17. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring ultrashort high-energy electron-induced damage in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.; Fortunel, N.O.; Vaigot, P.; Cadio, E.; Martin, M.T.; Lundh, O.; Faure, J.; Rechatin, C.; Malka, V.; Gauduel, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    In conventional cancer therapy or fundamental radiobiology research, the accumulated knowledge on the complex responses of healthy or diseased cells to ionizing radiation is generally obtained with low-dose rates. Under these radiation conditions, the time spent for energy deposition is very long compared with the dynamics of early molecular and cellular responses. The use of ultrashort pulsed radiation would offer new perspectives for exploring the 'black box' aspects of long irradiation profiles and favouring the selective control of early damage in living targets. Several attempts were previously performed using nanosecond or picosecond pulsed irradiations on various mammalian cells and radiosensitive mutants at high dose rate. The effects of single or multi-pulsed radiations on cell populations were generally analyzed in the framework of dose survival curves or characterized by 2D imaging of γ-H2AX foci and no increase in cytotoxicity was shown compared with a delivery at a conventional dose rate. Moreover, when multi-shot irradiations were performed, the overall time needed to obtain an integrated dose of several Grays again overlapped with the multi-scale dynamics of bio-molecular damage-repair sequences and cell signalling steps. Ideally, a single-shot irradiation delivering a well-defined energy profile, via a very short temporal window, would permit the approach of a real-time investigation of early radiation induced molecular damage within the confined spaces of cell compartments. Owing to the potential applications of intense ultrashort laser for radiation therapy, the model of the A431 carcinoma cell line was chosen. An ultrafast single-shot irradiation strategy was carried out with these radio-resistant human skin carcinoma cells, using the capacity of an innovating laser-plasma accelerator to generate quasi mono-energetic femtosecond electron bunches in the MeV domain and to deliver a very high dose rate of 10 13 Gy s -1 per pulse. The alkaline comet

  19. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  20. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  1. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  2. The Effects of Arolycoricidine and Narciprimine on Tumor Cell Killing and Topoisomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Bozkurt Sarikaya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, narciprimine and arolycoricidine were isolated from G. rizehensis Stern (Amaryllidaceae. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D NMR, EI-MS. Due to the previous reports on anti-cancer activity of this group of alkaloids, we investigated their effects on DNA topoisomerase reactions, which are known as the cellular targets of a number of chemotherapeutical drugs. The results revealed that arolycoricidine and narciprimine were effective in both type I and type II DNA topoisomerase reactions in a dose-dependent manner. Topoisomerase-interfering ability of these alkaloids partially correlated with cytostaticity assays, using HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma, MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma cells. Our results are discussed in relation to the potential significance of these alkaloids in the course of drug-development studies.

  3. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  6. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  7. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  8. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  9. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... outside of the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication ...

  10. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of ... for this statement on human cloning. Ban Reproductive Cloning AAAS endorses a legally enforceable ban on efforts ...

  11. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  12. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  13. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  14. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  15. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  17. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  18. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  19. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  20. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  1. Intervention and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  2. Cytotoxic agents from Bursera klugii (Burseraceae) I: isolation of sapelins A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, S D; Wiedhopf, R M; Cole, J R

    1977-06-01

    A crude chloroform-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Bursera klugii showed activity against two test systems, the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia (3PS) and the human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx (9KB). The PS activity was due to two constituents, sapelins A and B.

  3. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    any part of the human body. The pelvic cysts are uncommon and only a few cases are described ... Figure 2: Image of the cyst after excision, size > 30cm. Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor, usually ... including penis, spleen and brain [2-4]. It is the most frequent cutaneous cyst in the head and neck (49%) ...

  4. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  5. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...... with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...

  6. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  7. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  8. Role of brachytherapy in treatment of epidermoid carcinomas of the vallecula after conservative supraglottic laryngectomy followed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clippe, Sebastien; Pommier, Pascal; Poupart, Marc; Ceruse, Philippe; Rosenbusch, Thomas; Ramade, Antoine; Montbarbon, Xavier; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Carrie, Christian; Ardiet, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate survival and functional results of the treatment of carcinomas of the vallecula using surgery, irradiation, and interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 36 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vallecula were treated with horizontal supraglottic functional laryngectomy, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 54 Gy), and additional interstitial brachytherapy (median dose 16 Gy). Results were compared with a previous series of 22 patients treated without brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 61.3%. The 5-year specific survival rate was 86%, with 2 local failures (local control rate 94.4%) and 4 isolated distant metastases. Ten patients developed a second primary. The overall survival was 34% for 22 patients previously treated without brachytherapy. Severe toxicities occurred in 9 patients: death (related to larynx edema or inhalation, n=1), soft tissue necrosis (n=1), aspiration pneumonia (n=1), mandibular necrosis (n=2), pharyngocutaneous fistula (n=2), and laryngeal edema (n=2). All the patients fed orally with no definitive gastrostomy or tracheotomy. Conclusion: Additional brachytherapy for vallecula carcinoma seems to improve locoregional control and overall survival dramatically. Functional results were also excellent. To our knowledge, this original therapeutic schedule has never been previously described

  9. Evaluation of angiogenesis with the expression of VEGF and CD34 in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; Andrini, L B; García, M N; García, A L; Fernández Blanco, A; Furnus, C C; Galletti, S M; Prat, G D; Errecalde, A L

    2007-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process in the progression of malignant tumors and the most potent angiogenic factor is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, the CD34 is an endothelial antigen that has been used to highlight the microvasculature vessel density (MVD) as a direct marker of the degree of neoangiogenesis. In the present study we report the VEGF expression and its relationship with MVD, measured by CD34, in two lineages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCL): low differentiated adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas, in order to consider the possibility of using the correlation between both antibodies as a prognostic factor. Tumor sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF. The results showed that the mean value of VEGF for adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than the one for epidermoid carcinoma (p < 0.001). However, the mean of MVD did not show significant differences between both types of tumors. The conventional factors taken into consideration (age over 60, sex, and presence of lymph nodes) was not significantly related to the angiogenic factors examined. In conclusion, we could affirm that CD34 is a better prognostic marker of neoangiogenesis in NSCLC, because both types of tumors have the same clinical prognosis, and so we expected the same behaviour from both markers.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. Western humanism, African humanism and work organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J Pietersen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of Western (WH and African humanism (AH shows overlapping and complementary approaches to human nature in work organisations. The extant literature is conceptually, empirically and methodologically inadequate, and fails to consider 21st century employment realities. Shortcomings of WH and AH are presented. A dynamic and mutualistic approach to human nature, that includes both self-assertive (individualist and self transcending (collectivist tendencies, is briefly outlined. It provides a more comprehensive approach to humanism, for better understanding of human behaviour at work. There is currently too much rhetoric in the field. More research, especially the use of qualitative and narrative interpretive methodologies is required. Opsomming Vergelyking van Westerse (WH met Afrika (AH opvattings oor humanisme in werkorganisasies toon, verskille ten spyt, dat oorvleueling en aanvullende benaderingsmoontlikhede bestaan. Die betrokke literatuur is tans konseptueel, empiries en metodologies onvoldoende. Moderne indiensnemingsrealiteite word ook nie verreken nie. Tekortkominge in beide Westerse en Afrika humanisme word aangetoon. Navolging van ’n dinamiese en resiprokale benadering wat beide self-gelding (individualisties en self-transendering (kollektiwisties in menslike natuur insluit, word voorgehou as ’n meer omvattende beskouing wat ’n beter begrip van gedrag in werkorganisasies bied. Daar is heelwat retoriek in aansprake betreffende Afrika humanisme. Verdere navorsing, veral begronde en interpreterende studies, is noodsaaklik.

  12. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  13. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  14. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  15. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  16. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  17. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  18. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  19. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  1. Human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Šrolová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management is a deliberate approach to managing people who are employed in a particular organization and under the management leadership contribute to achieving organizational goals with their performance. Managing people is associated with personal strategy and policy,which have an important role in working with human resources. This issue is concerned in thesis. In the context of human resource management also deals with the culture of the organization and its influence on pe...

  2. The Humanities Matter! Infographic

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  3. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  4. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  5. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  6. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  7. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M.; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  8. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  9. Are human rights universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is often held that the universality of human rights can best be defended on the basis of the idea of an "overlapping consensus". This paper contends that some of the most prominent philosophical human rights conceptions that have recently been proposed ("basis-driven" conceptions) cannot be reconciled with this idea. It is however possible to sketch an alternative strategy for defending the universality of human rights.

  10. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  11. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  12. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...... human and animal value and agency with approaches that focus on human experience and virtue ethics, we argue that ‘the human’ at stake in the moral laboratory of feeding precarious lives puts ‘the human’ in anthropology at disposal for moral experimentation.......At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...

  13. Human target acquisition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  14. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  15. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  16. DNAX-activating Protein 10 (DAP10) Membrane Adaptor Associates with Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Modulates the RAGE-triggered Signaling Pathway in Human Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Yumi; Hibino, Toshihiko; Putranto, Endy Widya; Ruma, I. Made Winarsa; Inoue, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Rie; Futami, Junichiro; Kataoka, Ken; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Huh, Nam-ho

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory, degenerative, and hyperproliferative diseases, including cancer. Previously, we revealed mechanisms of downstream signaling from ligand-activated RAGE, which recruits TIRAP/MyD88. Here, we showed that DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), a transmembrane adaptor protein, also binds to RAGE. By artificial oligomerization of RAGE alone or RAGE-DAP10, we found that RAGE-DAP10 heterodimer formation resulted in a marked enhancement of Akt activation, whereas homomultimeric interaction of RAGE led to activation of caspase 8. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to S100A8/A9, a ligand for RAGE, at a nanomolar concentration mimicked the pro-survival response of RAGE-DAP10 interaction, although at a micromolar concentration, the cells mimicked the pro-apoptotic response of RAGE-RAGE. In transformed epithelial cell lines, A431 and HaCaT, in which endogenous DAP10 was overexpressed, and S100A8/A9, even at a micromolar concentration, led to cell growth and survival due to RAGE-DAP10 interaction. Functional blocking of DAP10 in the cell lines abrogated the Akt phosphorylation from S100A8/A9-activated RAGE, eventually leading to an increase in apoptosis. Finally, S100A8/A9, RAGE, and DAP10 were overexpressed in the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings indicate that the functional interaction between RAGE and DAP10 coordinately regulates S100A8/A9-mediated survival and/or apoptotic response of keratinocytes. PMID:25002577

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  19. Health and Humanity: Humanities 401 Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Fraser; Taylor, Maxine

    A syllabus for the "Health and Humanities" interdisciplinary course at Northwestern State University, Louisiana, is presented. An introduction suggests that with the proliferation of technological advances in the field of health care, there is a need for reconsideration of many moral, ethical, legal, and humanistic questions. Information…

  20. Humanities in the field of Human Motricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Franco Puttini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This letter to the editor of the Journal Motricity seeks to promote the epistemological discussion of the science of motor and/or human movement from the philosophy of values focusing on the neutrality and interdisciplinary researcher in the sociocultural field of physical education knowledge area.

  1. SERUM BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN IN HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  2. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  3. Training Humans for the Human Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Advisors (CULADS-UK); Human Terrain Analysis ( HTA ); Socio-cultural Analysis; Target Audience Analy- sis (TAA); “Influence”; the list is long. As... attention and resources, or lack of them, devoted to it by command. This is further evidenced by the fact that the basic principles of understanding

  4. Miniatlas of Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Human Security Report Project

    2008-01-01

    An at-a-glance illustrated guide to global and regional trends in human insecurity, the miniAtlas provides a succinct introduction to today's most pressing security challenges. It maps political violence, the links between poverty and conflict, assaults on human rights including the use of child soldiers and the causes of war and peace.

  5. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  6. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  7. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  8. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  9. Methods in human cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Humanities in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Rosario, Comp.

    One of eighteen in a series, this annotated bibliography includes 64 publications that deal with the humanities and humanizing formal instruction at all instructional levels. Citations include recent ERIC documents, journal articles, and books. Others in the series are: SO 002 222 and SO 002 224. (DJB)

  11. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  12. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  13. Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

    Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(25):2645–2654. [PubMed Abstract] Chaturvedi ... trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 347(21):1645-1651. [PubMed Abstract] Petrosky ...

  15. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  16. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  17. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  18. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  19. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  20. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  1. Assessment of Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  2. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  3. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  4. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  5. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  6. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  7. Denialism and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Roland; Nelen, Hans; Willems, Jan CM

    2016-01-01

    The safeguarding of human rights remains highly problematic, despite the proliferation of human rights instruments and the many actions taken by a variety of actors, such as governmental and non-governmental organizations, (individual) states and the international community over the past decades.

  8. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  9. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  10. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  11. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  12. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...... a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science...

  13. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The unbalanced transmission of chromosomes in human gametes and early preimplantation embryos causes aneuploidy, which is a major cause of infertility and pregnancy failure. A baseline of 20% of human oocytes are estimated to be aneuploid and this increases exponentially from 30 to 35...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  14. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  15. Dogs catch human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  16. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  17. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S

    2007-01-01

    UV light excites aromatic residues, causing these to disrupt nearby disulphide bridges. The EGF receptor is rich in aromatic residues near the disulphide bridges. Herein we show that laser-pulsed UV illumination of two different skin-derived cancer cell lines i.e. Cal-39 and A431, which both...... antibodies. There was a threshold level, below which the receptor could not be blocked. In addition, illumination caused the cells to upregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1, irrespective of the p53 status. Since the EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin...... disorders, it might be possible to significantly reduce the proliferative potential of these cells making them good targets for laser-pulsed UV light treatment....

  18. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  19. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  1. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  3. Factoring humans into procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, S.F.; Sturdivant, M.H.; McKay, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    INPO statistics on reported events in nuclear power plants rank deficient procedures as the largest single cause of human performance errors. Human factors principles used to improve the effectiveness of the control room operator can also improve the usability of written procedures. This human factors approach treats each page or complement of pages as a display. Four techniques for applying this approach are reviewed in this paper: (1) presenting information in small blocks (or fields), (2) presenting information consistently, (3) using the mental templates of the performer, and (4) matching the physical features of the plant. A final section offers examples in which combinations of these techniques are used

  4. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  5. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Alison A

    2017-10-19

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  7. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  9. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  10. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  11. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  12. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  13. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  14. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catalog & Services History of Medicine Online Exhibitions & Digital Projects Information for Publishers Visit the Library Research at NLM Human Genome Resources Biomedical Research & Informatics Environmental Health & Toxicology Health Services Research & Public Health ...

  15. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  16. Human response to vibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansfield, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    .... Vibration measurements and standards are also addressed. This book meets the needs of those requiring knowledge of human response to vibration in order to make practical improvements to physical working environments...

  17. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know ( ... men get cancer and other diseases from HPV. HPV vaccine HPV vaccine is approved by FDA and ...

  19. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  20. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  1. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  2. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  3. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  4. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  5. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  6. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  7. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  8. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are

  9. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  10. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  11. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  13. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  14. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  15. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  17. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  18. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  19. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  20. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  2. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  3. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  4. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  5. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • ... HIV Testing • For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the ...

  6. Microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Ugajin, Tomohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Okamura, Kunihiro

    2009-04-01

    In human fertilization, the sperm centrosome plays a crucial role as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). We studied microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis, which occurs when a human egg undergoes cleavage without a sperm centrosome. Multiple cytoplasmic asters were organized in the human oocyte after parthenogenetic activation, indicating that multiple MTOC are present in the human oocyte cytoplasm and function like a human sperm centrosome during parthenogenesis.

  7. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  8. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  9. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  10. HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jožica Marin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human herpesvirus 6 belongs to betaherpesviruses. This is a lymphotropic virus which is widely spread in a population. The most frequent way of virus transmission is by saliva. For this reason the first contact usally occurs early in a childhood period. Clinical manifestation might be expressed as exanthem subitum or roseola infantum. In adults primary infections are a rare event while virus reactivation might be very frequent.Conclusions. Human herpesvirus 6 is believed to be the most neurotropic among all herpesviruses. It even can cause central nervous system disease in an immunocompetent person. The most important role of human herpesvirus 6 is in provoking complications in HIV-infected individuals and in patients after organ transplantations, as it causes immunosupression even more severe. The possible connection of human herpesvirus 6 with multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and some neoplasmas remains to be clarified. Human herpesvirus 6 infection can be most easily diagnosed by serological methods; the virus could be detected by monoclonal antibodies and by the use of the methods of molecular biology.

  11. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  12. Human hybrid hybridoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1λ antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays

  13. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  14. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  15. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Human Studies Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Major cardiovascular problems, secondary to cardiovascular deconditioning, may occur on extended space missions. While it is generally assumed that the microgravity state is the primary cause of cardiovascular deconditioning, sleep deprivation and disruption of diurnal rhythms may also play an important role. Factors that could be modified by either or both of these perturbations include: autonomic function and short-term cardiovascular reflexes, vasoreactivity, circadian rhythm of cardiovascular hormones (specifically the renin-angiotensin system) and renal sodium handling and hormonal influences on that process, venous compliance, cardiac mass, and cardiac conduction processes. The purpose of the Human Studies Core is to provide the infrastructure to conduct human experiments which will allow for the assessment of the likely role of such factors in the space travel associated cardiovascular deconditioning process and to develop appropriate countermeasures. The Core takes advantage of a newly-created Intensive Physiologic Monitoring (IPM) Unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, to perform these studies. The Core includes two general experimental protocols. The first protocol involves a head down tilt bed-rest study to simulate microgravity. The second protocol includes the addition of a disruption of circadian rhythms to the simulated microgravity environment. Before and after each of these environmental manipulations, the subjects will undergo acute stressors simulating changes in volume and/or stress, which could occur in space and on return to Earth. The subjects are maintained in a rigidly controlled environment with fixed light/dark cycles, activity pattern, and dietary intake of nutrients, fluids, ions and calories.

  16. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  17. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  18. Human spermatogonial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kopylow, Kathrein; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes A dark , A pale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent) and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human spermatogonial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein von Kopylow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes Adark, Apale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts.

  20. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen...... in semen quality and fertility rates in some global regions among other changes, the question as to whether human fecundity is changing needs investigation. We review existing data and novel methodological approaches aimed at answering this question from a transdisciplinary perspective. The existing...... literature is insufficient for answering this question; we provide an overview of currently available resources and novel methods suitable for delineating temporal patterns in human fecundity in future research....

  1. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  2. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    challenging in organizations involved in change processes such as Continuous Improvement (CI), as the technical skills traditionally valued are no longer adequate. These companies are faced with the question: “What competencies should our employees possess in order to contribute to our success, given......More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...... the change processes in which we are engaged?” Without a clear picture of the types of competencies required to implement CI, it is impossible for companies to make informed decisions regarding recruitment, hiring, and training of their workforce. The objective of this paper is therefore to define...

  3. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  4. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  5. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non......-productive aspects in human–forest relationships. Through history, forest values have changed and new functions have emerged. Industrialisation and urbanisation have contributed to an alienation from nature and weakened the connection of humans to forests. The consequences of these changes for the development...

  7. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  9. Human gene essentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, István; di Iulio, Julia; Venter, J Craig; Telenti, Amalio

    2018-01-01

    A gene can be defined as essential when loss of its function compromises viability of the individual (for example, embryonic lethality) or results in profound loss of fitness. At the population level, identification of essential genes is accomplished by observing intolerance to loss-of-function variants. Several computational methods are available to score gene essentiality, and recent progress has been made in defining essentiality in the non-coding genome. Haploinsufficiency is emerging as a critical aspect of gene essentiality: approximately 3,000 human genes cannot tolerate loss of one of the two alleles. Genes identified as essential in human cell lines or knockout mice may be distinct from those in living humans. Reconciling these discrepancies in how we evaluate gene essentiality has applications in clinical genetics and may offer insights for drug development.

  10. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  11. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  12. The Human Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  13. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  14. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...... for the induced headache and migraine. Perspectives are discussed....

  15. Human MSH2 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  16. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  17. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  18. Human performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines several theoretical and practical issues that must be resolved if credible human performance assessment systems for nuclear power generating stations are to be achieved. Theoretical issues involve mechanisms of human behavior, performance indicators, performance measures and logic models. Practical issues involve objective safety criteria, objective performance data, sampling and validation. Each issue is defined and its present state of resolution is discussed. New initiatives of the U.S. regulatory authority to address some of the issues are introduced. Issues not yet addressed by means of those initiatives are also identified

  19. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information......During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...

  20. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  1. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  2. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  3. Human experimentation in Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    2000-01-01

    The supreme value of human life, the sanctity of human life, and the obligation of patients to accept standard efficacious medical therapy are axiomatic Judaic principles. If a seriously and/or terminally ill patient has already received all standard treatments and is asked to consider experimental therapy that may prolong his or her life or may hasten death, he or she is allowed but not required to accept the treatment. Healthy people may volunteer to participate in research studies that involve little or no risk.

  4. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  5. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  6. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  7. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  8. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  9. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  10. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  11. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  12. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  13. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  14. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  15. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  16. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections...

  17. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  18. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest ... our environment When pesticides are used on the food we eat The risk of health problems depends not only on how toxic the ingredients are ( ...

  19. Fighting for the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cary

    2012-01-01

    The question, "Who will bankroll poetry?", succinctly embodies what is now a widespread recognition that the humanities may have more to lose in the current budget wars than either the sciences or a number of technical fields. The only budget war that can unite individuals, rather than divide them, is one arguing that too much is being…

  20. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination. Key words: Paragonimus spp., Africa, human paragonimiasis, intermediate hosts, tuberculosis. Résumé. Une revue sur la paragonimose ...

  1. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  2. Narratology beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Lauren Groff’s 2011 short story “Above and Below” to explore aspects of a narratology beyond the human, considering how ideas developed by scholars of narrative bear on questions about the nature and scope of human-animal relationships in the larger biosphere. Bringing Groff’s text into dialogue with the concept of “self-narratives” as developed by Kenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen, anthropological research on the ontologies projected by the members of different cultures, and ideas from literary narratology, I discuss how the structure and narration of Groff’s story reveal a fault line between two competing ontologies in the culture of modernity, one parsimonious and the other prolific when it comes to allocating possibilities for selfhood across species lines. More generally, in addition to illuminating how a given self-narrative locates the human agent in a transspecies constellation of selves, a narratology beyond the human can assist with the construction of new, more sustainable individual and collective self-narratives that situate the self within wider webs of creatural life.

  3. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  4. Radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A review of a book dealing with the estimation of human health effects of radiation is presented. Risk assessment for carcinogenesis is based on the author's own method of statistics so that standard statistical methods cannot be applied. Several examples of the author's fallacies are discussed in this book review

  5. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  6. Designers of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  7. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  8. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  9. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ...

  10. IN HUMAN RESEARCH PROPOSALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These researchers tested the effect of. Hallucinogenic ... stories illustrating human cruelty as well as strong advocacy for the ... Experiments must be strictly beneficial to individuals,their communities, or the society in general. Same experiments previously conducted on animals and the natural history of the disease must be ...

  11. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg...

  12. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  13. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  14. Soil Borne Human Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Soils are home to a remarkable array of biodiversity with some estimates stating that 25% of the Earth’s species find their home in the soil. Of these organisms, the vast majority are not of any threat to human health, but rather function to provide numerous ecosystem services which emerge through

  15. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    identification of suspected false accounts. • Automatic identification of viral photos and videos • Transitioned to SOCOM Open Source Environment... VIDEO AND AUDIO MILITARY RELEVANT TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH ON NEW THREAT ACTORS, CRISIS RESPONSE, AND HUMAN SECURITY NEEDS IN CYBER AND REAL...devices and tactics to augment tactical edge soldiers with information analysis on-demand in dynamic environments. Content-Based Text & Video

  16. Studying Human Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond; Roebroeks, Wil

    2001-01-01

    This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and

  17. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  18. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  19. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  20. Synthesizing Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Steven

    The old argument of humanism versus behaviorism is slowly being replaced by a synthesis of these two foundations of thought. This slow professional recognition of synthesis is due to three basic shortcomings in the professional community rather than extreme differences in ideological thought. They are: (1) psychological terminology being equated…

  1. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  2. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  3. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  4. Human genome I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    An international conference, Human Genome I, was held Oct. 2-4, 1989 in San Diego, Calif. Selected speakers discussed: Current Status of the Genome Project; Technique Innovations; Interesting regions; Applications; and Organization - Different Views of Current and Future Science and Procedures. Posters, consisting of 119 presentations, were displayed during the sessions. 119 were indexed for inclusion to the Energy Data Base

  5. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  6. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  7. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  8. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  9. Genomics of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagboom, P. E.; Beekman, M.; Passtoors, W. M.; Deelen, J.; Vaarhorst, A. A.M.; Boer, J. M.; Van Den Akker, E. B.; Van Heemst, D.; De Craen, A. J.M.; Maier, A. B.; Rozing, M.; Mooijaart, S. P.; Heijmans, B. T.; Westendorp, R. G.J.

    2011-01-01

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial

  10. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  11. Tackling Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  12. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  13. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  15. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  16. Human - computer interaction: communication aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Burauskas, Gytis

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this work is communication of human-computer interaction. The objective is to analyze the human-computer interaction from the communication perspective. The main goals are: to review and analyze the conception and evolution of human-computer interaction, to find out the application possibilities of human-computer interaction in communication field; to analyze the process of human-computer interaction design, its characteristics and communication aspects; to formulate and argue ...

  17. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  18. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients must be hospitalized while the smear of sputum is positive because TB spreads through air. Cooperation of a patient is important in order to complete the treatment of TB. However, a small number of patients are noncooperative for the treatment and may sometimes refuse it. At this symposium, we discussed about whether we could restrict the human rights of noncooperative TB patients. Although the patients' human rights must be protected, we also have to protect the human rights of people who may receive TB infection. The balance of the both people's rights is fully considered in the TB control policy. It is epoch-making that the TB society took up the theme about the human rights' restriction of TB patients. Five speakers presented their papers from each position. There were presentations about the scientific evidence of isolation, the actual cases, the situation of the United States, and the legal view on the human rights' restriction of TB patients. The present situation and the legal problems in Japan became clear at this symposium. We need further discussion about the human rights' restriction of TB patients for the revision of the Tuberculosis Protection Act and have to obtain the national consensus on it. 1. The evidence for isolation: Emiko TOYODA (International Medical Center of Japan) To determine appropriate periods of respiratory isolation, available biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues and data were studied. Although absolute lack of infectiousness requires consecutive culture negative and it takes too long and impractical periods. There seems to be no established evidence for noncontagiousness after 2 to 3 weeks effective treatment. Practically conversion to 3 negative consecutive smear results may used as a surrogate for noninfectiousness, even though a small risk of transmission still be present. Chemical isolation has been more important and administration with DOT should be indicated to keep compliance. 2

  19. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  20. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.