Lepton Flavour Violation in Models with A4 Flavour Symmetry
Feruglio, Ferruccio; Lin, Yin; Merlo, Luca
2008-01-01
We analyze lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments (MDMs) and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A4 x Z3 x U(1)_{FN}, whose choice is motivated by the approximate tri-bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. We construct the relevant low-energy effective Lagrangian where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. We separately analyze both a supersymmetric and a general case. While the observed discrepancy delta a_mu in the anomalous MDM of the muon suggests M of order of a few TeV, several data require M above 10 TeV, in particular the limit on EDM of the electron. In the general case also the present limit on BR(mu -> e gamma) requires M >10 TeV, at least. The branching ratios for mu -> e gamma, tau -> mu gamma and tau -> e gamma are all expecte...
Matter inflation with A_4 flavour symmetry breaking
Antusch, Stefan
2013-01-01
We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A_4 family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index alpha_s. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically.
Lepton Flavour Violation in a Supersymmetric Model with A4 Flavour Symmetry
Feruglio, Ferruccio; Lin, Yin; Merlo, Luca
2009-01-01
We compute the branching ratios for mu-> e gamma, tau-> mu gamma and tau -> e gamma in a supersymmetric model invariant under the flavour symmetry group A4 X Z3 X U(1)_{FN}, in which near tri-bimaximal lepton mixing is naturally predicted. At leading order in the small symmetry breaking parameter u, which is of the same order as the reactor mixing angle theta_{13}, we find that the branching ratios generically scale as u^2. Applying the current bound on the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma shows that small values of u or tan(beta) are preferred in the model for mass parameters m_{SUSY} and m_{1/2} smaller than 1000 GeV. The bound expected from the on-going MEG experiment will provide a severe constraint on the parameter space of the model either enforcing u approx 0.01 and small tan(beta) or m_{SUSY} and m_{1/2} above 1000 GeV. In the special case of universal soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the flavon sector a cancellation takes place in the amplitudes and the branching ratios scale as u^4, allowing for...
LFV and Dipole Moments in Models with A4 Flavour Symmetry
Merlo, Luca
2009-01-01
It is presented an analysis on lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments and electric dipole moments in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A4 x Z3 x U(1)_FN, whose choice is motivated by the approximate Tri-Bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is constructed, where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. Two separate cases, a supersymmetric and a general one, are described. An upper limit on the reactor angle of a few percent is concluded.
A neutrino mixing model based on an $A_4\\times Z_3\\times Z_4$ flavour symmetry
Ky, Nguyen Anh; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong
2016-01-01
A model of a neutrino mixing with an $A_4\\times Z_3\\times Z_4$ flavour symmetry is suggested. In addition to the standard model fields, the present model contains six new fields which transform under different representations of $A_4\\times Z_3\\times Z_4$. The model is constructed to slightly deviate from a tri-bi-maximal model in agreement with the current experimental data, thus, all analysis can be done in the base of the perturbation method. Within this model, as an application, a relation between the mixing angles ($\\theta_{12}, \\theta_{23}, \\theta_{13}$) and the Dirac CP-violation phase ($\\delta_{CP}$) is established. This relation allows a prediction of $\\delta_{CP}$ and the Jarlskog parameter ($J_{CP}$). The predicted value $\\delta_{CP}$ is in the 1$\\sigma$ region of the global fit for both the normal- and inverse neutrino mass ordering and gives $J_{CP}$ to be within the bound $|J_{CP}|\\leq 0.04$. For an illustration, the model is checked numerically and gives values of the neutrino masses (of the ord...
Flavour from accidental symmetries
Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)
2006-11-15
We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.
Strong coupling, discrete symmetry and flavour
Abel, Steven
2010-01-01
We show how two principles - strong coupling and discrete symmetry - can work together to generate the flavour structure of the Standard Model. We propose that in the UV the full theory has a discrete flavour symmetry, typically only associated with tribimaximal mixing in the neutrino sector. Hierarchies in the particle masses and mixing matrices then emerge from multiple strongly coupled sectors that break this symmetry. This allows for a realistic flavour structure, even in models built around an underlying grand unified theory. We use two different techniques to understand the strongly coupled physics: confinement in N=1 supersymmetry and the AdS/CFT correspondence. Both approaches yield equivalent results and can be represented in a clear, graphical way where the flavour symmetry is realised geometrically.
On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry
King, Stephen F
2009-01-01
We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such "indirect" models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the $\\Delta(3n^2)$ and $\\Delta(6n^2)$ groups, together with other examples such as $Z_7\\rtimes Z_3$. In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.
Flavour Symmetries and Kahler Operators
Espinosa, J R
2004-01-01
Any supersymmetric mechanism to solve the flavour puzzle would generate mixing both in the superpotential Yukawa couplings and in the Kahler potential. In this paper we study, in a model independent way, the impact of the nontrivial structure of the Kahler potential on the physical mixing matrix, after kinetic terms are canonically normalized. We undertake this analysis both for the quark sector and the neutrino sector. For the quark sector, and in view of the experimental values for the masses and mixing angles, we find that the effects of canonical normalization are subdominant. On the other hand, for the leptonic sector we obtain different conclusions depending on the spectrum of neutrinos. In the hierarchical case we obtain similar conclusion as in the quark sector, whereas in the degenerate and inversely hierarchical case, important changes in the mixing angles could be expected.
Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing with Discrete Flavour Symmetries
Merlo, Luca
2011-01-01
In view of the fact that the data on neutrino mixing are still compatible with a situation where Bimaximal mixing is valid in first approximation and it is then corrected by terms of order of the Cabibbo angle, we present examples where these properties are naturally realized. The models are supersymmetric in 4-dimensions and based on the discrete non-Abelian flavour symmetry S4.
Lepton flavour violation in models with A flavour symmetry
Feruglio, Ferruccio; Hagedorn, Claudia; Lin, Yin; Merlo, Luca
2009-03-01
We analyze lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments (MDMs) and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A×Z×U(1, whose choice is motivated by the approximate tri-bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. We construct the relevant low-energy effective Lagrangian where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. We separately analyze both a supersymmetric and a general case. While the observed discrepancy δa in the anomalous MDM of the muon suggests M of order of a few TeV, several data require M above 10 TeV, in particular the limit on EDM of the electron. In the general case also the present limit on BR(μ→eγ) requires M>10 TeV, at least. The branching ratios for μ→eγ, τ→μγ and τ→eγ are all expected to be of the same order. In the supersymmetric case the constraint from μ→eγ is softened and it can be satisfied by a smaller scale M. In this case both the observed δa and the current bound on BR(μ→eγ) can be satisfied, at the price of a rather small value for ||, of the order of a few percents, that reflects on a similar value for θ.
Predictive flavour symmetries of the neutrino mass matrix
Hirsch, M; Kaneko, S; Valle, J W F; Joshipura, Anjan S.
2007-01-01
Here we propose an $A_4$ flavour symmetry model which implies a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay rate, corresponding to an effective mass parameter $M_{ee} \\gsim 0.03$ eV, and a direct correlation between the expected magnitude of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and the value of $\\sin^2\\theta_{13}$, as well as a nearly maximal CP phase $\\delta$.
Lepton Flavour at the Electroweak Scale: A Complete A4 Model
Holthausen, Martin; Schmidt, Michael A
2012-01-01
Apparent regularities in fermion masses and mixings are often associated with physics at a high flavour scale, especially in the context of discrete flavour symmetries. One of the main reasons for that is that the correct vacuum alignment requires usually some high scale mechanism to be phenomenologically acceptable. Contrary to this expectation, we present in this paper a renormalizable radiative neutrino mass model with an A4 flavour symmetry in the lepton sector, which is broken at the electroweak scale. For that we use a novel way to achieve the VEV alignment via an extended symmetry in the flavon potential proposed before by two of the authors. We discuss various phenomenological consequences for the lepton sector and show how the remnants of the flavour symmetry suppress large lepton flavour violating processes. The model naturally includes a dark matter candidate, whose phenomenology we outline. Finally, we sketch possible extensions to the quark sector and discuss its implications for the LHC, especia...
SO(10) models with flavour symmetries: classification and examples
Ivanov, I. P.; Lavoura, L.
2016-10-01
Renormalizable SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) models equipped with flavour symmetries are a popular framework for addressing the flavour puzzle. Usually, the flavour symmetry group has been an ad hoc choice, and no general arguments limiting this choice were known. In this paper, we establish the full list of flavour symmetry groups which may be enforced, without producing any further accidental symmetry, on the Yukawa-coupling matrices of an SO(10) GUT with arbitrary numbers of scalar multiplets in the {{10}}, \\bar{{{126}}}, and {{120}} representations of SO(10). For each of the possible discrete non-Abelian symmetry groups, we present examples of minimal models which do not run into obvious contradiction with the phenomenological fermion masses and mixings.
Neutrino masses and mixing: a flavour symmetry roadmap
Morisi, S
2012-01-01
Over the last ten years tri-bimaximal mixing has played an important role in modeling the flavour problem. We give a short review of the status of flavour symmetry models of neutrino mixing. We concentrate on non-Abelian discrete symmetries, which provide a simple way to account for the TBM pattern. We discuss phenomenological implications such as neutrinoless double beta decay, lepton flavour violation as well as theoretical aspects such as the possibility to explain quarks and leptons within a common framework, such as grand unified models.
Lepton-flavour violation in a Pati-Salam model with gauged flavour symmetry
Feldmann, Thorsten; Moch, Paul
2016-01-01
Combining Pati-Salam (PS) and flavour symmetries in a renormalisable setup, we devise a scenario which produces realistic masses for the charged leptons. Flavour-symmetry breaking scalar fields in the adjoint representations of the PS gauge group are responsible for generating different flavour structures for up- and down-type quarks as well as for leptons. The model is characterised by new heavy fermions which mix with the Standard Model quarks and leptons. In particular, the partners for the third fermion generation induce sizeable sources of flavour violation. Focusing on the charged-lepton sector, we scrutinise the model with respect to its implications for lepton-flavour violating processes such as $\\mu \\rightarrow e\\gamma$, $\\mu\\rightarrow 3e$ and muon conversion in nuclei.
Hagedorn, C.
2014-01-01
be detected by future experiments, thanks to the presence of a flavour symmetry Gf which constrains the form of the relevant couplings. The symmetry Gf is chosen to be finite, discrete and non-abelian and also helps to predict the peculiar lepton mixing pattern. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....
Lepton Mixing Predictions from (Generalised) CP and Discrete Flavour Symmetry
Neder, Thomas
2015-01-01
An important class of flavour groups, that are subgroups of $U(3)$ and that predict experimentally viable lepton mixing parameters including Majorana phases, is the $\\Delta(6n^2)$ series. The most well-known member is $\\Delta(24)=S_4$. I present results of several extensive studies of lepton mixing predictions obtained in models with a $\\Delta(6n^2)$ flavour group that preserve either the full residual $Z_2\\times Z_2$ or a $Z_2$ subgroup for neutrinos and can include a generalised CP symmetry. Predictions include mixing angles and Dirac CP phase generally; and if invariance under a generalised CP symmetry is included, also Majorana phases. For this, the interplay of flavour group and generalised CP symmetry has to be studied carefully.
Neutrino Mixings and the S4 Discrete Flavour Symmetry
Bazzocchi, Federica
2012-01-01
Discrete non-Abelian Symmetries have been extensively used to reproduce the lepton mixings. In particular, the S4 group turned out to be suitable to describe predictive mixing patterns, such as the well-known Tri-Bimaximal and the Bimaximal schemes, which all represent possible first approximations of the experimental lepton mixing matrix. We review the main application of the S4 discrete group as a flavour symmetry, first dealing with the formalism and later with the phenomenological implications. In particular, we summarize the main features of flavour models based on S4, commenting on their ability in reproducing a reactor angle in agreement with the recent data and on their predictions for lepton flavour violating transitions.
The flavour problem and family symmetry beyond the Standard Model
Dziewit, Bartosz; Richter, Monika; Zając, Sebastian; Zrałek, Marek
2016-01-01
In the frame of two Higgs doublet model we try to explain the lepton masses and mixing matrix elements assuming that neutrinos are Dirac particles. Discrete family symmetry groups, which are subgroups of U(3) up to the 1025 order are considered. Like in the one Higgs Standard Model, we found that discrete family symmetries do not give satisfactory answer for this basic questions in the flavour problem.
Pulsars: Macro-nuclei with 3-flavour symmetry
Xu, Renxin
2015-01-01
A pulsar-like compact star is the rump left behind after a supernova where normal baryonic matter is intensely compressed by gravity, but the real state of such compressed baryonic matter is still not well understood because of the non-perturbative nature of the fundamental color interaction. We argue that pulsars could be of condensed matter of quark clusters, i.e., "quark-cluster stars" which distinguish from conventional neutron and quark stars. In comparison with 2-flavour symmetric micro-nuclei, a quark-cluster star could simply be considered as a macro-nucleus with 3-flavour symmetry. New research achievements both theoretical and observational are briefly presented.
The Symmetry behind Extended Flavour Democracy and Large Leptonic Mixing
Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I
2002-01-01
We show that there is a minimal discrete symmetry which leads to the extended flavour democracy scenario constraining the Dirac neutrino, the charged lepton and the Majorana neutrino mass term ($M_R$) to be all proportional to the democratic matrix, with all elements equal. In particular, this discrete symmetry forbids other large contributions to $M_R$, such as a term proportional to the unit matrix, which would normally be allowed by a $S_{3L}\\times S_{3R}$ permutation symmetry. This feature is crucial in order to obtain large leptonic mixing, without violating 't Hooft's, naturalness principle.
Matter inflation with A{sub 4} flavour symmetry breaking
Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel, CH-4056 Switzerland (Switzerland); Nolde, David, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch, E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, München, D-80805 Germany (Germany)
2013-10-01
We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A{sub 4} family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index α{sub s}. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically.
A 4 symmetry at colliders and in the universe
Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; Fischer, Oliver; Maurer, Vinzenz
2015-01-01
... of the Standard Model at higher energy scales. In this paper, we consider a solution to these two problems with the flavour symmetry A 4 x a[currency] 2 x a[currency] 2 A.sub.4 Z.sub.2 Z.sub.2.sup...
Discrete flavour symmetries from the Heisenberg group
Floratos, E. G.; Leontaris, G. K.
2016-04-01
Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular, on the PSL2 (p) groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.
Discrete Flavour Symmetries from the Heisenberg Group
Floratos, E G
2015-01-01
Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular in the $PSL_2(p)$ groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.
A 4 $$ {\\mathbb{A}}_4 $$ symmetry at colliders and in the universe
de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; Fischer, Oliver; Maurer, Vinzenz
2015-01-01
... of the Standard Model at higher energy scales. In this paper, we consider a solution to these two problems with the flavour symmetry A 4 × ℤ 2 × ℤ 2 ′ $$ {\\mathbb{A}}_4\\times {\\mathrm{\\mathbb{Z}}}_2\\times {\\mathrm{\\mathbb{Z}}}_2^{\\prime...
Scale-setting, flavour dependence and chiral symmetry restoration
Binosi, Daniele; Rodriguez-Quintero, Jose
2016-01-01
We determine the flavour dependence of the renormalisation-group-invariant running interaction through judicious use of both unquenched Dyson-Schwinger equation and lattice results for QCD's gauge-sector two-point functions. An important step is the introduction of a physical scale setting procedure that enables a realistic expression of the effect of different numbers of active quark flavours on the interaction. Using this running interaction in concert with a well constrained class of dressed--gluon-quark vertices, we estimate the critical number of active lighter-quarks above which dynamical chiral symmetry breaking becomes impossible: $n_f^{\\rm cr}\\approx 9$; and hence in whose neighbourhood QCD is plausibly a conformal theory.
Flavour symmetries in a renormalizable SO(10) model
Ferreira, P M; Jurčiukonis, D; Lavoura, L
2015-01-01
In the context of a renormalizable supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Theory, we consider the fermion mass matrices generated by the Yukawa couplings to a $\\mathbf{10} \\oplus \\mathbf{120} \\oplus \\overline{\\mathbf{126}}$ representation of scalars. We perform a complete investigation of the possibilities of imposing flavour symmetries in this scenario; the purpose is to reduce the number of Yukawa coupling constants in order to identify potentially predictive models. We have found that there are only 14 inequivalent cases of Yukawa coupling matrices, out of which 13 cases are generated by $Z_n$ symmetries, with suitable $n$, and one case is generated by a $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ symmetry. A numerical analysis of the 14 cases reveals that only two of them---dubbed A and B in the present paper---allow good fits to the experimentally known fermion masses and mixings.
SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states
Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stüben, H; Zanotti, J M
2013-01-01
By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.
Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude
Chao Shi
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton distribution amplitude (PDA by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, FK/Fπ=1.23 at spacelike-Q2=17 GeV2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5 inferred in e+e− annihilation at s=17 GeV2.
The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements
Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry and Physics
2012-12-15
By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.
Improved staggered quark actions with reduced flavour symmetry violations for lattice QCD
Lagaë, J F
1999-01-01
We introduce a new class of actions for staggered quarks in lattice QCD which significantly reduce flavour symmetry violations in the pion mass spectrum. An action introduced by the MILC collaboration for the same purpose is seen to be a special case. We discus how such actions arise from a systematic attempt to reduce flavour symmetry violations in the weak coupling limit. It is shown that for quenched lattice QCD at 6/g^2=5.7, representative actions of this class give a considerable reduction in flavour symmetry violation over the standard staggered action, and a significant reduction over what is achieved by the MILC action.
Solving the SUSY flavour and CP problems with non-Abelian family symmetry and supergravity
Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sfk@hep.phys.soton.ac.uk; Malinsky, Michal [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: malinsky@phys.soton.ac.uk; Ross, Graham G. [The Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX13NP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.ross1@physics.ox.ac.uk
2009-01-05
Can a theory of flavour capable of describing the spectrum of fermion (including neutrino) masses and mixings also contain within it the seeds for a solution of the SUSY flavour and CP problems? We argue that supergravity together with a non-Abelian family symmetry can completely resolve the SUSY flavour and CP problems in a broad class of theories in which family symmetry and CP is spontaneously broken in the flavon sector. We show that a simple superpotential structure can suppress the F-terms of the flavons and GUT scale Higgs fields and that, if this mechanism is implemented, the resulting flavour and CP violation is suppressed and comfortably within the experimental limits. For illustration, we study a specific model based on SU(3) family symmetry, but similar models based on non-Abelian (continuous or discrete) family symmetry will lead to similar results.
Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry
Olschewsky, M.
2007-05-15
We study a five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs unification model on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} based on the extended standard model (SM) gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F}. The group SO(3){sub F} is treated as a chiral gauged flavour symmetry. Electroweak-, flavour- and Higgs interactions are unified in one single gauge group SU(7). The unified gauge group SU(7) is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} by orbifolding and imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The compactification scale of the theory is O(1) TeV. Furthermore, the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} is put on a lattice. This setting gives a well-defined staring point for renormalisation group (RG) transformations. As a result of the RG-flow, the bulk is integrated out and the extra dimension will consist of only two points: the orbifold fixed points. The model obtained this way is called an effective bilayered transverse lattice model. Parallel transporters (PT) in the extra dimension become nonunitary as a result of the blockspin transformations. In addition, a Higgs potential V({phi}) emerges naturally. The PTs can be written as a product e{sup A{sub y}}e{sup {eta}}e{sup A{sub y}} of unitary factors e{sup A{sub y}} and a selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. The reduction 48 {yields} 35 + 6 + anti 6 + 1 of the adjoint representation of SU(7) with respect to SU(6) contains SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} leads to three SU(2){sub L} Higgs doublets: one for the first, one for the second and one for the third generation. Their zero modes serve as a substitute for the SM Higgs. When the extended SM gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is spontaneously broken down to U(1){sub em}, an exponential gauge boson mass splitting occurs naturally. At a first step SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is broken to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} by VEVs for the selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. This breaking leads to masses of flavour changing SO(3){sub F
The Interplay Between GUT and Flavour Symmetries in a Pati-Salam x S4 Model
de Adelhart Toorop, Reinier; Merlo, Luca
2010-01-01
Both Grand Unified symmetries and discrete flavour symmetries are appealing ways to describe apparent structures in the gauge and flavour sectors of the Standard Model. Both symmetries put constraints on the high energy behaviour of the theory. This can give rise to unexpected interplay when building models that possess both symmetries. We investigate on the possibility to combine a Pati-Salam model with the discrete flavour symmetry $S_4$ that gives rise to quark-lepton complementarity. Under appropriate assumptions at the GUT scale, the model reproduces fermion masses and mixings both in the quark and in the lepton sectors. We show that in particular the Higgs sector and the running Yukawa couplings are strongly affected by the combined constraints of the Grand Unified and family symmetries. This in turn reduces the phenomenologically viable parameter space, with high energy mass scales confined to a small region and some parameters in the neutrino sector slightly unnatural. In the allowed regions, we can r...
Tri-Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing and Discrete Flavour Symmetries
Altarelli, Guido; Merlo, Luca
2013-01-01
We review the application of non-Abelian discrete groups to Tri-Bimaximal (TB) neutrino mixing, which is supported by experiment as a possible good first approximation to the data. After summarizing the motivation and the formalism, we discuss specific models, mainly those based on A4 but also on other finite groups, and their phenomenological implications, including the extension to quarks. The recent measurements of \\theta_13 favour versions of these models where a suitable mechanism leads to corrections to \\theta_13 that can naturally be larger than those to \\theta_12 and \\theta_23. The virtues and the problems of TB mixing models are discussed, also in connection with lepton flavour violating processes, and the different approaches are compared.
[Re]constructing Finite Flavour Groups: Horizontal Symmetry Scans from the Bottom-Up
Talbert, Jim
2014-01-01
We present a novel procedure for identifying discrete, leptonic flavour symmetries, given a class of unitary mixing matrices. By creating explicit 3D representations for generators of residual symmetries in both the charged lepton and neutrino sector, we reconstruct large(r) non-abelian flavour groups using the GAP language for computational finite algebra. We use experimental data to construct only those generators that yield acceptable (or preferable) mixing patterns. Such an approach is advantageous because it 1) can reproduce known groups from other 'top-down' scans while elucidating their origins from residuals, 2) find new previously unconsidered groups, and 3) serve as a powerful model building tool for theorists wishing to explore exotic flavour scenarios. We test our procedure on a generalization of the canonical tri-bimaximal (TBM) form.
Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours
Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2010-12-15
QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)
A see-saw scenario of an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model
Dinh, Dinh Nguyen; Văn, Phi Quang; Vân, Nguyen Thi Hông
2016-01-01
A see-saw scenario for an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model is presented. As before, the see-saw mechanism can be realized in several models of different types depending on different ways of neutrino mass generation corresponding to the introduction of new fields with different symmetry structures. In the present paper, a general desription of all these see-saw types is made with a more detailed investigation on type-I models. As within the original see-saw mechanism, the symmetry structure of the standard model fields decides the number and the symmetry structure of the new fields. In a model considered here, the scalar sector consists of three standard-model-Higgs-like iso-doublets ($SU_L(2)$-doublets) forming an $A_4$ triplet. The latter is a superposition of three mass-eigen states, one of which could be identified with the recently discovered Higgs boson. A possible relation to the still-deliberated 750 GeV diphoton resonance at the 13 TeV LHC collisions is also discussed. In the lepton sector, the ...
Split-Family SUSY, U(2)^5 Flavour Symmetry and Neutrino Physics
Jones-Pérez, Joel
2014-01-01
In split-family SUSY, one can use a U(2)^3 symmetry to protect flavour observables in the quark sector from SUSY contributions. However, attempts to extend this procedure to the lepton sector by using an analogous U(2)^5 symmetry fail to reproduce the neutrino data without introducing some form of fine-tuning. In this work, we solve this problem by shifting the U(2)^2 symmetry acting on leptons towards the second and third generations. This allows neutrino data to be reproduced without much difficulties, as well as protecting the leptonic flavour observables from SUSY. Key signatures are a $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ branching ratio possibly observable in the near future, as well as having selectrons as the lightest sleptons.
Weiler, A.
2007-01-16
We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)
$A_4$ symmetry at colliders and in the universe
Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Maurer, Vinzenz
2015-01-01
Two puzzling facts of our time are the observed patterns in the fermion masses and mixings and the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, which are both often associated with extensions of the Standard Model at higher energy scales. In this paper, we consider a solution to these two problems with the flavour symmetry ${\\mathbb A}_4\\times {\\mathbb Z}_2\\times {\\mathbb Z}_2^\\prime$, in a model which has been shown before to explain large leptonic mixings with a specific texture. The model contains 3 generations of $SU(2)_L$-doublet scalar fields, arranged as an ${\\mathbb A}_4$-triplet, that spontaneously break the electroweak symmetry, and a "dark sector" of ${\\mathbb Z}_2$-odd fields, containing one Majorana neutrino and an ${\\mathbb A}_4$-triplet $SU(2)_L$-doublet scalar field, the lightest of which provides a candidate for dark matter. Concerning the ${\\mathbb Z}_2$-even scalar fields, compared to the Standard Model, we predict additional fields with masses at the electroweak scale. We therefore investigate p...
An SU(5) grand unified model with discrete flavour symmetries
Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Schmidt, Iván
2014-01-01
We propose a model based on the $SU(5)$ grand unification with an extra $Z_{2}\\otimes Z_{2}^{\\prime}\\otimes Z_{2}^{\\prime \\prime}\\otimes Z_{4}\\otimes Z_{12}$ flavor symmetry, which successfully describes the observed SM fermion mass and mixing pattern. The observed quark mass and mixing pattern is caused by the $Z_{4}$ and $Z_{12}$ symmetries, which are broken at very high scale by the $SU(5)$ scalar singlets $\\sigma $ and $\\chi $, charged respectively under these symmetries and which acquire VEVs at the GUT scale. The light neutrino masses are generated via a type I seesaw mechanism with three heavy Majorana neutrinos. The model has in total 17 effective free parameters, from which 2 are fixed and 15 are fitted to reproduce the experimental values of the 18 physical parameters in the quark and lepton sectors. The model predictions for both quark and lepton sectors are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.
The interplay between grand unified and flavour symmetries in a Pati-Salam x S4 model
Toorop, Reinier de Adelhart
2010-01-01
Both discrete flavour symmetries and Grand Unified symmetries explain apparent structures in the mass sector of the Standard Model. A model that combines both symmetries is therefore very appealing. We construct a model with the $S_4$ flavour symmetry and the Pati-Salam unification. We show that this model can indeed explain many observable relations between the masses of the quarks and leptons and that it is predictive in the neutrino sector. However, the combination of the two symmetries leads to new complications in the Higgs sector and in the running of the renormalisation group equations.
Lepton mixing predictions including Majorana phases from Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry and generalised CP
Stephen F. King
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, Δ(6n2=(Zn×Zn⋊S3. In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. The Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or π. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where α21 can take several discrete values for each n and the Majorana phase α31 is a multiple of π. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the near future.
King, Stephen F
2014-01-01
Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, $\\Delta(6n^2)=(Z_n\\times Z_n)\\rtimes S_3$. In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. $\\Delta(6n^2)$ flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or $\\pi$. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where $\\alpha_{21}$ can take several discrete values for each $n$ and the Majorana phase $\\alpha_{31}$ is a multiple of $\\pi$. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the...
The S{sub 3} flavour symmetry: Neutrino masses and mixings
Gonzalez Canales, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Mondragon, A.; Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)
2013-04-02
In this work, we discuss the neutrino masses and mixings as the realization of an S{sub 3} flavour permutational symmetry in two models, namely the Standard Model and an extension of the Standard Model with three Higgs doublets. In the S{sub 3} Standard Model, mass matrices of the same generic form are obtained for the neutrino and charged leptons when the S{sub 3} flavour symmetry is broken sequentially according to the chain S{sub 3L} x S{sub 3R} contains S{sub 3}{sup diag} contains S{sub 2}. In the minimal S{sub 3}-symmetric extension of the Standard Model, the S{sub 3} symmetry is left unbroken, and the concept of flavour is extended to the Higgs sector by introducing in the theory three Higgs fields which are SU(2) doublets. In both models, the mass matrices of the neutrinos and charged leptons are reparametrized in terms of their eigenvalues, and exact, explicit analytical expressions for the neutrino mixing angles as functions of the masses of neutrinos and charged leptons are obtained. In the case of the S{sub 3} Standard Model, from a {chi}{sup 2} fit of the theoretical expressions of the lepton mixing matrix to the values extracted from experiment, the numerical values of the neutrino mixing angles are obtained in excellent agreement with experimental data. In the S{sub 3} extension of the Standard Model, if two of the right handed neutrinos masses are degenerate, the reactor and atmospheric mixing angles are determined by the masses of the charged leptons, yielding {theta}{sub 23} in excellent agreement with experimental data, and {theta}{sub 13} different from zero but very small. If the masses of the three right handed neutrinos are assumed to be different, then it is possible to get {theta}{sub 13}also in very good agreement with experimental data. We also show the branching ratios of some selected flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) process as well as the contribution of the exchange of a neutral flavour changing scalar to the anomaly of the
Analysis on B→VV with the Flavour SU (3) Symmetry
LIU Shao-Min; JIN Hong-Ying; LI Xue-Qian
2008-01-01
It is noted that the rescattering and annihilation effects are significant in the penguin-dominant B→VV decays. In this work, we suggest to use a unique operator at the quark level to describe all the rescattering and the penguin-induced annihilation effects in B→φK*, and the coefficient of the operator depends on the polarizations of the produced mesons. By the flavour SU(3) symmetry, we apply the same scenario to all the penguin-dominant B→VV modes.
Precision measurements of {\\theta}12 for testing models of discrete leptonic flavour symmetries
Ballett, Peter; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A
2014-01-01
Models of leptonic flavour with discrete symmetries can provide an attractive explanation of the pattern of elements found in the leptonic mixing matrix. The next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments will allow the mixing parameters to be tested to a new level of precision, crucially measuring the CP violating phase {\\delta} for the first time. In this contribution, we present results of a systematic survey of the predictions of a class of models based on residual discrete symmetries and the prospects for excluding such models at medium- and long-term oscillation experiments. We place particular emphasis on the complementary role that a future circa 50 km reactor experiment, e.g. JUNO, can play in constraining these models.
Mass textures and wolfenstein parameters from breaking the flavour permutational symmetry
Mondragon, A; Rivera, T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico,Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Jauregui, E. [Deutsches Elekronen-Synchrotron, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2001-12-01
We will give an overview of recent progress in the phenomenological study of quark mass matrices, quark flavour mixings and CP-violation with emphasis on the possibility of an underlying discrete, flavour permutational symmetry and its breaking, from which realistic models of mass generation could be built. The quark mixing angles and CP-violating phase, as well as the Wolfenstein parameters are given in terms of four quark mass ratios and only two parameters (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) characterizing the symmetry breaking pattern. Excellent agreement with all current experimental data is found. [Spanish] Daremos una visita panoramica del progreso reciente en el estudio fenomenologico de las matrices de masas y de mezclas del sabor de los quarks y la violacion de PC, con enfasis en la posibilidad de que, subyacentes al problema, se halle una simetria discreta, permutacional del sabor y su rompimiento a partir de las cuales se puedan construir modelos realistas de la generacion de las masas. Los angulos de mezcla de los quarks y la fase que viola CP, asi como los parametros de Wolfenstein se dan en terminos de cuatro razones de masas de los quarks y solamente dos parametros (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) que caracterizan el patron del rompimiento de la simetria. Los resultados se encuentran en excelente acuerdo con todos los datos experimentales mas recientes.
Bietenholz, W. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2011-02-15
QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the up-down quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, first for the general 1+1+1 flavour case and then for the 2+1 flavour case (when two quark flavours are mass degenerate). These enable highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results for the 2+1 flavour case confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. Singlet quantities remain constant which allows the lattice spacing to be determined from hadron masses (without necessarily being at the physical point). Furthermore an extension of this programme to include partially quenched results is also given. (orig.)
Discrete flavour symmetries for degenerate solar neutrino pair and their predictions
Joshipura, Anjan S
2014-01-01
Flavour symmetries appropriate for describing a neutrino spectrum with degenerate solar pair and a third massive or massless neutrino are discussed. We demand that the required residual symmetries of the leptonic mass matrices be subgroups of some discrete symmetry group $G_f$. $G_f$ can be a subgroup of SU(3) if the third neutrino is massive and we derive general results on the mixing angle predictions for various discrete subgroups of SU(3). The main results are: (a) All the SU(3) subgroups of type C fail in simultaneously giving correct $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\theta_{23}$. (b) All the groups of type D can predict a relation $\\cos^2\\theta_{13} \\sin^2\\theta_{23}=\\frac{1}{3}$ among the mixing angles which appears to be a good zeroth order approximation. Among these, various $\\Delta(6n^2)$ groups with $n\\geq 8$ can simultaneously lead also to $\\sin^2 \\theta_{13}$ in agreement with global fit at 3$\\sigma$. (c) The group $\\Sigma(168)\\cong PSL(2,7)$ predicts near to the best fit value for $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\theta_{2...
One-loop corrections to the Fermion masses and flavour symmetries
Grimus, Walter; Loeschner, Maximilian [Particle Physics Group, University of Vienna (Austria); Ludl, Patrick [SHEP, University of South Hampton (United Kingdom)
2016-07-01
Extensions of the Standard Model which explain non-vanishing neutrino masses and some of the peculiar features of the lepton mixing matrix by flavour symmetries always lead to a proliferation of scalars in the model. Then, the relation between Yukawa couplings and fermions in general involves several vacuum expectation values. It is therefore expedient to devise a renormalization procedure which is adapted to this situation. In this talk, we will present first results of an ongoing PhD project on one-loop corrections to fermion masses in a toy model featuring an arbitrary number of Majorana or Dirac fermions and scalar fields, testing the stability of tree level predictions and keeping focus on the renormalization of the vacuum expectation values. This can serve as a preliminary study of the radiative generation of the neutrino masses in explicit physical models, like the so called Scotogenic Model which will also be discussed in this talk.
King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk; Neder, Thomas, E-mail: T.Neder@soton.ac.uk
2014-09-07
Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, Δ(6n{sup 2})=(Z{sub n}×Z{sub n})⋊S{sub 3}. In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. The Δ(6n{sup 2}) flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or π. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where α{sub 21} can take several discrete values for each n and the Majorana phase α{sub 31} is a multiple of π. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the near future.
Phenomenology of Dark Matter from A4 Flavor Symmetry
Boucenna, M S; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Taoso, M; Valle, J W F
2011-01-01
We investigate a model in which Dark Matter is stabilized by means of a Z2 parity that results from the same non-abelian discrete avor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino mixing. In our A4 example the standard model is extended by three extra Higgs doublets and the Z2 parity emerges as a remnant of the spontaneous breaking of A4 after electroweak symmetry breaking. We perform an analysis of the parameter space of the model consistent with electroweak precision tests, collider searches and perturbativity. We determine the regions compatible with the observed relic dark matter density and we present prospects for detection in direct as well as indirect Dark Matter search experiments.
The A4 flavor symmetry and neutrino phenomenology
Brahmachari, Biswajoy; Mitra, Manimala
2008-01-01
It has been shown that tribimaximal mixing can be obtained by some particular breaking pattern of the $A_4$ symmetry, wherein the extra $A_4$ triplet Higgs scalars pick up certain fixed VEV alignments. We have performed a detailed analysis of the different possible neutrino mass matrices within the framework of the $A_4$ model. We take into account all possible singlet and triplet Higgs scalars which leave the Lagrangian invariant under $A_4$. We break $A_4$ spontaneously, allowing the Higgs to take any VEV in general. We show that the neutrino mixing matrix deviates from tribimaximal, both due the presence of the extra Higgs singlets, as well as from the deviation of the triplet Higgs VEV from its desired alignment, taken previously. We solve the eigenvalue problem for a variety of these exemplary cases and identify the ones where one obtains exact tribimaximal mixing. All such cases require fine tuning. We show which neutrino mass matrices would be strongly disfavored by the current neutrino data. Finally, ...
Flavour, Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and Dark Matter: state of the art and future prospects
Ricciardi, Giulia; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carmona, Adrian; Dermisek, Radovan; Huber, Tobias; Hurth, Tobias; Grossman, Yuval; Kersten, Joern; Lunghi, Enrico; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Masiero, Antonio; Neubert, Matthias; Shepherd, William; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2015-01-01
With the discovery of the Higgs boson the Standard Model has become a complete and comprehensive theory, which has been verified with unparalleled precision and in principle might be valid at all scales. However, several reasons remain why we firmly believe that there should be physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments such as the LHC, new $B$ factories, and earth- and space-based astro-particle experiments provide us with unique opportunities to discover a coherent framework for many of the long-standing puzzles of our field. Here we explore several significant interconnections between the physics of the Higgs boson, the physics of flavour, and the experimental clues we have about dark matter.
Borah, Manikanta; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Patra, Sudhanwa
2014-01-01
We study the possibility of generating non-zero reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by perturbing the $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix. The leading order $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix originates from type I seesaw mechanism whereas the perturbations to $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry originate from type II seesaw term. We consider four different realizations of $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry: Bimaximal Mixing(BM), Tri-bimaximal Mixing (TBM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM) all giving rise to $\\theta_{13} = 0, \\theta_{23} = \\frac{\\pi}{4}$ but different non-zero values of solar mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$. We assume a minimal $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry breaking type II seesaw mass matrix as a perturbation and calculate the neutrino oscillation parameters as a function of type II seesaw strength. We then consider the origin of non-trivial leptonic CP phase in the charged lepton sector and calculate the lepton asymmetry arising from the lightest right handed neutrino decay by incorporating the presence o...
Charge symmetry breaking in the A=4 hypernuclei
Gazda, Daniel
2016-01-01
Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the $\\Lambda$-nucleon strong interaction generates a charge dependence of $\\Lambda$ separation energies in mirror hypernuclei, which in the case of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei $0^+$ ground states is sizable, $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}\\equiv B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda} (_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm He})-B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm H})=230\\pm 90$~keV, and of opposite sign to that induced by the Coulomb repulsion in light hypernuclei. Recent {\\it ab initio} calculations of the (\\lamb{4}{H}, \\lamb{4}{He}) mirror hypernuclei $0^+_{\\rm g.s.}$ and $1^+_{\\rm exc}$ levels have demonstrated that a $\\Lambda - \\Sigma^0$ mixing CSB model due to Dalitz and von Hippel (1964) is capable of reproducing this large value of $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}$. These calculations are discussed here with emphasis placed on the leading-order $\\chi$EFT hyperon-nucleon strong-interaction Bonn-J\\"{u}lich model used and the no-core shell-model calculational scheme applied. The role of one-pion exchange in producing sizable C...
Pascoli, Silvia
2016-01-01
In leptonic flavour models with discrete flavour symmetries, couplings between flavons and leptons can result in special flavour structures after they gain vacuum expectation values. At the same time, they can also contribute to the other lepton-flavour-violating processes. We study the flavon-induced LFV 3-body charged lepton decays and radiative decays and we take as example the $A_4$ discrete symmetry. In $A_4$ models, a $Z_3$ residual symmetry roughly holds in the charged lepton sector for the realisation of tri-bimaximal mixing at leading order. The only processes allowed by this symmetry are $\\tau^-\\to \\mu^+ e^- e^-, e^+ \\mu^- \\mu^-$, and the other 3-body and all radiative decays are suppressed by small $Z_3$-breaking effects. These processes also depend on the representation the flavon is in, whether pseudo-real (case i) or complex (case ii). We calculate the decay rates for all processes for each case and derive their strong connection with lepton flavour mixing. In case i, sum rules for the branching...
S.T. Petcov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U=Ue†Uν, where Ue and Uν result from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we consider a number of forms of Uν associated with a variety of discrete symmetries: i bimaximal (BM and ii tri-bimaximal (TBM forms, the forms corresponding iii to the conservation of the lepton charge L′=Le−Lμ−Lτ (LC, iv to golden ratio type A (GRA mixing, v to golden ratio type B (GRB mixing, and vi to hexagonal (HG mixing. Employing the minimal form of Ue, in terms of angles and phases it contains, that can provide the requisite corrections to Uν so that reactor, atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing angles θ13, θ23 and θ12 have values compatible with the current data, including a possible sizable deviation of θ23 from π/4, we discuss the possibility to obtain predictions for the CP violation phases in the neutrino mixing matrix. Considering the “standard ordering” of the 12 and the 23 rotations in Ue and following the approach developed in [1] we derive predictions for the Dirac phase δ and the rephasing invariant JCP in the cases of GRA, GRB and HG forms of Uν (results for the TBM and BM (LC forms were obtained in [1]. We show also that under rather general conditions within the scheme considered the values of the Majorana phases in the PMNS matrix can be predicted for each of the forms of Uν discussed. We give examples of these predictions and of their implications for neutrinoless double beta decay. In the GRA, GRB and HG cases, as in the TBM one, relatively large CP violation effects in neutrino oscillations are predicted (|JCP|∼(0.031–0.034. Distinguishing between the TBM, BM (LC, GRA, GRB and HG forms of Uν requires a measurement of cosδ or a relatively high precision measurement of JCP.
Non-minimally flavour violating dark matter
Blanke, Monika
2015-01-01
Flavour symmetries provide an appealing mechanism to stabilize the dark matter particle. I present a simple model of quark flavoured dark matter that goes beyond the framework of minimal flavour violation. I discuss the phenomenological implications for direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, high energy collider searches as well as flavour violating precision data.
Discrete Flavour Groups, \\theta_13 and Lepton Flavour Violation
Altarelli, Guido; Merlo, Luca; Stamou, Emmanuel
2012-01-01
Discrete flavour groups have been studied in connection with special patterns of neutrino mixing suggested by the data, such as Tri-Bimaximal mixing (groups A4, S4...) or Bi-Maximal mixing (group S4...) etc. We review the predictions for sin(\\theta_13) in a number of these models and confront them with the experimental measurements. We compare the performances of the different classes of models in this respect. We then consider, in a supersymmetric framework, the important implications of these flavour symmetries on lepton flavour violating processes, like \\mu -> e gamma and similar processes. We discuss how the existing limits constrain these models, once their parameters are adjusted so as to optimize the agreement with the measured values of the mixing angles. In the simplified CMSSM context, adopted here just for indicative purposes, the small tan(beta) range and heavy SUSY mass scales are favoured by lepton flavour violating processes, which makes it even more difficult to reproduce the reported muon g-2...
A to Z of Flavour with Pati-Salam
King, Stephen F
2014-01-01
We propose an elegant theory of flavour based on $A_4\\times Z_5$ family symmetry with Pati-Salam unification which provides an excellent description of quark and lepton masses, mixing and CP violation. The $A_4$ symmetry unifies the left-handed families and its vacuum alignment determines the columns of Yukawa matrices. The $Z_5$ symmetry distinguishes the right-handed families and its breaking controls CP violation in both the quark and lepton sectors. The Pati-Salam symmetry relates the quark and lepton Yukawa matrices, with $Y^u=Y^{\
Urbano, Alfredo
2009-01-01
The introduction of a Flavour Symmetry can represent an interesting way in which one can try to find an answer to some intriguing problems in Flavour Physics, like the hierarchy between the fermion masses or the particular values of mixing angles. In the meantime the necessity to set this symmetry in a realistic context grows up; this context should be able to enlarge our incomplete knowledge of fundamental interactions as described in the framework of the Standard Model. Following this direction a merging between A(4) and SU(5) can be possible.
Boika, T; Polyakov, M V
2014-01-01
We study the implications of the flavour SU(3) symmetry for various interpretations of the neutron anomaly in the $\\gamma N\\to\\eta N$ cross section. We show that the explanation of the neutron anomaly due to interference of known N(1535) and N(1650) resonances implies that N(1650) resonance should have a huge coupling to $\\phi$-meson -- at least 5 times larger than the corresponding $\\rho^0$ coupling. In terms of quark degrees of freedom this means that the well-known N(1650) resonance must be a "cryptoexotic pentaquark"-- its wave function should contain predominantly an $s\\bar s$ component. It turns out that the "conventional" interpretation of the neutron anomaly by the interference of known resonances metamorphoses into unconventional physics picture of N(1650).
A4 and CP symmetry and a model with maximal CP violation
Li, Cai-Chang; Lu, Jun-Nan; Ding, Gui-Jun
2016-12-01
We study a second CP symmetry compatible with the A4 flavor group, which interchanges the representations 1‧ and 1″. We analyze the lepton mixing patterns arising from the A4 and CP symmetry broken to residual subgroups Z3 and Z2 × CP in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors respectively. One phenomenologically viable mixing pattern is found, and it predicts maximal atmospheric mixing angle as well as maximal Dirac CP phase, trivial Majorana phases and the correlation sin2 θ12cos2 θ13 = 1 / 3. We construct a concrete model based on the A4 and CP symmetry, the above interesting mixing pattern is achieved, the observed charged lepton mass hierarchy is reproduced, and the reactor mixing angle θ13 is of the correct order.
$A_4$ and CP symmetry and a model with maximal CP violation
Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun
2016-01-01
We study a second CP symmetry compatible with the $A_4$ flavor group, which interchanges the representations $\\mathbf{1}'$ and $\\mathbf{1}"$. We analyze the lepton mixing patterns arising from the $A_4$ and CP symmetry broken to residual subgroups $Z_3$ and $Z_2\\times CP$ in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors respectively. One phenomenologically viable mixing pattern is found, and it predicts maximal atmospheric mixing angle as well as maximal Dirac CP phase, trivial Majorana phase and the correlation $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}\\cos^2\\theta_{13}=1/3$. We construct a concrete model based on the $A_4$ and CP symmetry, the above interesting mixing pattern is achieved, the observed charged lepton mass hierarchy is reproduced, and the reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is of the correct order.
Neutrino Masses from an A4 Symmetry in Holographic Composite Higgs Models
del Aguila, Francisco; Santiago, Jose
2010-01-01
We show that holographic composite Higgs Models with a discrete A4 symmetry naturally predict hierarchical charged lepton masses and an approximate tri-bimaximal lepton mixing with the correct scale of neutrino masses. They also satisfy current constraints from electroweak precision tests, lepton flavor violation and lepton mixing in a large region of parameter space. Two phenomenologically relevant features arise in these models. First, an extra suppression on the lepton Yukawa couplings makes the tau lepton more composite than naively expected from its mass. As a consequence new light leptonic resonances, with masses as low as few hundreds of GeV, large couplings to tau and a very characteristic collider phenomenology, are quite likely. Second, the discrete symmetry A4 together with the model structure provide a double-layer of flavor protection that allows to keep tree-level mediated processes below present experimental limits. One-loop processes violating lepton flavor, like mu -> e gamma, may be however ...
Constraining Type I Seesaw with $A_4$ Flavor Symmetry From Neutrino Data and Leptogenesis
Kalita, Rupam
2015-01-01
We study a type I seesaw model of neutrino masses within the framework of $A_4$ flavor symmetry. Incorporating the presence of both singlet and triplet flavons under $A_4$ symmetry, we construct the leptonic mass matrices involved in type I seesaw mechanism. We then construct the light neutrino mass matrix using the $3\\sigma$ values of neutrino oscillation parameters keeping the presently undetermined parameters namely, the lightest neutrino mass $m_{\\text{lightest}}$, one Dirac CP phase $\\delta$ and two Majorana phases $\\alpha, \\beta$ as free parameters. Comparing the mass matrices derived using $A_4$ parameters as well as light neutrino parameters, we then evaluate all the $A_4$ parameters in terms of light neutrino parameters. Assuming some specific vacuum alignments of $A_4$ triplet flavon field, we then numerically evaluate all the free parameters in the light neutrino sector, using which we also find out the remaining $A_4$ parameters. We then use the numerical values of these parameters to calculate ba...
New and trivial C P symmetry for extended A4 flavor
Nishi, C. C.
2016-05-01
The combination of νμ-ντ exchange together with C P conjugation in the neutrino sector (known as CPμ τ symmetry or μ τ reflection) is known to predict the viable pattern θ23=4 5 ° , a maximal Dirac C P phase, and trivial Majorana phases. We implement such a C P symmetry as a new C P symmetry in theories with A4 flavor. The implementation in a complete renormalizable model leads to a new form for the neutrino mass matrix that leads to further predictions: a normal hierarchical spectrum with a lightest mass and mβ β (0 ν 2 β ) of only few meV, and either ν1 or ν2 has opposite C P parity. An approximate Lμ-Lτ symmetry arises naturally and controls the flavor structure of the model. The light neutrino masses are generated by the extended seesaw mechanism with six right-handed neutrinos (RHNs). The requirement of negligible one-loop corrections to light neutrino masses, the validity of the extended seesaw approximation, and not too long-lived beyond-the-Standard-Model states to comply with big bang nucleosynthesis essentially restricts the parameters of the model to a small region: three relatively light right-handed neutrinos at the GeV scale, heavier neutrinos at the electroweak scale, and Yukawa couplings smaller than the electron Yukawa. Such small Yukawa couplings render these RHNs unobservable in terrestrial experiments.
Nonzero theta(13) for neutrino mixing in the context of A(4) symmetry
Ma, Ernest
2011-01-01
In the original 2004 paper which first derived tribimaximal mixing in the context of A(4), i.e. the non-Abelian finite symmetry group of the tetrahedron (Plato's fire), as its simplest application, it was also pointed out how theta(13) nonzero may be accommodated. On the strength of the new T2K result that 0.03 (0.04) < sin^2 2 theta(13) < 0.28 (0.34) for delta(CP)=0 and normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy, we perform a more detailed analysis of how this original idea may be realized in the context of A(4).
The role of flavon cross couplings in leptonic flavour mixing
Pascoli, Silvia
2016-01-01
In models with discrete flavour symmetries, flavons are critical to realise specific flavour structures. Leptonic flavour mixing originates from the misalignment of flavon vacuum expectation values which respect different residual symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Flavon cross couplings are usually forbidden, in order to protect these symmetries. Contrary to this approach, we show that cross couplings can play a key role and give raise to necessary corrections to flavour-mixing patterns, including a non-zero value for the reactor angle and CP violation. For definiteness, we present two models based on $A_4$. In the first model, all flavons are assumed to be real or pseudo-real, with 7 real degrees of freedom in the flavon sector in total. A sizable reactor angle associated with nearly maximal CP violation is achieved, and, as both originate from the same cross coupling, a sum rule results with a precise prediction for the value of the Dirac CP-violating phase. In the second model, the fla...
Neutrino and Changed Lepton Flavour Today
Alonso, R.; Hernandez, D.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.
2013-01-01
Flavour physics is a priceless window on physics beyond the Standard Model. In particular, flavour violation in the lepton sector looks very promising, as high precision measurements are prospected in future experiments investigating on $\\mu\\rightarrow e$ conversion in atomic nuclei: the predictions for this observable are analysed in the context of the type I Seesaw mechanism. Furthermore, new ideas to explain the Flavour Puzzle recently appeared, mainly based on a possible dynamical origin of the Yukawa couplings and on flavour symmetries. The focus of this proceeding will be set on the Minimal Flavour Violation ansatz and on the role of the neutrino Majorana character: when an $O(2)_{N}$ flavour symmetry acts on the right-handed neutrino sector, the minimum of the scalar potential allows for large mixing angles -in contrast to the simplest quark case- and predicts a maximal Majorana phase. This leads to a strong correlation between neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing pattern.
Non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and CP violation in a model with $A_4$ flavor symmetry
Ahn, Y H
2012-01-01
Motivated by $5.2\\sigma$ observation of non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ from the Daya Bay experiment, we propose a renormalizable neutrino model with $A_4$ discrete symmetry accounting for deviations from the tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing pattern of neutrino mixing matrix indicated by neutrino oscillation data. In the model, the light neutrino masses can be generated by radiative corrections, and we show how the light neutrino mass matrix can be diagonalized by the PMNS mixing matrix whose entries are determined by the current neutrino data including the Daya Bay result. We show that the origin of the deviations from the TBM mixing is non-degeneracy of the neutrino Yukawa coupling constants, and unremovable CP phases in the neutrino Yukawa matrix give rise to the low energy CP violation measurable from neutrino oscillation as well as high energy CP violation required for leptogenesis.
Running Effects on Lepton Mixing Angles in Flavour Models with Type I Seesaw
Lin, Y; Paris, A
2009-01-01
We study renormalization group running effects on neutrino mixing patterns when a (type I) seesaw model is implemented by suitable flavour symmetries. We are particularly interested in mass-independent mixing patterns to which the widely studied tribimaximal mixing pattern belongs. In this class of flavour models, the running contribution from neutrino Yukawa coupling, which is generally dominant at energies above the seesaw threshold, can be absorbed by a small shift on neutrino mass eigenvalues leaving mixing angles unchanged. Consequently, in the whole running energy range, the change in mixing angles is due to the contribution coming from charged lepton sector. Subsequently, we analyze in detail these effects in an explicit flavour model for tribimaximal neutrino mixing based on an A4 discrete symmetry group. We find that for normally ordered light neutrinos, the tribimaximal prediction is essentially stable under renormalization group evolution. On the other hand, in the case of inverted hierarchy, the d...
奎斯特国际有限公司
2004-01-01
@@ A good flavour must taste realistic and natural as well as performing under tough conditions, says Mairi Coia. In conjunction with texture or mouthfeel, flavour is the most important aspect of food. It is the one thing can bring consumers back to a product again and again - or not, as the case may be. In short, taste is the number one attribute in food and that is why the global fiavour business is worth A5 billion every year as manufacturers strive to make food taste better and fresher for longer.
Ciafaloni, Paolo; Torrente-Lujan, Emilio; Urbano, Alfredo
2009-01-01
We address the problem of rationalizing the pattern of fermion masses and mixings by adding a nonabelian flavor symmetry in a grand unified framework. With this purpose, we include an A4 flavor symmetry into a unified renormalizable SUSY GUT SU(5) model. With the help of the "Type II Seesaw" mechanism we are able to obtain the pattern of observed neutrino mixings in a natural way, through the so called tribimaximal matrix.
Search for Charged Lepton Flavour Violation at CMS
Mukherjee, Swagata
2017-01-01
Lepton flavour is a conserved quantity in the standard model of particle physics, but it does not follow from an underlying gauge symmetry. After the discovery of neutrino oscillation, it has been established that lepton flavour is not conserved in the neutral sector. Thus the lepton sector is an excellent place to look for New Physics, and in this perspective the Charged Lepton Flavour Violation is interesting. Various extensions of the standard model predict lepton flavour violating decays that can be observed at LHC. This talk presents several searches for lepton flavour violation with data collected by the CMS detector.
Lepton Flavour Violation in Composite Higgs Models
Feruglio, Ferruccio; Pattori, Andrea
2015-01-01
We discuss in detail the constraints on partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In a first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well-above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sectors mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged lepton...
Aspects of Leptonic Flavour Mixing
Feruglio, Ferruccio
2016-01-01
Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations many ideas have been put forward to explain the special features of the leptonic mixing and the differences with respect to the quark sector. In this talk I review some of these proposals, emphasizing especially their predictability. In the light of the new data, I first revisit fixed-point relations among mixing angles and phases. Then I briefly comment on radiative neutrino masses. Finally I discuss the role of flavour symmetries. Given the very many existing models I focus on two classes of models. On the one hand I illustrate the ability of models based on a generalization of the anarchy idea in reproducing the main features of both the quark and the lepton spectrum, also in a GUT framework. On the other hand I discuss less ambitious but more predictive models based on discrete flavour symmetries, centered on the properties of the leptonic mixing matrix.
Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification
Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven
1998-01-01
We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.
Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models
King, Stephen F
2009-01-01
We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); King, Stephen F. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-03-31
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z{sub 2} in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S{sub 4} flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Ciafaloni, Paolo; Torrente-Lujan, Emilio; Urbano, Alfredo
2009-01-01
We analyze all possible extensions of the recently proposed minimal renormalizable SUSY SU(5) grand unified model with the inclusion of an additional A4 flavor symmetry. We find that there are 5 possible Cases but only one of them is phenomenologically interesting. We develop in detail such Case and we show how the fermion masses and mixing angles come out. As prediction we obtain the neutrino masses of order of 0.1 eV with an inverted hierarchy.
Neutrinos Masses in a Multi-Higgs Model with A4 symmetry
Machado, A. C. B.; Montero, J. C.; Pleitez, V.
2012-08-01
Presently it is well known that neutrino oscillation data are well described by massive neutrinos and their mixing. This suggests changes in the standard model (SM) and makes the flavor physics even more interesting. Recently, it has been proposed a multi-Higgs extension of the SM with Abelian and non-Abelian discrete symmetries which seeks to explain the origin of the masses and mixing matrices in all charge sectors.
Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity
Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.
2012-01-01
We study the extension of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis to the MSSM without R-parity. The novelty of our approach lies in the observation that supersymmetry enhances the global symmetry of the kinetic term and in the fact that we consider as irreducible sources of the flavour...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...
Wen, Zhenchao; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Furubayashi, Takao; Koo, Jungwoo; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji; Hadorn, Jason Paul; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro
2014-10-08
A 4-fold-symmetry hexagonal Ru emerging in epitaxial MgO/Ru/Co2 FeAl/MgO heterostructures is reported, in which an approximately Ru(022¯3) growth attributes to the lattice matching between MgO, Ru, and Co2 FeAl. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co2 FeAl/MgO interface is substantially enhanced. The magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) incorporating this structure give rise to the largest tunnel magnetoresistance for perpendicular MTJs using low damping Heusler alloys.
Linear flavour violation and anomalies in B physics
Gripaios, Ben; Renner, S A
2015-01-01
We propose renormalizable models of new physics that can explain various anomalies observed in decays of B-mesons to electron and muon pairs. The new physics states couple to linear combinations of Standard Model fermions, yielding a pattern of flavour violation that gives a consistent fit to the gamut of flavour data. Accidental symmetries prevent contributions to baryon- and lepton-number-violating processes, as well as enforcing a loop suppression of new physics contributions to flavour violating processes. Data require that the new flavour-breaking couplings are largely aligned with the Yukawa couplings of the SM and so we also explore patterns of flavour symmetry breaking giving rise to this structure.
Constraining multi-Higgs flavour models
Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Silva, Joao P. [Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa-ISEL, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Ivanov, I.P. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Liege (Belgium); Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent (Belgium); Nishi, C.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Serodio, Hugo [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Burjassot (Spain)
2014-07-15
To study a flavour model with a non-minimal Higgs sector one must first define the symmetries of the fields; then identify what types of vacua exist and how they may break the symmetries; and finally determine whether the remnant symmetries are compatible with the experimental data. Here we address all these issues in the context of flavour models with any number of Higgs doublets. We stress the importance of analysing the Higgs vacuum expectation values that are pseudo-invariant under the generators of all subgroups. It is shown that the only way of obtaining a physical CKM mixing matrix and, simultaneously, non-degenerate and non-zero quark masses is requiring the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields to break completely the full flavour group, except possibly for some symmetry belonging to baryon number. The application of this technique to some illustrative examples, such as the flavour groups Δ(27), A{sub 4} and S{sub 3}, is also presented. (orig.)
Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models
Feruglio, Ferruccio, E-mail: feruglio@pd.infn.it; Paradisi, Paride, E-mail: paride.paradisi@pd.infn.it [Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘G. Galilei’, INFN, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea, E-mail: pattori@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)
2015-12-08
We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ→e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis.
Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models
Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland)
2015-12-15
We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ → e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis. (orig.) 7.
Fong, Chee Sheng
2008-01-01
We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total $B-L$ asymmetry can be up to a factor ${\\cal O}(30)$ larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.
Lepton flavour violating processes in an S_3-symmetric model
Mondragón, A; Peinado, E
2008-01-01
A variety of lepton flavour violating effects related to the recent discovery of neutrino oscillations and mixings is here systematically discussed in terms of an S_3-flavour permutational symmetry. After presenting some relevant results on lepton masses and mixings, previously derived in a minimal S_3-invariant extension of the Standard Model, we compute the branching ratios of some selected flavour-changing neutral current processes (FCNC) as well as the contribution of the exchange of neutral flavour-changing scalar to the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the muon. We found that the minimal S_3-invariant extension of the Standard Model describes successfully masses and mixings, as well as, all flavour changing neutral current processes in excellent agreement with experiment.
A T' Flavour Model for Fermions and its Phenomenology
Merlo, Luca
2011-01-01
We present a supersymmetric flavour model based on the T' discrete group, which explains fermion masses and mixings. The flavour symmetry, acting in the supersymmetric sector, provides well defined sfermion mass matrices and the resulting supersymmetric spectrum accounts for sufficiently light particles that could be seen at LHC. Furthermore, several contributions to FCNC processes are present and they can be useful to test the model in the present and future experiments. We will review the main results for both leptons and quarks.
Neutrino phenomenology and scalar Dark Matter with A4 flavor symmetry in Inverse and type II seesaw
Mukherjee, Ananya; Das, Mrinal Kumar
2016-12-01
We present a TeV scale seesaw mechanism for exploring the dark matter and neutrino phenomenology in the light of recent neutrino and cosmology data. A different realization of the Inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism with A4 flavor symmetry is being implemented as a leading contribution to the light neutrino mass matrix which usually gives rise to vanishing reactor mixing angle θ13. Using a non-diagonal form of Dirac neutrino mass matrix and 3σ values of mass square differences we parameterize the neutrino mass matrix in terms of Dirac Yukawa coupling "y". We then use type II seesaw as a perturbation which turns out to be active to have a non-vanishing reactor mixing angle without much disturbing the other neutrino oscillation parameters. Then we constrain a common parameter space satisfying the non-zero θ13, Yukawa coupling and the relic abundance of dark matter. Contributions of neutrinoless double beta decay are also included for standard as well as non-standard interaction. This study may have relevance in future neutrino and Dark Matter experiments.
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
Chen, Peng; King, Stephen F
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved $Z_2$ in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the $R$-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example,...
Flavour effects in Resonant Leptogenesis from semi-classical and Kadanoff-Baym approaches
Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele
2015-01-01
Flavour effects play an important role in the statistical evolution of particle number densities in several particle physics phenomena. We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena, in order to consistently capture all flavour effects in the system. We explicitly study the scenario of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL), and show that flavour covariance requires one to consider generically off-diagonal number densities, rank-4 rate tensors in flavour space, and non-trivial generalization of the discrete symmetries C, P and T. The flavour-covariant transport equations, obtained in our semi-classical framework, describe the effects of three relevant physical phenomena: coherent heavy-neutrino oscillations, quantum decoherence in the charged-lepton sector, and resonant CP violation due to heavy-neutrino mixing. We show quantitatively that the final asymmetry is enhanced by up to an order of magnitude, for electroweak-scale heavy neutrinos, as compared to that obtained from flavour-diagonal or pa...
Grabalosa Gandara, M
2009-01-01
To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.
Pillot, Philippe
2008-01-01
Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels
Albrecht, Michaela E.
2010-08-16
The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work
Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.
2016-12-22
The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.
Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm
Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex
2016-10-01
Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.
Flavour physics and CP violation
Nir, Y
2010-01-01
This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in particle theory/string theory/particle experiment familiar with the basics of the Standard Model. We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavour physics. We describe flavour physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi- Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavour physics for new physics. We emphasize the “new physics flavour puzzle”. As an explicit example, we explain how the recent measurements ofD0−D 0 mixing constrain the supersymmetric flavour structure. We explain how the ATLAS and CMS experiments can solve the new physics flavour puzzle and perhaps shed light on the standard model flavour puzzle. Finally, we describe various interpretations of the neutrino flavour data and their impact on flavour models.
Leptonic Dirac CP violation predictions from residual discrete symmetries
Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Stuart, Alexander J.; Titov, A. V.
2016-01-01
Assuming that the observed pattern of 3-neutrino mixing is related to the existence of a (lepton) flavour symmetry, corresponding to a non-Abelian discrete symmetry group Gf, and that Gf is broken to specific residual symmetries Ge and Gν of the charged lepton and neutrino mass terms, we derive sum rules for the cosine of the Dirac phase δ of the neutrino mixing matrix U. The residual symmetries considered are: i) Ge =Z2 and Gν =Zn, n > 2 or Zn ×Zm, n , m ≥ 2; ii) Ge =Zn, n > 2 or Zn ×Zm, n , m ≥ 2 and Gν =Z2; iii) Ge =Z2 and Gν =Z2; iv) Ge is fully broken and Gν =Zn, n > 2 or Zn ×Zm, n , m ≥ 2; and v) Ge =Zn, n > 2 or Zn ×Zm, n , m ≥ 2 and Gν is fully broken. For given Ge and Gν, the sum rules for cos δ thus derived are exact, within the approach employed, and are valid, in particular, for any Gf containing Ge and Gν as subgroups. We identify the cases when the value of cos δ cannot be determined, or cannot be uniquely determined, without making additional assumptions on unconstrained parameters. In a large class of cases considered the value of cos δ can be unambiguously predicted once the flavour symmetry Gf is fixed. We present predictions for cos δ in these cases for the flavour symmetry groups Gf =S4, A4, T‧ and A5, requiring that the measured values of the 3-neutrino mixing parameters sin2 θ12, sin2 θ13 and sin2 θ23, taking into account their respective 3σ uncertainties, are successfully reproduced.
Leptonic Dirac CP violation predictions from residual discrete symmetries
I. Girardi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Assuming that the observed pattern of 3-neutrino mixing is related to the existence of a (lepton flavour symmetry, corresponding to a non-Abelian discrete symmetry group Gf, and that Gf is broken to specific residual symmetries Ge and Gν of the charged lepton and neutrino mass terms, we derive sum rules for the cosine of the Dirac phase δ of the neutrino mixing matrix U. The residual symmetries considered are: i Ge=Z2 and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; ii Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν=Z2; iii Ge=Z2 and Gν=Z2; iv Ge is fully broken and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; and v Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν is fully broken. For given Ge and Gν, the sum rules for cosδ thus derived are exact, within the approach employed, and are valid, in particular, for any Gf containing Ge and Gν as subgroups. We identify the cases when the value of cosδ cannot be determined, or cannot be uniquely determined, without making additional assumptions on unconstrained parameters. In a large class of cases considered the value of cosδ can be unambiguously predicted once the flavour symmetry Gf is fixed. We present predictions for cosδ in these cases for the flavour symmetry groups Gf=S4, A4, T′ and A5, requiring that the measured values of the 3-neutrino mixing parameters sin2θ12, sin2θ13 and sin2θ23, taking into account their respective 3σ uncertainties, are successfully reproduced.
Searches for Lepton Flavour Violation and Lepton Number Violation in Hadron Decays
Seyfert, P
2012-01-01
In the Standard Model of particle physics, lepton flavour and lepton number are conserved quantities although no fundamental symmetry demands their conservation. I present recent results of searches for lepton flavour and lepton number violating hadron decays measured at the B factories and LHCb. In addition, the LHCb collaboration has recently performed a search for the lepton flavour violating decay $\\tau^- \\mu^- \\mu^- \\mu^+$ The obtained upper exclusion limit, that has been presented in this talk for the first time, is of the same order of magnitude as those observed at the B factories. This is the first search for a lepton flavour violating $\\tau$ decay at a hadron collider.
Revisiting Lepton Flavour Universality in B Decays
Paradisi, Paride
2017-04-01
Lepton flavour universality (LFU) in B-decays is revisited by considering a class of semileptonic operators defined at a scale Λ above the electroweak scale v. The importance of quantum effects is emphasised [F. Feruglio, P. Paradisi and A. Pattori, arxiv:arXiv:1606.00524 [hep-ph], to appear in PRL]. We construct the low-energy effective Lagrangian taking into account the running effects from Λ down to v through the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGE) in the limit of exact electroweak symmetry and QED RGEs from v down to the 1 GeV scale. The most important quantum effects turn out to be the modification of the leptonic couplings of the vector boson Z and the generation of a purely leptonic effective Lagrangian. Large LFU breaking effects in Z and τ decays as well as visible lepton flavour violating (LFV) effects in τ decays are induced.
Mobini, Sirous; Chambers, Lucy C; Yeomans, Martin R
2007-01-01
This study examined acquired liking of flavour preferences through flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning under hungry or sated conditions in a naturalistic setting. Each participant consumed one of three versions of a test drink at home either before lunch or after lunch: minimally sweetened ( 3% sucrose, 40 kcal), artificially sweetened (3% sucrose 40 kcal plus artificial sweeteners ASPARTAME) and sucrose-sweetened (SUCROSE: 9.9% sugar, 132 kcal). The test drink was an uncarbonated peach-flavoured iced tea served in visually identical drink cans (330 ml). Participants preselected as "sweet likers" evaluated the minimally sweetened flavoured drink (conditioned stimulus, CS) in the same state (hungry or sated) in which they consumed the test drink at home. Overall, liking for the CS flavour increased in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink, however, this increase in liking was significantly larger when tested and trained hungry than sated, consistent with a flavour-nutrient model. Overall increases in pleasantness for the CS flavour in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink when sated or the ASPARTAME drink independent of hunger state, suggest that flavour-flavour learning also occurred. These results are discussed in light of current learning models of flavour preference.
Ravasio, Davide Antonio
Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...
LHCb flavour tagging performance
Calvi, M; Musy, M
2003-01-01
In CP violation measurements, the most accurate determination of the B flavour of neutral and charged B-mesons is necessary. In this note we summarize the tagging performances for the LHCb experiment, using different approaches and studying different decay channels.
A minimal seesaw model with mu-tau symmetry
Jurciukonis, Darius; Juodagalvis, Andrius
2015-01-01
We analyse a flavour model for a lepton sector which is based on type I seesaw mechanism, a Z_2 symmetry for lepton flavours, a mu-tau interchange symmetry and a CP symmetry. This model fits well the data of neutrino mass squared differences and oscillation angles. The model predicts an overall neutrino mass scale for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and the effective mass m_beta, which is used in the neutrinoless double beta decay.
Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.
Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya
2017-06-07
In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Two-Higgs Leptonic Minimal Flavour Violation
Botella, F J; Nebot, M; Rebelo, M N
2011-01-01
We construct extensions of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublets, where there are flavour changing neutral currents both in the quark and leptonic sectors, with their strength fixed by the fermion mixing matrices $V_{CKM}$ and $V_{PMNS}$. These models are an extension to the leptonic sector of the class of models previously considered by Branco, Grimus and Lavoura, for the quark sector. We consider both the cases of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and identify the minimal discrete symmetry required in order to implement the models in a natural way.
Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries
Strocchi, Franco
2015-01-01
The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...
Gauge Invariants and Correlators in Flavoured Quiver Gauge Theories
Mattioli, Paolo
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.
Future flavour physics experiments
2015-01-01
The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543
Top-Flavoured Dark Matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation
Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon
2017-01-01
We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral $D$ meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consid...
Charged-Lepton Flavour Physics
Hoecker, Andreas
2012-01-01
This writeup of a talk at the 2011 Lepton-Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarises recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. I review searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation. I also discuss recent progress in tau-lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.
Charged-lepton flavour physics
Andreas Hoecker
2012-11-01
This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.
(Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses
Page, P R
1999-01-01
We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.
Controlled flavour changing neutral couplings in two Higgs Doublet models
Alves, Joao M.; Botella, Francisco J.; Branco, Gustavo C.; Cornet-Gomez, Fernando; Nebot, Miguel
2017-09-01
We propose a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree level, but under control due to the introduction of a discrete symmetry in the full Lagrangian. It is shown that in this class of models, one can have simultaneously FCNC in the up and down sectors, in contrast to the situation encountered in the renormalisable and minimal flavour violating 2HDM models put forward by Branco et al. (Phys Lett B 380:119, 1996). The intensity of FCNC is analysed and it is shown that in this class of models one can respect all the strong constraints from experiment without unnatural fine-tuning. It is pointed out that the additional sources of flavour and CP violation are such that they can enhance significantly the generation of the Bbaryon asymmetry of the Universe, with respect to the standard model.
Fermion masses and mixing in $\\Delta(27)$ flavour model
Abbas, Mohammed
2014-01-01
An extension of the Standard Model (SM) based on the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$ is considered. The $\\Delta(27)$ flavour symmetry is spontaneously broken only by gauge singlet scalar fields, therefore our model is free from any flavour changing neural current. We show that the model accounts simultaneously for the observed quark and lepton masses and their mixing. In the quark sector, we find that the up quark mass matrix is flavour diagonal and the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix arises from down quarks. In the lepton sector, we show that the charged lepton mass matrix is almost diagonal. We also adopt type-I seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses. A deviated mixing matrix from tri-bimaximal Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (MNS), with $\\sin\\theta_{13} \\sim 0.13$ and $\\sin^2 \\theta_{23} \\sim 0.41$, is naturally produced.
Flavour Tagging with the LHCb experiment
Birnkraut, Alex
2015-01-01
Measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems require knowledge of the b quark production flavour. This identification is performed by the Flavour Tagging.
Flavour-changing Higgs couplings in a class of two Higgs doublet models
Botella, F.J. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa Univ., Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Lisbon (Portugal); Nebot, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa Univ., Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Lisbon (Portugal); Rebelo, M.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa Univ., Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Lisbon (Portugal)
2016-03-15
We analyse various flavour-changing processes like t → hu, hc, h → τe, τμ as well as hadronic decays h @→ bs, bd, in the framework of a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour-changing neutral scalar currents at tree level. These models have the remarkable feature of having these flavour-violating couplings entirely determined by the CKM and PMNS matrices as well as tan β. The flavour structure of these scalar currents results from a symmetry of the Lagrangian and there fore it is natural and stable under the renormalisation group. We show that in some of the models the rates of the above flavour-changing processes can reach the discovery level at the LHC at 13 TeV even taking into account the stringent bounds on low energy processes, in particular μ @→ eγ. (orig.)
Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Pich, Antonio
2013-06-27
An introductory overview of the Standard Model description of flavour is presented. The main emphasis is put on present tests of the quark-mixing matrix structure and the phenomenological determination of its parameters. Special attention is given to the experimental evidences of CP violation and their important role in our understanding of flavour dynamics.
Dark matter and observable Lepton Flavour Violation
Heurtier, Lucien
2016-01-01
Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density ...
Dark Matter and observable lepton flavour violation
Heurtier, Lucien [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Teresi, Daniele [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique
2016-07-15
Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density via the decays of the latter. The phenomenological implications of the model are discussed, finding that large LFV rates, observable in the near-future μ→e conversion experiments, require the DM mass to be in the keV range. Moreover, the active-neutrino coupling to the Majoron-like scalar field could be probed in future detections of supernova neutrino bursts.
Leptonic Dirac CP Violation Predictions from Residual Discrete Symmetries
Girardi, I; Stuart, Alexander J; Titov, A V
2016-01-01
Assuming that the observed pattern of 3-neutrino mixing is related to the existence of a (lepton) flavour symmetry, corresponding to a non-Abelian discrete symmetry group $G_f$, and that $G_f$ is broken to specific residual symmetries $G_e$ and $G_\
ZHOUBang-Rong
2003-01-01
High density phase transitions in a 4-dimensional Nambu-dona-Lasinio model containing a single symmetry breaking order parameter coming from the fermion-antifermion condensates are researched and expounded by means of both the gap equation and the effective potential approach. The phase transitions are proven to be second-order at a high temperature T; however at T = 0 they are first- or second-order, depending on whether A/m(0), the ratio of the momentum cutoff A in the fermion-loop integrals to the dynamical fermion mass m(0) at zero temperature, is lessthan 3.387 or not. The former condition cannot be satisfied in some models. The discussions further show complete effectiveness of the critical analysis based on the gap equation for second order phase transitions including determination of the condition of their occurrence.
ZHOU Bang-Rong
2003-01-01
High density phase transitions in a 4-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model containing a single symmetry breaking order parameter coming from the fermion-antifermion condensates are researched and expounded by means of both the gap equation and the effective potential approach. The phase transitions are proven to be second-order at a high temperature T; however at T = 0 they are first- or second-order, depending on whether A/m(0), the ratio of the momentum cutoff A in the fermion-loop integrals to the dynamicalfermion mass m(0) at zero temperature, is less than 3.387 or not. The former condition cannot be satisfied in some models. The discussions further show complete effectiveness of the critical analysis based on the gap equation for second order phase transitions including determination of the condition of their occurrence.
Anarchic Yukawas and top partial compositeness: the flavour of a successful marriage
Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Flacke, Thomas; Lee, Seung J; Parolini, Alberto; Serôdio, Hugo
2015-01-01
The top quark can be naturally singled out from other fermions in the Standard Model due to its large mass, of the order of the electroweak scale. We follow this reasoning in models of pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson composite Higgs, which may derive from an underlying confining dynamics. We consider a new class of flavour models, where the top quark obtains its mass via partial compositeness, while the lighter fermions acquire their masses by a deformation of the dynamics generated at a high flavour scale. One interesting feature of such scenario is that it can avoid all the flavour constraints without the need of flavour symmetries, since the flavour scale can be pushed high enough. We show that both flavour conserving and violating constraints can be satisfied with top partial compositeness without invoking any flavour symmetry for the up-type sector, in the case of the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset with top partners in the four-plet and singlet of SO(4). In the down-type sector, some degree of alignment is requi...
Anarchic Yukawas and top partial compositeness: the flavour of a successful marriage
Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Flacke, Thomas; Lee, Seung J.; Parolini, Alberto; Serôdio, Hugo
2015-06-01
The top quark can be naturally singled out from other fermions in the Standard Model due to its large mass, of the order of the electroweak scale. We follow this reasoning in models of pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson composite Higgs, which may derive from an underlying confining dynamics. We consider a new class of flavour models, where the top quark obtains its mass via partial compositeness, while the lighter fermions acquire their masses by a deformation of the dynamics generated at a high flavour scale. One interesting feature of such scenario is that it can avoid all the flavour constraints without the need of flavour symmetries, since the flavour scale can be pushed high enough. We show that both flavour conserving and violating constraints can be satisfied with top partial compositeness without invoking any flavour symmetry for the up-type sector, in the case of the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset with top partners in the four-plet and singlet of SO(4). In the down-type sector, some degree of alignment is required if all down-type quarks are elementary. We show that taking the bottom quark partially composite provides a dynamical explanation for the hierarchy causing this alignment. We present explicit realisations of this mechanism which do not require to include additional bottom partner fields. Finally, these conclusions are generalised to scenarios with non-minimal cosets and top partners in larger representations.
Quark Yukawa pattern from spontaneous breaking of flavour $SU(3)^3$
Nardi, Enrico
2015-01-01
A $SU(3)_Q \\times SU(3)_u \\times SU(3)_d$ invariant scalar potential breaking spontaneously the quark flavour symmetry can explain the standard model flavour puzzle. The approximate alignment in flavour space of the vacuum expectation values of the up and down `Yukawa fields' results as a dynamical effect. The observed quark mixing angles, the weak CP violating phase, and hierarchical quark masses can be all reproduced at the cost of introducing additional (auxiliary) scalar multiplets, but without the need of introducing hierarchical parameters.
Yeomans, Martin R; Mobini, Sirous; Chambers, Lucy
2007-12-05
Previous research has established that caffeine consumption can reinforce changes in liking for caffeine-paired flavours, while pairing a novel flavour with a liked or dislike taste can also result in enduring changes in liking for the flavour. The present study examined how these two forms of flavour-learning interact. 72 habitual caffeine consumers who liked sweet tastes rated the odour and flavour of a novel tea drink before and after four training sessions where the flavour was paired with either 100 mg caffeine or placebo in one of three flavour contexts: added sweetness (aspartame), bitterness (quinine) or control. The liking for both the odour and flavour of the tea increased after pairing with caffeine regardless of flavour context, while pairing with bitterness reduced flavour liking regardless of the presence of caffeine. Pairing with quinine increased the rated bitterness of the tea odour, and reduced the rated sweetness of the tea flavour, post-training, independent of effects of caffeine. These data suggest that flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour associations have additive effects on drink liking, while confirming that flavour-flavour associations can alter the immediate sensory experience of a flavour alone.
Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings
Engel K-H
2012-10-01
Full Text Available
The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.
Flavour decomposition of electromagnetic transition form factors of nucleon resonances
Segovia, Jorge
2016-01-01
In Poincar\\'e-covariant continuum treatments of the three valence-quark bound-state problem, the force behind dynamical chiral symmetry breaking also generates nonpointlike, interacting diquark correlations in the nucleon and its resonances. We detail the impact of these correlations on the nucleon's elastic and nucleon-to-Roper transition electromagnetic form factors, providing flavour-separation versions that can be tested at modern facilities.
Adeva B.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Some selected results of the LHCb experiment, running at the LHC with ppcollisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, are reported here, after operation with a total integratedluminosity of 3.0 fb−1 (Run 1. We focus on the most recent analyses on flavour physics,that include measurements of the CKM invariant phases γ and β, precision determination of the quark coupling strength Vub, observation of the very rare decays B0(s→μ+μ−, search for new physics in the anomalous branching ratio of B→D*τv̄, and precision angular analysis of the rare decays B0→K*0μ+μ− and B0s→ϕμ+μ−. Detailed comparisons are performed in all cases with the predictions of the Standard Model, and a fewinteresting tensions are observed.
Ravasio, Davide Antonio
Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...... region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...
Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids
Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F
2015-01-01
Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary fla...
Critical Number of Flavours in QED
Bashir, A; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Tejeda-Yeomans, M E
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavours $N_f$. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling $\\alpha$ beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in $\\alpha$ to illustrate this. We study the flavour and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of $\\alpha$ and $N_f$. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through $(\\alpha, \\alpha_c) \\leftrightarrow (1/N_f, 1/N_f^c)$. Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m$ shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the $\\beta$-function. The criticality plane is drawn in the $(\\alpha...
B decays and lepton flavour (universality) violation
Crivellin, A.
2016-07-01
LHCb found hints for physics beyond the standard model in Bto K^*μ^+μ^- , Bto K^*μ^+μ^-/Bto K^*e^+e^- and B_stoφμ^+μ^- . In addition, the BABAR results for Bto D^{(*)}τν and the CMS excess in htoτ^±μ^∓ also point towards lepton flavour (universality) violating new physics. While Bto D^{(*)}τν and htoτ^±μ^∓ can be naturally explained by an extended Higgs sector, the probably most promising explanation for the bto sμμ anomalies is a Z' boson. Furthermore, combining a 2HDM with a gauged L_μ-L_τ symmetry allows for explaining the bto sμ^+μ^- anomalies and htoτ^±μ^∓ simultaneously, with interesting correlations to τto3μ . In the light of these deviations from the SM we also discuss the possibilities of observing lepton flavour violating B decays ( e.g. Bto K^{(*)}τ^±μ^∓ and B_stoτ^±μ^∓ in Z^' models.
Flavour Dependent Gauged Radiative Neutrino Mass Model
Baek, Seungwon; Yagyu, Kei
2015-01-01
We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: $\\mu$ minus $\\tau$ symmetry $U(1)_{\\mu-\\tau}$. A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks $U(1)_{\\mu-\\tau}$ symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases which can be determined five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the ...
Heavy flavour production at LHCb
Barsuk, Sergey
2016-01-01
The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.
Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S
2012-11-01
The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed.
Flavour physics and CP violation
Kou, Emi
2014-01-01
In these three lectures, I overview the theoretical framework of the flavour physics and CP violation. The first lecture is the introduction to the flavour physics. Namely, I give theoretical basics of the weak interaction. I follow also some historical aspect, discovery of the CP violation, phenomenological studies of charged and neutral currents and the success of the GIM mechanism. In the second lecture, I describe the flavour physics and CP violating phenomena in the Standard Model (SM). I also give the latest experimental observation of the CP Violation at the B factories and the LHC and discuss its interpretation. In the third lecture, I discuss the on-going search of the signals beyond SM in the flavour physics and also the future prospects.
Heavy flavour results from ATLAS
Bell P. J.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A selection of heavy-flavour physics results from the ATLAS experiment is presented, based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC during 2010. Differential cross-sections for the production of heavy flavours, charmonium and bottomonium states and D-mesons are presented and compared to various theoretical models. Results of B-hadron lifetime measurements are also reported.
S4 as a natural flavor symmetry for lepton mixing
Bazzocchi, Federica
2008-01-01
Group theoretical motivations seem to indicate the discrete symmetry S4 as the minimal flavour symmetry compatible with tribimaximal neutrino mixing. We prove in a model independent way that indeed S4 can realize exact TriBimaximal mixing through different symmetry breaking patterns. We present two models in which lepton TriBimaximal mixing is realized in different ways and for each one we discuss the superpotential that leads to the correct breaking of the flavor symmetry.
Lepton Flavour Violation Experiments
F. Cei
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Lepton Flavour Violation in the charged lepton sector (CLFV is forbidden in the Minimal Standard model and strongly suppressed in extensions of the model to include finite neutrino mixing. On the other hand, a wide class of Supersymmetric theories, even coupled with Grand Unification models (SUSY-GUT models, predict CLFV processes at a rate within the reach of new experimental searches operated with high resolution detectors at high intensity accelerators. As the Standard model background is negligible, the observation of one or more CLFV events would provide incontrovertible evidence for physics beyond Standard model, while a null effect would severely constrain the set of theory parameters. Therefore, a big experimental effort is currently (and will be for incoming years accomplished to achieve unprecedented sensitivity on several CLFV processes. In this paper we review past and recent results in this research field, with focus on CLFV channels involving muons and tau's. We present currently operating experiments as well as future projects, with emphasis laid on how sensitivity enhancements are accompanied by improvements on detection techniques. Limitations due to systematic effects are also discussed in detail together with the solutions being adopted to overcome them.
A 125 GeV composite Higgs boson versus flavour and electroweak precision tests
Barbieri, Riccardo; Sala, Filippo; Straub, David M; Tesi, Andrea
2012-01-01
A composite Higgs boson of 125 GeV mass, only mildly fine-tuned, requires top partners with a semi-perturbative coupling and a mass not greater than about a TeV. We analyze the strong constraints on such picture arising from flavour and electroweak precision tests in models of partial compositeness. We consider different representations for the composite fermions and compare the case of an anarchic flavour structure to models with a U(3)^3 and U(2)^3 flavour symmetry. Although non trivially, some models emerge that look capable of accommodating a 125 GeV Higgs boson with top partners in an interesting mass range for discovery at the LHC as well as associated flavour signals.
A Grand Delta(96) x SU(5) Flavour Model
King, Stephen F; Stuart, Alexander J
2012-01-01
Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of theta_13 approximately 9 degrees. This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on Delta(96) x SU(5), together with a U(1) x Z3 symmetry, including a full discussion of Delta(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand Delta(96) x SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: theta_23=36...
Higgs and flavour as doors to new physics
Sala, Filippo
2015-01-01
A natural solution to the hierarchy problem of the Fermi scale motivates signals of New Physics at current and near future experiments. After a critical synthesis of this general motivation, we concentrate our attention on the interplay between LHC searches for new resonances, and precision measurements of both Higgs couplings and flavour violating observables. We do so for i) the Higgs sectors of the NMSSM and MSSM, as paradigmatic examples of theories providing extra scalars, and for ii) CKM-like flavour symmetries, with a focus on U(2)^3. This article is mainly based on several papers by the author, but it also reviews other recent related results. Its goal is to provide a synthetic - yet comprehensive orientation on these subjects, at the dawn of several (ATLAS and CMS, LHCb, NA62 etc.) coming experimental results.
Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers
Bruemmer, Felix [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.
2014-04-15
We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.
Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers
Brümmer, Felix [SISSA/ISAS,Via Bonomea 265, Trieste I-34136 (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2014-04-10
We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.
Generalization of Friedberg-Lee Symmetry
Huang, Chao-Shang; Liao, Wei; Zhu, Shou-Hua
2008-01-01
We study the possible origin of Friedberg-Lee symmetry. First, we propose the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry in the potential by including the scalar fields in the field transformations, which can be broken down to the FL symmetry spontaneously. We show that the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry allows a typical form of Yukawa couplings, and the realistic neutrino masses and mixings can be generated via see-saw mechanism. If the right-handed neutrinos transform non-trivially under the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry, we can have the testable TeV scale see-saw mechanism. Second, we present two models with the $SO(3)\\times U(1)$ global flavour symmetry in the lepton sector. After the flavour symmetry breaking, we can obtain the charged lepton masses, and explain the neutrino masses and mixings via see-saw mechanism. Interestingly, the complete neutrino mass matrices are similar to those of the above models with generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry. So the Friedberg-Lee symmetry is the residual symmetry in...
Heavy Flavour Production at LHC: an overview
Eugenio Bruno Giuseppe
2014-04-01
Full Text Available An overview of experimental results on the production of heavy flavour (charm and bottom hadrons at LHC is presented. Both the open and hidden heavy flavour sectors are covered, with an emphasis on heavy ion collisions.
Complementarity in lepton-flavour violating muon decay experiments
Crivellin, A; Pruna, G M; Signer, A
2016-01-01
This note presents an analysis of lepton-flavour-violating muon decays within the framework of a low-energy effective field theory that contains higher-dimensional operators allowed by QED and QCD symmetries. The decay modes $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ and $\\mu\\to 3e$ are investigated below the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale, down to energies at which such processes occur, i.e. the muon mass scale. The complete class of dimension-5 and dimension-6 operators is studied systematically at the tree level, and one-loop contributions to the renormalisation group equations are fully taken into account. Current experimental limits are used to extract bounds on the Wilson coefficients of some of the operators and, ultimately, on the effective couplings at any energy level below the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale. Correlations between two couplings relevant to both processes illustrate the complementarity of searches planned for the MEG II and Mu3e experiments.
Dynamical generation of flavour
Charanjit Kaur Khosa
2016-02-01
We propose the generation of Standard Model fermion hierarchy by the extension of renormalizable SO(10) GUT with O(Ng) family gauge symmetry. In this scenario, Higgs representations of SO(10) also carry family indices and are called Yukawons. Vacuum expectation values of these Yukawon fields break GUT and family symmetry and generate MSSM Yukawa couplings dynamically. We have demonstrated this idea using $10 \\oplus 210 \\oplus 126 \\oplus \\overline{126}$ Higgs irrep, ignoring the contribution of 120-plet which is, however, required for complete fitting of fermion mass-mixing data. The effective MSSM matter fermion couplings to the light Higgs pair are determined by the null eigenvectors of the MSSM-type Higgs doublet superfield mass matrix $\\mathcal{H}$. A consistency condition on the doublet ([1, 2,±1]) mass matrix (Det($\\mathcal{H}$) = 0) is required to keep one pair of Higgs doublets light in the effective MSSM. We show that the Yukawa structure generated by null eigenvectors of $\\mathcal{H}$ are of generic kind required by the MSSM. A hidden sector with a pair of (Sab; ab) fields breaks supersymmetry and facilitates DO(Ng) = 0. SUSY breaking is communicated via supergravity. In this scenario, matter fermion Yukawa couplings are reduced from 15 to just 3 parameters in MSGUT with three generations.
Top-flavoured dark matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation
Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon
2017-05-01
We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to right-handed up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral D meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consider all of these constraints in turn, studying their implications for the allowed parameter space. Imposing the mass limits and coupling benchmarks from collider searches, we then conduct a combined analysis of all the other constraints, revealing their non-trivial interplay. Especially interesting is the combination of direct detection and relic abundance constraints, having a severe impact on the structure of the dark matter coupling matrix. We point out that future bounds from upcoming direct detection experiments, such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LUX-ZEPLIN, and DARWIN, will exclude a large part of the parameter space and push the DM mass to higher values.
Heavy flavour production at HERA
Brugnera Riccardo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this brief review, recent experimental results from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations on heavy flavour production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regimes are summarized. The results cover charm fragmentation fractions, charm and beauty cross sections, F2cc̄ and F2bb̄ proton structure functions and the running charm- and beauty-quark masses.
Kaon Flavour Physics Strikes Back
Buras, Andrzej J
2016-01-01
In this short presentation I emphasize the increased importance of kaon flavour physics in the search for new physics (NP) that we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade. The main actors will be the branching ratios for the rare decays $K^+\\rightarrow\\pi^+\
Heavy flavours: working group summary
Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)
2009-07-15
The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)
Flavour physics and CP violation
Rukmani Mohanta; Anjan Kumar Giri
2010-05-01
It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look for CP violation effects in other systems besides the neutral kaons. The two -factories BABAR and BELLE, along with other experiments, in the last decade or so made studies in flavour physics and CP violation a very interesting one. In this article we discuss the status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and bottom sectors of the Standard Model. The important results in kaon sector will be briefly discussed. Recently, mixing in the charm system has been observed, which was being pursued for quite some time without any success. The smallness of the mixing parameters in the charm system is due to the hierarchical structure of the CKM matrix. Interestingly, so far we have not found CP violation in the charm system but in the future, with more dedicated experiments at charm threshold, the situation could change. Many interesting observations have been made in the case of bottom mesons and some of them show some kind of deviations from that of the Standard Model expectations which are mainly associated with the → flavour changing neutral current transitions. It is long believed that the system could be the harbinger of new physics since it is a system in which both bottom and strange quarks are the constituents. Recently, D0 and CDF announced their result for the mixing which is claimed to be the first possible new physics signature in the flavour sector. We plan to touch upon all important issues pointing out both theoretical and experimental developments and future prospects in this review article.
Relating quarks and leptons with the T7 flavour group
Cesar Bonilla
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this letter we present a model for quarks and leptons based on T7 as flavour symmetry, predicting a canonical mass relation between charged leptons and down-type quarks proposed earlier. Neutrino masses are generated through a Type-I seesaw mechanism, with predicted correlations between the atmospheric mixing angle and neutrino masses. Compatibility with oscillation results leads to lower bounds for the lightest neutrino mass as well as for the neutrinoless double beta decay rates, even for normal neutrino mass hierarchy.
Chiral order and fluctuations in multi-flavour QCD
Descotes-Genon, S; Stern, J
2003-01-01
Multi-flavour (N_f>=3) Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) may exhibit instabilities due to vacuum fluctuations of sea q-bar q pairs. Keeping the fluctuations small would require a very precise fine-tuning of the low-energy constants L_4 and L_6 to L_4[crit](M_rho) = - 0.51 * 10^(-3), and L_6[crit](M_rho) = - 0.26 * 10^(-3). A small deviation from these critical values -- like the one suggested by the phenomenology of OZI-rule violation in the scalar channel -- is amplified by huge numerical factors inducing large effects of vacuum fluctuations. This would lead in particular to a strong N_f-dependence of chiral symmetry breaking and a suppression of multi-flavour chiral order parameters. A simple resummation is shown to cure the instability of N_f>=3 ChPT, but it modifies the standard expressions of some O(p^2) and O(p^4) low-energy parameters in terms of observables. On the other hand, for r=m_s/m > 15, the two-flavour condensate is not suppressed, due to the contribution induced by massive vacuum s-bar s pair...
Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach
D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.
2002-01-01
We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...
Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model
Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara
2012-11-21
There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple
Approaching Minimal Flavour Violation from an S4 x SU(5) SUSY GUT
Dimou, Maria; Luhn, Christoph
2015-01-01
We show how approximate Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) can emerge from an SU(5) Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (SUSY GUT) supplemented by an S4 x U(1) family symmetry, which provides a good description of all quark and lepton (including neutrino) masses, mixings and CP violation. Assuming a SUSY breaking mechanism which respects the family symmetry, we calculate in full explicit detail the low energy mass insertion parameters in the super-CKM basis, including the effects of canonical normalisation and renormalisation group running. We find that the very simple family symmetry S4 x U(1) is sufficient to approximately reproduce the effects of low energy MFV.
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.
A flavour of family symmetries in a family of flavour models
Adelhart Toorop, Reinier de
2012-01-01
The Standard Model of Particle Physics has many (19) free parameters, most of which (13) are related to the masses and mixing angles of the elementary fermions (quarks and leptons). If we include neutrino masses, even 22 of the 28 parameters are related to the fermion mass sector. Although these par
Flavour Physics with High-Luminosity Experiments
2016-01-01
With the first dedicated B-factory experiments BaBar (USA) and BELLE (Japan) Flavour Physics has entered the phase of precision physics. LHCb (CERN) and the high luminosity extension of KEK-B together with the state of the art BELLE II detector will further push this precision frontier. Progress in this field always relied on close cooperation between experiment and theory, as extraction of fundamental parameters often is very indirect. To extract the full physics information from existing and future data, this cooperation must be further intensified. This MIAPP programme aims in particular to prepare for this task by joining experimentalists and theorists in the various relevant fields, with the goal to build the necessary tools in face of the challenge of new large data sets. The programme will begin with a focus on physics with non-leptonic final states, continued by semileptonic B meson decays and Tau decays, and on various aspects of CP symmetry violation closer to the end. In addition, in the final ...
Linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics
Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,Palaiseau (France); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Warsaw (Poland); Ziegler, Robert [TUM-IAS and Physik Department, Technische Universität München,Munich (Germany)
2014-01-22
With the aim of linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics, a model is proposed based on a family symmetry G×U(1), where G is a discrete nonabelian subgroup of SU(2), with both F-term and (abelian) D-term supersymmetry breaking. A good fit to the fermion masses and mixing is obtained with the same U(1) charges for the left- and right- handed quarks of the first two families and the right-handed bottom quark, and with zero charge for the left-handed top-bottom doublet and the the right handed top. The model shows an interesting indirect correlation between the correct prediction for the V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} ratio and large right-handed rotations in the (s,b) sector, required to diagonalise the Yukawa matrix. For the squarks, one obtains almost degenerate first two generations. The main source of the FCNC and CP violation effects is the splitting between the first two families and the right-handed sbottom determined by the relative size of F-term and D-term supersymmetry breaking. The presence of the large right-handed rotation implies that the bounds on the masses of the first two families of squarks and the right handed sbottom are in a few to a few tens TeV range. The picture that emerges is light stops and left handed sbottom and much heavier other squarks.
Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model
Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara
2012-11-21
There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple
Minimal flavour violation and anomalous top decays
Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Gadatsch, Stefan [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomatic Physics, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2013-07-01
Any experimental evidence of anomalous top-quark couplings will open a window to study physics beyond the standard model (SM). However, all current flavour data indicate that nature is close to ''minimal flavour violation'', i.e. the pattern of flavour violation is given by the CKM matrix, including the hierarchy of parameters. In this talk we present results of the conceptual test of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged as well as flavour changing top-quark couplings. Our analysis is embedded in two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II). Including renormalization effects, we calculate the top decay rates taking into account anomalous couplings constrained by minimal flavour violation.
Flavour Covariant Formalism for Resonant Leptogenesis
Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele
2014-01-01
We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena and apply it to study the flavour-dynamics of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL). We show that this formalism provides a complete and unified description of RL, consistently accounting for three distinct physical phenomena: (i) resonant mixing and (ii) coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, as well as (iii) quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. We describe the necessary emergence of higher-rank tensors in flavour space, arising from the unitarity cuts of partial self-energies. Finally, we illustrate the importance of this formalism within a minimal Resonant $\\tau$-Genesis model by showing that, with the inclusion of all flavour effects in a consistent way, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by up to an order of magnitude, when compared to previous partially flavour-dependent treatments.
Patterns of Flavour Violation in the RSc Model, the LHT Model and Supersymmetric Flavour Models
Buras, Andrzej J
2009-01-01
We summarize the results on patterns of flavour violation in a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc) and compare them with those identified in the Littlest Higgs Model with T--parity (LHT) and in a number of SUSY Flavour Models. While K decays play in this presentation a prominent role, the inclusion of B physics and lepton flavour violation is crucial in the distinction between these three popular extensions of the Standard Model (SM) by means of flavour physics.
Phenomenological Implications of an S4 x SU(5) SUSY GUT of Flavour
Dimou, Maria; Luhn, Christoph
2015-01-01
We discuss the low energy phenomenological implications of an SU(5) Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (SUSY GUT) whose flavour structure is controlled by the family symmetry S4 x U(1), which provides a good description of all quark and lepton masses, mixings as well as CP violation. Although the model closely mimics Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as shown in arXiv:1511.07886, here we focus on the differences. We first present numerical estimates of the low energy mass insertion parameters, including canonical normalisation and renormalisation group running, for well-defined ranges of SUSY parameters and compare the naive model expectations to the numerical scans and the experimental bounds. Our results are then used to estimate the predictions for Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs), Lepton Flavour Violation (LFV), B and K meson mixing as well as rare B decays. The largest observable deviations from MFV come from the LFV process mu --> e gamma and the EDMs.
Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1
Blanke, Monika; Recksiegel, Stefan
2016-01-01
The Littlest Higgs Model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. We present a new analysis of quark observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare $K$ and $B$ decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes $K^+\\to\\pi^+\
Continuous Global Symmetries and Hyperweak Interactions in String Compactifications
Burgess, C P; Hung, L-Y; Kom, C H; Maharana, A; Quevedo, Fernando
2008-01-01
We revisit general arguments for the absence of exact continuous global symmetries in string compactifications and extend them to D-brane models. We elucidate the various ways approximate continuous global symmetries arise in the 4-dimensional effective action. In addition to two familiar methods - axionic Peccei-Quinn symmetries and remnant global abelian symmetries from Green-Schwarz gauge symmetry breaking - we identify new ways to generate approximate continuous global symmetries. Two methods stand out, both of which occur for local brane constructions within the LARGE volume scenario of moduli stabilisation. The first is the generic existence of continuous non-abelian global symmetries associated with local Calabi-Yau isometries. These symmetries are exact in the non-compact limit and are spontaneously broken by the LARGE volume, with breaking effects having phenomenologically interesting sizes \\sim 0.01 for plausible choices for underlying parameters. Such approximate flavour symmetries are phenomenolog...
Heavy flavour production at CMS
Negro, Giulia
2016-01-01
Three recent results in heavy flavour production at the CMS experiment are addressed in this report. Measurements of the differential production cross sections of B hadron and quarkonium states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV are presented. These are important tools to investigate heavy-quark production mechanisms in QCD. The dependences on transverse momentum and rapidity are investigated and comparisons with theory expectations and among different collision energies are provided. Also the new observation of $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ production is reported.
HEAVY FLAVOUR PRODUCTION AT ATLAS
Sivoklokov, S; The ATLAS collaboration
2011-01-01
The production of heavy flavours at LHC provides an opportunity for new insight into QCD. ATLAS detector provides data at higher transverse momenta and wider rapidity ranges than have previously been studied. Both Charmonia and Bottomonia production cross-section have been measured in proton-proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV as a function of transverse momemtum and rapidity. Exclusive B and D meson states have been also reconstructed. Results are compared to theoretical predictions of various QCD models.
Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours
Sluis, van der C.
2001-01-01
The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th
Lepton flavour violation searches at the LHC
Dawe, Edmund; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Recent results from searches for lepton flavour violation performed by ATLAS and CMS in the $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\text{TeV}$ data are presented. The search for $Z\\rightarrow e\\mu$ and lepton flavour violating heavy neutral particle decays are summarized before covering the search for $H\\rightarrow \\mu \\tau$ in greater detail.
Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review
Dinesh D. Jayasena
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for
Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
2013-01-01
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration
Nucci, M. C.
2016-09-01
We review some of our recent work devoted to the problem of quantization with preservation of Noether symmetries, finding hidden linearity in superintegrable systems, and showing that nonlocal symmetries are in fact local. In particular, we derive the Schrödinger equation for the isochronous Calogero goldfish model using its relation to Darwin equation. We prove the linearity of a classical superintegrable system on a plane of nonconstant curvature. We find the Lie point symmetries that correspond to the nonlocal symmetries (also reinterpreted as λ-symmetries) of the Riccati chain.
Flavour Physics and Implication for New Phenomena
Isidori, Gino
2016-10-01
Flavour physics represents one of the most interesting and, at the same time, less understood sector of the Standard Theory. On the one hand, the peculiar pattern of quark and lepton masses, and their mixing angles, may be the clue to some new dynamics occurring at high-energy scales. On the other hand, the strong suppression of flavour-changing neutral-current processes, predicted by the Standard Theory and confirmed by experiments, represents a serious challenge to extend the Theory. This article reviews both these aspects of flavour physics from a theoretical perspective.
Topological observables in many-flavour QCD
Aoki, Yasumichi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi
2016-01-01
SU(3) gauge theory with eight massless flavours is believed to be walking, while the corresponding twelve- and four-flavour appear IR-conformal and confining respectively. Looking at the simulations performed by the LatKMI collaboration of these theories, we use the topological susceptibility as an additional probe of the IR dynamics. By drawing a comparison with SU(3) pure gauge theory, we see a dynamical quenching effect emerge at larger number of flavours, which is suggestive of emerging near-conformal and conformal behaviour.
Precision physics with heavy-flavoured hadrons
Koppenburg, Patrick
2015-01-01
The understanding of flavour dynamics is one of the key aims of elementary particle physics. The last 15 years have witnessed the triumph of the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism, which describes all flavour changing transitions of quarks in the Standard Model. This important milestone has been reached owing to a series of experiments, in particular to those operating at the so-called $B$ factories, at the Tevatron, and now at the LHC. We briefly review status and perspectives of flavour physics, highlighting the results where the LHC has given the most significant contributions, notably including the recent observation of the $B_s^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay.
The origin of discrete symmetries in F-theory models
2015-01-01
While non-abelian groups are undoubtedly the cornerstone of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), phenomenology shows that the role of abelian and discrete symmetries is equally important in model building. The latter are the appropriate tool to suppress undesired proton decay operators and various flavour violating interactions, to generate a hierarchical fermion mass spectrum, etc. In F-theory, GUT symmetries are linked to the singularities of the elliptically fibred K3 manifolds; they are of ADE ...
A{sub 4} family symmetry and quark-lepton unification
King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sfk@hep.phys.soton.ac.uk; Malinsky, Michal [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: malinsky@phys.soton.ac.uk
2007-02-15
We present a model of quark and lepton masses and mixings based on A{sub 4} family symmetry, a discrete subgroup of an SO(3) flavour symmetry, together with Pati-Salam unification. It accommodates tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing via constrained sequential dominance with a particularly simple vacuum alignment mechanism emerging through the effective D-term contributions to the scalar potential.
Seiberg duality versus hidden local symmetry
Abel, Steven
2012-01-01
It is widely believed that the emergent magnetic gauge symmetry of SQCD is analogous to a hidden local symmetry (HLS). We explore this idea in detail, deriving the entire (spontaneously broken) magnetic theory by applying the HLS formalism to spontaneously broken SU(N) SQCD. We deduce the K\\"ahler potential in the HLS description, and show that gauge and flavour symmetry are smoothly restored along certain scaling directions in moduli space. We propose that it is these symmetry restoring directions, associated with the R-symmetry of the theory, that allow full Seiberg duality. Reconsidering the origin of the magnetic gauge bosons as the rho-mesons of the electric theory, colour-flavour locking allows a simple determination of the parameter "a". Its value continuously interpolates between a=2 on the baryonic branch of moduli space - corresponding to "vector meson dominance" - and a=1 on the mesonic branch. Both limiting values are consistent with previous results in the literature. The HLS formalism is further...
Double Heavy Flavour Production at LHCb
Li, Yiming
2017-01-01
This proceeding summarises the latest LHCb results on associated heavy flavour productions, including double charm production and associated bottomonia and charm production. This article belongs to the Topical Collection “New Observables in Quarkonium Production”.
Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview
P C Vinodkumar
2014-11-01
A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.
Dynamics of Non-supersymmetric Flavours
Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan
2013-01-01
We continue investigating the effect of the back-reaction by non-supersymmetric probes in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein model. In the limit when the back-reaction is small, we discuss physical properties of the back-reacted geometry. We further introduce additional probe flavours in this back-reacted geometry and study in detail the phase structure of this sector when a constant electromagnetic field or a chemical potential are present. We find that the Landau pole, which serves as the UV cut-off of the background geometry, also serves as an important scale in the corresponding thermodynamics of the additional flavour sector. We note that since this additional probe flavours are indistinguishable from the back-reacting flavours, the results we obtain point to a much richer phase structure of the system.
b-flavour tagging in pp collisions
Birnkraut, Alex
2015-01-01
An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.
WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry
Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Starkman, Glenn, E-mail: mstuke@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: glenn.starkman@case.edu [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States)
2012-03-01
We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)
Minimal Flavour Violation and Anomalous Top Decays
Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas
2013-01-01
Top quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the standard model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon "flavour". However, current flavour data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavour structure can be expected in the TeV scale. In turn, if there is "new physics" at the TeV scale, it must be "minimally flavour violating". This has become a widely accepted assumption for "new physics" models. In this paper we propose a way to test the concept of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged $Wtq$, $q\\in\\{d,s,b\\}$, and flavour-changing $Vtq$, $q\\in\\{u,c\\}$ and $V\\in\\{Z,\\gamma,g\\}$, couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e. in a model independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II), under the assumption that the top-q...
Comparing dualities and gauge symmetries
De Haro, Sebastian; Teh, Nicholas; Butterfield, Jeremy N.
2017-08-01
We discuss some aspects of the relation between dualities and gauge symmetries. Both of these ideas are of course multi-faceted, and we confine ourselves to making two points. Both points are about dualities in string theory, and both have the 'flavour' that two dual theories are 'closer in content' than you might think. For both points, we adopt a simple conception of a duality as an 'isomorphism' between theories: more precisely, as appropriate bijections between the two theories' sets of states and sets of quantities. The first point (Section 3) is that this conception of duality meshes with two dual theories being 'gauge related' in the general philosophical sense of being physically equivalent. For a string duality, such as T-duality and gauge/gravity duality, this means taking such features as the radius of a compact dimension, and the dimensionality of spacetime, to be 'gauge'. The second point (Sections 4-6) is much more specific. We give a result about gauge/gravity duality that shows its relation to gauge symmetries (in the physical sense of symmetry transformations that are spacetime-dependent) to be subtler than you might expect. For gauge theories, you might expect that the duality bijections relate only gauge-invariant quantities and states, in the sense that gauge symmetries in one theory will be unrelated to any symmetries in the other theory. This may be so in general; and indeed, it is suggested by discussions of Polchinski and Horowitz. But we show that in gauge/gravity duality, each of a certain class of gauge symmetries in the gravity/bulk theory, viz. diffeomorphisms, is related by the duality to a position-dependent symmetry of the gauge/boundary theory.
Quark flavour mixing with right-handed currents: an effective theory approach
Buras, Andrzej J; Isidori, Gino
2010-01-01
The impact of right-handed currents in both charged- and neutral-current flavour-violating processes is analysed by means of an effective theory approach. More explicitly, we analyse the structure of dimension-six operators assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group, commuting with an underlying $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ global symmetry, broken only by two Yukawa couplings. The model contains a new unitary matrix controlling flavour-mixing in the right-handed sector. We determine the structure of this matrix by charged-current data, where the tension between inclusive and exclusive determinations of $|V_{ub}|$ can be solved. Having determined the size and the flavour structure of right-handed currents, we investigate how they would manifest themselves in neutral current processes, including particle-antiparticle mixing, $Z\\to b \\bar b$, $B_{s,d}\\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $B\\to {Xs,K,K*} \
Heavy Flavour Electron Elliptic Flow
Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto
Due to the large mass of the Charm and Beauty quarks, they are c reated in the very first moments of the ultra-high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions taking place at the CERN LHC, therefore, they should be unaware of the geome try of the colli- sion system and carry no azimuthal anisotropies. Similarly , the energy loss via gluon radiation for these massive quarks should be suppressed, th e so-called dead cone ef- fect. Although the observation of elliptic flow in the electro ns produced through the semileptonic decay of these heavy mesons is an indirect meas urement, throughout this thesis it will be shown that a strong correlation exists between the momentum anisotropy of the mother and daughter particles. In the low t ransverse momentum region such measurement would establish whether or not the s ystem reaches local thermal equilibrium. While at large transverse momentum, t he observation of collec- tivity for the heavy flavours can be understood only if the col lisional and radiative in-medium interaction...
A Grand {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5) Flavour Model
King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.luhn@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Stuart, Alexander J., E-mail: a.stuart@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2013-02-11
Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of {theta}{sub 13} Almost-Equal-To 9 Degree-Sign . This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5), together with a U(1) Multiplication-Sign Z{sub 3} symmetry, including a full discussion of {Delta}(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: {theta}{sub 23} Almost-Equal-To 36.9 Degree-Sign , {theta}{sub 12} Almost-Equal-To 32.7 Degree-Sign and {theta}{sub 13} Almost-Equal-To 9.6 Degree-Sign , in good agreement with recent global fits, and a zero Dirac CP phase {delta} Almost-Equal-To 0.
Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models
Bonilla, Cesar; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner
2017-03-01
We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ - e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.
Perspectives for Detecting Lepton Flavour Violation in Left-Right Symmetric Models
Bonilla, Cesar; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner
2016-01-01
We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as $\\mu-e$ conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating $\\tau$-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in t...
Checking Flavour Models at Neutrino Facilities
Meloni, Davide
2013-01-01
In the recent years, the industry of model building has been the subject of the intense activity, especially after the measurement of a relatively large values of the reactor angle. Special attention has been devoted to the use of non-abelian discrete symmetries, thanks to their ability of reproducing some of the relevant features of the neutrino mixing matrix. In this paper, we consider two special relations between the leptonic mixing angles, arising from models based on S4 and A4, and study whether, and to which extent, they can be distinguished at superbeam facilities, namely T2K, NOvA and T2HK.
2006-01-01
The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC'workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays'and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...
2006-01-01
The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC' workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays' and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...
The supersymmetric flavour problem in 5D GUTs and its consequences for LHC phenomenology
Bruemmer, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fichet, S.; Kraml, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2011-09-15
We study supersymmetric models with a GUT-sized extra dimension, where both the Higgs fields and the SUSY breaking hidden sector are localized on a 4D brane. Exponential wave function profiles of the matter fields give rise to hierarchical structures in the Yukawa couplings and soft terms. Such structures can naturally explain hierarchical fermion masses and mixings, while at the same time alleviating the supersymmetric flavour problem. We discuss two sources of supersymmetry breaking, radion mediation and brane fields, and perform a detailed numerical analysis, thoroughly taking into account the proliferation of unknown O(1) coefficients that occurs in this class of models. It turns out that additional assumptions on supersymmetry breaking are necessary to evade the stringent experimental bounds on lepton flavour violation. The favourable regions of parameter space are then examined with regards to their LHC phenomenology. They generically feature heavy gluinos and squarks beyond current bounds. Lepton flavour violation in SUSY cascade decays can give interesting signatures. (orig.)
Voisin, Claire
1999-01-01
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...
Häring, Reto Andreas
1993-01-01
The representations of the observable algebra of a low dimensional quantum field theory form the objects of a braided tensor category. The search for gauge symmetry in the theory amounts to finding an algebra which has the same representation category. In this paper we try to establish that every quantum field theory satisfying some basic axioms posseses a weak quasi Hopf algebra as gauge symmetry. The first step is to construct a functor from the representation category to the category of finite dimensional vector spaces. Given such a functor we can use a generalized reconstruction theorem to find the symmetry algebra. It is shown how this symmetry algebra is used to build a gauge covariant field algebra and we investigate the question why this generality is necessary.
Neutrino mass sum rules and symmetries of the mass matrix
Gehrlein, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Spinrath, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)
2017-05-15
Neutrino mass sum rules have recently gained again more attention as a powerful tool to discriminate and test various flavour models in the near future. A related question which has not yet been discussed fully satisfactorily was the origin of these sum rules and if they are related to any residual or accidental symmetry. We will address this open issue here systematically and find previous statements confirmed. Namely, the sum rules are not related to any enhanced symmetry of the Lagrangian after family symmetry breaking but they are simply the result of a reduction of free parameters due to skillful model building. (orig.)
Implications of lepton flavour violation on long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments
Soumya, C
2016-01-01
Non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs), the sub-leading effects in the flavour transitions of neutrinos, play a crucial role in the determination of the various unknowns in neutrino oscillations, such as neutrino mass hierarchy, Dirac CP violating phase and the octant of atmospheric mixing angle. In view of the recent experimental observation of several lepton flavor universality (LFU) violating observables in $B$ decays, we study the possible implications of these interactions in the determination of various neutrino oscillation parameters. We consider the model with an additional $Z'$ boson (which is quite successful in explaining the observed LFU anomalies) and analyze its effect in the lepton flavour violating (LFV) $\\tau$ decays, i.e., $\\tau^- \\to e^- e^+ e^-$ and $\\tau^- \\to e^- \\pi^0$. From the present upper bounds of these decay rates, we obtain the constraints on the new physics parameters, which are related to the corresponding NSI parameters in the neutrino sector by $SU(2)_L$ symmetry. These ne...
Study of baryon number and lepton flavour violation in the new minimal supersymmetric SO(10)GUT
Kaur, Charanjit
2015-01-01
We study the so-called new minimal supersymmetric SO(10) GUT(NMSGUT) where explicit spontaneous symmetry breaking allows determination of superheavy spectrum and thus threshold corrections to the effective MSSM couplings. This provides a generic mechanism to resolve the long standing super fast proton decay in Susy GUTs. We estimate lepton flavor violation associated with realistic charged fermion and (Type I seesaw) neutrino fit and show compatibility with baryon number and lepton flavour violation limits. We improve NMSGUT fits by including important loop corrections to sparticle spectra. Our fits use 5 GUT compatible soft supersymmetry breaking parameters of the Supergravity with Non-Universal Higgs Masses(SUGRY-NUHM) type. We calculate the full two loop NMSGUT gauge-Yukawa beta functions to study feasibility of the NUHM parameters via strong renormalization of SO(10) Higgs soft masses. Focus on MSSM Higgs allows formulation of a "Yukawonification" strategy for gauged flavour unification.
New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice
Sommer, R. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)
2009-06-15
Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)
Spontaneous CP violation and Non-Abelian Family Symmetry in SUSY
Ross, Graham G; Vives, O; Ross, Graham G.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana; Vives, Oscar
2004-01-01
We analyse the properties of generic models based on an SU(3) family symmetry providing a full description of quark charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixing angles. We show that a precise fit of the resulting fermion textures is consistent with CP being spontaneously broken in the flavour sector. The CP violating phases are determined by the scalar potential and we discuss how symmetries readily lead to a maximal phase controlling CP violation in the quark sector. In a specific model the CP violation to be expected in the neutrino sector is related to that in the quark sector and we determine this relation for two viable models. In addition to giving rise to the observed structure of quark and lepton masses this class of model solves both the CP and flavour problems normally associated with supersymmetric models. The flavour structure of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms is controlled by the family symmetry and we analyse some of the related phenomenological implications.
Generalised geometrical CP violation in a T′ lepton flavour model
Girardi, Ivan [SISSA/INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Meroni, Aurora [SISSA/INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Roma Tre,Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Petcov, S.T. [SISSA/INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); IPMU, University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Spinrath, Martin [SISSA/INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2014-02-12
We analyse the interplay of generalised CP transformations and the non-Abelian discrete group T′ and use the semi-direct product G{sub f}=T′⋊H{sub CP}, as family symmetry acting in the lepton sector. The family symmetry is shown to be spontaneously broken in a geometrical manner. In the resulting flavour model, naturally small Majorana neutrino masses for the light active neutrinos are obtained through the type I see-saw mechanism. The known masses of the charged leptons, lepton mixing angles and the two neutrino mass squared differences are reproduced by the model with a good accuracy. The model allows for two neutrino mass spectra with normal ordering (NO) and one with inverted ordering (IO). For each of the three spectra the absolute scale of neutrino masses is predicted with relatively small uncertainty. The value of the Dirac CP violation (CPV) phase δ in the lepton mixing matrix is predicted to be δ≅π/2 or 3π/2. Thus, the CP violating effects in neutrino oscillations are predicted to be maximal (given the values of the neutrino mixing angles) and experimentally observable. We present also predictions for the sum of the neutrino masses, for the Majorana CPV phases and for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay. The predictions of the model can be tested in a variety of ongoing and future planned neutrino experiments.
Flavour-Violating Gluino and Squark Decays
Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC; Porod, Werner; /Wurzburg U.
2010-06-11
We consider scenarios with large flavour violating entries in the squark mass matrices focusing on the mixing between second and third generation squarks. These entries govern both, flavour violating low energy observables on the one hand and squark and gluino decays on the other hand. We first discuss the constraints on the parameter space due to the recent data on B mesons from the B factories and Tevatron. We then consider flavour violating squark and gluino decays and show that they can still be typically of order 10% despite the stringent constraints from low energy data. Finally we briefly comment on the impact for searches and parameter determinations at future collider experiments such as the upcoming LHC or a future International Linear Collider.
Leading Particle Production in Light Flavour Jets
Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
2000-01-01
The energy distribution and type of the particle with the highest momentum in quark jets are determined for each of the five quark flavours making only minimal model assumptions. The analysis is based on a large statistics sample of hadronic Z0 decays collected with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider. These results provide a basis for future studies of light flavour production at other centre-of-mass energies. We use our results to study the hadronisation mechanism in light flavour jets and compare the data to the QCD models JETSET and HERWIG. Within the JETSET model we also directly determine the suppression of strange quarks to be gamma_s=0.422+-0.049 (stat.)+-0.059 (syst.) by comparing the production of charged and neutral kaons in strange and non-strange light quark events. Finally we study the features of baryon production.
Minimal flavour violation and SU(5)-unification
Barbieri, Riccardo, E-mail: barbieri@sns.it; Senia, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.senia@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy)
2015-12-17
Minimal flavour violation in its strong or weak versions, based on U(3){sup 3} and U(2){sup 3}, respectively, allows suitable extensions of the standard model at the TeV scale to comply with current flavour constraints in the quark sector. Here we discuss considerations analogous to minimal flavour violation (MFV) in the context of SU(5)-unification, showing the new effects/constraints that arise both in the quark and in the lepton sector, where quantitative statements can be made controlled by the CKM matrix elements. The case of supersymmetry is examined in detail as a particularly motivated example. Third generation sleptons and neutralinos in the few hundred GeV range are shown to be compatible with current constraints.
The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology
Blanke, Monika
2009-07-24
Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb{sub L} anti b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K{sup 0} - anti K{sup 0} mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B{sub s} - anti B{sub s} system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)
An expert system for automated flavour matching - Prioritizer
Silva, Bárbara Santos; Tøstesen, Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin
2017-01-01
Flavour matching can be viewed as trying to reproduce a specific flavour. This is a time consuming task and may lead to flavour mixtures that are too complex or too expensive to be commercialized. In order to facilitate the matching, we have developed a new mathematical model, called Prioritizer....
LHCb New algorithms for Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment
Fazzini, Davide
2016-01-01
The Flavour Tagging technique allows to identify the B initial flavour, required in the measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems. The identification performances at LHCb are further enhanced thanks to the contribution of new algorithms.
Heavy-flavour production in ALICE
Sakai, Shingo
2014-06-15
We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.
New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.
Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A
2015-06-01
As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kaons in flavour tagged B decays
Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Bittner, M.; Eckstein, P.; Paulini, M. G.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.
1994-09-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II, flavour-dependent kaon production in B meson decays has been studied. Using the leptons as flavour tags, it has been possible to separately measure the multiplicities of K +, K - and K {/s 0} in inclusive B decays and in semileptonic B decays. The kaon production in semileptonic B decays was further used to estimate the ratio of charmed decays over all decays, and thus also the fraction of charmless B decays.
Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS
Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration
2013-01-01
ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.
SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure
Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration
2013-11-15
We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.
Zuelicke, U
2012-01-01
The most fundamental characteristics of a physical system can often be deduced from its behaviour under discrete symmetry transformations such as time reversal, parity and chirality. Here we review basic symmetry properties of the relativistic quantum theories for free electrons in (2+1)- and (1+1)-dimensional spacetime. Additional flavour degrees of freedom are necessary to properly define symmetry operations in (2+1) dimensions and are generally present in physical realisations of such systems, e.g., in single sheets of graphite. We find that there exist two possibilities for defining any flavour-coupling discrete symmetry operation of the two-flavour (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory. Physical implications of this duplicity are discussed.
General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks
De Causmaecker, Karen; Herrmann, Bjoern; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja
2015-01-01
We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks
Causmaecker, Karen De [Theoretische Natuurkunde, IIHE/ELEM and International Solvay Institutes,Vrije Universiteit Brussel,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Fuks, Benjamin [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005 Paris (France); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/Département Recherches Subatomiques,Université de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Herrmann, Björn [LAPTh, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS,9 Chemin de Bellevue, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon,CNRS, UMR 5574, Saint-Genis Laval Cedex, F-69561 (France); Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allée d’Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Physics Department, CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); O’Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg,D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Sekmen, Sezen [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Strobbe, Nadja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University,Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, 60510-5011 (United States)
2015-11-19
We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Safety evaluation of natural flavour complexes
Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Hall, R.L.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.
2004-01-01
Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is
Safety evaluation of natural flavour complexes
Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Hall, R.L.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.
2004-01-01
Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is
Working group report: Collider and flavour physics
Debajyoti Choudhury; Asesh K Datta; Anirban Kundu
2009-01-01
The activities of the working group took place under two broad subgroups: Collider Physics subgroup and Flavour Physics subgroup. Reports on some of the projects undertaken are included. Also, some of the leading discussions organized by the working group are summarized.
Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.
Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.
1996-01-01
Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects o
The Revival of Kaon Flavour Physics
Buras, Andrzej J
2016-01-01
After years of silence we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade the revival of kaon flavour physics. This is not only because of the crucial measurements of the branching ratios for the rare decays $K^+\\to\\pi^+\
OFF-FLAVOURS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
Oğuz GÜRSOY
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Flavour is the main factor determining the purchase of food and it also effects to consumer preferences. Therefore, flavour problems usually come to light as a result of consumers' complaints, and flavour defects in food are a major cause of consumer rejection of the food product including milk and milk products. Flavour and off-flavour in milk and milk products have been the subject of active research in the last decade; there have been developments in the analytical techniques used to monitor flavour development, flavour and off-flavour compounds in many dairy product have now been investigated. The chemicals responsible for unacceptable flavours in milk and milk products can originate incidental contamination from environmental sources, from animal feeding, from chemical reactions occuring within the food material itself and from other sources. The objectives of this paper comprise, after definitions, summarizing the possible sources and specific compounds of off-flavours, and discussing different approaches for off-flavour concept in milk and dairy products.
Cern Academic Training programme 2011 - Flavour Physics and CP Violation
PH Department
2011-01-01
LECTURE SERIES 4, 5, 6 and 7 April 2011 Flavour Physics and CP Violation Dr. Yosef Nir (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 11:00-12:00 - 4, 6 and 7 April - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant 5 April - Bldg. 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor The B-factories have led to significant progress in our understanding of CP violation and of flavour physics. Yet, two flavour puzzles remain. The standard model flavour puzzle is the question of why there is smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters. The new physics flavour puzzle is the question of why TeV-scale new physics was not signalled in flavour changing neutral current processes. The high pT experiments, ATLAS and CMS, are likely to shed light on these puzzles. As concerns CP violation, the LHC will lead to progress on the puzzle of the baryon asymmetry as well.
Flavour Covariant Transport Equations: an Application to Resonant Leptogenesis
Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele
2014-01-01
We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena, by deriving Markovian master equations that describe the time-evolution of particle number densities in a statistical ensemble with arbitrary flavour content. As an application of this general formalism, we study flavour effects in a scenario of resonant leptogenesis (RL) and obtain the flavour-covariant evolution equations for heavy-neutrino and lepton number densities. This provides a complete and unified description of RL, capturing three relevant physical phenomena: (i) the resonant mixing between the heavy-neutrino states, (ii) coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, and (iii) quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. To illustrate the importance of this formalism, we numerically solve the flavour-covariant rate equations for a minimal RL model and show that the total lepton asymmetry can be enhanced up to one order of magnitude, as compared to that obtained from flavour-diagonal or partially ...
Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John
2008-01-01
In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…
SUGRA new inflation with Heisenberg symmetry
Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco, E-mail: f.cefala@unibas.ch, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2013-10-01
We propose a realisation of ''new inflation'' in supergravity (SUGRA), where the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected by a Heisenberg symmetry. Inflation can be associated with a particle physics phase transition, with the inflaton being a (D-flat) direction of Higgs fields which break some symmetry at high energies, e.g. of GUT Higgs fields or of Higgs fields for flavour symmetry breaking. This is possible since compared to a shift symmetry, which is usually used to protect a flat inflaton potential, the Heisenberg symmetry is compatible with a (gauge) non-singlet inflaton field. In contrast to conventional new inflation models in SUGRA, where the predictions depend on unknown parameters of the Kaehler potential, the model with Heisenberg symmetry makes discrete predictions for the primordial perturbation parameters which depend only on the order n at which the inflaton appears in the effective superpotential. The predictions for the spectral index n{sub s} can be close to the best-fit value of the latest Planck 2013 results.
SUGRA New Inflation with Heisenberg Symmetry
Antusch, Stefan
2013-01-01
We propose a realisation of 'new inflation' in supergravity (SUGRA), where the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected by a Heisenberg symmetry. Inflation can be associated with a particle physics phase transition, with the inflaton being a (D-flat) direction of Higgs fields which break some symmetry at high energies, e.g. of GUT Higgs fields or of Higgs fields for flavour symmetry breaking. This is possible since compared to a shift symmetry, which is usually used to protect a flat inflaton potential, the Heisenberg symmetry is compatible with a (gauge) non-singlet inflaton field. In contrast to conventional new inflation models in SUGRA, where the predictions depend on unknown parameters of the K"ahler potential, the model with Heisenberg symmetry makes discrete predictions for the primordial perturbation parameters which depend only on the order n at which the inflaton appears in the effective superpotential. The predictions for the spectral index n_s can be close to the best-fit value of the lates...
Dark matter and lepton flavour violation in a hybrid neutrino mass model
Deppisch, Frank; Huang, Wei-Chih [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,Gower Street, London (United Kingdom)
2015-01-14
We describe a hybrid model in which the light neutrino mass matrix receives both tree-level seesaw and loop-induced contributions. An additional U(1) gauge symmetry is used to stabilize the lightest right-handed neutrino as the Dark Matter candidate. After fitting the experimental neutrino data, we analyze and correlate the phenomenological consequences of the model, namely its impact on electroweak precision measurements, the Dark Matter relic abundance, lepton flavour violating rare decays and neutrinoless double beta decay. We find that natural realizations of the model characterized by large Yukawa couplings are compatible with and close to the current experimental limits.
Non-Abelian family symmetries as portals to dark matter
Varzielas, I. de Medeiros [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield SO17 1BJ, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fischer, O. [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2016-01-27
Non-Abelian family symmetries offer a very promising explanation for the flavour structure in the Standard Model and its extensions. We explore the possibility that dark matter consists in fermions that transform under a family symmetry, such that the visible and dark sector are linked by the familons - Standard Model gauge singlet scalars, responsible for spontaneously breaking the family symmetry. We study three representative models with non-Abelian family symmetries that have been shown capable to explain the masses and mixing of the Standard Model fermions. One of our central results is the possibility to have dark matter fermions and at least one familon with masses on and even below the experimentally accessible TeV scale. In particular we discuss the characteristic signatures in collider experiments from light familon fields with a non-Abelian family symmetry, and we show that run I of the LHC is already testing this class of models.
Horizontal Symmetry: Bottom Up and Top Down
Lam, C S
2011-01-01
A group-theoretical connection between horizontal symmetry $\\G$ and fermion mixing is established, and applied to neutrino mixing. The group-theoretical approach is consistent with a dynamical theory based on $U(1)\\times \\G$, but the dynamical theory can be used to pick out the most stable mixing that purely group-theoretical considerations cannot. A symmetry common to leptons and quarks is also discussed. This higher symmetry picks $A_4$ over $S_4$ to be the preferred symmetry for leptons.
Anatomy of flavour-changing Z couplings in models with partial compositeness
Straub, David M
2013-01-01
In models with partially composite quarks, the couplings of quarks to the Z boson generically receive non-universal corrections that are not only constrained by electroweak precision tests but also lead to flavour-changing neutral currents at tree level. The impact of these flavour-changing couplings on rare K and B decays is studied in two-site models for three scenarios: an anarchic strong sector with two different choices of fermion representations both leading to a custodial protection of the Z->bb coupling, and for a strong sector invariant under a U(2)^3 flavour symmetry. In the complete numerical analysis, all relevant constraints from Delta(F)=2 processes are taken into account. In all scenarios, visible effects in rare K and B decays like K->pi nu anti-nu, B(s)->mu+mu- and B->K*mu+mu- are possible that can be scrutinized experimentally in the near future. Characteristic correlations between observables allow to distinguish the different cases. To sample the large parameter space of the anarchic model...
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
Kirstin Peters
2010-11-01
Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.
Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns
Cebola, Luis M.; Emmanuel-Costa, David [Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez [Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)
2016-03-15
We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the 3σ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and for the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given. (orig.)
Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns
Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez
2016-01-01
We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the $3\\sigma$ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given.
Quark flavour mixing with right-handed currents: An effective theory approach
Buras, Andrzej J. [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Arcisstrasse 21, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Gemmler, Katrin [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Isidori, Gino, E-mail: isidori@lnf.infn.i [TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Arcisstrasse 21, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)
2011-02-01
The impact of right-handed currents in both charged- and neutral-current flavour-violating processes is analysed by means of an effective theory approach. More explicitly, we analyse the structure of dimension-six operators assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group, commuting with an underlying SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub B-L} global symmetry, broken only by two Yukawa couplings. The model contains a new unitary matrix controlling flavour-mixing in the right-handed sector. We determine the structure of this matrix by charged-current data, where the tension between inclusive and exclusive determinations of {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} can be solved. Having determined the size and the flavour structure of right-handed currents, we investigate how they would manifest themselves in neutral current processes, including particle-antiparticle mixing, Z{yields}bb-bar, B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, B{yields}{l_brace}X{sub s},K,K{sup *}{r_brace}{nu}{nu}-bar, and K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}-bar decays. The possibility to explain a non-standard CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing in this context, and the comparison with other predictive new-physics frameworks addressing the same problem, is also discussed. While a large S{sub {psi}{phi}} asymmetry can easily be accommodated, we point out a tension in this framework between {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} and S{sub {psi}}K.
Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb
INSPIRE-00258787
2012-01-01
At the Moriond QCD conference LHCb has presented results on heavy flavour production and spectroscopy. Here the latest results are discussed, which include the first observation and measurement of the branching fraction of the hadronic decay $B^+_e \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$, the mass measurement of the excited B mesons and the mass measurement of the $\\Xi_b$ and $\\Omega_b$ baryons.
Searches for lepton flavour violation at ATLAS
Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Lepton flavour violation (LFV) is a striking signature of potential beyond the Standard Model physics. Searches for LFV with the ATLAS detector are reported in channels focusing on the decay of the Higgs boson, the Z boson and of a heavy neutral gauge boson, Z', using pp collisions data with a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV.
Towards Four-Flavour Dynamical Simulations
Herdoiza, Gregorio
2010-01-01
The inclusion of physical effects from sea quarks has been one of the main advances in lattice QCD simulations over the last few years. We report on recent studies with four flavours of dynamical quarks and address some of the potential issues arising in this new setup. First results for physical observables in the light, strange and charm sectors are presented together with the status of dedicated simulations to perform the non-perturbative renormalisation in mass-independent schemes.
Some theoretical issues in heavy flavour physics
Amol Dighe
2012-11-01
Some of the recent developments in heavy flavour physics will be reviewed. This will include an update on some of the Standard Model predictions, and a summary of recent measurements that may indicate the presence of new physics (NP). The focus will be on selected models of NP that are indicated by the anomalies in the current data. Observables that can potentially yield signatures of specific physics beyond the Standard Model will be pointed out.
Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom
Paulini, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); CDF and D0 Collaborations
1997-01-01
We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{bar B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given. 38 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.
Towards four-flavour dynamical simulations
Herdoiza, Gregorio [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Inst. de Fiscia Teorica
2011-03-15
The inclusion of physical effects from sea quarks has been one of the main advances in lattice QCD simulations over the last few years. We report on recent studies with four flavours of dynamical quarks and address some of the potential issues arising in this new setup. First results for physical observables in the light, strange and charm sectors are presented together with the status of dedicated simulations to perform the non-perturbative renormalisation in mass-independent schemes. (orig.)
Lepton flavour violation in the RS model
Moch, Paul; Beneke, Martin [Physik Department T31, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rohrwild, Juergen [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2015-07-01
We consider charged lepton flavour observables in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model with and without custodial protection.To this end, we apply a fully five dimensional (5D) framework to calculate the matching coefficients of the effective field theory at the electroweak scale. This enables us to compute predictions for the radiative decay μ → eγ as well as the decay μ → 3e and μ → e conversion in nuclei.
Neutrino-flavoured sneutrino dark matter
March-Russell, John; McCabe, Christopher; McCullough, Matthew
2010-03-01
A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique ‘smoking gun’ signature — sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of ν μ and ν τ (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of the parameter space through both elastic and inelastic scattering. We show in detail that the observed neutrino masses and mixings can arise as a consequence of supersymmetry breaking effects in the sneutrino DM sector, consistent with all experimental constraints.
Neutrino-Flavoured Sneutrino Dark Matter
March-Russell, John; McCullough, Matthew
2010-01-01
A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique `smoking gun' signature--sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of nu_mu and nu_tau (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of...
Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model
Antusch, Stefan; Maurer, Vinzenz; Sluka, Constantin
2014-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric SU(5) x A_4 flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in arXiv:1305.6612 - in particular the relation theta_13^PMNS = theta_C / sqrt(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.
Flavour Condensate and the Dark Sector of the Universe
Tarantino, Walter
2012-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the development of a nonperturbative quantum field theoretical approach to flavour physics, with special attention to cosmological applications. Neutrino flavour oscillation is nowadays a fairly well-established experimental fact. However, the formulation of flavour oscillations in a relativistic field theoretical framework presents non-trivial difficulties. A nonperturbative approach for building flavour states has been proposed by Blasone, Vitiello and coworkers. The formalism implies a non-trivial physical vacuum (called "flavour vacuum"), which might act as a source of Dark Energy. Furthermore, such a vacuum has been recognized as the effective vacuum state arising in the low energy limit of a string theoretical model, D-particle Foam Model. In the attempt of probing the observable phenomenology of the D-particle foam model, a simple toy model (two scalars with mixing \\`a la Blasone & Vitiello on a adiabatically expanding background) has been studied, proving that the flavour...
Dark matter within the minimal flavour violation ansatz
Lopez-Honorez, Laura
2013-01-01
Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis can provide an attractive framework for Dark Matter (DM). We consider scalar DM candidates carrying flavour quantum numbers and whose representation under the flavour group guarantees DM stability. They interact with the Standard Model fields through Higgs portal at renormalisable level and also to quarks through dimension-6 operators. We provide a systematic analysis of the viable parameter space for the DM fields, which are triplet of the flavour group, considering several DM-quark interactions. In this framework, we analyse in which cases the viable parameter space differs from Higgs portal models thanks to the underlying flavour structure. In contrast to minimal Higgs portal scenarios, we find that light DM in the GeV mass range as well as heavier candidates above Higgs resonance could be allowed by colliders, direct and indirect DM detection searches as well as flavour constraints. The large mass regime above the top mass could even be beyond the reach of future exper...
Bimaximal neutrino mixing and weak complementarity with S4 discrete symmetry
Merlo, Luca
2009-01-01
The neutrino oscillation data are well explained by the tri-bimaximal pattern. Recently a paper appeared showing that also the bimaximal pattern could be a very good starting point in order to describe the lepton mixing. In this paper I review both the flavour structures and then I present an explicit model based on the discrete symmetry group S4.
Joshipura, Anjan S
2010-01-01
The charged fermion mass matrices are always invariant under $U(1)^3$ symmetry linked to the fermion number transformation. A class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDM) can be identified by requiring that the definition of this symmetry in an arbitrary weak basis be independent of Higgs parameters such as the ratio of the Higgs vacuum expectation values. The tree level flavour changing neutral currents normally present in 2HDM are absent in this class of models but unlike the type I or type II Higgs doublet models, the charged Higgs couplings in these models contain additional flavour dependent CP violating phases. These phases can account for the recent hints of the beyond standard model CP violation in the $B_d$ and $B_s$ mixing. In particular, there is a range of parameters in which new phases do not contribute to the $K$ meson CP violation but give identical new physics contribution to the $B_d$ and $B_s$ meson mixing. Specific model realizations of the above scenario are briefly discussed.
Feynman Rules in the Type III Natural Flavour-Conserving Two-Higgs Doublet Model
Lin, C; Yang, Y W; Lin, Chilong; Lee, Chien-er; Yang, Yeou-Wei
1994-01-01
We consider a two Higgs-doublet model with $S_3$ symmetry, which implies a $\\pi \\over 2$ rather than 0 relative phase between the vacuum expectation values $$ and $$. The corresponding Feynman rules are derived accordingly and the transformation of the Higgs fields from the weak to the mass eigenstates includes not only an angle rotation but also a phase transformation. In this model, both doublets couple to the same type of fermions and the flavour-changing neutral currents are naturally suppressed. We also demonstrate that the Type III natural flavour-conserving model is valid at tree-level even when an explicit $S_3$ symmetry breaking perturbation is introduced to get a reasonable CKM matrix. In the special case $\\beta = \\alpha$, as the ratio $\\tan\\beta = {v_2 \\over v_1}$ runs from 0 to $\\infty$, the dominant Yukawa coupling will change from the first two generations to the third generation. In the Feynman rules, we also find that the charged Higgs currents are explicitly left-right asymmetric. The ratios ...
arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Kamenik, J.F.
2016-01-01
These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.
Leptonic minimal flavour violation in warped extra dimensions
Abhishek M Iyer; Sudhir K Vempati
2012-10-01
Lepton mass hierarchies and lepton flavour violation are revisited in the framework of Randall–Sundrum models. Models with Dirac-type as well as Majorana-type neutrinos are considered. The five-dimensional -parameters are fit to the charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixings using 2 minimization. Leptonic flavour violation is shown to be large in these cases. Schemes of minimal flavour violation are considered for the cases of an effective LLHH operator and Dirac neutrinos and are shown to significantly reduce the limits from lepton flavour violation.
Flavour tagging of $b$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb
Mueller, Vanessa
2016-01-01
Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed $b$ hadrons, is essential for precision measurements of decay time-dependent $CP$ violation and of mixing parameters in the the neutral $B$ meson systems. LHC's $pp$ collisions with their high track multiplicities constitute a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of $CP$ violation measurements in decays of $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons.
Peters, Kirstin
2010-01-01
A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...
Peters, Kirstin; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.10
2010-01-01
A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that \\pimix (the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than \\pisep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from \\pimix into \\pisep. We...
Flavour covariant transport equations: An application to resonant leptogenesis
P.S. Bhupal Dev
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena, by deriving Markovian master equations that describe the time-evolution of particle number densities in a statistical ensemble with arbitrary flavour content. As an application of this general formalism, we study flavour effects in a scenario of resonant leptogenesis (RL and obtain the flavour-covariant evolution equations for heavy-neutrino and lepton number densities. This provides a complete and unified description of RL, capturing three distinct physical phenomena: (i the resonant mixing between the heavy-neutrino states, (ii coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, and (iii quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. To illustrate the importance of this formalism, we numerically solve the flavour-covariant rate equations for a minimal RL model and show that the total lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by up to one order of magnitude, as compared to that obtained from flavour-diagonal or partially flavour off-diagonal rate equations. Thus, the viable RL model parameter space is enlarged, thereby enhancing further the prospects of probing a common origin of neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe at the LHC, as well as in low-energy experiments searching for lepton flavour and number violation. The key new ingredients in our flavour-covariant formalism are rank-4 rate tensors, which are required for the consistency of our flavour-mixing treatment, as shown by an explicit calculation of the relevant transition amplitudes by generalizing the optical theorem. We also provide a geometric and physical interpretation of the heavy-neutrino degeneracy limits in the minimal RL scenario. Finally, we comment on the consistency of various suggested forms for the heavy-neutrino self-energy regulator in the lepton-number conserving limit.
A supersymmetric grand unified theory of flavour with PSL{sub 2}(7)xSO(10)
King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.luhn@soton.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2010-06-11
We construct a realistic Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on PSL{sub 2}(7)xSO(10), where the quarks and leptons in the 16 of SO(10) are assigned to the complex triplet representation of PSL{sub 2}(7), while the flavons are assigned to a combination of sextets and anti-triplets of PSL{sub 2}(7). Using a D-term vacuum alignment mechanism, we require the flavon sextets of PSL{sub 2}(7) to be aligned along the 3-3 direction leading to the third family Yukawa couplings, while the flavon anti-triplets describe the remaining Yukawa couplings. Other sextets are aligned along the neutrino flavour symmetry preserving directions leading to tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing via a type II see-saw mechanism, with predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology.
Exclusive search for supersymmetry with same-flavour di-lepton final states with the ATLAS detector
Boehler, Michael
2012-06-15
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. It introduces a new symmetry between fermions and bosons by adding a bosonic superpartner to each SM fermion and a fermionic one to a each SM boson. If an excess of SUSY like signal is observed, SUSY particle properties (e.g. masses or mass differences) must be measured in order to determine the underlying SUSY parameters. Therefore, exclusive SUSY decay cascades with two leptons in the final state are isolated by the flavour subtraction method, in order to fit the endpoint of the invariant mass distribution of these leptons and determine SUSY particle mass differences. This analysis uses a data sample collected during the first half of 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} of {radical}(s)=7 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Since no significant same flavour excess is observed, the variable S, which is the measure of a same-flavour excess, is used to determine model-independent and model-dependent limits for different SUSY scenarios. The tightest limits can be set for models expecting exactly two opposite-sign same-flavour leptons and missing transverse momentum larger than 250 GeV. Assuming no combinatorial SUSY background events from different decay chains (ll'), models with di-lepton decays (ll) with SUSY same-flavour excess S{sub s} {>=}4.5 can be excluded at 95% CL. Considering a combinatorial SUSY background contribution with a ratio BR(ll')/BR(ll)=50% (100%) models with S{sub s}{>=}5.5(6.7) can be excluded at 95% CL. For the GMSB model with a slepton NLSP, this translates into a limit of the GMSB parameter {lambda}=40 TeV exceeding the current LEP limits.
Production and spectroscopy in heavy flavour
Maevskiy, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A wide programme of studies of heavy flavour production at the LHC is performed with the ATLAS detector. This paper covers recent results in measurements of pair $b$-quark production, di-$J/\\psi$ production cross-section and effective cross-section from double parton scattering. Studies on the production of $\\psi(2S)$ and $X(3872)$ are presented as well. Paper also covers the measurement of $J/\\psi$-meson non-prompt production fraction and $B^\\pm$-meson mass reconstruction.
Heavy flavour decay properties with ATLAS
Carli, Ina; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
We present the results on CP-violation searches in the Bs system, studied in the decay into J/psi phi, and the Bd system through the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state J/psi K* and in the CP eigenstate J/psi KS. We additionally present new results in the search for the rare decays of Bs and Bd into mu+mu-. These searches are based on the full sample of data collected by ATLAS at 7 and 8 TeV collision energy. The consistency with the SM and with other available measurements is discussed.
New Physics Search in Flavour Physics
Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC
2006-01-04
With the running B, kaon and neutrino physics experiments, flavour physics takes centre stage within today's particle physics. We discuss the opportunities offered by these experiments in our search for new physics beyond the SM and discuss their complementarity to collider physics. We focus on rare B and kaon decays, highlighting specific observables in an exemplary mode. We also comment on the so-called B {yields} {pi}{pi} and B {yields} K{pi} puzzles. Moreover, we briefly discuss the restrictive role of long-distance strong interactions and some new tools such as QCD factorization and SCET to handle them.
Test of lepton flavour universality at LHCb
Lionetto, Federica
2016-01-01
This contribution presents the $R_D{\\ast}$ and $R_K$ measurements, which are a clean probe of lepton flavour universality, and the angular analyses of the $B^0 \\to K^\\ast {0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to K^\\ast{0} ~e^+ e^-$ decays, which allow to search for New Physics in rare decays proceeding through ${\\text a} ~b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ transition. All measurements have been performed by the LHCb collaboration using the full statistics of LHC Run I. An overview of the ongoing and future measurements is given in the conclusions.
Lepton flavour universality violation from composite muons
Stangl, Peter
2015-01-01
We describe a possibility to explain the $2.6\\sigma$ deviation from lepton flavour universality observed by the LHCb collaboration in $B^+\\to K^+\\ell^+\\ell^-$ decays in the context of minimal composite Higgs models. We find that a sizable degree of compositeness of partially composite muons can lead to a good agreement with the experimental data. Our construction predicts a new physics contribution to $B_s$-$\\bar{B}_s$ mixing. Additionally, it accounts for the deficit in the invisible $Z$ width measured at LEP.
Minimal flavour violation and multi-Higgs models
Botella, F.J., E-mail: fbotella@uv.e [Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C., E-mail: gustavo.branco@cern.c [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rebelo, M.N., E-mail: margarida.rebelo@cern.c [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2010-04-12
We propose an extension of the hypothesis of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) to general multi-Higgs models without the assumption of Natural Flavour Conservation (NFC) in the Higgs sector. We study in detail under what conditions the neutral Higgs couplings are only functions of V{sub CKM} and propose a MFV expansion for the neutral Higgs couplings to fermions.
B flavour tagging using charm decays at the LHCb experiment
Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.
2015-01-01
An algorithm is described for tagging the flavour content at production of neutral B mesons in the LHCb experiment. The algorithm exploits the correlation of the flavour of a B meson with the charge of a reconstructed secondary charm hadron from the decay of the other b hadron produced in the proton
Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions
Braun, Svende Annelies
2015-01-01
This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.
Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1.
Blanke, Monika; Buras, Andrzej J; Recksiegel, Stefan
2016-01-01
The Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. The latter originate in the interactions of ordinary quarks and leptons with heavy mirror quarks and leptons that are mediated by new heavy gauge bosons. Also a heavy fermionic top partner is present in this model which communicates with the SM fermions by means of standard [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] gauge bosons. We present a new analysis of quark flavour observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare K and B decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. Taking into account the constraints from [Formula: see text] processes, significant departures from the SM predictions for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are possible, while the effects in B decays are much smaller. In particular, the LHT model favours [Formula: see text], which is not supported by the data, and the present anomalies in [Formula: see text] decays cannot be explained in this model. With the recent lattice and large N input the imposition of the [Formula: see text] constraint implies a significant suppression of the branching ratio for [Formula: see text] with respect to its SM value while allowing only for small modifications of [Formula: see text]. Finally, we investigate how the LHT physics could be distinguished from other models by means of indirect measurements and
Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1
Blanke, Monika; Buras, Andrzej J.; Recksiegel, Stefan
2016-04-01
The Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. The latter originate in the interactions of ordinary quarks and leptons with heavy mirror quarks and leptons that are mediated by new heavy gauge bosons. Also a heavy fermionic top partner is present in this model which communicates with the SM fermions by means of standard W^± and Z^0 gauge bosons. We present a new analysis of quark flavour observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare K and B decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes K^+→ π ^+ν bar{ν }, KL→ π ^0ν bar{ν }, K_L→ μ ^+μ ^-, B→ X_sγ , B_{s,d}→ μ ^+μ ^-, B→ K^{(*)}ℓ ^+ℓ ^-, B→ K^{(*)}ν bar{ν }, and \\varepsilon '/\\varepsilon . Taking into account the constraints from Δ F=2 processes, significant departures from the SM predictions for K^+→ π ^+ν bar{ν } and KL→ π ^0ν bar{ν } are possible, while the effects in B decays are much smaller. In particular, the LHT model favours B(Bs→ μ ^+μ ^-) ≥ B(Bs→ μ ^+μ ^-)_SM, which is not supported by the data, and the present anomalies in B→ K^{(*)}ℓ ^+ℓ ^- decays cannot be explained in this model. With the recent lattice and large N input the imposition of the \\varepsilon '/\\varepsilon constraint implies a significant suppression of the branching ratio for KL→ π ^0ν bar{ν } with respect to its SM value while allowing only for small modifications of K^+→ π ^+ν bar{ν }. Finally, we investigate how the LHT physics could be distinguished from other models by means of
Approaching Minimal Flavour Violation from an SU(5)×S{sub 4}×U(1) SUSY GUT
Dimou, Maria; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen,Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2016-02-18
We show how approximate Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) can emerge from an SU(5) Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (SUSY GUT) supplemented by an S{sub 4}×U(1) family symmetry, which provides a good description of all quark and lepton (including neutrino) masses, mixings and CP violation. Assuming a SUSY breaking mechanism which respects the family symmetry, we calculate in full explicit detail the low energy mass insertion parameters in the super-CKM basis, including the effects of canonical normalisation and renormalisation group running. We find that the very simple family symmetry S{sub 4}×U(1) is sufficient to approximately reproduce the effects of low energy MFV.
Update of the flavour-physics constraints in the NMSSM
Domingo, Florian [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica (UAM/CSIC), Madrid (Spain)
2016-08-15
We consider the impact of several flavour-changing observables in the B- and the Kaon sectors on the parameter space of the NMSSM, in a minimal flavour violating version of this model. Our purpose consists in updating our previous results in [4] and designing an up-to-date flavour test for the public package NMSSMTools. We provide details concerning our implementation of the constraints in a series of brief reviews of the current status of the considered channels. Finally, we present a few consequences of these flavour constraints for the NMSSM, turning to two specific scenarios: one is characteristic of the MSSM-limit and illustrates the workings of charged-Higgs and genuinely supersymmetric contributions to flavour-changing processes; the second focus is a region where a light CP-odd Higgs is present. Strong limits are found whenever an enhancement factor - large tanβ, light H{sup ±}, resonant pseudoscalar - comes into play. (orig.)
Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.
Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M
2016-03-01
Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.
CP and other Symmetries of Symmetries
Trautner, Andreas
2016-01-01
Outer automorphisms of symmetries ("symmetries of symmetries") in relativistic quantum field theories are studied, including charge conjugation (C), space-reflection (P) , and time-reversal (T) transformations. The group theory of outer automorphisms is pedagogically introduced and it is shown that CP transformations are special outer automorphisms of the global, local, and space-time symmetries of a theory. It is shown that certain discrete groups allow for a group theoretical prediction of parameter independent CP violating complex phases with fixed geometrical values. The remainder of this thesis pioneers the study of outer automorphisms which are not related to C, P, or T. It is shown how outer automorphisms, in general, relate symmetry invariants and, in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking, imply relations between different vacuum expectation values. Thereby, outer automorphisms can give rise to emergent symmetries. An example model with a discrete symmetry and three copies of the Standard Model ...
Minimal flavour violations and tree level FCNC
Joshipura, Anjan S
2007-01-01
Consequences of a specific class of two Higgs doublet models in which the Higgs induced tree level flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) display minimal flavour violation (MFV) are considered. These FCNC are fixed in terms of the CKM matrix elements and the down quark masses. The minimal model in this category with only two Higgs doublets has no extra CP violating phases but such a phase can be induced by adding a complex singlet. Many of the theoretical predictions are similar to other MFV scenario. The FCNC contribute significantly to $B$ meson mixing and CP violation. Detailed numerical analysis to determine the allowed Higgs contributions to neutral meson mixings and the CKM parameters $\\bar{\\rho},\\bar{\\eta}$ in their presence is presented. The Higgs induced phase in the $B^0_{d,s}-\\bar{B}^0_{d,s}$ transition amplitude $M_{12}^{d,s}$ is predicted to be equal for the $B_d$ and the $B_s$ systems. There is a strong correlation between phases in $M_{12}^{d,s}$ and $|V_{ub}|$. A measurable CP violating phas...
Henley, E.M.
1981-09-01
Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces. (GHT)
Four-Fermion Theories with Exact Chiral Symmetry in Three Dimensions
Schmidt, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas
2016-01-01
We investigate a class of four-fermion theories which includes well-known models like the Gross-Neveu model and the Thirring model. In three spacetime dimensions, they are used to model interesting solid state systems like high temperature superconductors and graphene. Additionally, they serve as toy models to study chiral symmetry breaking (CSB). For any number of fermion flavours the Gross-Neveu model has a broken and a symmetric phase, while the existence of a broken phase in the Thirring model depends on the number of flavours. The critical number of fermion flavours beyond which there exists no CSB is still subject of ongoing discussions. Using SLAC fermions we simulate the Thirring model with exact chiral symmetry. To obtain a chiral condensate one can introduce a symmetry-breaking mass term and carefully study the limits of infinite lattice and zero-mass. So far, we did not see CSB within this approach for the Thirring model with 2 or more (reducible) flavours. The talk presents alternative approaches ...
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in particle physics
Tsou, ST
1998-01-01
Symmetry, in particular gauge symmetry, is a fundamental principle in theoretical physics. It is intimately connected to the geometry of fibre bundles. A refinement to the gauge principle, known as ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'', leads to one of the most successful theories in modern particle physics. In this short talk, I shall try to give a taste of this beautiful and exciting concept.
Dynamical fermion mass hierarchy and flavour mixing
Luest, D.; Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G.
1984-08-01
The chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations produces dynamical breaking of the standard electroweak gauge symmetry. By enlarging the colour group and subsequently breaking it down to SU(3)sub(c) fermions acquire radiative masses from the chiral breaking. We present attempts to produce realistic fermion mass matrix in two classes of models depending on the way that the colour group is enlarged. A realistic example is found in one of these classes of models.
Modelling the effect of oil/fat content in food systems on flavour absorption by LLDPE.
Dekker, M.; Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.
2003-01-01
One of the phenomena in food packaging interactions is flavour absorption. Absorption of flavour compounds from food products into food-packaging materials can result in loss of flavour compounds or an unbalance in the flavour profile changing a product's quality. The food matrix influences the amou
SPheno 3.1: extensions including flavour, CP-phases and models beyond the MSSM
Porod, W.; Staub, F.
2012-11-01
high scale parameters by evaluating the corresponding renormalisation group equations. These parameters must be consistent with the requirement of correct electroweak symmetry breaking. The second issue is to use the obtained masses and couplings for calculating decay widths and branching ratios of supersymmetric particles as well as the cross sections for these particles in electron-positron annihilation. The third issue is to calculate low energy constraints in the B-meson sector such as BR(b s), MB s, rare lepton decays, such as BR(e), the SUSY contributions to anomalous magnetic moments and electric dipole moments of leptons, the SUSY contributions to the ρ parameter as well as lepton flavour violating Z decays. Solution method: The renormalisation connecting a high scale and the electroweak scale is calculated by the Runge-Kutta method. Iteration provides a solution consistent with the multi-boundary conditions. In case of three-body decays and for the calculation of initial state radiation Gaussian quadrature is used for the numerical solution of the integrals. Reasons for new version: Inclusion of new models as well as additional observables. Moreover, a new standard for data transfer had been established, which is now supported. Summary of revisions: The already existing models have been extended to include also CP-violation and flavour mixing. The data transfer is done using the so-called SLHA2 standard. In addition new models have been included: all three types of seesaw models as well as bilinear R-parity violation. Moreover, additional observables are calculated: branching ratios for flavour violating lepton decays, EDMs of leptons and of the neutron, CP-violating mass difference in the B-meson sector and branching ratios for flavour violating b-quark decays. Restrictions: In case of R-parity violation the cross sections are not calculated. Running time: 0.2 seconds on an Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU T9900 with 3.06 GHz
Comparing Dualities and Gauge Symmetries
De Haro, Sebastian; Butterfield, Jeremy N
2016-01-01
We discuss some aspects of the relation between dualities and gauge symmetries. Both of these ideas are of course multi-faceted, and we confine ourselves to making two points. Both points are about dualities in string theory, and both have the 'flavour' that two dual theories are 'closer in content' than you might think. For both points, we adopt a simple conception of a duality as an 'isomorphism' between theories: more precisely, as appropriate bijections between the two theories' sets of states and sets of quantities. The first point (Section 3) is that this conception of duality meshes with two dual theories being 'gauge related' in the general philosophical sense of being physically equivalent. For a string duality, such as T-duality and gauge/gravity duality, this means taking such features as the radius of a compact dimension, and the dimensionality of spacetime, to be 'gauge'. The second point (Sections 4, 5 and 6) is much more specific. We give a result about gauge/gravity duality that shows its rela...
A tale of two cones: the Higgs Branch of Sp(n) theories with 2n flavours
Ferlito, Giulia
2016-01-01
The purpose of this short note is to highlight a particular phenomenon which concerns the Higgs branch of a certain family of 4d N = 2 theories with SO(2N) flavour symmetry. By studying the Higgs branch as an algebraic variety through Hilbert series techniques we find that it is not a single hyperkahler cone but rather the union of two cones with intersection a hyperkahler subvariety which we specify. This remarkable phenomenon is not only interesting per se but plays a crucial role in understanding the structure of all Higgs branches that are generated by mesons.
Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.05.023
2011-01-01
A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep -> mu X and ep -> tau X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s} = 319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb^-1 of e^+ p and 166 pb^-1 of e^- p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e^+- p collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively.
Heavy flavour decay properties with ATLAS
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00235989; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
We present the results on CP-violation searches in the $B_s$ system, studied in the $B_s\\rightarrow J/\\psi \\phi$ decay and the $B_d$ system through the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state $J/\\psi\\ K^*$ and in the CP eigenstate $J/\\psi\\ K_s$. We also present new results in the search for the rare decays of $B_d$ and $B_s$ into $\\mu^+\\mu^-$. All results are based on the full sample of data collected during LHC Run 1 by ATLAS at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The consistency with the SM and with other available measurements is discussed.
The warped, resolved, deformed conifold gets flavoured
Gaillard, Jerome; Nunez, Carlos; Papadimitriou, Ioannis
2011-01-01
We discuss a simple transformation that allows to generate SU(3) structure solutions of Type IIB supergravity with RR fluxes, starting from non-Kahler solutions of Type I supergravity. The method may be applied also in the presence of supersymmetric source branes. We apply this transformation to a solution describing fivebranes wrapped on the two-sphere of the resolved conifold with additional flavour fivebrane sources. The resulting solution is a generalisation of the resolved deformed conifold solution of Butti et al. by the addition of D5 brane and D3 brane sources. We propose that this solution may be interpreted in terms of a combined effect of Higgsing and cascade of Seiberg dualities in the dual field theory.
Jaffé, Hans H
1977-01-01
This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.
Lattice Regularization and Symmetries
Hasenfratz, Peter; Von Allmen, R; Allmen, Reto von; Hasenfratz, Peter; Niedermayer, Ferenc
2006-01-01
Finding the relation between the symmetry transformations in the continuum and on the lattice might be a nontrivial task as illustrated by the history of chiral symmetry. Lattice actions induced by a renormalization group procedure inherit all symmetries of the continuum theory. We give a general procedure which gives the corresponding symmetry transformations on the lattice.
Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry
Kleppe, Astri
2014-01-01
In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.
Kundu, Arnab
2010-01-01
Using the gauge-gravity duality we study strongly coupled dynamics of fundamental flavours in large N_c gauge theories in a constant external field. We primarily focus on the effects of an external magnetic field. We use two holographic models realized in the Type IIB and Type IIA supergravity and present a comparative case study. In both these models, by studying the dynamics of probe branes, we explicitly demonstrate and discuss the magnetically induced chiral symmetry breaking effect ("magnetic catalysis") in the flavour sector. We also study the associated thermodynamics and the meson spectrum and realize e.g. Zeeman splitting, stability enhancement of the mesons in the presence of an external magnetic field etc. By studying the quasinormal modes of the probe brane fluctuation in the hydrodynamic limit we also obtain an analytic dispersion relation in the presence of a magnetic field in the Type IIA model. This dispersion relation consists of a propagating sound mode in the otherwise diffusive channel and...
Van Isacker, P
2010-01-01
The use of dynamical symmetries or spectrum generating algebras for the solution of the nuclear many-body problem is reviewed. General notions of symmetry and dynamical symmetry in quantum mechanics are introduced and illustrated with simple examples such as the SO(4) symmetry of the hydrogen atom and the isospin symmetry in nuclei. Two nuclear models, the shell model and the interacting boson model, are reviewed with particular emphasis on their use of group-theoretical techniques.
Fast decaying neutrinos and observable flavour violation in a new class of majoron models
Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Valle, J. W. F.
1989-01-01
Neutrinos can have any mass (allowed by laboratory limits) without violating limits from cosmology, astrophysics or laboratory searches for lepton violation phenomena. We present a simple extension of the standard theory where neutrinos decay dominantly into invisible modes involving a majoron associated with the spontaneous violation of B-L symmetry due to physics at or below the electroweak scale. Measurable branchings for lepton-flavour-violating processes such as μ-->e+γ, and for non-standard Z decays e.g. Z-->e+τ, and Z-->μ+τ (plus their conjugates) at LEP are possible without unnatural fine-tuning of the parameters. Lepton-number-violating effects such as neutrinoless ββ decay may also be present at a measurable level.
Fast decaying neutrinos and observable flavour violation in a new class of majoron models
Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Valle, J.W.F.
1989-01-12
Neutrinos can have any mass (allowed by laboratory limits) without violating limits from cosmology, astrophysics or laboratory searches for lepton violation phenomena. We present a simple extension of the standard theory where neutrinos decay dominantly into invisible modes involving a majoron associated with the spontaneous violation of B-L symmetry due to physics at or below the electroweak scale. Measurable branchings for lepton-flavour-violating processes such as ..mu.. -> e+..gamma.., and for non-standard Z decays e.g. Z -> e+ anti tau and Z -> ..mu..+ anti tau (plus their conjugates) at LEP are possible without unnatural fine-tuning of the parameters. Lepton-number-violating effects such as neutrinoless ..beta beta.. decay may also be present at a measurable level.
The chiral phase transition for two-flavour QCD at imaginary and zero chemical potential
Bonati, Claudio; de Forcrand, Philippe; Philipsen, Owe; Sanfillippo, Francesco
2013-01-01
The chiral symmetry of QCD with two massless quark flavours gets restored in a non-analytic chiral phase transition at finite temperature and zero density. Whether this is a first-order or a second-order transition has not yet been determined unambiguously, due to the difficulties of simulating light quarks. We investigate the nature of the chiral transition as a function of quark mass and imaginary chemical potential, using staggered fermions on N_t=4 lattices. At sufficiently large imaginary chemical potential, a clear signal for a first-order transition is obtained for small masses, which weakens with decreasing imaginary chemical potential. The second-order critical line m_c(mu_i), which marks the boundary between first-order and crossover behaviour, extrapolates to a finite m_c(mu_i=0) with known critical exponents. This implies a definitely first-order transition in the chiral limit on relatively coarse, N_t=4 lattices.
Open heavy flavour production: conceptual framework and implementation issues
Tung Wuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Tung@pa.msu.edu; Kretzer, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, MI (United States)
2002-05-01
Heavy flavour production is an important quantum chromodynamics (QCD) process both in its own right and as a key component of precision global QCD analysis. Apparent disagreements between fixed-flavour scheme calculations of b-production rate with experimental measurements in hadro-, lepto- and photo-production provide new impetus for a thorough examination of the theory and phenomenology of this process. We review existing methods of calculation and place them in the context of the general perturbative QCD framework of Collins. A distinction is drawn between scheme dependence and implementation issues related to quark mass effects near threshold. We point out a so far overlooked kinematic constraint on the threshold behaviour, which greatly simplifies the variable flavour number scheme. This obviates the need for the elaborate existing prescriptions and leads to robust predictions. It can facilitate the study of current issues on heavy flavour production as well as precision global QCD analysis. (author)
Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe
Malbe, Marge, 1968-
2011-01-01
2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks
Flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra ' boson
S Sahoo; L Maharana
2004-09-01
New neutral gauge bosons ' are the features of many models addressing the physics beyond the standard model. Together with the existence of new neutral gauge bosons, models based on extended gauge groups (rank > 4) often predict new charged fermions also. A mixing of the known fermions with new states, with exotic weak-isospin assignments (left-handed singlets and right-handed doublets) will induce tree-level flavour-changing neutral interactions mediated by exchange, while if the mixing is only with new states with ordinary weak-isospin assignments, the flavour-changing neutral currents are mainly due to the exchange of the new neutral gauge boson '. We review flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra ' boson. Then we discuss some flavour-changing processes forbidden in the standard model and new contributions to standard model processes.
Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe
Malbe, Marge, 1968-
2011-01-01
2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks
Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods
Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine
2006-01-01
The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...... the approach developed by the “Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives” (JECFA) and referred to in Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000. First, the 2800 flavouring substances are divided into groups of structurally related substances. The Procedure is then a stepwise approach that integrates...
Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...
Rare decays of flavoured mesons at the LHC
Puig Navarro, Albert
2016-01-01
In absence of strong, direct signs of New Physics at the LHC, rare decays of heavy flavoured hadrons constitute an ideal laboratory for indirectly exploring energies beyond those of the LHC in order to look for deviations from the Standard Model. The main results regarding flavour changing neutral current transitions obtained at the LHC are presented here, with particular emphasis put on $b \\to s$ transitions, in which tensions with the Standard Model have been observed.
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XV
Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael
2012-08-01
Logo Bregenz, the peaceful monastery of Mehrerau and the Opera on the Floating Stage again provided the setting for the international symposium 'Symmetries in Science'. The series which has been running for more than 30 years brings together leading theoreticians whose area of research is, in one way or another, related to symmetry. Since 1992 the meeting took place biannually in Brengez until 2003. In 2009, with the endorsement of the founder, Professor Bruno Gruber, we succeeded in re-establishing the series without external funding. The resounding success of that meeting encouraged us to continue in 2011 and, following on the enthusiasm and positive feedback of the participants, we expect to continue in 2013. Yet again, our meeting in 2011 was very international in flavour and brought together some 30 participants representing 12 nationalities, half of them from countries outside the European Union (from New Zealand to Mexico, Russia to Israel). The broad spectrum, a mixture of experienced experts and highly-motivated newcomers, the intensive exchange of ideas in a harmonious and relaxed atmosphere and the resulting joint projects are probably the secrets of why this meeting is considered to be so special to its participants. At the resumption in 2009 some leading experts and younger scientists from economically weak countries were unable to attend due to the lack of financial resources. This time, with the very worthy and unbureaucratic support of the 'Vereinigung von Freunden und Förderern der J W Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main' (in short: 'Friends and Supporters of the Frankfurt University'), it was possible for all candidates to participate. In particular some young, inspired scientists had the chance of presenting their work to a very competent, but also friendly, audience. We wish to thank the 'Freunde und Förderer' for supporting Symmetries in Science XV. Almost all participants contributed to the publication of this Conference Proceedings. There
Czaban, Christopher
2016-01-01
QCD at zero baryon density in the limit of infinite quark mass undergoes a first order deconfinement phase transition at a critical temperature $T_c$ corresponding to the breaking of the global centre symmetry. In the presence of dynamical quarks this symmetry is explicitly broken. Lowering the quark mass the first order phase transition weakens and terminates in a second order Z(2) point. Beyond this line confined and deconfined regions are analytically connected by a crossover transition. As the continuum limit is approached (i.e. the lattice spacing is decreased) the region of first order transitions expands towards lower masses. We study the deconfinement critical point with standard Wilson fermions and $N_f=2$ flavours. To this end we simulate several kappa values on $N_\\tau=8$ and various aspect ratios in order to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit, applying finite size scaling. We estimate if and when a continuuum extrapolation is possible.
Scale-setting, flavor dependence, and chiral symmetry restoration
Binosi, Daniele; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, José
2017-06-01
We determine the flavor dependence of the renormalization-group-invariant running interaction through judicious use of both unquenched Dyson-Schwinger equation and lattice results for QCD's gauge-sector two-point functions. An important step is the introduction of a physical scale setting procedure that enables a realistic expression of the effect of different numbers of active quark flavours on the interaction. Using this running interaction in concert with a well constrained class of dressed-gluon-quark vertices, we estimate the critical number of active lighter-quarks above which dynamical chiral symmetry breaking becomes impossible: nfcr≈9 ; and hence in whose neighborhood QCD is plausibly a conformal theory.
Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena
2010-01-01
Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.
Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited
Salas, Pablo F. de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK),RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)
2016-07-28
We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N{sub eff}. We find a value of N{sub eff}=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), predicted in many theoretical models where neutrinos acquire mass. For two sets of NSI parameters allowed by present data, we find that N{sub eff} can be reduced down to 3.040 or enhanced up to 3.059.
Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited
de Salas, Pablo F
2016-01-01
We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N_eff. We find a value of N_eff=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), ...
Flavour singlets in gauge theory as Permutations
Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo
2016-01-01
Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group $SO(N_f)$ in $U(N_c)$ gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at $N_f =6$, belong to the scalar sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. A simple formula is given for the two-point functions in the free field limit of $g_{YM}^2 =0$. The free two-point functions are shown to be equal to the partition function on a 2-complex with boundaries and a defect, in a topological field theory of permutations. The permutation equivalence classes are Fourier transformed to a representation basis which is orthogonal for the two-point functions at finite $N_c , N_f$. Counting formulae for the gauge-invariant operators are described. The one-loop mixing matrix is derived as a linear operator on the permutation equivalence classes.
Rašin, Andrija
1994-01-01
We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.
Joe Rosen
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.
Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G
2016-05-15
This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-04-15
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Neutrinos and flavor symmetries
Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2015-07-01
We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.
Neutrinos and flavor symmetries
Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2015-07-15
We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.
Account of Nonpolynomial SU(3)-Breaking Effects By Use of Quantum Groups As Flavor Symmetries
Gavrilik, A M
1998-01-01
Using instead of ordinary flavour symmetries SU(n_f) their corresponding quantum (q-deformed) analogs yields new baryon mass sum rules of extreme accuracy. We show, in the 3-flavour case, that such approach accounts for highly nonlinear (nonpolynomial) SU(3)-breaking effects both in the octet and decuplet baryon masses. A version of this approach is considered that involves q-covariant ingredients in the mass operator. The resulting new 'q-deformed' mass relation (q-MR) is simpler than previously derived q-MRs, but requires, for its empirical validity, a fitting to fix the value of the deformation parameter q. Well-known Gell-Mann--Okubo (GMO) octet mass sum rule is found to result not only from usual SU(3), but also from some exotic symmetry corresponding to the q=-1 (i.e., singular) limit of the q-algebra U_q(su_3).
Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry
Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo
2013-01-01
Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…
Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry
Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo
2013-01-01
Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Metagenomics reveals flavour metabolic network of cereal vinegar microbiota.
Wu, Lin-Huan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zong-Min; Yu, Yong-Jian; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong
2017-04-01
Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86 201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.
Invariants and flavour in the general Two Higgs Doublet Model
Botella, F.J., E-mail: fbotella@uv.es [Departament de Física Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C., E-mail: gustavo.branco@cern.ch [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rebelo, M.N., E-mail: margarida.rebelo@cern.ch [Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2013-05-13
The flavour structure of the general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) is analysed and a detailed study of the parameter space is presented, showing that flavour mixing in the 2HDM can be parametrized by various unitary matrices which arise from the misalignment in flavour space between pairs of various Hermitian flavour matrices which can be constructed within the model. This is entirely analogous to the generation of the CKM matrix in the Standard Model (SM). We construct weak basis invariants which can give insight into the physical implications of any flavour model, written in an arbitrary weak basis (WB) in the context of 2HDM. We apply this technique to two special cases, models with MFV and models with NNI structures. In both cases non-trivial CP-odd WB invariants arise in a mass power order much smaller than what one encounters in the SM, which can have important implications for baryogenesis in the framework of the general 2HDM.
Bouwknegt, P G
1995-01-01
W-symmetry is an extension of conformal symmetry in two dimensions. Since its introduction in 1985, W-symmetry has become one of the central notions in the study of two-dimensional conformal field theory. The mathematical structures that underlie W-symmetry are so-called W-algebras, which are higher-spin extensions of the Virasoro algebra. This book contains a collection of papers on W-symmetry, covering the period from 1985 through 1993. Its main focus is the construction of W-algebras and their representation theory. A recurrent theme is the intimate connection between W-algebras and affine
Generalised Geometrical CP Violation in a $T^{\\prime}$ Lepton Flavour Model
Girardi, Ivan; Petcov, S T; Spinrath, Martin
2014-01-01
We analyse the interplay of generalised CP transformations and the non-Abelian discrete group $T^{\\prime}$ and use the semi-direct product $G_f= T^{\\prime}\\rtimes H_{\\text{CP}}$, as family symmetry acting in the lepton sector. The family symmetry is shown to be spontaneously broken in a geometrical manner. In the resulting flavour model, naturally small Majorana neutrino masses for the light active neutrinos are obtained through the type I see-saw mechanism. The known masses of the charged leptons, lepton mixing angles and the two neutrino mass squared differences are reproduced by the model with a good accuracy. The model allows for two neutrino mass spectra with normal ordering (NO) and one with inverted ordering (IO). For each of the three spectra the absolute scale of neutrino masses is predicted with relatively small uncertainty. The value of the Dirac CP violation (CPV) phase $\\delta$ in the lepton mixing matrix is predicted to be $\\delta \\cong \\pi/2~{\\rm or}~ 3\\pi/2$. Thus, the CP violating effects in ...
Mixed symmetry tensors in the worldline formalism
Corradini, Olindo; Edwards, James P.
2016-05-01
We consider the first quantised approach to quantum field theory coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. Representing the colour degrees of freedom with a single family of auxiliary variables the matter field transforms in a reducible representation of the gauge group which — by adding a suitable Chern-Simons term to the particle action — can be projected onto a chosen fully (anti-)symmetric representation. By considering F families of auxiliary variables, we describe how to extend the model to arbitrary tensor products of F reducible representations, which realises a U( F ) "flavour" symmetry on the world-line particle model. Gauging this symmetry allows the introduction of constraints on the Hilbert space of the colour fields which can be used to project onto an arbitrary irreducible representation, specified by a certain Young tableau. In particular the occupation numbers of the wavefunction — i.e. the lengths of the columns (rows) of the Young tableau — are fixed through the introduction of Chern-Simons terms. We verify this projection by calculating the number of colour degrees of freedom associated to the matter field. We suggest that, using the worldline approach to quantum field theory, this mechanism will allow the calculation of one-loop scattering amplitudes with the virtual particle in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group.
Neutrino Mass and Mixing with Discrete Symmetry
King, Stephen F
2013-01-01
This is a review article about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of seesaw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mec...
Mixed symmetry tensors in the worldline formalism
Corradini, Olindo
2016-01-01
We consider the first quantised approach to quantum field theory coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. Representing the colour degrees of freedom with a single family of auxiliary variables the matter field transforms in a reducible representation of the gauge group which - by adding a suitable Chern-Simons term to the particle action - can be projected onto a chosen fully (anti-)symmetric representation. By considering F families of auxiliary variables, we describe how to extend the model to arbitrary tensor products of F reducible representations, which realises a U(F) "flavour" symmetry on the worldline particle model. Gauging this symmetry allows the introduction of constraints on the Hilbert space of the colour fields which can be used to project onto an arbitrary irreducible representation, specified by a certain Young Tableau. In particular the occupation numbers of the wavefunction - i.e. the lengths of the columns (rows) of the Young Tableau - are fixed through the introduction of Chern-Simons terms....
The neutron EDM vs up and charm flavour violation
Sala, Filippo
2014-01-01
We derive a strong bound on the chromo-electric dipole moment of the charm quark, and we quantify its impact on models that allow for a sizeable flavour violation in the up quark sector. In particular we show how the constraints coming from the charm and up CEDMs limit the size of new physics contributions to direct flavour violation in D meson decays. We also specialize our analysis to the cases of split-families Supersymmetry and composite Higgs models. The results we expose motivate an increase in experimental sensitivity to fundamental hadronic dipoles, and a further exploration of the SM contribution to both flavour violating D decays and nuclear electric dipole moments.
Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs
Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Olive, Keith A. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Velasco-Sevilla, L. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics and Technology, PO Box 7803, Bergen (Norway)
2016-10-15
We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m{sub 0} specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m{sub 1/2} and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m{sub 0} may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity. (orig.)
Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2016-01-01
We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.
Inclusive tagging of B-flavour at LHCb [Vidyo
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
One of the most important procedure needed for the study of CP violation in Beauty sector is the tagging of the flavour of neutral B-mesons at production. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present a proposal to upgrade current flavour tagging strategy in LHCb experiment. This strategy consists of inclusive tagging ensemble methods (i.e: the use inclusive information about the event without a firm selection rule), which are combined using a probabilistic model for each event. The probabilistic model uses all reconstructed tracks and secondary vertices to obtain well-determined probability of B flavour at production. Such approach reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus has the potential to increase the overall performance.
Heavy flavour measurements with ALICE at the LHC
Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2010-07-01
ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)
Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter
D’Hondt, Jorgen; Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Onsem, Gerrit Van [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); DESY,Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2016-03-10
We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.
Flavoured quantum Boltzmann equations from cQPA
Fidler, Christian; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Rahkila, Pyry Matti
2011-01-01
We develop a Boltzmann-type quantum transport theory for interacting fermion and scalar fields including both flavour and particle-antiparticle mixing. Our formalism is based on the coherent quasiparticle approximation (cQPA) for the 2-point correlation functions, whose extended phase-space structure contains new spectral shells for flavour- and particle-antiparticle coherence. We derive explicit cQPA propagators and Feynman rules for the transport theory. In particular the nontrivial Wightman functions can be written as composite operators $\\sim {\\cal A} F {\\cal A}$, which generalize the usual Kadanoff-Baym ansatz. Our numerical results show that particle-antiparticle coherence can strongly influence CP-violating flavour mixing even for relatively slowly-varying backgrounds. Thus, unlike recently suggested, these correlations cannot be neglected when studying asymmetry generation due to time-varying mass transition, for example in electroweak-type baryogenesis models. Finally, we show that the cQPA coherence...
Universal Constraints on Low-Energy Flavour Models
Calibbi, Lorenzo; Pokorski, Stefan; Ziegler, Robert
2012-01-01
It is pointed out that in a general class of flavour models one can identify certain universally present FCNC operators, induced by the exchange of heavy flavour messengers. Their coefficients depend on the rotation angles that connect flavour and fermion mass basis. The lower bounds on the messenger scale are derived using updated experimental constraints on the FCNC operators. The obtained bounds are different for different operators and in addition they depend on the chosen set of rotations. Given the sensitivity expected in the forthcoming experiments, the present analysis suggests interesting room for discovering new physics. As the highlights emerge the leptonic processes, $\\mu\\rightarrow e\\gamma$, $\\mu\\rightarrow eee$ and $\\mu\\rightarrow e$ conversion in nuclei.
Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and beyond
Uhlig, S.L.
2008-01-07
We address to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in a framework that generalizes the quark minimal flavour violation hypothesis to the lepton sector. We study the impact of CP violation present at low and high energies and investigate the existence of correlations among leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation. Further we present an approach alternative to minimal flavour violation where the suppression of flavour changing transitions involving quarks and leptons is governed by hierarchical fermion wave functions. (orig.)
LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment
Falabella, A
2013-01-01
The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements in $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production ("Flavour Tagging") is fundamental. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. The performances of the flavour tagging algorithms on the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.
LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment
Falabella, A
2013-01-01
The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements of $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production is fundamental. This is known as "flavour tagging" and at LHCb it is performed with several algorithms. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. Also the performances of the flavour tagging algorithms in the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.
Bottom-Up Discrete Symmetries for Cabibbo Mixing
Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Talbert, Jim
2016-01-01
We perform a bottom-up search for discrete non-Abelian symmetries capable of quantizing the Cabibbo angle that parameterizes CKM mixing. Given a particular Abelian symmetry structure in the up and down sectors, we construct representations of the associated residual generators which explicitly depend on the degrees of freedom present in our effective mixing matrix. We then discretize those degrees of freedom and utilize the Groups, Algorithms, Programming (GAP) package to close the associated finite groups. This short study is performed in the context of recent results indicating that, without resorting to special model-dependent corrections, no small-order finite group can simultaneously predict all four parameters of the three-generation CKM matrix and that only groups of $\\mathcal{O}(10^{2})$ can predict the analogous parameters of the leptonic PMNS matrix, regardless of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. Therefore a natural model of flavour might instead incorporate small(er) finite groups...
Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter
Filip, Peter
2017-01-01
We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.
Checking flavour models at neutrino facilities
Meloni, Davide, E-mail: meloni@fis.uniroma3.it
2014-01-20
In the recent years, the industry of model building has been the subject of the intense activity, especially after the measurement of a relatively large values of the reactor angle. Special attention has been devoted to the use of non-abelian discrete symmetries, thanks to their ability of reproducing some of the relevant features of the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we consider two special relations between the leptonic mixing angles, arising from models based on S{sub 4} and A{sub 4}, and study whether, and to which extent, they can be distinguished at superbeam facilities, namely T2K, NOνA and T2HK.
Engels, W.J.M.
1997-01-01
Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour during the ripe
Engels, W.J.M.
1997-01-01
Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour duri
Engels, W.J.M.
1997-01-01
Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour
Event displays with heavy flavour jets from 2016 CMS data
CMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
A broad range of physics analyses at CMS rely on the efficient identification of heavy flavour jets. Identification of these objects is a challenging task, especially in the presence of a large number of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The presented summary contains a set of graphical displays of reconstructed events in data collected by CMS in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in 2016. The displays highlight the main properties of heavy flavour jets in several event topologies, including QCD multijet, top quark pair, W+c and boosted H to bb.
Impact of squark flavour violation on neutralino dark matter
Herrmann, Bjoern [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Univ. Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2011-06-15
We discuss the possibility of new sources of flavour violation in the squark sector of supersymmetric models in the context of the dark matter relic density. We show that the corresponding non-minimal flavour violation terms in the squark mass matrices can have an important impact on the thermally averaged (co)annihilation cross section of the neutralino, and in consequence can modify its predicted relic density. We discuss in detail the relevant effects and present a numerical study of neutralino annihilation and coannihilation in this context. We also comment on the LHC phenomenology of the corresponding scenarios. (orig.)
Heavy-flavour production in hot quark matter
Mischke, Andre
2010-01-01
Recent results from RHIC and first measurements from the ALICE experiment at the CERN-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on open heavy-flavour are presented. We focus on RHIC measurements of single electrons and jet-like heavy-flavour particle correlations. First D meson signals from 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in ALICE are discussed. Next-to-leading-order QCD processes, such as gluon splitting, become important at LHC energies and its contribution can be accesses by the measurement of the "charm content in jets".
Heavy-flavour and quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions
Rossi A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The comparison of heavy-flavour hadron production in proton-proton, proton-Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC offers the opportunity to investigate the properties of the high-density colour-deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter (Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP that is expected to be formed in high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei. A review of the main quarkonium and open heavy-flavour results obtained by the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments is presented.
Impact of squark flavour violation on neutralino dark matter
Herrmann, Björn; Boulc'h, Quentin Le
2011-01-01
We discuss the possibility of new sources of flavour violation in the squark sector of supersymmetric models in the context of the dark matter relic density. We show that the corresponding non-minimal flavour violation terms in the squark mass matrices can have an important impact on the thermally averaged (co)annihilation cross section of the neutralino, and in consequence can modify its predicted relic density. We discuss in detail the relevant effects and present a numerical study of neutralino annihilation and coannihilation in this context. We also comment on the LHC phenomenology of the corresponding scenarios.
Theory of electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation
Jung, Martin
2016-01-01
Electric dipole moments and charged-lepton flavour-violating processes are extremely sensitive probes for new physics, complementary to direct searches as well as flavour-changing processes in the quark sector. Beyond the "smoking-gun" feature of a potential significant measurement, however, it is crucial to understand their implications for new physics models quantitatively. The corresponding multi-scale problem of relating the existing high-precision measurements to fundamental parameters can be approached model-independently to a large extent; however, care must be taken to include the uncertainties from especially nuclear and QCD calculations properly.
Jagiellonian University Heavy flavour highlights from the LHCb
INSPIRE-00640989
2017-01-01
This document presents an overview of the flavour anomalies observed by the LHCb experiment. All results are based on the dataset collected during the full LHC Run 1 by the LHCb Collaboration. Measurements of branching fractions of several $b \\rightarrow sll$ decays are presented together with the angular analysis of $B^{0} \\rightarrow K∗ \\mu^{+}\\mu^{−}$ decays and the lepton flavour universality tests R(K) and R(D∗). In addition, a direct search for a new light scalar particle in the $B^{+} \\rightarrow K^{+}\\chi$ decay, with $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$, is presented.
Novel tomato flavours introduced by plastidial terpenoid pathway engineering.
Mollet, Beat; Niederberger, Peter; Pétiard, Vincent
2008-01-01
Until recently breeding efforts centred on high-yield production while sacrificing flavour and taste quality traits of mass produced food products, such as tomatoes. The recent publication of Davidovich-Rikanati et al. demonstrates the technical feasibility of the genetical engineering of pathways in tomato plants to modify their fruit flavour profile in a proof-of-concept approach. The reported work ranks among an increasing number of reported successful modifications of edible plants with a focus on the benefits to end-consumers.
ON THE NOETHER SYMMETRY AND LIE SYMMETRY OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
梅凤翔; 郑改华
2002-01-01
The Noether symmetry is an invariance of Hamilton action under infinitesimal transformations of time and the coordinates. The Lie symmetry is an invariance of the differential equations of motion under the transformations. In this paper, the relation between these two symmetries is proved definitely and firstly for mechanical systems. The results indicate that all the Noether symmetries are Lie symmetries for Lagrangian systems meanwhile a Noether symmetry is a Lie symmetry for the general holonomic or nonholonomic systems provided that some conditions hold.
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Di Filippo, Francesco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche “E.R. Caianiello”, Università di Salerno,I-84081 Fisciano (Italy); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2016-10-17
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-10-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
Barceló, Carlos; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent grav...
Optimization leads to symmetry
Chenghong WANG; Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG
2004-01-01
The science of complexity studies the behavior and properties of complex systems in nature and human society.Particular interest has been put on their certain simple common properties.Symmetry is one of such properties.Symmetric phenomena can be found in many complex systems.The purpose of this paper is to reveal the internal reason of the symmetry.Using some physical systems and geometric objects,the paper shows that many symmetries are caused by optimization under certain criteria.It has also been revealed that an evolutional process may lead to symmetry.
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Symmetries in atmospheric sciences
Bihlo, Alexander
2009-01-01
Selected applications of symmetry methods in the atmospheric sciences are reviewed briefly. In particular, focus is put on the utilisation of the classical Lie symmetry approach to derive classes of exact solutions from atmospheric models. This is illustrated with the barotropic vorticity equation. Moreover, the possibility for construction of partially-invariant solutions is discussed for this model. A further point is a discussion of using symmetries for relating different classes of differential equations. This is illustrated with the spherical and the potential vorticity equation. Finally, discrete symmetries are used to derive the minimal finite-mode version of the vorticity equation first discussed by E. Lorenz (1960) in a sound mathematical fashion.
Perinatal flavour learning and adaptation to being weaned: all the pig needs is smell.
Marije Oostindjer
Full Text Available Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment or control diet (Control treatment during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment or in the air (Air treatment after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P = 0.02 and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P<0.001. Salivary cortisol levels tended to be lower four and seven hours postweaning for Flavour piglets compared to Control piglets (4 hours: 2.5 versus 3.0 ng/ml, P = 0.05, 7 hours: 3.1 versus 3.4 ng/ml, P = 0.08. Flavour piglets played more and showed less damaging behaviours than Control piglets, indicating that the familiar flavour reduced stress around weaning. Few interaction effects were found between preweaning and postweaning treatment, and no effects of postweaning treatment. We conclude that in the newly weaned pig, perinatal flavour learning results in a reduction of stress when the familiar flavour is present, regardless of providing the flavour in the food or in the air.
Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries
Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.
2012-09-01
The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).
LHCb : Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at LHCb
Rives Molina, Vicente
2014-01-01
The observation of neutrino oscillations has re-opened the case for searches of lepton-flavour violating decays. We report on recent results on searches for short or long-lived Majorana heavy neutrinos in B&arr;μμπ and τ→μμμ decays
Effect of tomato pleiotropic ripening mutations on flavour volatile biosynthesis
Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.
2009-01-01
Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development a
A fuller flavour treatment of N_2-dominated leptogenesis
Antusch, Stefan; Jones, David A; King, Steve F
2010-01-01
We discuss N_2-dominated leptogenesis in the presence of flavour dependent effects that have hitherto been neglected, in particular the off-diagonal entries of the flavour coupling matrix that connects the total flavour asymmetries, distributed in different particle species, to the lepton and Higgs doublet asymmetries. We derive analytical formulae for the final asymmetry including the flavour coupling at the N_2-decay stage as well as at the stage of washout by the lightest right-handed neutrino N_1. We point out that in general part of the electron and muon asymmetries can completely escape the wash-out at the production and a total B-L asymmetry can be generated by the lightest RH neutrino wash-out yielding so called phantom leptogenesis. Taking of all these new effects into account can enhance the final asymmetry produced by the decays of the next-to-lightest RH neutrinos by orders of magnitude, opening up new interesting possibilities for N_2-dominated thermal eptogenesis. We illustrate these effects for...
Grand Unified Theories and Lepton-Flavour Violation
Lim, C S
1998-01-01
Lepton-flavour violating processes, such as $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$, are studied in ordinary (non-SUSY) SU(5) and SUSY SU(5) grand unified theories. First given are some introductory argument on the mechanism of U.V. divergence cancellation in flavour changing neutral current processes and on the decoupling of particles with GUT scale masses . We next see that such general argument is confirmed by an explicit calculation of the amplitude of $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$ in ordinary SU(5), which shows that logarithmic divergence really cancels among diagrams and remaining finite part are suppressed by at least $1/M_{GUT}^2$. In SUSY SU(5), flavour changing slepton mass-squared term get a logarithmic correction, as recently claimed. However, when the effect of flavour changing wave function renormalization is also taken into account such logarithmic correction turns out to disappear, provided a condition is met among SUSY breaking soft masses. In SUGRA-inspired SUSY GUT, such condition is not satisfied. But the remaining logarit...
Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)
Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.
1985-01-01
The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates
Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials
Willige, van R.W.G.
2002-01-01
Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,
Physicochemical parameters related to organoleptic properties of flavour components
Boelens, M.H.; Gemert, L.J. van
1986-01-01
Straight chain, saturated and unsarurated, aldehydes are important constituents of citrus fruit, dairy, vegetable, meat and other flavours. For instance, alkanals and 2-alkenals (C6 to C14) have been detected and quantified in Bitter Orange Oil. The organoleptic qualities and threshold values of the
Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)
Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.
1985-01-01
The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates
Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials
Willige, van R.W.G.
2002-01-01
Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception, sensory quality.Abso
The flavour of supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of sfermion mixing
Arana-Catania, M
2013-01-01
We study the phenomenological implications of sfermion flavour mixing in supersymmetry in the context of Non-Minimal Flavour Violation (NMFV). We study the general flavour mixing hypothesis, parametrizing the squark and slepton mass matrices by a complete set of delta^XY_ij (X,Y=L,R; i,j= t,c,u or b,s,d for squarks/1,2,3 for sleptons). With respect to the squark sector, we study the behaviour of the B-physics observables BR(B -> Xs gamma), BR(Bs -> mu+ mu-) and delta M_B_s and update the constraints to the delta parameters coming from them. We present one-loop corrections to the Higgs boson masses in the MSSM with NMFV in the squark sector, and taking into account the previous constraints we evaluate them, finding sizable corrections, exceeding sometimes tens of GeV for the light Higgs boson. These corrections might be used to set further constraints on the delta parameters from the Higgs boson mass measurement. With respect to the slepton sector, we explore the implications on charged lepton flavour violatin...
A taste of dark matter: flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators
Dolan, M.J.; Kahlhoefer, F.; McCabe, C.; Schmidt-Hoberg, K.
2015-01-01
Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing int
Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays
Straub, David Michael
2010-07-14
The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)
SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours
Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin;
2016-01-01
We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite (Golds...
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
2016-01-01
The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.
Schaft, A.J. van der
1987-01-01
It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal
Loebbert, Florian
2016-01-01
In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfeld's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dila...
Nicolis, Alberto
2011-01-01
For relativistic quantum field theories, we consider Lorentz breaking, spatially homogeneous field configurations or states that evolve in time along a symmetry direction. We dub this situation "spontaneous symmetry probing" (SSP). We mainly focus on internal symmetries, i.e. on symmetries that commute with the Poincare group. We prove that the fluctuations around SSP states have a Lagrangian that is explicitly time independent, and we provide the field space parameterization that makes this manifest. We show that there is always a gapless Goldstone excitation that perturbs the system in the direction of motion in field space. Perhaps more interestingly, we show that if such a direction is part of a non-Abelian group of symmetries, the Goldstone bosons associated with spontaneously broken generators that do not commute with the SSP one acquire a gap, proportional to the SSP state's "speed". We outline possible applications of this formalism to inflationary cosmology.
Supersymmetry and chiral symmetry
Walker, Michael Luke [Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics and College of Natural Sciences, Kyung-Hee University, KyongGi, Yong-In 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: m.walker@aip.org.au
2004-12-01
We dispute the nonperturbative non-renormalisation theorem stating that mass cannot be spontaneously generated in supersymmetric QED. Our analysis, which requires no truncation and is fully gauge and supersymmetry consistent, finds instead that there is no reason for the mass corrections to be exactly zero. We concede that an achiral solution is yet to be found. We also extend a long-standing perturbative result, that the effective potential is zero to all orders of perturbation theory, to the nonperturbative regime for arbitrary numbers of flavours. (author)
Partial Dynamical Symmetry as an Intermediate Symmetry Structure
Leviatan, A
2003-01-01
We introduce the notion of a partial dynamical symmetry for which a prescribed symmetry is neither exact nor completely broken. We survey the different types of partial dynamical symmetries and present empirical examples in each category.
E6 inspired SUSY models with exact custodial symmetry
Nevzorov, R
2012-01-01
The breakdown of E_6 gauge symmetry at high energies may result in supersymmetric (SUSY) models based on the Standard Model (SM) gauge group together with extra U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E_6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that can give rise to non--diagonal flavour transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete \\tilde{Z}^{H}_2 symmetry can be used to forbid tree--level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold GUT models that can lead to the E_6 inspired SUSY models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries that preserves E_6 matter parity assignment guarantees that the exotic states which originate from 27_i representations of E_6 as well as ordinary quark and lepton states survive to low energies. The considered E_6 inspired models contain at least two dark-matter candidates a...
Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of Relativistic Hamiltonian System
FANG Jian-Hui; YAN Xiang-Hong; LI Hong; CHEN Pei-Sheng
2004-01-01
The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the relativistic Hamiltonian system are studied. The definition and criterion of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the relativistic Hamiltonian system are given. The relationship between them is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.
Low-energy pi-pi and pi-K scatterings revisited in three-flavour resummed chiral perturbation theory
Descotes-Genon, S
2007-01-01
Chiral symmetry breaking may exhibit significantly different patterns in two chiral limits: N_f=2 massless flavours (m_u=m_d=0, m_s physical) and N_f=3 massless flavours (m_u=m_d=0=m_s=0). Such a difference may arise due to vacuum fluctuations of s-bar{s} pairs related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, and could yield a numerical competition between contributions counted as leading order and next-to-leading in the chiral expansions of observables. We recall and extend Resummed Chiral Perturbation Theory (ReChPT), a framework that we introduced previously to deal with such instabilities: it requires a more careful definition of the relevant observables and their one-loop chiral expansions. We analyse the amplitudes for low-energy pi-pi and pi-K scatterings within ReChPT, which we match in subthreshold regions with dispersive representations obtained from the solutions Roy and Roy-Steiner equations. Using a frequentist approach, we constrain the quark mass ratio as well as the quark conde...
Suppression of flavor violation in an A4 warped extra dimensional model
Kadosh, Avihay
2011-12-01
In an attempt to simultaneously explain the observed masses and mixing patterns of both quarks and leptons, we recently proposed a model (JHEP08(2010)115) based on the non abelian discrete flavor group A4, implemented in a custodial RS setup with a bulk Higgs. We showed that the standard model flavor structure can be realized within the zero mode approximation (ZMA), with nearly TBM neutrino mixing and a realistic CKM matrix with rather mild assumptions. An important advantage of this framework with respect to flavor anarchic models is the vanishing of the dangerous tree level KK gluon contribution to epsilonK and the suppression of the new physics one loop contributions to the neutron EDM, epsilon'/epsilon, b → Sγ and Higgs mediated flavor changing neutral curent (FCNC) processes. These results are obtained beyond the ZMA, in order to account for the the full flavor structure and mixing of the zero modes and first Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of all generations. The resulting constraints on the KK mass scale are shown to be significantly relaxed compared to the flavour anarchic case, showing explicitly the role of non abelian discrete flavor symmetries in relaxing flavor violation bounds within the RS setup. As a byproduct of our analysis we also obtain the same contributions for the custodial anarchic case with two SU(2)R doublets for each fermion generation.
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Mohanty, Subhendra
2003-01-01
In the minimal standard model it is possible to gauge any one of the following global symmetries in an anomaly free way: (i)$L_{e}-L_{\\mu}$, (ii) $L_{e}-L_{\\tau}$ or (iii) $L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau}$. If the gauge boson corresponding to (i) or (ii) is (nearly) massless then it will show up as a long range composition dependent fifth force between macroscopic objects. Such a force will also influence neutrino oscillations due to its flavour-dependence. We show that the latter effect is quite significant in spite of very strong constraints on the relevant gauge couplings from the fifth force experiments. In particular, the $L_{e}- L_{\\mu,\\tau}$ potential of the electrons in the Sun and the earth is shown to suppress the atmospheric neutrino $\
Leviatan, A
2010-01-01
This overview focuses on the notion of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS), for which a prescribed symmetry is obeyed by a subset of solvable eigenstates, but is not shared by the Hamiltonian. General algorithms are presented to identify interactions, of a given order, with such intermediate-symmetry structure. Explicit bosonic and fermionic Hamiltonians with PDS are constructed in the framework of models based on spectrum generating algebras. PDSs of various types are shown to be relevant to nuclear spectroscopy, quantum phase transitions and systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2015-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.
Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.
Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L
2016-04-01
Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes.
Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;
and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all five substances...
Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;
as flavouring substances, as these substances could not be evaluated because of concern with respect to genotoxicity. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 26 substances, the information is adequate....
The neutrino mass matrix and (selected) variants of A4
Martin Hirsch
2009-01-01
Recent neutrino oscillation experiments have measured leptonic mixing angles with considerable precision. Many theoretical attempts to understand the peculiar mixing structure, observed in these measurements, are based on non-Abelian flavour symmetries. This talk concentrates exclusively on models based on the non-Abelian symmetry 4 . 4 is particularly well suited to describe three family mixing, and allows to explain the near tri-bimaximal mixing observed. Special emphasis is put here on the discussion of the neutrinoless double beta decay observable $\\langle m_{} \\rangle$ . Different models based on 4 with very similar predictions for neutrino angles can yield vastly different expectations for $\\langle m_{} \\rangle$ . Neutrinoless double beta decay can thus serve, in principle, as a discriminator between different neutrino mass models.
Non-vanishing $U_{e3}$ and $\\cos{2 \\theta_{23}}$ from a broken $Z_2$ symmetry
Grimus, Walter; Kaneko, S; Lavoura, L; Sawanaka, H; Tanimoto, M; Grimus, Walter; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Kaneko, Satoru; Lavoura, Lu\\'{i}s; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2004-01-01
It is shown that the neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis yielding a vanishing $U_{e3}$ are characterized by invariance under a class of effective $Z_2$ symmetries. A specific $Z_2$ in this class also leads to a maximal atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. The breaking of that $Z_2$ can be parameterized by two dimensionless quantities, $\\e$ and $\\e'$; the effects of $\\e, \\e' \
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister
The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise...
Golubitsky, Martin
2012-04-01
Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.
Lovelady, Benjamin C
2015-01-01
According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dim Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected SO(n) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an SO(n-1,1) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original SO(n) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2017-02-15
Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
C. Wetterich
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
CPT Symmetry Without Hermiticity
Mannheim, Philip D
2016-01-01
In the literature the $CPT$ theorem has only been established for Hamiltonians that are Hermitian. Here we extend the $CPT$ theorem to quantum field theories with non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Our derivation is a quite minimal one as it requires only the time independent evolution of scalar products and invariance under complex Lorentz transformations. The first of these requirements does not force the Hamiltonian to be Hermitian. Rather, it forces its eigenvalues to either be real or to appear in complex conjugate pairs, forces the eigenvectors of such conjugate pairs to be conjugates of each other, and forces the Hamiltonian to admit of an antilinear symmetry. The latter requirement then forces this antilinear symmetry to be $CPT$, with Hermiticity of a Hamiltonian thus only being a sufficient condition for $CPT$ symmetry and not a necessary one. $CPT$ symmetry thus has primacy over Hermiticity, and it rather than Hermiticity should be taken as a guiding principle for constructing quantum theories. With confo...
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Wetterich, C.
2017-02-01
Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Lovelady, Benjamin C.; Wheeler, James T.
2016-04-01
According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dimensional Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected S O (n ) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an S O (n -1 ,1 ) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original S O (n ) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.
Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems
Lukassen, Mie Bech; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Edward
Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing the dist......Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing...... and activity. These findings are useful for the future optimization and management of full-scale aquaculture plants, and can be used as a diagnostic tool in developing strategies to limit the presence and growth of geosmin-producing bacteria....
Flavour-mixing gauge field theory of massive Majorana neutrinos
Marsch, Eckart
2012-01-01
A gauge-field theory for massive neutral particles is developed on the basis of the real four-component Majorana equation. By use of its spin operator, a purely imaginary representation of the SU(2) algebra can be defined, which gives a covariant derivative that is real. Such a coupling to the gauge field preserves the real nature of the Majorana equation even when including interactions. As the associated isospin is four-dimensional, this procedure introduces four intrinsic degrees of freedom to the Majorana field, which may be related to four flavours. The main aim is to describe here the mathematical possibility for coupling Majorana particles with a gauge field which resembles that of the weak interaction. By adding a fourth member to the family, flavour could become a dynamic trait of the neutral Majorana particles, and thus lead to a dynamic understanding of mixing.
Lepton flavour violating top decays at the LHC.
Davidson, Sacha; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Perries, Stéphane; Sordini, Viola
We consider lepton-flavour violating decays of the top quark, mediated by 4-fermion operators. We compile constraints on a complete set of SU(3) [Formula: see text] U(1)-invariant operators, arising from their loop contributions to rare decays and from HERA's single-top search. The bounds on e-[Formula: see text] flavour change are more restrictive than on [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]; nonetheless the top could decay to a jet [Formula: see text] with a branching ratio of order [Formula: see text]. We estimate that the currently available LHC data (20 fb[Formula: see text] at 8 TeV) could be sensitive to [Formula: see text]+ jet) [Formula: see text], and we extrapolate that 100 fb[Formula: see text] at 13 TeV could reach a sensitivity of [Formula: see text].
$B$ flavour tagging using charm decays at the LHCb experiment
Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Muller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano
2015-01-01
An algorithm is described for tagging the flavour content at production of neutral $B$ mesons in the LHCb experiment. The algorithm exploits the correlation of the flavour of a $B$ meson with the charge of a reconstructed secondary charm hadron from the decay of the other $b$ hadron produced in the proton-proton collision. Charm hadron candidates are identified in a number of fully or partially reconstructed Cabibbo-favoured decay modes. The algorithm is calibrated on the self-tagged decay modes $B^+ \\to J/\\psi \\, K^+$ and $B^0 \\to J/\\psi \\, K^{*0}$ using $3.0\\mathrm{\\,fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment at $pp$ centre-of-mass energies of $7\\mathrm{\\,TeV}$ and $8\\mathrm{\\,TeV}$. Its tagging power on these samples of $B \\to J/\\psi \\, X$ decays is $(0.30 \\pm 0.01 \\pm 0.01) \\%$.
Supersymmetric Lepton Flavour Violation in Low-Scale Seesaw Models
Ilakovac, Amon
2009-01-01
We study a new supersymmetric mechanism for lepton flavour violation in \\mu and \\tau decays and \\mu -> e conversion in nuclei, within a minimal extension of the MSSM with low-mass heavy singlet neutrinos and sneutrinos. We find that the decays \\mu -> e\\gamma$, \\tau -> e\\gamma and \\tau -> \\mu\\gamma are forbidden in the supersymmetric limit of the theory, whereas other processes, such as \\mu -> eee, \\mu -> e conversion, \\tau -> eee and \\tau -> e\\mu\\mu, are allowed and can be dramatically enhanced several orders of magnitude above the observable level by potentially large neutrino Yukawa coupling effects. The profound implications of supersymmetric lepton flavour violation for present and future experiments are discussed.
Use of terpenoids as natural flavouring compounds in food industry.
Caputi, Lorenzo; Aprea, Eugenio
2011-01-01
Terpenoids represent the oldest known biomolecules, having been recovered from sediments as old as 2.5 billion years. Among plant secondary metabolites, they are the most abundant and diverse class of natural compounds. The diversity of terpenoids is probably a reflection of their many biological activities in nature, which has made them a widely used resource for traditional and modern human exploitation. They are usually the main constituents of essential oils of most plants offering a wide variety of pleasant scents from flowery to fruity, to woody or balsamic notes. For this reason terpenoids constitute a very important class of compounds for flavour and fragrance industries, in fact, in the US alone, the demand is forecast to grow 3.7 percent per year to $5.3 billion in 2012. The recent patents on production and extraction of terpenoids commonly used as natural flavouring compounds in food industries are reviewed in the present manuscript.
Lepton Flavour Violating Higgs Decays in the (SUSY) Inverse Seesaw
Arganda, E; Marcano, X; Weiland, C
2016-01-01
The observation of charged lepton flavour violation would be a smoking gun for new physics and could help in pinpointing the mechanism at the origin of neutrino masses and mixing. We present here our recent studies of lepton flavour violating Higgs decays in the inverse seesaw and its supersymmetric embedding, two examples of low-scale seesaw mechanisms. We predict branching ratios as large as $10^{-5}$ for the decays $h\\rightarrow \\tau \\mu$ and $h \\rightarrow \\tau e$ in the inverse seesaw, which can be probed in future colliders. Supersymmetric contributions can enhance the branching ratio of $h\\rightarrow \\tau \\mu$ up to $1\\%$, making it large enough to explain the small excess observed by ATLAS and CMS.
Heavy Flavour Cascade Production in a Beam Dump
2015-01-01
SHiP will use a 400~GeV/c proton beam impinging on a several interaction length long Molybdenum target. Heavy flavour hadrons produced in the dump can decay semi-leptonically, which can produce both the Heavy Neutral Leptons as signal, but also potential background from muons and neutrinos. The absolute rate of heavy flavour production is taken from measurements. Pythia is used to predict the phase space distribution of the charm and beauty hadrons which are produced both in the primary interaction of the 400~GeV/c proton and in interactions of the secondaries produced in the cascade. The full cascade production of both HNL and background is compared to that reported in the SHiP Technical Proposal, where only the primary $pN$ interactions were taken into account.
Gluing Branes II: Flavour Physics and String Duality
Donagi, R
2011-01-01
Recently we discussed new aspects of degenerate brane configurations, which can appear in the context of heterotic strings, perturbative type II, or M/F-theory. Here we continue our study of degenerate brane configurations, focussing on two applications. First we show how the notion of gluing can be viewed as a tool to engineer flavour structures in F-theory and type IIb, such as models with bulk matter and with Yukawa textures arising from the holomorphic zero mechanism. We find that there is in principle enough structure to solve some of the major flavour problems without generating exotics. In particular, we show how this addresses the mu-problem, doublet/triplet splitting and proton decay. Secondly, we describe the Fourier-Mukai transform of heterotic monad constructions, which occur in the large volume limit of heterotic linear sigma model vacua. Degenerate structures again often appear. One may use this to explore strong coupling phenomena using heterotic/F-theory duality.
New Aspects of Flavour Model Building in Supersymmetric Grand Unification
Spinrath, Martin
2010-01-01
We derive predictions for Yukawa coupling ratios within GUTs generated from operators with mass dimension four and five. These relations are a characteristic property of unified flavour models and can reduce the large number of free parameters related to the flavour sector of the SM. The Yukawa couplings of the down-type quarks and charged leptons are affected within SUSY models by tan beta-enhanced threshold corrections. We analyse these corrections and give simple analytic expressions and numerical estimates for them. The threshold corrections sensitively depend on the soft SUSY breaking parameters. Especially, they determine if the affected Yukawa couplings are enhanced or suppressed. In a first approach, we make some plausible assumptions about the soft SUSY parameters. In a second, more sophisticated approach we use three common breaking schemes in which all the soft breaking parameters at the electroweak scale can be calculated from only a handful of parameters. Within this approach, we apply various ph...
Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.
Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu
2016-12-01
Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (pmanufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements.
Superconductivity and symmetry breaking
Sarasua, L.G., E-mail: sarasua@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)
2012-02-15
In the present work we consider the relation between superconductivity and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGBS). We show that ODLRO does not require in principle SBGS, even in the presence of particle number fluctuations, by examining exact solutions of a fermionic pairing model. The criteria become equivalent if a symmetry breaking field is allowed, which can be attributed to the interaction with the environment. However, superconducting states without SBGS are not forbidden.
Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina
2017-02-01
Quantum symmetries of spectral lattices are studied. Basic properties of spectral order on A W ∗-algebras are summarized. Connection between projection and spectral automorphisms is clarified by showing that, under mild conditions, any spectral automorphism is a composition of function calculus and Jordan ∗-automorphism. Complete description of quantum spectral symmetries on Type I and Type II A W ∗-factors are completely described.
Role of Strecker aldehydes on beer flavour stability
Pinho, M. P. Guedes de; Ferreira, A. C. Silva
2005-01-01
In this work, attempts were made in order to measure the importance of “Strecker aldehydes” on flavour stability of beer correlating chemical and sensory data. It has been observed that methional and phenylacetaldehyde accumulates during storage and that these molecules were well correlated with “Aroma Quality”. A “fresh beer” was spiked with methional, phenylacetaldehyde and also with trans-2-nonenal, singly and in combination, the “Similarity Value” was then determined, betwe...
Analytical Analysis and Numerical Solution of Two Flavours Skyrmion
Hadi, Miftachul; Hermawanto, Denny
2010-01-01
Two flavours Skyrmion will be analyzed analytically, in case of static and rotational Skyrme equations. Numerical solution of a nonlinear scalar field equation, i.e. the Skyrme equation, will be worked with finite difference method. This article is a more comprehensive version of \\textit{SU(2) Skyrme Model for Hadron} which have been published at Journal of Theoretical and Computational Studies, Volume \\textbf{3} (2004) 0407.
Lepton Flavour Violation in Left-Right Theory
Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Murgui, Clara
2017-01-01
We investigate the predictions for lepton flavour number violating processes in the context of a simple left-right symmetric theory. In this context neutrinos are Majorana fermions and their masses are generated at the quantum level through the Zee mechanism using the simplest Higgs sector. We show that the right handed neutrinos are generically light and can give rise to large lepton number violating contributions to rare processes. We discuss the correlation between the collider constrains ...
Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flavour composition in Soudan 2
Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. R.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Goodman, M. C.; Gray, R. N.; Johns, K.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Lowe, M. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; May, E. N.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Price, L. E.; Roback, D. M.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D. J.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R. V.; Shupe, M. A.; Stassinakis, A.; Sundaralingam, N.; Thomas, J.; Thron, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S. P.; Wall, D.; Werkema, S. J.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U. M.
1997-02-01
The atmospheric neutrino flavour ratio measured using a 1.52 kton-year exposure of Soudan 2 is found to be 0.72 +/- 0.19+0.05-0.07 relative to the expected value from a Monte Carlo calculation. The possible background of interactions of neutrons and photons produced in muon interactions in the rock surrounding the detector has been investigated and is shown not to produce low values of the ratio.
The supersymmetric Higgs boson with flavoured A-terms
Andrea Brignole
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We consider a supersymmetric scenario with large flavour violating A-terms in the stop/scharm sector and study their impact on the Higgs mass, the electroweak ρ parameter and the effective Higgs couplings to gluons, photons and charm quarks. For each observable we present explicit analytical expressions which exhibit the relevant parametric dependences, both in the general case and in specific limits. We find significant effects and comment on phenomenological implications for the LHC and future colliders.
A Short Guide to Flavour Physics and CP Violation
Lee, Seung J
2015-01-01
We present the invited lectures given at the second Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP), which took place in Puri, India in November 2014. The series of lectures aimed at graduate students in particle experiment/theory, covering the very basics of flavor physics and CP violation, some useful theoretical methods such as OPE and effective field theories, and some selected topics of flavour physics in the era of LHC.
Open flavour charmed mesons in a quantum chromodynamics potential model
Krishna Kingkar Pathak; D K Choudhury
2012-12-01
We modify the mesonic wave function by using a short distance scale 0 in analogy with hydrogen atom and estimate the values of masses and decay constants of the open flavour charm mesons , $D_{s}$ and $B_{c}$ within the framework of a QCD potential model. We also calculate leptonic decay widths of these mesons to study branching ratios and lifetime. The results are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical values.
Flavour in heavy neutrino searches at the LHC
Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Kittel, O; Valle, J W F
2012-01-01
Heavy neutrinos at the TeV scale have been searched for at the LHC in the context of left-right models, under the assumption that they couple to the electron, the muon, or both. We show that current searches are also sensitive to heavy neutrinos coupling predominantly to the tau lepton, and present limits can significantly constrain the parameter space of general flavour mixing.
Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flavour composition in Soudan 2
Allison, W W M; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cobb, J H; Cockerill, D J A; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gray, R N; Johns, K; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Litchfield, P J; Longley, N P; Lowe, M J; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; May, E N; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W; Pearce, G F; Perkins, Donald Hill; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Roback, D M; Ruddick, K; Schmid, D J; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R V; Shupe, M A; Stassinakis, A; Sundaralingam, N; Thomas, J; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; Wall, D; Werkema, S J; West, N; Wielgosz, U M
1997-01-01
The atmospheric neutrino flavour ratio measured using a 1.52 kton-year exposure of Soudan 2 is found to be 0.72 +- 0.19 +0.05 -0.07 relative to the expected value from a Monte Carlo calculation. The possible background of interactions of neutrons and photons produced in muon interactions in the rock surrounding the detector has been investigated and is shown not to produce low values of the ratio.
Violation of lepton flavour universality in composite Higgs models
Niehoff, Christoph; Straub, David M
2015-01-01
We investigate whether the the $2.6\\sigma$ deviation from lepton flavour universality in $B^+\\to K^+\\ell^+\\ell^-$ decays recently observed at the LHCb experiment can be explained in minimal composite Higgs models. We show that a visible departure from universality is indeed possible if left-handed muons have a sizable degree of compositeness. Constraints from $Z$-pole observables are avoided by a custodial protection of the muon coupling.
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-06-10
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.
2016-11-01
The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.
Resumming QCD vacuum fluctuations in three-flavour Chiral Perturbation Theory
Descotes-Genon, S; Girlanda, L; Stern, J
2003-01-01
Due to its light mass of order Lambda_QCD, the strange quark can play a special role in Chiral Symmetry Breaking (ChSB): differences in the pattern of ChSB in the limits N_f=2 (m_u,m_d->0, m_s physical) and N_f=3 (m_u,m_d,m_s->0) may arise due to vacuum fluctuations of s-bar s pairs, related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector and encoded in particular in the O(p^4) low-energy constants L_4 and L_6. In case of large fluctuations, we show that the customary treatment of SU(3)xSU(3) chiral expansions generate instabilities upsetting their convergence. We develop a systematic program to cure these instabilities by resumming nonperturbatively vacuum fluctuations of s-bar s pairs, in order to extract information about ChSB from experimental observations even in the presence of large fluctuations. We advocate a Bayesian framework for treating the uncertainties due to the higher orders. As an application, we present a three-flavour analysis of the low-energy pi-pi scattering and show that the rec...
A $Z^\\prime$ Model for $b\\to s \\ell\\bar \\ell$ Flavour Anomalies
Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Valencia, German
2016-01-01
We study the implications of flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC's) in a model with the $SU(2)_l\\times SU(2)_h\\times U(1)_Y$ electroweak gauge symmetry for several anomalies appearing in $b\\to s \\ell\\bar \\ell$ induced $B$ decays in LHCb data. In this model, $SU(2)_l$ and $SU(2)_h$ govern the left-handed fermions in the first two generations and the third generation, respectively. The physical $Z$ and $Z'$ generate the $b\\to s$ transition at tree level, leading to additional contributions to the $b \\to s$ semileptonic operators ${\\cal O}_{9,10}$. We find that although $B_s$-$\\bar B_s$ mixing constrains the parameters severely, the model can produce values of ${\\cal C}^{\\rm NP}_{9,10}$ in the range determined by Descotes-Genon {\\it et. al.} in Ref.~\\cite{Descotes-Genon:2015uva} for this scenario to improve the global fit of observables in decays induced by the $b\\to s \\mu \\bar \\mu$ transition. The $Z'$ boson in this model also generates tree-level FCNC's for the leptonic interactions that can accommodate th...
Radiative seesaw: Warm dark matter, collider and lepton flavour violating signals
Sierra, D Aristizabal; Restrepo, D; Suematsu, Daijiro; Zapata, Oscar
2008-01-01
Extending the standard model with three right-handed neutrinos ($N_k$) and a second Higgs doublet ($\\eta$), odd under the discrete parity symmetry $Z_2$, Majorana neutrino masses can be generated at 1-loop order. In the resulting model, the lightest stable particle, either a boson or a fermion, might be a dark matter candidate. Here we assume a specific mass spectrum ($M_1\\ll M_2 < M_3 < m_\\eta$) and derive its consequences for dark matter and collider phenomenology. We show that (i) the lightest right-handed neutrino is a warm dark matter particle that can give a $\\sim$10% contribution to the dark matter density; (ii) several decay branching ratios of the charged scalar can be predicted from measured neutrino data. Especially interesting is that large lepton flavour violating rates in muon and tau final states are expected. Finally, we derive upper bounds on the right-handed neutrino Yukawa couplings from the current experimental limit on $Br(\\mu\\to e\\gamma)$.
Hints for new sources of flavour violation in meson mixing
Blanke, Monika
2016-01-01
The recent results by the Fermilab Lattice and MILC collaborations on the hadronic matrix elements entering $B_{d,s}-\\bar B_{d,s}$ mixing show a significant tension of the measured values of the mass differences $\\Delta M_{d,s}$ with their SM predictions. We review the implications of these results in the context of Constrained Minimal Flavour Violation models. In these models, the CKM elements $\\gamma$ and $|V_{ub}|/|V_{cb}|$ can be determined from $B_{d,s}-\\bar B_{d,s}$ mixing observables, yielding a prediction for $\\gamma$ below its tree-level value. Determining subsequently $|V_{cb}|$ from the measured value of either $\\Delta M_s$ or $\\varepsilon_K$ gives inconsistent results, with the tension being smallest in the Standard Model limit. This tension can be resolved if the flavour universality of new contributions to $\\Delta F = 2$ observables is broken. We briefly discuss the case of $U(2)^3$ flavour models as an illustrative example.
Optimization of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb Experiment
AUTHOR|(CDS)2097144
Studies of $C\\!P$ violation can be used to test the Standard Model and might give insight into New Physics. Therefore, a wide range of $C\\!P$ measurements, including time-dependent decay rate measurements, are performed with the LHCb Experiment. Many of these are subject to mixing of neutral $B$ meson states with their antiparticles. The knowledge of the initial $B$ flavour is essential in these cases which is why several Flavour Tagging algorithms are used to deduce this information from the available event properties. These algorithms must be adjusted to changes in the shape of the event properties, resulting from an upgrade of the LHC centre-of-mass energy to $\\sqrt{s} = 13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. To simplify this process, the Flavour Tagging software is re-implemented. The tagging power of the muon, electron and kaon tagger is measured based on $B^+ \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi K^+$ data, which is processed within the new framework. It is found to be $(0.782 ± 0.018)\\%$, $(0.243 ± 0.011)\\%$ and $(0.649 ± 0.020)\\%$ for Run 1...
Lepton-flavour violating $B$ decays in generic $Z'$ models
Crivellin, Andreas; Matias, Joaquim; Nierste, Ulrich; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz
2015-01-01
LHCb has reported deviations from the SM expectations in $B\\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$ angular observables, in $B_s\\to\\phi\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and in ratio $R(K)=Br[B\\to K \\mu^+\\mu^-]/Br[B\\to K e^+e^-]$. For all three decays, a heavy neutral gauge boson mediating $b\\to s\\mu^+\\mu^-$ transitions is a prime candidate for an explanation. As $R(K)$ measures violation of lepton-flavour universality, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavour is violated. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavour violating modes $B\\to K^{(*)}\\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$ and $B\\to K^{(*)} \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$. For this purpose we consider a simplified model in which new-physics effects originate from an additional neutral gauge boson ($Z^\\prime$) with generic couplings to quarks and leptons. The constraints from $\\tau\\to3\\mu$, $\\tau\\to\\mu\
Search for Lepton Flavour Violation in ep Collisions at HERA
Aktas, A; Andreev, V; Anthonis, T; Antunovic, B; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Beckingham, M; Begzsuren, K; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Goettlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, Roland Paul; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krämer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovskii, E I; Marage, P; Marti, L; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Mladenov, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, B; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, T; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peng, H; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Prideaux, P; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, K; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Wessels, M; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zácek, J; Zálesák, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F
2007-01-01
A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep->mu X and ep -> tau X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb-1 for e^+ p collisions and 13.7 pb^-1 for e^- p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchm"uller-R"uckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively.
Extended Minimal Flavour Violating MSSM and Implications for B Physics
Ali, A
2001-01-01
Current world average of the CP asymmetry a(psi K), obtained from the rate differences in the decays B^0 -> (J/psi K_S), (J/psi K_L) and their charge conjugates, is barely compatible with the standard model (SM) predictions resulting from the unitarity of the CKM matrix. Indirect estimate of this CP asymmetry in the so-called minimal flavour violating (MFV) supersymmetric extensions of the standard model, in which the CKM matrix remains the only flavour changing structure, is similar to the one in the SM. If the present experimental trend yielding a(psi K,exp) - a(psi K,SM) d gamma as sensitive probes of the postulated flavour changing structure. This is quantified in terms of the ratio R(rho gamma/K* gamma) = 2 B(B^0 -> rho^0 gamma)/B(B^0 -> K^*0 gamma), the isospin violating ratio Delta=B(B^+ -> rho^+ gamma)/2B(B^0 -> rho^0 gamma) -1, and the CP-asymmetry in the decay rates for B^+ -> rho^+ gamma and its charge conjugate.
Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment
Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using inputs from lower-level taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the training is performed on multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both $light-flavour$-jets and $c$-jets, and also provides a better performing $c$-tagger. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be adjusted after the training according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots presented, obtained from simulated $t\\overline{t}$ events at $\\sqrt(s)$=13 TeV and the Run-2 data taking conditions where t...
Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.
Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R
2012-09-15
Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived.
A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique
Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.
Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment
Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using higher-level inputs from lower-level physics-motivated taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the jet flavours are treated on an equal footing while training with multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both light-jets and c-jets, and also provides a novel c-tagging possibility. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be fine-tuned after the training by using iso-efficiency lines of constant signal efficiency, according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots pr...
Kadanoff–Baym approach to flavour mixing and oscillations in resonant leptogenesis
Bhupal Dev, P.S. [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Millington, Peter [Physik Department T70, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pilaftsis, Apostolos [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Teresi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.teresi@manchester.ac.uk [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2015-02-15
We describe a loopwise perturbative truncation scheme for quantum transport equations in the Kadanoff–Baym formalism, which does not necessitate the use of the so-called Kadanoff–Baym or quasi-particle ansaetze for dressed propagators. This truncation scheme is used to study flavour effects in the context of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL), showing explicitly that, in the weakly-resonant regime, there exist two distinct and pertinent flavour effects in the heavy-neutrino sector: (i) the resonant mixing and (ii) the oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours. Moreover, we illustrate that Kadanoff–Baym and quasi-particle ansaetze, whilst appropriate for the flavour-singlet dressed charged-lepton and Higgs propagators of the RL scenario, should not be applied to the dressed heavy-neutrino propagators. The use of these approximations for the latter is shown to capture only flavour oscillations, whilst discarding the separate phenomenon of flavour mixing.
Kadanoff–Baym approach to flavour mixing and oscillations in resonant leptogenesis
P.S. Bhupal Dev
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We describe a loopwise perturbative truncation scheme for quantum transport equations in the Kadanoff–Baym formalism, which does not necessitate the use of the so-called Kadanoff–Baym or quasi-particle ansaetze for dressed propagators. This truncation scheme is used to study flavour effects in the context of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL, showing explicitly that, in the weakly-resonant regime, there exist two distinct and pertinent flavour effects in the heavy-neutrino sector: (i the resonant mixing and (ii the oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours. Moreover, we illustrate that Kadanoff–Baym and quasi-particle ansaetze, whilst appropriate for the flavour-singlet dressed charged-lepton and Higgs propagators of the RL scenario, should not be applied to the dressed heavy-neutrino propagators. The use of these approximations for the latter is shown to capture only flavour oscillations, whilst discarding the separate phenomenon of flavour mixing.
Kadanoff-Baym Approach to Flavour Mixing and Oscillations in Resonant Leptogenesis
Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele
2015-01-01
We describe a loopwise perturbative truncation scheme for quantum transport equations in the Kadanoff-Baym formalism, which does not necessitate the use of the so-called Kadanoff-Baym or quasi-particle ansaetze for dressed propagators. This truncation scheme is used to study flavour effects in the context of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL), showing explicitly that, in the weakly-resonant regime, there exist two distinct and pertinent flavour effects in the heavy-neutrino sector: (i) the resonant mixing and (ii) the oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours. Moreover, we illustrate that Kadanoff-Baym and quasi-particle ansaetze, whilst appropriate for the flavour-singlet dressed charged-lepton and Higgs propagators of the RL scenario, should not be applied to the dressed heavy-neutrino propagators. The use of these approximations for the latter is shown to capture only flavour oscillations, whilst discarding the separate phenomenon of flavour mixing.
Three-Higgs-doublet models: symmetries, potentials and Higgs boson masses
Keus, Venus [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London,Egham Hill, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2014-01-13
We catalogue and study three-Higgs-doublet models in terms of all possible allowed symmetries (continuous and discrete, Abelian and non-Abelian), where such symmetries may be identified as flavour symmetries of quarks and leptons. We analyse the potential in each case, and derive the conditions under which the vacuum alignments (0,0,v), (0,v,v) and (v,v,v) are minima of the potential. For the alignment (0,0,v), relevant for dark matter models, we calculate the corresponding physical Higgs boson mass spectrum. Motivated by supersymmetry, we extend the analysis to the case of three up-type Higgs doublets and three down-type Higgs doublets (six doublets in total). Many of the results are also applicable to flavon models where the three Higgs doublets are replaced by three electroweak singlets.
External Fields and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Sakai-Sugimoto Model
Johnson, Clifford V
2008-01-01
Using the Sakai-Sugimoto model we study the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of fundamental flavours in both the confined and deconfined phases of a large N_c gauge theory. We find that an external magnetic field promotes chiral symmetry breaking, consistent with the ``magnetic catalysis'' observed in the field theory literature, and seen in other studies using holographic duals. The external field increases the separation between the deconfinement temperature and the chiral symmetry restoring temperature. In the deconfined phase we investigate the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram and observe, for example, there exists a maximum critical temperature (at which symmetry is restored) for very large magnetic field. We find that this and certain other phenomena persist for the Sakai-Sugimoto type models with probe branes of diverse dimensions. We comment briefly on the dynamics in the presence of an external electric field.
The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese
Alewijn, M.
2006-01-01
Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones, esters, alcohols and aldehydes can be formed from milk fat, compounds that all contribute their own special character to the final cheese flavour. The formation mechanisms that lead to these compounds a...
Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: A review
McSweeney, Paul; de Sousa, Maria
2000-01-01
International audience; The principal pathways for the formation of flavour compounds in cheese (glycolysis, lipolysis and proteolysis) are reviewed. Depending on variety, microflora and ripening conditions, lactate may be metabolized by a number of pathways to various compounds which contribute to cheese flavour or off-flavours. Citrate metabolism by citrate-positive lactococci or Leuconostoc spp. is important in certain varieties (e.g., Dutch cheeses). Lipolysis results directly in the form...
Kawamura, Yoshiharu
2015-01-01
We study the quantization of systems with local particle-ghost symmetries. The systems contain ordinary particles including gauge bosons and their counterparts obeying different statistics. The particle-ghost symmetry is a kind of fermionic symmetry, different from the space-time supersymmetry and the BRST symmetry. Subsidiary conditions on states guarantee the unitarity of systems.
Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions
Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;
2004-01-01
During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like....... An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth....
Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.
Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G
2006-10-30
Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.
Invariants of broken discrete symmetries
Kalozoumis, P; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P
2014-01-01
The parity and Bloch theorems are generalized to the case of broken global symmetry. Local inversion or translation symmetries are shown to yield invariant currents that characterize wave propagation. These currents map the wave function from an arbitrary spatial domain to any symmetry-related domain. Our approach addresses any combination of local symmetries, thus applying in particular to acoustic, optical and matter waves. Nonvanishing values of the invariant currents provide a systematic pathway to the breaking of discrete global symmetries.
Baldo, M
2016-01-01
The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry ene...
Loebbert, Florian
2016-08-01
In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.
Joshipura, A.S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad (India)
2008-01-15
The possible maximal mixing seen in the oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos has led to the postulate of {mu}-{tau} symmetry, which interchanges {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. We argue that such a symmetry need not be special to neutrinos but can be extended to all fermions. The assumption that all fermion mass matrices are approximately invariant under the interchange of the second and the third generation fields is shown to be phenomenologically viable and has interesting consequences. In the quark sector, the smallness of V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} can be consequences of this approximate 2-3 symmetry. The same approximate symmetry can simultaneously lead to a large atmospheric mixing angle and can describe the leptonic mixing quite well. We identify two generic scenarios leading to this. One is based on the conventional type-I seesaw mechanism and the other follows from the type-II seesaw model. The latter requires a quasi-degenerate neutrino spectrum for obtaining large atmospheric neutrino mixing in the presence of an approximate {mu}-{tau} symmetry. (orig.)
Realisation of chiral symmetry in the domain model of QCD
Kalloniatis, Alexander C
2003-01-01
The domain model for the QCD vacuum has previously been developed and shown to exhibit confinement of quarks and strong correlation of the local chirality of quark modes and duality of the background domain-like gluon field. Quark fluctuations satisfy a chirality violating boundary conditions parametrized by a random chiral angle $\\alpha_j$ on the $j-th$ domain. The free energy of an ensemble of $N\\to\\infty$ domains depends on $\\{\\alpha_j, j=1... N\\}$ through the logarithm of the quark determinant. Its parity odd part is given by the axial anomaly. The anomaly contribution to the free energy suppresses continuous axial U(1) degeneracy in the ground state, leaving only a residual axial Z(2) symmetry. This discrete symmetry and flavour $SU(N_f)_L\\times SU(N_f)_R$ chiral symmetry in turn are spontaneously broken with a quark condensate arising due to the asymmetry of the spectrum of Dirac operator. In order to illustrate the splitting between the $\\eta'$ from octet pseudoscalar mesons realised in the domain mode...
Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter
2014-01-01
This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme. Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology. The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...
Seeing Science through Symmetry
Gould, L. I.
Seeing Through Symmetry is a course that introduces non-science majors to the pervasive influence of symmetry in science. The concept of symmetry is usedboth as a link between subjects (such as physics, biology, mathematics, music, poetry, and art) and as a method within a subject. This is done through the development and use of interactive multimedia learning environments to stimulate learning. Computer-based labs enable the student to further explore the concept by being gently led from the arts to science. This talk is an update that includes some of the latest changes to the course. Explanations are given on methodology and how a variety of interactive multimedia tools contribute to both the lecture and lab portion of the course (created in 1991 and taught almost every semester since then, including one in Sweden).
Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
Eby, David A
2013-01-01
A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
and evaluate the method. The method uses deformable registration on computed tomography(CT) to find anatomical symmetry deviations of Head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma and combining it with positron emission tomography (PET) images. The method allows the use anatomical and symmetrical information of CT scans...... to improve automatic delineations. Materials: PET/CT scans from 30 patients were used for this study, 20 without cancer in hypopharyngeal volume and 10 with hypharyngeal carcinoma. An head and neck atlas was created from the 20 normal patients. The atlas was created using affine and non-rigid registration...... of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...
Leadership, power and symmetry
Spaten, Ole Michael
2016-01-01
Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... session. Thereafter we executed qualitative interviews with both managers and employees. Subsequently, a Thematic Analysis resulted in several themes, including power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship. One main conclusion is that the most fruitful coaching was obtained when the coachee...... experienced moments of symmetry and that necessary and sufficient conditions to bring forth such moments include a strong working alliance and the coach being aware of the power at play....
Chanowitz, M.S.
1990-09-01
The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.
Trautmann, Wolfgang; Russotto, Paolo
2016-01-01
The nuclear equation-of-state is a topic of highest current interest in nuclear structure and reactions as well as in astrophysics. In particular, the equation-of-state of asymmetric matter and the symmetry energy representing the difference between the energy densities of neutron matter and of symmetric nuclear matter are not sufficiently well constrained at present. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is conventionally expressed in the form of the slope parameter L describing the derivative with respect to density of the symmetry energy at saturation. Results deduced from nuclear structure and heavy-ion reaction data are distributed around a mean value L=60 MeV. Recent studies have more thoroughly investigated the density range that a particular observable is predominantly sensitive to. Two thirds of the saturation density is a value typical for the information contained in nuclear-structure data. Higher values exceeding saturation have been shown to be probed with meson production and collective ...
Gravitation and Duality Symmetry
D'Andrade, V C; Pereira, J G
2005-01-01
By generalizing the Hodge dual operator to the case of soldered bundles, and working in the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, an analysis of the duality symmetry in gravitation is performed. Although the basic conclusion is that, at least in the general case, gravitation does not present duality symmetry, there is a particular theory in which this symmetry is present. This theory is a self dual (or anti-self dual) teleparallel gravity in which, owing to the fact that it does not contribute to the gravitational interaction of fermions, the purely tensor part of torsion is assumed to vanish. The corresponding fermionic gravitational interaction is found to be chiral. Since duality is intimately related to renormalizability, this theory will probably be much more amenable to renormalization than teleparallel gravity or general relativity. Although obtained in the context of teleparallel gravity, these results must also be true for general relativity.
Symmetry, structure, and spacetime
Rickles, Dean
2007-01-01
In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Liu, Keh-Fei
2016-01-01
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy
2016-09-01
We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.
Complex CKM matrix, spontaneous CP violation and generalized $\\mu$-$\\tau$ symmetry
Joshipura, Anjan S
2007-01-01
The multi-Higgs models having spontaneous CP violation (SPCV) and natural flavor conservation (NFC) lead to a real CKM matrix $V$ contradicting current evidence in favour of a complex $V$. This contradiction can be removed by using a generalized $\\mu$-$\\tau$ (called 23) symmetry in place of the discrete symmetry conventionally used to obtain NFC. If 23 symmetry is exact then the Higgs induced flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) vanish as in case of NFC. 23 breaking introduces SPCV, a phase in $V$ and suppressed FCNC among quarks. The FCNC couplings $F_{ij}^{d,u}$ between $i$ and $j$ generations show a hierarchy $|F_{12}^{d,u}|<|F_{13}^{d,u}|<|F_{23}^{d,u}|$ with the result that the FCNC can have observable consequences in $B$ mixing without conflicting with the $K^0-\\bar{K}^0$ mixing. Detailed fits to the quark masses and the CKM matrix are used to obtain the (complex) couplings $F_{ij}^d$ and $F_{ij}^u$. Combined constraints from flavour and CP violations in the $K,B_d,B_s,D$ mesons are analyzed w...
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commissi...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....
Deppisch, Frank F; Patra, Sudhanwa; Sahu, Narendra; Sarkar, Utpal
2014-01-01
We propose a class of left-right symmetric models (LRSMs) with spontaneous D parity breaking, where SU(2)_R breaks at the TeV scale while discrete left-right symmetry breaks around 10^9 GeV. By embedding this framework in a non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Theory (GUT) with Pati-Salam symmetry as the highest intermediate breaking step, we obtain g_R / g_L ~ 0.6 between the right- and left-handed gauge couplings at the TeV scale. This leads to a suppression of beyond the Standard Model phenomena induced by the right-handed gauge coupling. Here we focus specifically on the consequences for neutrinoless double beta decay, low energy lepton flavour violation and LHC signatures due to the suppressed right handed currents. Interestingly, the reduced g_R allows us to interpret an excess of events observed recently in the range of 1.9 TeV to 2.4 TeV by the CMS group at the LHC as the signature of a right handed gauge boson in LRSMs with spontaneous D parity breaking. Moreover, the reduced right-handed gauge co...
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance was not conside...
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission R...
Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...
Dieperink, AEL; van Neck, D; Suzuki, T; Otsuka, T; Ichimura, M
2005-01-01
The role of isospin asymmetry in nuclei and neutron stars is discussed, with an emphasis on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Results obtained with the self-consistent Green function method are presented and compared with various other theoretical predictions. Implications for t
Quantum entanglement and symmetry
Chruscinski, D; Kossakowski, A [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)
2007-11-15
One of the main problem in Quantum Information Theory is to test whether a given state of a composite quantum system is entangled or separable. It turns out that within a class of states invariant under the action of the symmetry group this problem considerably simplifies. We analyze multipartite invariant states and the corresponding symmetric quantum channels.
Quantum entanglement and symmetry
Chruściński, D.; Kossakowski, A.
2007-11-01
One of the main problem in Quantum Information Theory is to test whether a given state of a composite quantum system is entangled or separable. It turns out that within a class of states invariant under the action of the symmetry group this problem considerably simplifies. We analyze multipartite invariant states and the corresponding symmetric quantum channels.
Gray, P L
2003-01-01
"The subatomic pion particle breaks the charge symmetry rule that governs both fusion and decay. In experiments performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Laboratory, physicists forced heavy hydrogen (1 proton + 1 neutron) to fuse into helium in a controlled, measurable environment" (1 paragraph).
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...
Crumpecker, Cheryl
2003-01-01
Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)
Gauging without Initial Symmetry
Kotov, Alexei
2016-01-01
The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Sigma, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G)-valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Sigma,G). Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields v_a on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equation v_{a(i;j)}=0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to merely requiring the distribution orthogonal to the leaves to be invariant with respect to leaf...
Pels, D.L.
1996-01-01
While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that sy
Applications of chiral symmetry
Pisarski, R D
1995-01-01
I discuss several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature, including: where the rho goes, disoriented chiral condensates, and the phase diagram for QCD with 2+1 flavors. (Based upon talks presented at the "Workshop on Finite Temperature QCD", Wuhan, P.R.C., April, 1994.)
Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong
2016-01-01
Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a
Symmetries of hadrons after unbreaking the chiral symmetry
Glozman, L Ya; Schröck, M
2012-01-01
We study hadron correlators upon artificial restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. In a dynamical lattice simulation we remove the lowest lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator from the valence quark propagators and study evolution of the hadron masses obtained. All mesons and baryons in our study, except for a pion, survive unbreaking the chiral symmetry and their exponential decay signals become essentially better. From the analysis of the observed spectroscopic patterns we conclude that confinement still persists while the chiral symmetry is restored. All hadrons fall into different chiral multiplets. The broken U(1)_A symmetry does not get restored upon unbreaking the chiral symmetry. We also observe signals of some higher symmetry that includes chiral symmetry as a subgroup. Finally, from comparison of the \\Delta - N splitting before and after unbreaking of the chiral symmetry we conclude that both the color-magnetic and the flavor-spin quark-quark interactions are of equal importance.
Screening masses of mesons in 2+1 flavour QCD
Mukherjee, S
2007-01-01
We present results for screening masses of light and strange mesons in 2+1 flavour QCD using improved (p4fat3) staggered fermions on 6x24^3 lattices. We have studied the screening masses of scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial-vector mesons along the line of constant physics, determined by a pion mass ~220 MeV and a kaon mass ~500 MeV. In order to investigate the cut-off and volume dependencies we have also performed studies of the meson screening correlators in the non-interacting theory using the p4 and the standard staggered discretizations.